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Director of Thesis: Thesis Advisor: Thesis Clients:

Design Cri cs:

Ian F. Taberner, AIA Robert Hsiung, AIA Rose Kennedy Greenway Conservancy Boston Public Market Associa on MBTA Russel Feldman, AIA Cedric Robinson, AIA Arthur Cohen, AIA Morel Orta, AIA

Consultants: Structural Engineer: MEP Engineer:

The Boston Architectural College

Amir Mesgar Bruce MacRitchie

Thesis Director Ian F. Taberner, AIA

Natalia Wieczorek Master of Architecture May 23, 2014 Final Review: April 22, 2014

Thesis Advisor Robert Hsiung, AIA


TABLE

OF

Title Page Table of Contents

1 2

Acknowledgements Resume Execu ve Summary

4 6 9

Thesis Overview

11

Thesis I Introductory Review Preliminary Review Schema c Review

22 24 38 54

Design Development Review 1 Design Development Review 2 Final Review

76 78 102 122

Thesis II

Conclusions

146

APPENDIX Thesis Proposal

152

2 CONTENTS


4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The moment has finally arrived. The last project is complete. The last cri c has given his insights. The last pot of late night coee has been drunk. The road to this M. Arch. degree has been a LONG process that began a decade ago at the University of Texas in San Antonio. This journey has taken me across the country and shi ed my views about architecture and design along the way. There have been many people who have helped guide and shape me along the way: every professor who pushed me to explore new ideas, every stranger who provided his or her input about a project, every friend who reminded me that I could finish on me even when things seemed hopeless. Thank you all for helping me arrive at the finish line rela vely unscathed.


6 RESUME

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Boston Architectural College Master of Architecture

May 2014

University of TX San Antonio B.S. Architecture

Cum Laude, 2009

Cut N’ Edge Barbershop Designer/Project Manager

May 2013 - November 2013

New England Window Systems Assistant Project Manager

June 2011 - April 2014

EnerSpecƟve Intern

July 2010 - December 2010

HolisƟc Design Documenter

June 2010 - August 2010

Absolute Design Partners AutoCAD Dra sman/Intern

June 2008 - July 2009

Urban 15/VuTURE Arts Assistant Model Builder

October 2007

Parson’s 3D/I Intern

September 2006 - December 2006

CleaResult ConsulƟng Energy Consul ng Associate

June 2006 - April 2008

Common Boston Awards Coordinator

July 2013

ArƟsan Builders/Robert Caruso Volunteer

July 2011

Learning by Design Volunteer

June 2011

Common Boston Common Build Designer/Builder

June 2010

Ecotopian House Project Designer

January 2010 -May 2010

Boerne R/UDAT Volunteer

May 2008


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“America is all about speed. HOT, NASTY, BADASS SPEED.” -W

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9 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

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The Pace of Space: Urban Architecture as Catalyst for Walking Speed

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North American urban centers tend to be interchangeable - tall, grey buildings, roadways with speeding cars, and sidewalks between the two extremes of stop and go. The architecture that defines urban pathways is cold and dark with indis nguishable landmarks that discourage pause and reflec on. The emphasis is on a quick commute between two points. Though convenient, this way of building reduces people’s recogni on and awareness of their environment. There is no need for pause, no need for curiosity or explora on of one’s surroundings. Many of us don’t even remember the paths we take on a daily basis. I believe that the rela onship to our surroundings is generated by the architecture that we create, and nowhere is this more apparent than in a dense urban loca on. Like in many other parts of our lives, we strive to go faster. Everyone knows that faster is be er.... but is it really? Our need for speed creates health issues, it disrupts our awareness of the passage of me, and it discourages social interac on.

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This thesis strives to address the above issues by crea ng an urban architecture that facilitates movement at a variety of speeds and encourages pause along the way.

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The project is located at Dewey Square - one of the Southernmost por ons of the Boston Greenway. The site sits atop a highway, part of the South Sta on Lobby, and some of the Red Line tunnel. There is an exis ng air intake structure on the site that cannot be disturbed.

B T

The building is a collec on of programs deeply related to the loca on of the project. It is a public market, a visitor center, a restaurant, a cafe, a public plaza, and a park. The whole is united through pathways, iconic structures, and green spaces.

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10 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

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11 THESIS OVERVIEW

I This thesis was inspired by my personal fascina on with me. I had been reading a story about a society in which me func oned dierently than ours, and I noted that the architecture of this fantas cal place was deeply influenced by the temporal dimension. This led me to wonder whether we, as a culture, represent our concep on of me with our built works. This original thought led me to some interes ng reading about the nature of me and about how it is perceived by socie es around the world, but I found no wri ng on the subject of me’s representa on in architecture. However, the authors of many of these books and studies had inadvertently men oned architecture as a reac on to the perceived movement of me. For instance, in South American cultures such as Brazil - where me is imprecise and flows at a leisurely pace architecture is full of organic curves, bright colors, and places designated for rest. In stark contrast is the culture of New York City. There, me is incredibly strict and fast. Buildings are covered in neutral colors and full of sharp angles that define rigid paths without places for pause. I came to the conclusion that a society’s percep on of me DOES influence its architecture. The ques on therefore became, can architecture be designed in such a way as to alter the perceived flow of me?


12 THESIS OVERVIEW

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- NYC, NY SANAA

*Images courtesy of Google


13 THESIS OVERVIEW

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Time is a concept - it’s not something that literally exists in the world. Therefore, I began to think about how humans perceive the reality of me’s passage. The answer: movement. If everything suddenly stopped, me would cease to exist for us. Thus I had designated a criteria for my thesis: the slower the passage of me, the slower the resul ng movement and vice versa. The speed of the given place’s pace would define the architecture. I immediately thought of one place in Boston where the clash of two mes could be both felt and seen: Dewey Square. The Square borders the speedy Financial District and acts as a hub for transit due to its proximity to South Sta on. In contrast, the Square is also part of the Rose Kennedy Greenway, a chain of pedestrian parks that encourage slowing down and exploring the city. Dewey Square also has an intriguing history: it sits above what was once the high-speed Central Artery highway, and it was the locus of the Occupy Boston movement in 2011. Recently, Dewey Square has become most recognized for the ar s c murals painted onto its vent structure. This playful development has enhanced the site and given new reason for people to pause and take note. I wanted my project to have a similar effect.


14 THESIS OVERVIEW

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15 THESIS OVERVIEW

P Once I established the site, a program needed to be determined. I began by no ng the ac vi es that already take place at the site: a popular seasonal Farmer’s Market, a successful loca on for Food Trucks, summer fes vals, public exercise sessions, picnicking in the sunshine, urban farming, etc. This led me to two conclusions - Losing the green space would be detrimental to site usage - Food was a great way to bring people into the site Having made my observa ons, I se led upon a public market as a great way to extend the dura on of the exis ng seasonal Farmer’s Market. In addi on, there would be a restaurant and cafe that would allow a more in mate se ng both for those who wanted to take their me ea ng and those who just wanted a quick cup of coffee, a soup kitchen as a nod to the Occupy movement and a way to salvage otherwise wasted le overs from the market and restaurant, and an Informa on Center that could connect tourists to the site and the city as well as provide a new entrance for frequent commuters. In order to retain the green space integral to the public life of the site, I knew from early on that I wanted a walkable green roof to cover the overall program. This would ensure that outdoor events could con nue to take place while also providing a wonderfully insula ve cover for the project.


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17 THESIS OVERVIEW

S The hallmark of the project is the control of the speed of movement. Therefore, the design would require areas that encourage myriad paces. The finished product contains mul ple paths, mul ple des na ons, and a variety of reasons to pause. A major organizing principle for the program was to discover ways to bring people into the site rather than allowing them to gather at its periphery, as is currently the case. I began to arrange the program by designa ng “fast,” “slow,” and “pause” areas that would guide the flow of people through the site.


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19 THESIS OVERVIEW

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Finally, as I got deeper into the design, I realized that something was missing. Though the spaces were arranged in a way that encouraged different speeds and the green roof provided plenty of room for outdoor ac vity, there was li le to make the site dis nct from its surroundings. With encouragement from my advisor, I created several iconic structures that serve to mark myriad entry points, generate a sense of place, and allow for special areas of pause. Their design, composed of slender steel ‘legs’ and lightweight fishing nets, implies a sense of movement even as they stand s ll and tower over the site.


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22 THESIS I

Introductory Review

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Preliminary Review

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Schema c Review

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24 INTRODUCTORY REVIEW

The Introductory Review serves as an introduc on of the proposed thesis project to the panel, advisor, and thesis group. The review should address special issues or concerns, thema c concepts, unusual programmes, and large and complex sites. Analysis of any issue is presented and strategies for moving forward are discussed.


25 INTRODUCTORY REVIEW

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Through use of geometry, scale, and program, architecture should generate spaces that acknowledge and facilitate various pedestrian walking speeds in order to foster an awareness of architecture’s rela onship to pedestrian movement. T

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- What seems to affect pace? - What are the different walking speeds that this thesis addresses in terms of the site? - What are the major nodes/points of access to the site? How does this affect the program? - What is the architectural environment around the site?


26 INTRODUCTORY REVIEW S Dewey Square is surrounded by towers and transit. It is a bland space bordered by businesses that block views further into town and to the waterfront at Ft. Point Channel.

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The plaza is cut o from the corridors that lead into it by busy roads. However, these same corridors ensure specific points of access to Dewey Square from the Financial District. The crowds gathered at crosswalks have a clear view of their single des na on and follow a single, unmarked path to reach it.

