How well do you know them? – Fill out the brief handout to see how much you already know about prescriptions drugs – All fun – No grade!
What do YOU think? – Have a group discussion and show what you know and think about prescription drugs. – Take a brief quiz testing your knowledge of prescription drugs and compare your scores. – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5D2LZk58qhY&feature=related – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XjABIEF13qY
Prescription Drug Abuse
Most people take prescription medications responsibly; however, an estimated 20 percent of the U.S. population, or 48 million people (ages 12 and older), have used prescription drugs for nonmedical reasons in their lifetimes.
Primary Goals • Provide accurate information and clear messages about the social, emotional, physical and legal eﬀects of drug misuse and abuse. • Also want to teach students a range of skills; such as problem solving and communication, and interactive discussion to better prepare them to make informed decision when it comes to life choices.
Objectives • By the end of this lecture, students should understand and be familiar with the history and background of prescription drugs. • Discuss the eﬀects of misuse and abuse of prescription drugs. • Describe the pharmacological eﬀects of prescription drugs. • Discuss the importance of treatment and rehabilitation after misuse and abuse of prescription drugs.
What are Prescription Drugs? • Licensed medications regulated by legislation. • Requires a prescription in order to obtain. • Name given in order to distinguish its diﬀerence from over-‐the-‐counter drugs (OTC).
Medical Use of Prescription Drugs Help individuals live longer and better lives. • Opioids, such as Oxycontin and Vicodin, attach to particular sites in the brain called opioid receptors, which carry messages about pain. • Central nervous system (CNS) depressants, such as Valium and Xanax, which are used to treat anxiety and sleep disorders. • Stimulants, which are prescribed to treat certain sleep disorders and attention deﬁcit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), include drugs such as Ritalin and Adderall. – Ritalin-‐ Most commonly used drug for ADHD
Opioids • Opioids are the most often abused prescription drugs. – Vicodin-‐Prescribed to treat moderated to severe pain. – Oxycontin-‐used to reduce chronic pain especially the pain associated with severe injuries, fractures and cancer.
Reasons for Abuse • Taken to reduce the discomfort • The risk for developing abuse or dependence may be exacerbated by existing physical and mental health conditions • At risk for abuse: – Younger and likely to be nonstudents – Had already received services for psychological problems – Reported fair/poor health – Had a history of MDEs (major depressive episodes)
Reasons for Abuse • Girls’ risk for dependence may be related to their greater access – Take to alleviate menstrual cramps – More likely than boys to become dependent • Aﬃliation with prescription pain reliever-‐using friends may thus pose a risk for nonprescribed use
Many Physicians Have Diﬃculty Discussing Substance Abuse With Patients
Health Consequences • Even in small doses, sedatives, hypnotics, and opiates have subtle eﬀects on cognition and motor skills – may increase the risk of injury, particularly during sports activities or driving • Short Term: can cause nausea and vomiting – Mixing anxiety and sleep disorder with other drugs can slow breathing, slow heart rate, and possibly lead to death – Abusing stimulants while taking a cold medicine with decongestants can cause dangerous increases in blood pressure and irregular heart rhythms
Health Consequences • Long Term: – Brains of teenagers are still developing, and the eﬀects of drug abuse may be harmful in ways that are not yet understood – Patients who are prescribed painkillers for a long period of time may develop a “physical dependence” on them • The body adapts to having the drug around
Health Consequences • Prescription painkillers can be highly addictive when used improperly – Strongly crave the drug and continue to use it despite severe consequences to their health and their life. – Aﬀect the brain areas controlling respiration
• Compulsive use behaviors – Spending a great deal of time using prescription pain relievers – Giving up important activities
Treatment Options • No standard treatment for all people addicted to prescription drugs • Most plans include detoxiﬁcation, behavioral and pharmacological components – Behavioral: Encourage patients to stop using drugs, teach them how to function without drugs, handle cravings – Pharmacological: Medications are used to counter the eﬀects of the drug on the brain and behavior
• A combination of both behavioral and pharmacological approaches is most eﬀective in treating prescription drug addiction
Wrap-‐Up How do WE end prescription drug abuse in OUR community?
Just One More Thing!
Resources • National Institute on Drug Abuse • National Institute of Health • http://www.schools.nsw.edu.au/media/ downloads/schoolsdrug/learning/ yrk12focusareas/druged/drug_ed_prim.pdf • http://www.drugabuse.gov/tib/prescription.html • http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/ 2006-‐06-‐12-‐teens-‐pharm-‐drugs_x.htm • http://www.nida.nih.gov/PDF/ RRPrescription.pdf