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How well  do  you  know  them?     –  Fill  out  the  brief  handout  to  see  how  much  you   already  know  about  prescriptions  drugs   –  All  fun  –  No  grade!  


What do  YOU  think?   –  Have  a  group  discussion  and  show  what  you   know  and  think  about  prescription  drugs.   –  Take  a  brief  quiz  testing  your  knowledge  of   prescription  drugs  and  compare  your  scores.   –  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5D2LZk58qhY&feature=related –  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XjABIEF13qY  


Prescription Drug   Abuse  

Most people  take  prescription  medications  responsibly;  however,  an   estimated  20  percent  of  the  U.S.  population,  or  48  million  people  (ages  12   and  older),  have  used  prescription  drugs  for  nonmedical  reasons  in  their   lifetimes.  


Primary Goals   •  Provide  accurate  information  and  clear  messages   about  the  social,  emotional,  physical  and  legal   effects  of  drug  misuse  and  abuse.     •  Also  want  to  teach  students  a  range  of  skills;  such   as  problem  solving  and  communication,  and   interactive  discussion  to  better  prepare  them  to   make  informed  decision  when  it  comes  to  life   choices.  


Objectives •  By  the  end  of  this  lecture,  students  should   understand  and  be  familiar  with  the  history  and   background  of  prescription  drugs.   •  Discuss  the  effects  of  misuse  and  abuse  of   prescription  drugs.   •  Describe  the  pharmacological  effects  of   prescription  drugs.   •  Discuss  the  importance  of  treatment  and   rehabilitation  after  misuse  and  abuse  of   prescription  drugs.  


What are  Prescription  Drugs?   •  Licensed  medications  regulated  by   legislation.     •  Requires  a  prescription  in  order  to  obtain.   •  Name  given  in  order  to  distinguish  its   difference  from  over-­‐the-­‐counter  drugs   (OTC).  


Medical Use  of  Prescription   Drugs   Help  individuals  live  longer  and  better  lives.   •  Opioids,  such  as  Oxycontin  and  Vicodin,  attach  to  particular  sites  in  the   brain  called  opioid  receptors,  which  carry  messages  about  pain.   •  Central  nervous  system  (CNS)  depressants,  such  as  Valium  and  Xanax,   which  are  used  to  treat  anxiety  and  sleep  disorders.   •  Stimulants,  which  are  prescribed  to  treat  certain  sleep  disorders  and   attention  deficit  hyperactivity  disorder  (ADHD),  include  drugs  such  as   Ritalin  and  Adderall.   –  Ritalin-­‐  Most  commonly  used  drug  for  ADHD    


Opioids •  Opioids  are  the  most  often  abused   prescription  drugs.   – Vicodin-­‐Prescribed  to  treat  moderated  to   severe  pain.     – Oxycontin-­‐used  to  reduce  chronic  pain   especially  the  pain  associated  with  severe   injuries,  fractures  and  cancer.  


Reasons for  Abuse   •  Taken  to  reduce  the  discomfort   •  The  risk  for  developing  abuse  or  dependence  may   be  exacerbated  by  existing  physical  and  mental   health  conditions   •  At  risk  for  abuse:   –  Younger  and  likely  to  be  nonstudents   –  Had  already  received  services  for  psychological  problems   –  Reported  fair/poor  health   –  Had  a  history  of  MDEs  (major  depressive  episodes)  


Reasons for  Abuse   •  Girls’  risk  for  dependence  may  be  related  to  their   greater  access     –  Take  to  alleviate  menstrual  cramps   –  More  likely  than  boys  to  become  dependent     •  Affiliation  with  prescription  pain  reliever-­‐using   friends  may  thus  pose  a  risk  for  nonprescribed   use  


Many Physicians  Have  Difficulty   Discussing  Substance  Abuse  With  Patients  


Health Consequences   •  Even  in  small  doses,  sedatives,  hypnotics,  and  opiates   have  subtle  effects  on  cognition  and  motor  skills   –  may  increase  the  risk  of  injury,  particularly  during   sports  activities  or  driving   •  Short  Term:  can  cause  nausea  and  vomiting   –  Mixing  anxiety  and  sleep  disorder  with  other  drugs  can   slow  breathing,  slow  heart  rate,  and  possibly  lead  to   death   –  Abusing  stimulants  while  taking  a  cold  medicine  with   decongestants  can  cause  dangerous  increases  in  blood   pressure  and  irregular  heart  rhythms  


Health Consequences   •  Long  Term:   –  Brains  of  teenagers  are  still  developing,  and  the   effects  of  drug  abuse  may  be  harmful  in  ways   that  are  not  yet  understood   –  Patients  who  are  prescribed  painkillers  for  a   long  period  of  time  may  develop  a  “physical   dependence”  on  them   •  The  body  adapts  to  having  the  drug  around  


Health Consequences   •  Prescription  painkillers  can  be  highly  addictive   when  used  improperly   –  Strongly  crave  the  drug  and  continue  to  use  it  despite   severe  consequences  to  their  health  and  their  life.   –  Affect  the  brain  areas  controlling  respiration  

•  Compulsive use  behaviors   –  Spending  a  great  deal  of  time  using  prescription  pain   relievers   –  Giving  up  important  activities  


Treatment Options   •  No  standard  treatment  for  all  people  addicted  to   prescription  drugs   •  Most  plans  include  detoxification,  behavioral  and   pharmacological  components   –  Behavioral:  Encourage  patients  to  stop  using  drugs,  teach   them  how  to  function  without  drugs,  handle  cravings   –  Pharmacological:  Medications  are  used  to  counter  the   effects  of  the  drug  on  the  brain  and  behavior  

•  A combination  of  both  behavioral  and   pharmacological  approaches  is  most  effective  in   treating  prescription  drug  addiction  


Wrap-­‐Up How  do  WE  end  prescription  drug  abuse   in  OUR  community?    


Just One  More  Thing!  


Resources •  National  Institute  on  Drug  Abuse   •  National  Institute  of  Health   •  http://www.schools.nsw.edu.au/media/ downloads/schoolsdrug/learning/ yrk12focusareas/druged/drug_ed_prim.pdf   •  http://www.drugabuse.gov/tib/prescription.html   •  http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/ 2006-­‐06-­‐12-­‐teens-­‐pharm-­‐drugs_x.htm   •  http://www.nida.nih.gov/PDF/ RRPrescription.pdf  

Prescription Abuse - Presentation  

Prescription Abuse - Presentation

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