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27 INTRODUCTORY REVIEW

What seems to aect pace? In order to answer this ques on, I looked to two places I had recently visited in Europe and several case studies (featured in the appendix). In Dublin, the buildings appeared to form a corridor toward the landmark needle. A clear des na on with a single, wide path generated speed. In Prague, people gathered in the plaza where there were many ght points of entry with a strongly defined border - the people filtered in slowly and were encouraged to pause, like an eddy in a river. O

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Fast Clear des na on Lack of obstacles Lack of pauses Familiarity Single path

D Slow No defined des na on Physical and visual obstacles Places to pause Novelty Mul ple paths


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29 INTRODUCTORY REVIEW

What are the different walking speeds that this thesis addresses in terms of the site? Dewey Square is a very speedy loca on at its South-Western edge, but becomes significantly slower along the Eastern and Southern edges. However, the site is also surrounded by fast vehicular traffic at all sides. The main focus is on the South-Western edge where foot traffic between the Financial District and South Sta on creates an implied tunnel. I intended to disturb this tunnel by genera ng ways for pedestrians to move further into the site at a variety of paces. U

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Fast Commuters Joggers Maintenance Administrators Businesspeople

S Slow Tourists Families Shoppers Vendors Homeless


30 INTRODUCTORY REVIEW

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What are the major nodes/points of access to the site? How does this aect the program? The site has three main points of access: from the Financial District at the Bank of America Building, from the Greenway due North, and from the Ft. Point Channel and South Sta on. The program had to address these three main entry points and create connec ons to the interior of the site. A The site sits near a major commuter hub - South Sta on. This is a point of access to all of Boston since it’s a terminus for the Commuter Rail, buses traversing all of New England, and a major stop on the local T system. South Sta on must remain an easily accessible point within the new design. P The major paths that cross the site express the points of access and their a endant speeds. The fastest collec on of paths exist at the South-Western edge, connec ng South Sta on to the Financial District. Other minor paths tend to exist at the periphery of the site, with very few people walking across the green space on a regular basis.


32 INTRODUCTORY REVIEW

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What is the architectural environment around the site? The site is bordered by tall buildings and speedy roadways on all sides. It sits at the border between the Financial District and Fort Point Channel, and is also part of the Rose Kennedy Greenway - a system of parks that connects the city from North to South. The buildings are made of brick or concrete and provide a neutral pale e during the day. At night, the grid of windows is extremely visible and provides and organized backdrop to Dewey Square, The Greenway is a rich grassy field in the summer, but becomes brown and wilted in the o season. Pavers and asphalt are the remaining materials at ground level.


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- Presenta on needs to show view corridorsto and from site - Analy c Vocabulary is needed to define the concept - Develop overall site idea; don’t focus on one edge - Clarify program square footages - Iden fy programma c precedents P

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For the next review, I wanted to focus on be er defining the site and its constraints. I also wanted to have be er diagramma c explora ons of site access and circula on. Ideally, I also intended to have a completed site program with accurate square footages.


36 INTRODUCTORY REVIEW


38 PRELIMINARY REVIEW

The goal of this review is to present the full scope of the thesis inves ga on to the commi ee, solicit feedback on work to date, and to seek direc on for further explora on. Work presented should focus on synthesizing the dierent areas of inves ga on into strategies for design. The review must include three schemes that represent formally and conceptually dis nct approaches to the project. Emphasis should be on exploring diverse ways to address se ng, program, and thesis concept rather than problem solving.


39 PRELIMINARY REVIEW

This review addressed the concerns about clarifying the concept, program, and site analysis. The review also called for three dis nct site organiza on schemes to be presented to the panel for cri que. Of these three schemes, one would be chosen to pursue for the remainder of the thesis. The three conceptual schemes I chose to pursue were: building above the ground, on the ground, and below the ground. T

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- What are the major site-issues to be addressed? - What are the design opportuni es? - How do the proposed designs address the issues and take advantage of opportuni es?


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41 PRELIMINARY REVIEW

What are the major site-issues to be addressed? What are the design opportuni es? The site is unusual in that it sits above a highway and South Sta on. This offered a unique opportunity to connect to one or both of these hidden passages. On the flipside, the site is also surrounded by soaring towers - these offered an opportunity for the design to go above ground and make a place for itself between these giants. However, height may be limited due to the structures beneath the ground. In terms of program, the site is unusual because thus far, there is not one permanent user group on the site. This offered an opportunity, but also a challenge. Since the site is a passageway for myriad users, the program could be made very diverse. However, this also meant that a program that would encourage people to stop would be difficult because the site is such a major thoroughfare between exis ng des na ons.


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43 PRELIMINARY REVIEW

How do the proposed designs address the issues and take advantage of opportuni es? I presented three ways of addressing the site: - Designing above the site - Designing at ground level - Designing below ground Each op on had advantages and disadvantages that had to do with access, circula on, and environment. C

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Above Ground Access above Blocking sunlight Height restric ons

O Above Ground New views Create shadows Controlled paths

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On Ground Retaining views Loss of green space Noise mi ga on

Below Ground Access below Light below ground Ven la on

On Ground Easy access Typical structure New landscaping

Below Ground New connec ons Sunken views Unexpected encounters

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The analy c vocabulary was a graphically concise way of organizing the themes I wanted to explore with my thesis. It was something I could constantly go back to in order to ensure that my design was following the original idea - a way to keep myself on track. Since my idea was about speed and movement, I created a series of diagrams that explained what types of situa ons I defined as ‘fast’ and what I defined as ‘slow’. Singular paths, dis nct des na ons, unobstructed views, and defined entrances implied speed. There was no need to slow down and ponder one’s next move. However, the contras ng situa ons of mul ple paths, various des na ons, obstruc ons, and many entrances caused the user to pause and poten ally see the project from a different perspec ve every me it is encountered.


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47 PRELIMINARY REVIEW

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Because the site is located in the middle of the city and surrounded by tall buildings, the views are limited. However, this also created one atypical edge: the roof. The design would possibly be most visible from above, so what happened on top became highly important. On ground level, the views should be directed towards landmark buildings such as the Federal Reserve, Bank of America, and South Sta on. These buildings may act as anchors, helping visitors orient themselves within the building - regardless of what scheme is chosen.


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51 PRELIMINARY REVIEW

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- Need sun/shadow studies. What’s the environment? - May want to combine all three schemes, they all have benefits - How do people actually move through the site? - Don’t be afraid of going taller - Need programma c precedents P

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I definitely needed to explore the environmental constraints of the site. I also needed to focus on circula on and begin to block out the program.


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54 S C H E M AT I C R E V I E W

This review requires a single scheme for the project that addresses the thesis concept and resolves basic site and program rela onships. The review should emphasize concept development from the previous review and demonstrate how the concept will be realized architecturally. Categories to be addressed include: Concept Development, Site Plan, Site Model, Illustra ve Site Informa on, and Site Diagrams.


55 S C H E M AT I C R E V I E W

For this review, one scheme should have been chosen (or a new scheme should have emerged from a combina on of those presented). Form this scheme, an architectural design would begin to emerge. I chose to combine my schemes into a design that would feature all three levels: above, below, and on the ground. This enabled me to connect to the South Sta on lobby, retain the green space, and have ample room for program. T

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- What are the environmental condi ons of the site? - How does the design address a variety of walking speeds? - Where does the program, as designed, accommodate various speeds?


56 S C H E M AT I C R E V I E W

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57 S CHEMATIC R EVIEW

What are the environmental condi ons of the site? The site is mostly South-facing and receives a large amount of sunlight throughout the year. I was surprised to find that the Federal Reserve Building didsn’t do much to stop the light from reaching Dewey Square. The site is especially exposed in the Summer, meaning that I would probably need to address excessive heat gain within the design. Winds are predominantly from the West. September and May are the windiest months, but the major concern for the site would be during the winter months. Since I intended to leave much of the site exposed to con nue the Greenway, the high winds needed to be addressed.


58 S C H E M AT I C R E V I E W h p://www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov/

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59 S CHEMATIC R EVIEW

How does the design address a variety of walking speeds? Where does the program, as designed, accommodate various speeds? A study of the exis ng walking pa erns on the site revealed what I had originally no ced: most people walked along an implied path from the Financial District to South Sta on. This path is located along the South-Western edge of the site, most exposed to wind and traďŹƒc. Most pedestrians did not walk into the heart of the site on a regular basis. Other paths, at the periphery of the site, were li le used. There was only one true des na on: the South Sta on entry pavilion. I proposed a design that encouraged people to walk into the site. By providing many des na ons, and mul ple paths that link them, the site came alive. Mul ple paths also oered the opportunity to create dierent types of speeds: from straight, ght spaces that encouraged a speedy commute to wide open paths full of greenery and sea ng that allowed for a leisurely pace and areas of pause.


60 S C H E M AT I C R E V I E W

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61 S CHEMATIC R EVIEW

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ows: The other benefits of this organiza onal scheme were as follows: - Created two dis nct spaces on the lower level - Acknowledged the existence of the delivery ramp and used it as a bridge - Allowed for program to connect along an axis D

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The combina on of my three conceptual schemes - above, below, low, and on the ground - yielded a variety of sec onal op ons. I decided to focus ocus on a double ze the program I courtyard scheme because I felt it would best serve to organize had envisioned, going from faster to slower spaces.

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The organiza onal scheme generated three op ons for the architectural character of the design. The three op ons for development were The Fortress, The Swoop, and The Tent.

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63 S CHEMATIC R EVIEW

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The schema c design featured an exci ng new development: a grand stair at the South-Western edge of the site that would en ce passerby to travel to the roo op, create sea ng for pedestrians, and enclose a plaza at ground level. Also, by opening the site below the sidewalk level, I created reason for pedestrians to stop and look below their feet. At the Northern side of the site, I gave Dewey Square a green lawn that could be used year round: for picnics and relaxa on in the summer, and sledding in the winter. The green space served as a way to connect the site the rest of the Greenway while ensuring usage throughout the year.


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65 S CHEMATIC R EVIEW

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The idea of a fortress came from my recent visit to Puerto Rico. There, the shadows of massive walls were dis nct and depicted the passage of the day. I also thought it would be interes ng to start carving out passages within the walls to provide an unusual architectural environment for the typical Bostonian. By the addi on of a pergola, I created a connec on to Columbus Park further North on the Greenway and allowed for easy coverage in the winter. B

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- Directed views via wall openings - Created mul ple new paths - Canopy created shadows and could be covered in the winter

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67 S CHEMATIC R EVIEW

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The swoop was a ver cal transla on of the curving shapes I made in plan. It also addressed the no on of contrasts: everything around the site is rigid and angular, an organic, curving shape would create a dis nct character. Lastly, the act of walking through the swoop would generate unexpected experiences for the user. B

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- Created mul ple paths - Canopy generated unusual shadows - Variety of experiences by going over or under the swoop - Connected roof to sidewalk and covered the courtyard

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69 S CHEMATIC R EVIEW

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The tent was a nod to the Occupy Boston movement that made Dewey Square its locus operandi. The tent provided shelter, a dis nct look, and an opportunity to diuse sunlight. Also, by the inser on of an oculus in its roof, the tent-like shape allowed for the tracking of sunlight as it traveled across the sky. B

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- Reminiscent of history - Canopy provided shade and cover - Sunlight could be tracked through the oculus - Connected to sidewalk

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71 S CHEMATIC R EVIEW

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BROOKLYN BOTANIC GARDEN VISITOR CENTER Office: Weiss/Manfredi Loca on: NYC, New York Program: Visitor Center - rain garden, gallery, shopping, cafe, garden

The project is a revitalized gateway to the Brooklyn Botanic garden. It has a 10,000sf green roof and a variety of paths that connect a diverse program. The project offered a great look at how a green roof can be used to connect several different types of spaces while giving way to ample circula on.


72 S C H E M AT I C R E V I E W

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VAN DUSEN BOTANICAL GARDEN VISITOR CENTER Office: Perkins+Will Loca on: Vancouver, Bri sh Columbia Program: Visitor Center - gallery, cafe, library, offices, classrooms

The botanical visitor center has a large variety of sustainable systems that allows it to meet the Living Building Challenge. I hoped to use similar systems for my thesis: rain catchment, graywater recycling, rammed earth walls, green roof, and natural ven la on.


73 S CHEMATIC R EVIEW

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- Need sun/shadow studies. What’s the environment? - May want to combine all three schemes, they all have benefits - How do people actually move through the site? - Don’t be afraid of going taller - Must resolve delivery systems P

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I definitely needed to explore the environmental constraints of the site. I also needed to focus on circula on and begin to block out the program. The most important aspect of the cri cism turned out to be the delivery systems: the site had significant constraints for vehicular access, and these had to be resolved.


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76 THESIS II

Design Development I Review

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D Design Development II Review

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Final Review

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78 DD1 REVIEW

This review focuses on a holis c architectural response, all conceptual ideas are beginning to be expressed architecturally. To showcase this architectural development, site plan, models, plans, sec ons, eleva ons, sketches, structure, environmental systems, and materials have been developed. At this point, we are beginning the second segment of thesis in a new semester and have had the break to reflect on previous work.


79 DD1 R EVIEW

Over the course of the break, I spent some me be er understanding my site in model form. I created miniature models that focused on the delivery access since that had become a major concern during the Schema c Review. I found that I could organize my program along the Western edge of the site, as previously planned, and allow a curving ramp to define the front of the complex. The ramp had to allow pedestrian access as well and be designed in such a way as to not become an eyesore. T

C

- How has the design changed to provide delivery access? - How does the design address pedestrian use? - Are the chosen materials appropriate to the site, program, and concept? - What are the sustainable strategies of the design?


80 DD1 REVIEW

C

M

-P

A

W

E

F

M

-P

D

C


81 DD1 R EVIEW

How has the design changed to provide delivery access? How does the design address pedestrian use? By having the ramp to curve through the design, the remaining program began to take its defini on from other circular boundaries. The curving ramp had several benefits: it created an easy way for trucks to access the storage space, it allowed for the program to be organized along its curve, it created a new path through the en re site, and it allowed for covered spaces to exist at the courtyard level, 16’ below the ground. The diagram at right explained how I was beginning to organize the overall plan of the design. The new connec on points also defined the loca on of major site entry points. This design encouraged pedestrians to come into the heart of the site by placing the program along a currently underu lized edge. The ramp gave pedestrians reason to travel into the interior of the site and connect to other paths through the program.


82 DD1 REVIEW

GREENWAY CONNECTION

BANK AMERICA CONNECTION FEDERAL RESERVE PLAZA CONNECTION

SOUTH STATION CONNECTION

S

C

D


83 DD1 R EVIEW

Are the chosen materials appropriate to the site, program, and concept? What are the sustainable strategies of the design? The proposed building was to be in contrast with the unvarying concrete that surrounds the plaza. It would play up the natural aspect of the design by incorpora ng wood and vegeta on. Frosted glass would help mi gate sunlight and create a somewhat mysterious atmosphere to draw people inside. Concrete would have added texture to encourage people to touch the surface. Colorful brushed steel would create various canopies to act as way-finding objects, icons, and enclosures from weather. S In keeping with principles of sustainability, the following systems would be incorporated into the design: rainwater catchment/graywater recycling, a green roof for thermal mass, and passive solar to u lize the abundant Southern sun and lower energy costs. To keep the spaces cool/hot, I would be using an air ven lated chiller with a boiler. The exhaust air would be used to heat the courtyard during the winter.


84

C

R

G

C

R P

S

S

P

M

P


85 DD1 R EVIEW

F

P

:C

L

,-

’

The lowest level of the complex was strategically located at 16’ below the ground in order to create a connec on to the South Sta on Lobby. This level contained the lower levels of the Public Market, Storage, and Cafe, allowing all three to be easily accessed by those who enter the site from South Sta on. The Storage area ran along the rear of the site, like a spine, allowing for easy delivery of goods to their respec ve areas. The Informa on Center was located in such a way as to be easily seen by pedestrians exi ng the South Sta on tunnel. In mes of bad weather, the Market could be entered through the tunnel, without the need to go outside. The Soup Kitchen was located behind the Storage area, underneath the hill, in order to create a sense of individuality and a separate place for gatherings. Realis cally, due to cultural s gma, the inclusion of an area for the homeless and socially disparaged required special treatment.


86 DD1 REVIEW

C

-L

L

M

R S -L

S

I

K L

UP

C

UP

UP UP

P

-

L B

UP

A

SQUARE FOOTAGE C

S

S

L

, , , , , , ,


87 DD1 R EVIEW

F

P

:G

L

, +/- ’

The ground level needed to address the various access points I had iden fied during Thesis I. I developed my program in such a way as to locate entrances to all major areas of the site directly from the access points, and allowed these paths to split and meander through the site once the pedestrian was drawn in. The main por on of the program, the Public Market, was located along the busiest end of the site. This was done to encourage commuters to stop and get groceries on their way home. The grand stair that defines a sidewalk plaza acted as a sea ng area for the lunch me crowd. By opening to the South, the steps would bask in the sunlight. This loca on also allowed for easy viewing of the major thoroughfare, encouraging those pausing to consider the speed of those moving by. The restaurant was placed at the heart of the site, giving reason for people to travel further in during the day and night. The cafe was placed at the other end of the site, near Congress Street, in order to mark another entry point to the site and encourage passerby to pause and grab a bite to eat. As on the lower level, the Storage area ran along the Western edge of the site connec ng all spaces. The delivery access ramp created a new pedestrian walkway.


88 DD1 REVIEW

C

-G

L

DN

S

-G

UP

R

-G

DN

UP

L

UP DN

UP

UP DN

P

-G

DN UP

L B DN UP

DN UP

A

C

SQUARE FOOTAGE , , , , ,


89 DD1 R EVIEW

F

P

:R

L

, +

’

The roof level was a cap for the en re project. Though the program below was disparate, the roof was a con nuous walkable strip. In order to en ce people to go to the roof, I added a second level of the restaurant at the center of the project. This created a des na on point easily accessible from all points of the site. By allowing the ver cal circula on at the Southern corner to connect all three levels, from South Sta on to the Roof, I had created a way for everyone to easily get to the top floor. The area of the roof closest to the vent structure remained a large lawn - reminiscent of the Greenway - while the rest of the roof had become more like a garden with sca ered sea ng and defined paths.


90 DD1 REVIEW

DN

R

-R

L

DN DN

DN

B

DN

V

DN

A

C

SQUARE FOOTAGE UPPER LEVEL RESTAURANT VESTIBULE TOTAL

1,500 SF 800 SF 2,300 SF


91 DD1 R EVIEW

S

P

The final aspect of the design was the addi on of tall, lily-pad like iconic structures. These were inspired by the diagram of Site Connec ons I had made earlier in the semester. These structures became the crowning jewels of the design. They acted as rain covers, they could collect rain water, they generated interes ng shadows, they were colorful, and they marked the myriad entry points of the site. Each color was chosen to represent a city-wide connec on: green for the Greenway, blue for the Ft. Point Channel, red for the Chinatown Gate, orange and yellow for the Southern sun, and grey for South Sta on.


92 DD1 REVIEW

B

A

C

SQUARE FOOTAGE , , , ,


93 DD1 R EVIEW

A

D

The access and circula on diagrams helped establish how pedestrians could move through the site and at what speed. The thicker the line, the faster and more frequently used the path. Choke points existed along every path that forcee the pedestrians to slow down. The diagrams also showed the loca on of ver call circula on via elevator, stair, or hill. Access to the site is shown via blue lines and d explains how the building can be entered on every level.

C

L -

’


94 DD1 REVIEW

DN

DN

UP

DN UP

DN

UP DN

UP

DN

UP DN DN UP D

DN

DN DN UP

DN UP

G

L +/- ’

R

L +

C

D

L S A V C


95 DD1 R EVIEW

B

S

I began to draw preliminary sec ons of the building to see how the spaces were organized ver cally and to explore solar access into the courtyards. Since the market was such a large space, I decided to create an addi onal opening in the roof to allow more sunlight in. I placed the opening above the stairwell to allow some of the light to penetrate even further, into the lower level. The sec ons begin to show how the iconic lily-pads define the entry points. By allowing the structures to vary in height, a hierarchy was created for the overall design.


96 DD1 REVIEW

P

S

.

P

S

A

R R D

C

I

R

S

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S

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P

S

V

R P

S

S

S C

S

R S T

P M

I

S

S

K

C S


97

G

E

T

B

A

E

R F

R

V

E

L

V


98 DD1 REVIEW P

D

The perspec ves start to explain how the design will be experienced by those who enter it. The iconic structures tower above the en re complex, giving it a unique status within the city. Material colors begin to show the look of the space within the larger context.

G

M

S

L

V

L

V

E

S

E

L


99 DD1 R EVIEW

R

P

C

- Sec ons need to be made clearer - Move cafe to loca on of Informa on Center; put Info Center where Cafe is - Iconic structures should not be flat - curve like plans - Furnish the market to give idea of scale in plan - Design the ‘umbrella’ detail - how does it work? - Design the ver cal circula on, ie. Grand Stair P

N

The review made me realize that the umbrellas had become the defining aspect of the design. They now needed to find a func on beyond ‘interes ng to look at.’ The ver cal circula on was the next thing that I needed to focus on and define. Exchanging the Cafe with the Informa on Center was a spectacular sugges on that I would apply to the revised plans.


100

F

DD


102 DD2 REVIEW

This review is an extension of DD1 and focuses on a holis c architectural response, all conceptual ideas are expressed architecturally. To showcase this architectural development, site plan, models, plans, sec ons, eleva ons, sketches, structure, environmental systems, and materials have been further developed. Consider the products of this review a dra version of the final review.


103 DD2 R EVIEW

For this review, I decided to focus on furthering the design of the iconic structures that do ed the site. Since these ‘monsters’ were now the defining characteris c of the project, they needed to be resolved structurally. I also came up with a design for the Grand Stair at the center of the site, connec ng the Courtyard to the First Level. T

C

- How do the ‘monsters’ serve the design? - What are the iconic structures made of? - How do the Grand Stairs serve as a design element, furthering the concept?

R

V

P

V

G

V

O

V

B

V


104 ET RE ST SS RE NG CO

REET FEDERAL ST

T EE STR H HIG

GREENWAY CONNECTION ET RE ST E S HA RC U P

.

TIC

E AV

AN

L AT

BANK AMERICA CONNECTION SUM ME R ST REE T

FEDERAL RESERVE PLAZA CONNECTION SOUTH STATION CONNECTION

S

C

V

D


105 DD2 R EVIEW

How do the ‘monsters’ serve the design? As I thought about the large umbrella-like structures that would cover the site, I was inspired by the idea of a leaf, or a lily pad. The curved stem led me to consider non-linear columns that would support the extended top. The ‘monsters’ served to help iden fy not just the site access points, but to locate the design within the city. The structures serve to help pedestrians orient themselves throughout the building. Also, due to their predominance, the structures act as markers for mee ng places. Finally, the structures are designed as water catchment devices, collec ng water in the ‘leaf’ and transferring it to the ground via the steel ‘stems.’ F

I

S

I

S

D

M

M


106 DD2 REVIEW

L

P

P

C

B

Q

E

,S

S


107 DD2 R EVIEW

What are the iconic structures made of? The iconic structures were composed of 1’ diameter steel pipes. The pipes had a C channel along their top spine to which the ETFE was aƩached via clips. These channels eventually joined to rectangular tubes that guided the water to the ground. From there, the water was directed to a reservoir beneath the courtyard grand stair from where it could be pumped throughout the complex. The mulƟple steel stems that eventually extended to form the umbrella supported themselves since the top itself was made of lightweight ETFE. ETFE (ethylene tetra fluoro ethylene) is a plasƟc-like sheet that is fully recyclable, self-cleaning, and easily mended. It has been used widely in Europe and Asia for spanning large structures that require translucence. As at Clarke Quay in Singapore, I also planned to incorporate LEDs into the structures so the complex stayed alive at night.


108 DD2 REVIEW

ETFE/T琛 CÊÄě‘ã®ÊÄ

SãÙç‘ãçك½ R®Ä¦Ý CÊÄě‘ã®ÊÄ

S®Ä¦½› T琛/R®Ä¦ CÊÄě‘ã®ÊÄ

I‘ÊÄ®‘ SãÙç‘ãçٛ D›ãƒ®½ S›‘ã®ÊÄ


109 DD2 R EVIEW

How do the Grand Stairs serve as a design element, furthering the concept? The Keller Fountain in Portland was a great inspira on for the grand stair in the courtyard. However, the stair would not be completely covered in water. I intended to have water make its way from beneath the umbrellas and down the stair on its way to the collec on tank below the site. The addi on of water as a design feature added to the no on of movement and connected the design to the Chinatown fountain further down the Greenway. As the water passed beneath pedestrians’ feet, it served as a reminder of their daily flow. The water cascading down the Grand Stair into the courtyard also added a playful element to the design, encouraging people to stop and interact with the architecture.

I

K

F

-P

, OR

C

G

F

-B

, MA


11 0 DD2 REVIEW

C

G

S

W

S


111 DD2 R EVIEW

I

C

-L

L

M

R S

S

-L

K L

G

C

R P

S

F

:C

-

L

S

L

SQUARE FOOTAGE

L

,-

’

The changes on the lowest level were not significant: I exchanged the loca on of the Cafe with the Informa on Center. This way, all food-related areas remained together. The last major change was the addi on of the Grand Stair connec ng the Courtyard to the First Level at the heart of the complex.

, , , , , , ,

B


11 2 DD2 REVIEW

I

C

-G

S

L

T

F

-G

R

P

-G

L

-G

L

SQUARE FOOTAGE F

:G

C

L

, +/- ’

, , , ,

The main changes on the ground level were the new Informa on Center in place of the Cafe at the Congress St. side of the project, and the addi on of the tall iconic structures at several loca ons throughout the site. ,

G


11 3 DD2 R EVIEW

W

A R

-R

R

L

V

F

:R

L

,+

’

There were no major changes on the roof level. The Restaurant and Ves bule took on slightly altered shapes, but the program and layout remained the same.

SQUARE FOOTAGE R

, ,

F

LED


11 4 DD2 REVIEW

G

G

ETFE

SQUARE FOOTAGE S The ‘monsters’ took on a definite shape for this review. They became the iconic entrance points that had been introduced in DD1. Their loca on shi ed slightly to be er accomodate the circula on through the site.

, , , ,


11 5 DD2 R EVIEW E

S

The Eleva on and Sec ons truly showed how the iconic structures aected the overall design. The design finally began to take on a more organic shape in eleva on. The mechanical diagram began to explain how the chiller would intake fresh air from the outside via a massive wall at the roof level, and exhaust hot air into the courtyard in order to melt snow in the winter.


11 6 DD2 REVIEW

R

G

Y

S

S

/M

B

S

D

E


11 7 DD2 R EVIEW

P I relied on the perspec ves to explain the scale of the iconic structures. They tower over people and the site and definitely create a reason to pause. I envisioned these ‘monsters’ becoming a new icon for Boston, especially since they were to be located near South Sta on - the major access center for the city. The perspec ves displayed how the legs of the structures created unusual places in their own right. Though separate from the program, they completed the complex. By their very nature, they effec vely created a reason for people to slow down and pause. The colorful ETFE would cast exci ng shadows throughout the day, varying by season and light quality. I could see these structures becoming landmarks for the area.

B

A

E


11 8 DD2 REVIEW

G

E

D

C

S

S

E


11 9 DD2 R EVIEW

R

P

C

- Create a structural diagram - How will ETFE deal with wind loads? - Develop the roo op - right now, it’s just empty space - Develop the spaces beneath the structures. These are now places - Courtyard ‘monster’ looks odd from below. Consider reloca ng - Definitely change the color of the legs. Black will not work in reality - Clarify how the water catchment system actually func ons P

N

The review went extremely well. The panel was happy with my design choices, especially in regards to the iconic structures. For the final, I needed to relocate some of the structures to be er accommodate the circula on through the site. I also needed to complete the design of the green roof.


120

F

DD


122 FINAL REVIEW

The final review is a demonstra on of the en re project. The presenta on stands on its own, fully ar cula ng the concept, thesis, and architecture. Clarity is of the utmost importance at this point. The presenta on demonstrates a final resolu on between the thesis and architecture at finished quality.


123 F INAL R EVIEW

I did not need to significantly alter the design for the final review. The largest changes were a slightly altered plan of the Public Market, a resolu on of the water collec on and materiality of the iconic structures, and the addi on of place-making elements beneath the monsters. T

C

- Do the spaces beneath the monsters func on as places? - Have the structural and mechanical systems been resolved? - Does the roof design encourage a variety of paces?


124 FINAL REVIEW

F

I

S

S


125 F INAL R EVIEW

Do the spaces beneath the monsters func on as places? In order to make the spaces beneath the monster into actual places, I first designated the sort of ac vity that would take place beneath each one. Since most of the food trucks that gathered on the site did so at the North-Western and South-Eastern corners, these structures were to harbor places for si ng. Large pieces of granite, reminiscent of the seaport and quarried from Quincy, would serve as tables and chairs. The structure above the South Sta on entry was to be the largest and most iconic - this was a place where people would stop to meet or take in their surroundings. Therefore, the granite here formed a tumbling fountain-like structure. The idea was that when it rained, the water would fall onto the tallest stone and splash its way down to the ground. When dry, the stones could be climbed or sat upon.

C

S

E

S

The structure located at the courtyard Grand Stair was about movement. This monster appeared to be walking up the steps, making its way to the top. The legs provided a place to lean against and to hold onto as people made their way up or down the granite steps. The final structure, located on the roof above the market, and by far the smallest of the five, marked the visual connec on to all levels of the market. By being smaller than the others, it also encouraged people to touch and interact with the net. This structure was most about pausing to touch, experience, observe.

C

S

P

S


126 FINAL REVIEW

D

A

P

S


127 F INAL R EVIEW

Have the structural and mechanical systems been resolved? The structural system was composed of a series of concrete columns on three separate grids. One grid for the Market, one for the remaining built spaces, and one for the curving service road. The mechanical system was based on a chiller system that then sent warm and cool air to all the spaces via ducts in the storage hallway. All other systems would follow a similar pa ern.

C

.

G -

R +/- ’

+

’ M


128 FINAL REVIEW

K

L

J

M

I

N

H

O

G 1

V U 2

T

F

3

S 4 R E

5 6

Q

B A

C

P D

1M 2M 3M 2D

1D

S

S

D


129 F INAL R EVIEW

Does the roof design encourage a variety of paces? The roof had up to this point been mostly a vast expanse of green with some skylights. The final design designated three zones for the roof based on the quan ty and quality of paths. The slowest zone was at the great lawn next to the vent structure; there were no specific paths crea ng a place with unlimited ways to move around. Des na ons and obstruc ons were created by each user, and were therefore also limitless. A fast pace was ins gated by a long gravel path leading from the Congress Ave. entry, along the Southern roof edge, all the way to the Summer St. grand stair. This path had one des na on, no obstruc ons, and therefore followed the terms of my design vocabulary for crea ng a speedy commute. The last zone was for a meandering movement. There were a variety of paths, but no real obstruc ons to view. Des na ons could be easily seen, but there were several ways to go. This space also encouraged pause by providing many sea ng elements. During the spring and summer, this area would become colorful with a variety of flowers, further encouraging people to come up from the ground level.


130 FINAL REVIEW

M

S

R F

P

D


131 F INAL R EVIEW

I

C

-L

L

M

R S

S

-L

K L

C

P

-

L

S

L

F S

P

:C

L

,-

’

For the final review, I added landscape elements to the Courtyard level. These would create reasons to pause and serve as the cover for the exhaust vents. I also color coded the floor plans in order to allow for an easier reading of the included spaces.


132 FINAL REVIEW

I

C

S

R

P

-G

L

-G

-G

L

-G

L

F

P

:G

L

, +/- ’

The ground level changed very li le: the most significant altera on was the curving of the Public Market at its North-Western corner. This be er expressed the funnel to the side entry. The places beneath the ‘monsters’ were shown with their various arrangements of granite blocks.


133 F INAL R EVIEW

R

-R

L

V

F

P

:R

L

,+

The final Roof Plan was fully developed to express the three zones of movement. The green lawn had no obstruc ons, the meandering paths contained a variety of greenery, and a con nuous ‘fast’ path ran along the edge of the en re roof.


134 FINAL REVIEW

G

E

D G

E

V

V

V

B

A

E

S

E

S

/

C

C

S The final design of the iconic structures had been established. From above, the colorful nets waved in the wind drawing the eye and crea ng another way for the no on of movement to come across - even to those not actually walking through the site.


135

F

E

The final eleva on showed the resolved loca on of each iconic structure. All three levels of the building were displayed to show the Grand Stair connec ng the Courtyard to the Ground Level, and the spiral stair that connected the ground level to the roof. These stairs formed the central ver cal spine of the project. The two large openings in the ground level allowed plenty of light to flood the Courtyard.


136

F

E


V B E T

F I G

D U

S P S

NET CONNECTION

T

L ’

R

WATER RING CONNECTION

L ’

G ’ CMU B ”R STEEL RING CONNECTION

G

P

”A S F

C L - ’ BLUE SECTION 1/4” = 1’-0”

L


138 FINAL REVIEW

RED SECTION 1/16” = 1’-0”

F

S

The final sec ons resolved the interior spaces of the building - especially the areas with a sloping roof. The space with the great lawn required a more robust structure beneath, affec ng the ceiling above the Mechanical Room and Soup Kitchen. Meanwhile, the secondary slope near the Great Lawn allowed for a storage/mechanical space for the top floor of the Restaurant as it turned into a roof. In the Red Sec on, it became apparent how the Orange structure’s legs surrounded the skylight and made their way down to the lowest level, physically and visually connec ng the three levels. The Green Sec on showed the Green structure standing over the entrance into the Informa on Center, connec ng the Ground Level to the Courtyard and the South Sta on entry. The Yellow Sec on showed how the Yellow structure stood guard over the Delivery Road and climbed the steps to the Ground Level.

GREEN SECTION 1/16” = 1’-0”

The large detail sec on resolved the design of the iconic structures. I had been inspired by an ar st named Janet Echelman who makes large-scale sculptures out of fishing nets. Seeing her work convinced me that they would be the ideal element to complete the structures. The nets would be able to move with the wind, further emphasizing the concept of the thesis. Also, since they were colorful and playful, they would stand out from the surrounding city and make Dewey Square the iconic spot I wanted. Finally, the large sec on also shows how the water would be collected beneath the structure, eventually making its way to a reservoir below the Grand Stair in the Courtyard.

ORANGE SECTION 1/16” = 1’-0”


139 F INAL R EVIEW

V (C

Y L

S )

The Yellow Structure walks up the granite steps that connect the Courtyard to the Ground Level. Seen from below, the structure towers over the pedestrian and provides visual cues about the wind above.


140

V (G

G

S )

The Green Structure es together the Northern part of the Greenway with the renovated Dewey Square. It acts as an icon for the Informa on Center and entry onto the site at all three levels.


141

V (R

O L

S

)

The Orange Structure is more approachable since it is human scaled, unlike the other four. The structure marks a ver cal visual connec on between all three levels; its legs penetrate through the building below.


142 FINAL REVIEW

V (G

Y L

S )

At ground level, the Yellow Structure marks the loca on of the Granite Steps leading to the Courtyard. It also marks a nexus point where several major paths cross: pedestrian ver cal circula on between all levels, vehicular transit, and the main pedestrian walkway connec ng the en re site.


143 F INAL R EVIEW

R

P

C

- Rethink the water collec on. How much water will the structures actually gather? - Explain structure of the nets - how are they a ached to the legs? - How do the nets retain their shape? P

N

The Final Review was not the best review I’ve ever had. Though the overall project was highly successful, the iconic structures lacked suďŹƒcient explana on in terms of structure. Therefore, post-final, I needed to add an idea of the net design.


144

F


145 P OST -F INAL

P

-F

D

I decided that I wanted to retain the water collec on on one of the structures and make it more localized. Instead of the water traveling through a connected series of tubes to a central reservoir, the structure at South Sta on would collect the water right beneath itself. This water will then be used on hot, dry days to enliven the granite fountain at its center. The remaining structures will not collect water. As for the fishing nets, I spent some more me looking at Ms. Echelman’s sculptures and realized that she uses a lightweight system of tubes to shape her nets. I decided to use this idea to my advantage, crea ng offset rings that are a ached to the main structure via steel cables and welds. The top ring is wholly welded to the structure and is the main connec on point for the net, ensuring that it doesn’t lose its shape over me. The bo om-most ring is also a ached to the structure so that the en re structure is solidly tethered and doesn’t hit the legs. I added looping rings between the extended arms in order to help the net keep its shape during especially windy mes.


146 POST-FINAL

W C R

N -S

S


148 CONCLUSIONS

This thesis was a wild ride. I began with a theory, an idea about a subject that I was passionate about, and took it on a year -long adventure that culminated with a building that expresses my concept in physical form. I believe that the design does succeed in crea ng spaces that encourage the pedestrian to move at a variety of speeds, and will therefore cause people to consider their movements. Maybe for a few, it will inspire the same though I had at the beginning: how do I live in me?


150 APPENDIX

The following is the complete Thesis Proposal outlining the original concept of the Thesis. The Proposal provides a thorough site analysis, Zoning and Codes relevant for the site and project, precedent studies, as well as concept explora on from Thesis Seminar and Studio.


The Pace

of

Space

H ow S peed S hapes U rban A rchitecture

N ata l i a W i e c z o r e k

B.A.C. | M. Arch 2014


The Pace

of

Space

H ow S peed S hapes U rban A rchitecture

P roposal D ate

|

T hesis S eminar

|

T hesis 1

| F all 2013

E xpected G raduation |

S pring 2013 S pring 2013

S pring 2014

T hesis S tudent

: N atalia W ieczorek

T hesis D irector

: I an F. T aberner , AIA

S eminar A dvisor

:

S tudio A dvisor

: A di T oledano

S tephen M oore


Table

book one |

Thesis Proposal

of

C o n t e n ts

B ook 1 | P roposal

1

T hesis S ummary I ntroduction T hesis S tatement

1 2 4

M ethods of I nquiry T erms of C riticism C oncept D evelopment

6 7 8

S ite S tatement P rogram S tatement B uilding S ystems S ketch P roblem C ase S tudy C omparison C ase S tudies

10 12 14 15 16 18

R eviews |M oving F orward P roposed S chedule R esume A nnotated B ibliography

22 23 24 25

book two|

27

program

Appendix 49


“For the machine meant the conquest of horizontal space. It also meant a sense of that space which few people had experienced before – the succession and superimposition of views, the unfolding of landscape in flickering surfaces as one was carried swiftly past it, and an exaggerated feeling of relative motion due to parallax. The view from the train was not the view from the horse. It compressed more motifs into the same time. Conversely, it left less time in which to dwell on any one thing.” R obert H ughes T he S hock of the N ew

“America is all about speed. Hot, nasty, badass speed.” W ill F errell


B o o k O n e

|

Thesis Proposal

thesis summary Natalia Wieczorek nataliawie@gmail.com T he P ace

of

S pace : H ow S peed S hapes U rban A rchitecture

Through use of geometry, scale, and program, architecture should generate spaces that slow pedestrian walking speed in order to foster an awareness of one’s surroundings, create connections, and reduce stress. This thesis focuses on walking pace of pedestrians as a means of addressing the speed typically experienced in urban centers. The exploration will be done via a Permanent Public Market and Transit Access at Dewey Square in Downtown Boston. The following questions will be answered: - What architectural qualities do the created spaces exhibit that imply a particular pace? - How is the temporal experience differentiated? - Are the temporal distinctions appropriate? Necessary? - What makes the building type appropriate to the investigation at hand? - What is gained by the addition of a temporal dimension? - How does the consideration of tempo or pace drive the design? The methods of inquiry shall be research about the connection between speed and health, case studies of spaces that affect movement, interviews with members of the BRA, the Greenway Conservancy, BPMA, and users of the space at South Station, Dewey Square, and the Financial District.

1


Introduction

I have a fascination with time – what it is, how we experience it, how we move through it (or how it moves through us). When I began thinking about my thesis, I knew that time would be a consideration. Through my research and reading, I came across a book called Einstein’s Dreams – it’s made up of short stories about alternate ways of considering time; perhaps Einstein had similar notions while daydreaming in the patent office. What really caught my attention was the insinuation that the experience of time can influence architecture. For instance, if time runs at a different speed according to elevation – let’s say slower high up – people may wish to build taller buildings in order to extend their lifespan. Therefore, the architecture of the cities, and thus the social order, is directly related to the flow of time. This made me think - How is our perception of the speed of time expressed through our architecture? What is our perception of time? What affects it? Does time seem to flow differently based on location? Climate? Experience? Can the perceived speed of time be altered? And if yes, then how? Through the course of my thesis, I hope to explore the last question on this list. I realized early on that my concept is rather theoretical, so for the purposes of my thesis project, I decided to focus on an aspect of it that could actually be built rather than discussed. Humans experience time through change – through movement. Architecture has the ability to modify movement, and therefore that is what my thesis will focus on. In my reading, I learned that Boston is the fastest moving city in the USA in terms of walking speed. I wish to modify the speed of movement in Boston and therefore affect the perceived flow of time by those occupying the building.

2


Speed of Time related to Environment

3


Thesis Statement

Are you in a rush? Are you skimming the words? Too many things to do and not enough time? Is speed a necessary component of your lifestyle? In the last two or three decades we have seen a boom in technology that has enabled a simple click to finish tasks that once took hours or days, but as with all innovation, speed comes at a price: we now stress about not getting enough done in all the time that we have, we ignore our surroundings as we focus on the running checklist in our minds, we don’t say hello to our neighbors or passerby on the street. Instead of relaxing, we attempt to move faster to stay in tandem with the machines we have created. But people are not machines and we should celebrate our humanity rather than attempt to ignore it by moving ever faster. Through use of geometry, scale, and program, architecture should generate spaces that slow pedestrian walking speed in order to foster an awareness of one’s surroundings, create connections, and reduce stress.

4

All cultures, however varied, view time in relation to their environment: agrarian societies judge it by the passage of seasons, ancient cultures such as the Mayans or Egyptians focused on the changes in celestial objects, we [North Americans, 21st c.] see it as the pace created by a ticking clock. As the world’s population has moved from the country to the city, and economic growth has become our main concern, so has the clock - an artificial edifice representative of the passage of time - taken over our daily lives. Because cities are economic centers of the urbanized world, they function according to the demands of business. As we attempt to keep pace with the clok-driven world, we mechanize the way we move. We are now obliged to rush to meet a deadline rather than take as much time as necessary to get somewhere. Our technology - email, cell phone, etc. - is there to ensure that we are running around the clock. In order to ‘make it on time,’ we have sacrificed an architecture that distracts from the most efficient path. However, by moving at breakneck pace - whether by foot, car, bike, or train - we lose connection to the places in which we live. We no longer notice our surroundings nor the people who travel beside us. Not only are we disconnected, we also harm our health by moving at a pace that induces stress due to constant “Time Anxiety”.


Instead of texture, scale, and reasons to pause, urban centers cater to speed by creating flat, plain walls, tall skyscrapers completely out of scale with the pedestrian, and paths of least resistance through indifferent corridors. This project intends to explore ways in which architecture may be utilized to slow the walking pace of the people who pass through and around it. The thesis will focus on physical movement rather than internal feeling of time because people’s internal experience of the passage of time is not always related to the exterior environment.

Thesis Proposal Diagram C urrent S peed

S tressed

P roposed S peed

R elaxed

C onnections

N ew C onnections

L ack of A wareness

E nhanced A wareness

M issed

5


Methods

of

Inquiry

investigate the following questions: + How does the speed at which we move affect health? Our interpersonal connections? Our awareness of place? + How does urban architecture encourage life an unhealthy speed? + What are the effects of the speed at which live? + What is a healthy pace?

find answers through the following means: our at we

+ What kind of effect on pace does technology have? Which technology? + How is technology’s influence apparent in architecture, in terms of speed? + How is architecture expressive of pace? + What affects how people move through or around a building? + How is the speed of living reflected in our buildings?

6

+ Research - studies and articles about the relationship between pace and health. + Research - studies and articles about speed’s effect on our contempory attention span/ interpersonal interactions. + Interviews - talk to people passing through the site and surroundings to see how they feel about the pace at which they move. + Interviews - talk to members of the Rose F. Kennedy Greenway Conservancy to get their input about the project. + Interviews - talk to members of the Boston Public Market Association as a means for detailed answers about proposed program. + Interviews - speak to a BRA representatiove knoweldgeable of the site to gain further insight into its opportunities. + Interviews - meet with a structural/transit engineer, preferable one familiar with boston’s underground transit system, to discuss probable structural solutions.


T e r ms

The goal of this thesis is to discover viable means of slowing the pedestrian in an urban setting. Ultimately, the building should enable the occupants to move at a reduced speed without causing them to feel opressed or deterred - the idea is to reduce stress, not increase it.

of

C r i t i c i sm

the building should address the following questions: - Do the spaces created exhibit architectural qualities that imply a particular pace? What are they? - How is the temporal experience differentiated? - Are the temporal distinctions appropriate? Necessary? - Is the building type appropriate to the investigation at hand? - What is gained by the addition of a temporal dimension? - How does the consideration of tempo or pace drive the design?

7


C o n c e pt D e v e l o pm e n t

Studio Exploration To crystalize my ideas about movement and speed, I created several series of models that strove to explain the relationship between speed, texture, density, and path. - The first series focused on motile figures that were attached to a spinning apparatus. - The second series attempted to explain how density could imply speed without physical movement. - Series three sprang from series two, but this time allowed for literal movement. - The final series explores how the geometry of a path can affect the speed of movement.

Series One I found that when spun at a high enough velocity, the most distinct models lost their detail and became flat. This analysis was used to explain how I believe poeple in urban spaces see their surroundings - by moving so quickly, architecture, people, vegetation, etc., all become lost to speed.

S eries O ne

1

8

2

3

4

5

6


S eries T wo

Series Two

1

2

3

S eries T hree

The sticks were used as a way to explore density and it’s insiniuation of pace. I found that the denser the sticks, the more flat the landscape became. It appers that a lack of density can create more diversity.

Series Three Using the previous series as a jumping off point, this series allowed the sticks to move around a central spine. I found that less dense sticks allowed for more freedom in arrangement and created multiple connections. 1

2

S eries F our

Series four The final series explored path as a means for controlling speed. The wire was kept at one length and ‘events’ were introduced to affect the speed of travel for the beads. I found that when the path varied in both the Y and Z direction, the beads moved slowest. 1

2

9


Site Statement

Boston’s Financial District – Dewey Square This site represents the commercial center of the city: all is regulated by business. Dewey Square is at the center of bustling activity: South Station and its many transit connections create a constant rush while the surrounding offices of the Federal Reserve Building, Bank of America Building, and Citizen’s Bank building ensure that people are kept on a traditional clock-dictated schedule. The location of the building will juxtapose the speed typically associated with the urban center by providing an alternative way to pass through the space.

F ederal R eserve

***http://blog.rosekennedygreenway.org/

B of A B uilding

I-93 E xit R amp

10

OS G emeos M ural


C lear P aths

C entrally L ocated

S cheduled

C lear V iew

M any C onnections

to

to

D estination

D estination

site qualities Ideal site qualities require that it is a place of constant rush with clear views and paths to pedestrian destination points. There should be multiple points of access to the site, yet few destinations. Dewey Square in downtown Boston exhibits all of these qualities. F ederal R eserve

S outh S tation

C itizen ’ s B ank

11


P r o g r a m S t a t e m e n t

Dewey Square is a place of travel, transit, and movement. It is a place where everyone is in a hurry to get to somewhere else. My program requires slowness, spaces that focus attention, that encourage conversation. Many of those who rush through the plaza are late for a train or a bus and still haven’t had a chance to eat - or get groceries for their family. Besides the fast food offered at South Station, there is nowhere permanent to stop and grab a bite. The food trucks have picked up on this and take advantage of the afternoon crowds as they pass by. The program proposed is a permanent food market with an administrative area and restaurants. The building will provide space for a farmer’s market on a regular & all season basis and integrate the garden space at Dewey Square to continue its horticultural aspirations by growing edible greens. The program also calls for a renewed connection to South Station and the Red Line - both of which sit beneath the site. Currently, access to the tunnels below ground is hidden and confusing. This theis proposes a new connection that will expose the speed below ground to those on the surface.

12

connection

at

the

market


M ultiple E ntry P oints

U nexpected E ncounters

M ultiple P aths

N o C lear

to

D estination

views to

D issimilar P rogram

D estination

program Qualities The ideal program will allow for many unexpected connections to be made. There should be a variety of paths in order for experiences to differ based on entry. The building should also be a landmark, creating a focal point at the center of downtown. The program should draw people inside, and thus cannot be something encountered nearby.

13


B u i l d i n g S y st e ms

The building technologies employed will focus heavily on structure because of the tunnels that exist below the site. However, these same tunnels generate smoke, heat, and wind - all possible sources of residual energy generated by moving traffic. The intent is to utilize these to power the building. Since the site receives a large amount of sunlight throughout the year, natural light will also be a significant component of the design. The light will be used both as a way to illuminate the space and to create rhythms within the building. The most important aspect of the design will be structural - not only because of the site’s precarious location, but also because geometry will play an important part in the design of the space. It’s possible that there will be need for large spans and atypical construction methods.

14

Tunnel Ventilation Diagram

A ir

intake

S tructure


Sketch Problem

F ederal S t . A ccess

The site proposed for this thesis is located above a myriad of complicated tunnels that link districts, cities, and states - but you’d never guess it while standing there.

P rospect S t . A ccess

All the action happens below ground, out of sight and out of mind. The sketch problem became an opportunity to explore the ways in which these connections could be brought out from hiding and shown to the occupants of the building.

S ummer S t .& A tlantic A ve . A ccess

The tunnel system is a complex, yet invisible, landmark. By using the intricacy of the system below ground as a basis for design of the entryway, the landmark becomes visible. Strategy:Distinct Landmark/ Multiple Connections

S ummer

Red

93N

90W 93S

A tlantic A ve .

N

P urchase

st .

C ongress A ve .

S ilver L ine

G reenway A ccess

N

D ewey S quare

Section

Plan

make the invisible landmark visible.

create many points of access.

F t . point C hannel

line

st .

Above Ground Transit Diagram

Below Ground Transit Diagram

Transit Section Diagram

15


C a s e S tu d y - C o mp a r i s o n

S antiago C alatrava : S tadelhofen T rain S tation | Z urich , S witzerland | 1983-1984

slow Santiago Calatrava’s train station utilizes structure as a rhythmic device. The steel supports are placed at distinct points and fully exposed to the occupants. Within the building, he utilizes natural light to enhance the undulating geometry all the openings are placed at regular intervals and create bays of alternating light and dark. The station is asymmetrical, both at its entrance and within. There are no clearly defined right of ways and passage needs to be determined at a moment by moment basis: the visitor must pay attention to surroundings. The ideas applicable to my thesis are the notion of assymetry, rhythmic use of structure, and careful consideration of light penetration.

16


C a s e S tu d y - C omparison A lvaro S iza : B aixa -C hiado T rain S tation | L isbon , P ortugal

| 1998

fast Alvaro Siza’s train station creates clear, unambiguous paths of transit for travelers and trains. The walls are covered in tile that disguises all structure. The lighting within the station is artificial and continuous, dividing visitors from the outside, The entry sets up the symmetry prevalent throught the interior of the station. Paths are clearly laid out to permit the commuter to move through the space quickly and efficiently. This station expresses ideas which I should avoid within the design: symmetry, lack of natural light, and hidden structure.

17


C a s e S tu d y

S ift S tudio : V eer | S tuttgart , G ermany | 2012

veer

Office: Sift Studio - Ann Arbor, MI Location: Stuttgart / Germany Program: Exhibition

Completed: 2012

The installation focuses on passage and movement as affected by various materials and configurations. The exploration of spatial qualities such as scale, tightness, low ceilings, and sloped walls is relevant to my considerations of what affects pace. ***http://siftstudio.com/project/veer inside veer

18


Choice of material Cause pause/ Limit view s

material scale Encourage interaction multiple turns Limited views intended path

multiple paths Force considered choice

interactive material Reason to pause

tight entry Limited number enetering

dead end Unexpected event

sharp turn Limited views various wall conditions

path width Modify scale to control numbers

constricted space Limited movement

sloped ceiling Attuned attention to surroundings

Differing ceiling height See surroundings from various POV

movement under low ceiling

19


C a s e S tu d y R ene

van

Z uuk A rchitecten : P avilion | R ossendaal , N etherland | 2009

Rusendaal Pavilion Office: RenÊ van Zuuk Architekten - Almere / NL Location: City Center Rossendaal / NL Program: Pavilion – shops/lunchroom/office / entrance for parking area

Completed: 06/2009

The project sits atop a parking garage and incorporates retail and restaurants into the program. The pavilion is relevant to my thesis as a study of how to provide light access and street views beneath the ground. The building is also an example of a landmark. ***http://www.renevanzuuk.nl/english/index_en.html

front elevation

20

view into garage

rear elevation


considered scale

multiple view points

below ground activity

view below ground

interactive plaza

light access

side elevation

section

landmark moment directs entry

rear elevation

Variety of paths

connection to plaza

21


Reviews/Moving Forward

Proposal review I spoke to a dozen or so people about my project and the feedback I received was positive. I was somewhat concerned about my program, but all agreed that it was a well-considered choice. I will be moving forward with a permanent public market in combination with revamped access to South Station and the Red Line. The location, Dewey Square, is a great example of my critique of urban life: that it moves too fast and this has a negative effect on our health, our awareness of surroundings, and our interpersonal interactions. The comments I received varied from specific ideas to broader considerations of the urban fabric. Questions to consider: - How should the building be sited: below ground, above ground, somewhere in the middle, etc. - How will circulation through the building vary depending on the experience I am trying to induce? - Should the tunnels be exposed literally or figuratively? - How do you slow people down without inducing anger/stress? - Can the building accommodate two paths, one for speed and one for strolling? Should it? Other

suggestions: - Consider accessibility; obstructions to view and passage could be an issue. - Consider the surrounding areas, study pedestrian patterns, note how this site is affected by the different districts it borders. - Contact various agencies that may be involved in the planning process: the Boston Public Market Association, Rose F. Kennedy Greenway Conservancy, a structural and transit engineer, a BRA member familiar with the Greenway/surrounding districts, etc. - Consider the steps that would need to be taken in order to make this project a reality: allow these considerations to inform Methods of Inquiry and Terms of Criticism.

Moving forward I believe that a study of pedestrian patterns and a clear understanding of access will have the largest impact on the design of the building. Circulation is an extremely relevant aspect of both my thesis concept and of the program I am proposing, therefore it makes sense that it will be a significant driver of my proposal.

22


Proposed Schedule

Introductory Review

| September 2013

- P rogram

- T hesis C oncept - S ite

Preliminary Review

|

- P rogram - C onceptual S chemes

- T hesis C oncept - S ite

october 2013

Schematic Review | December 2013

- T hesis C oncept - S ite - B uilding S ystems

- B uilding O rganization - A rchitectural C haracter

Design Development Review |

- T hesis C oncept - S ite D esign

march 2014

- A rchitectural D esign - B uilding S ystems

Final Review | April 2014

- T hesis C oncept - S ite D esign

- A rchitectural D esign - B uilding S ystems

Final book due | may 2014

23


Phone: 617.820.3269 E-mail: nataliawie@gmail.com NATALIA WIECZORE K 115 Paul Gore St., Jamaica Plain, MA 02130 Education |

Boston Architectural College Master of Architecture Expected Graduation: 2014

University of TX San Antonio B.S. Architecture Cum Laude, 2009 Professional | New England Window Systems South Boston, MA Experience Associate 6/11-present Assist with managing a window sub-contracting company. Construction documents. Client satisfaction. Project management. Estimating. EnerSpective Concord, MA Intern 6/10-12/10 Systems-side design and corresponding energy analysis for low-income multi-family. Holistic Design Somerville, MA Documenter 6/10-8/10 Document process of Deep Energy Retrofit for old Victorian residence. Absolute Design Partners San Antonio,TX AutoCAD Draftsman/Intern 6/08-7/09 Renovation/expansion of 50+ existing large commercial stores. Other | National Rebuilding Together Day Volunteer 2012-2013 Experience Artisan Builders/Robert Caruso Volunteer 2011 Learning by Common

Design Volunteer 2011

Boston Common Build Designer/Builder 2010

Ecotopian

House Project Designer 2010

Computer Skills | AutoCAD Revit Architecture Adobe Suite Google SketchUp Microsoft Office Rhino Modeling Other Skills | Sketching Use of Power Tools Hand Rendering Drafting Fluent in Polish Public Speaking 24


Annotated Bibliography

Adli, Mazda. 2011. “ Urban Stress and Mental Health .” Urban Age: Cities Health and Well-Being (November): 1–4. The consequences that urban living has on mental health. Ende, Michael. Momo. New York, NY: Puffin Books, 2011. The story explores the implications of slow versus fast time through a children’s novel. Griffiths, Jay. A Sideways Look at Time. New York: Penguin, 2004. Our standardized notion of time takes us away from temporal variety and creates a world of sameness. Hassan, Robert, “Timescapes of the Network Society,” in Fast Capitalism [online journal] (vol.1.1, 2005) available from http://www.uta.edu/huma/agger/fastcapitalism/1_1/hassan.html Explores an emergent network society resultant form reliance on technolgy and this shift’s effect on the concemption of space and time. Honore, Carl. In Praise of Slowness: How a Worldwide Movement Is Challenging the Cult of Speed. New York, NY: Harper San Francisco, 2004. By moving so fast, we lose the connection to what’s around us, thus we aren’t truly enjoying the supposed fruits of our increased efficiency. Explored through topics ranging from food, to design, to medicine. Lefèbvre, Henri. Rhythmanalysis: Space, Time, and Everyday Life. London, New York. Continuum, 2004. Discusses the various rhythms we encounter as we move through our daily lives and how they connect between the temporal and the physical. Levine, Robert. A Geography of Time: The Temporal Misadventures of a Social Psychologist, or How Every Culture Keeps Time Just a Little Bit Differently. New York: Basic Books, 1997. How different cultures relate to time. Levine, Robert, and Ara Norenzayan. 1999. “ The Pace of Life in 31 Countries .” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 30 (2) (March): 178–205. Effects of fast living on health. McNichol, Dan. The Big Dig. New York: Silver Lining Books, Inc. 2000. Information about the Big Dig; diagram of the tunnel system under Dewey Square. Siza, Alvaro. Alvaro Siza: Getting Through the Turbulence. Madrid: El Croquis Editorial, 2000. Alvaro Siza’s work, 1958-2000. Tzonis, Alexander. Santiago Calatrava: The Poetics of Movement. New York: Universe Publishing, 1999. A review of Santiago Caltrava’s selected works; focus on movement.

25


The Pace

of

Space

H ow S peed S hapes U rban A rchitecture

26


Table

of

book one |

Thesis Proposal

1

book two|

program

27

I ntroduction S ite L ocation S ite A nalysis C odes P hysical C ontext L ynch D iagrams S hadow S tudy C ultural C ontext I nformational C ontext P recedents I nterviews I ssues , M ission & goals M assing S tudy P rogram | C ost E stimate

C o n t e n ts

B ook 2 | P rogram

28 29 30 30 32 33 34 35 37 38 44 45 46 47

Appendix 49

27


Introduction

This thesis focuses on the exploration of architecturual interventions that can slow the walking pace of pedestrians in downtown Boston. Slowing down requires a consideration of both the internal and external situation experienced by the pedestrian. Unfortunately, the inner situation is inaccessible to the architect - so we rely on the exterior environment in the hopes that it may affect the inner pace. The site chosen for this exploration is higly charged - there are tunnels below ground, hidden to the eye yet sought after. Corridors formed by buildings above ground herd people toward trasit and leave little need for pause. The towers are full of businesses that demand punctuality and require rush. By placing a building specifically attuned to walking speed at the very center of this mess is to invite several responses: maybe frustration, maybe relief, but most importantly a sharpened awareness of the typical pace at which our lives move.

28


I n t r o d u c t i o n S ite

location

State | Massachusetts

Co ng re

N

Neighborhood | Financial District

A er

st

.

City | Boston

se

.

St

S umm

ha

ss

P

c ur

st

a tl

nt

ic

Av

e.

.

200

29


S i t e A n a l y s i s C odes

codes

Co

T he site is part of the Rose F. Kennedy Greenway that passes above the submerged Central Artery (US 93N/S). These lots are meant to renew the link between the city and its waterfront.

ng

St

0’

ss

17

re

N oise

.

The City has a very specific vision for the Greenway and for Dewey Square (Parcels 22N/S). The requirements are as follows: - N/S linearlity is preserved and visual connections are made toward Rowe’s Wharf and High St. - Buildings to have distinct character from surroundings in terms of proportions, scale, massing, materials, colors, and detailing. - Sidewalk to not exceed 20’ except at Summer St. Plaza which is to be 30’.

N oise

P

ur

c

s ha

e

st

65

.

0’ P arcel 22N

0 56 P arcel 22S

A

a tl

nt

’ Ave.

ic

19 S umm 5 ’ er

S etting S un

st

.

Allowed Uses: - Cultural, Restaurant, Local Retail/ Service

N oise R ising S un

N S ite A rea

|

109,200

F rontage A tlantc A ve . | P urchase st . | S etbacks

|

sq . ft .

560’ S ummer st . | 650’ C ongress S t . |

M ax 20’

Other Encouraged Use: - Botanical Garden, Urban Arboretum, Entry for Transit

from

195’ 170’

The Zoning requirements limit Lot Coverage to 10% on Parcel 22N and 15% on Parcel 22S.

F rontage

Z oning | Financial District Open Space Subdistrict - 22N OS-P,22S OS-UP Urban Renewal Overlay District M ax H eight | M ax F ootprint |

30

35’ 15% on 22S & 10%

on

22N

***Information available at BRA website, Article 49 ***Images courtesy of Google Maps


t. summer s

Atla

ntic

sout

Ave.

uare q s y e dew

h st atio n

red

ne i l er silv

lin

e

h

93

t sou

h

93

tunnel system diagram

t Nor

31


S i t e A n a l y s i s P hysical C ontext

physical context Dewey Square is surrounded by towers and transit. It is a blank space bordered by businesses that block views further into town and to the waterfront at Ft. Point Channel. The most significant buildings around the Federal Reserve across the street Ave., South Station diagonally across and the Bank of America Building that entry to downtown across Purchase St.

the site are at Atlantic Summer St., marks the

Recently, Os Gemeos (artists from Brazil) have been commissioned to enliven the space by painting a mural on the Air Intake Building located at the Northern end of the site. The mural is a point of color in front of a wall of otherwise blank towers. The site is cut off from its surroundings by streets on all four sides; the lights direct both vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

32

Dewey Sq. is currently used as a public park, plaza, and display garden along its Purchase St. frontage.


edges

paths: above ground

S eaport D istrict walk

5 min

B ank

5 min

walk

Nodes

walk

N

S outh S tation

N

S ummer S t .

F ederal R eserve S outh S tation

paths: below ground

S tation E ntry P oints

5 min

A merica O s G emeos M ural

A tlantic A ve .

N

T ufts U niversity

of

C ongress S t .

F t . P oint C hannel

C hinatown

L ynch D iagrams

landmarks

F ederal st . P urchase S t .

F inancial D istrict

5 min

Site Analysis

greenspace

T unnels : 93N/S,90W

5 min

walk

R ose F. K ennedy G reenway

P ost O ffice P ark

walk

5 min

walk

S ilver L ine

N S outh S tation

N R ed

line

N F ederal R eserve P laza

Conclusion The above and below ground access appears to be the most dynamic aspect of the site. paths will be a significant aspect of this thesis.

Focusing on these

33


Site Analysis S hadow S tudy W ith M assing

spring equinox 3.20.13

summer solstice 6.21.13

fall equinox 9.23.13

winter solstice 12.21.13

8:00 am

N

N

N

N

12:00 pm

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

4:00 pm

Conclusion

34

This site is centrally located, easily accessible, gets plenty of sunlight, and can act as a distinct landmark for downtown Boston. These attributes make it an ideal place for a public market that can be accessed by tourists and commuters alike.


S i t e A n a l y s i s C ulturl C ontext : H istory

history Dewey Square was founded in 1898. Named after George Dewey, a Pacific Hero of the Spanish American War, it began its life as a transportation hub surrounded by light industry and warehouse space. When the Central Artery appeared in Boston in the 1950s, it obliterated the area. Aptly named, the elevated structure took over downtown and cast deep shadows beneath its flanks. At its start, the Artery carried 75,000 vehicles daily; by 1980, that number rose to 190,000. As our need for speed increased, the city made a strategic decision to place the behemoth beneath the ground.

central artery | 1950-1991

the greenway | 2007-now

Today, Dewey Square Park is home to an air intake vent decorated with an Os Gemeos mural. It is most known as the home of the Occupy Boston movement held throughout 2011. During the summer, the Square and other Ft. Point Channel parks are host to a multiude of events such as the Figment Festival, concerts, and volunteer horticultural workshops. Dewey Square is also used by local food trucks and a farmer’s market in the summer.

***http://www.boston.com/yourtown/news/downtown/2011/11/dewey_ square_before_the_occupa.html ***http://bosguy.com/2013/02/08/flashback-friday-3/

35


Site Analysis

C ultural C ontext : M asterplan

masterplan context Post Big Dig, as the redevelopment came to be known, the space previously occupied by the Artery became the Greenway we see today. The string of parks links Chinatown all the way to the North End. Several developments have been proposed for the Greenway - a horticultural garden under glass in 1991, a new arts and culture center in 2001, a Boston Museum in 2005, and a YMCA of Greater Boston in 2003 - none took off due to the financial crisis of the early 2000’s.

***http://www.rosekennedygreenway.org/

36

Proposed Developments

Greenway Masterplan


Site Analysis I nformational C ontext

The Client The proposal will combine two programs: a public market and access to the below ground train station. Therefore, input from two different sources is required. The first will be the Boston Public Market Association. They have a goal of installing a premanent public market on the Greenway, and are currently in the midst of creating one at Haymarket Station near the North End. Their input will be invaluable in terms of the challenges, requirements, and needs of a marketplace in downtown Boston. The other client is the Rose F. Kennedy Greenway Conservancy. This group cares for the development of the Greenway, manages the programs and events hosted there, and is the best resource for information about Greenway uses.

37


Site Analysis P recedent

boston public market Proposed By: Boston Public Market Association Location: Boston / MA Program: Permanent Public Market - interior/ exterior stalls, office space, storage

Completed: TBA

The BPMA believes that Boston needs a centrally located public market. A study of the market’s spatial arrangement, program requirements, and access is very relevant to my study. ***http://www.bostonpublicmarket.org/public-market proposal/

BPMA proposal rendering

38

BPMA Market rendering


ACCESS/CIRCULATION Many points of access and simple circulation make the market easy to navigate. Multiple entry points encourage more people to come inside.

key Access Circulation

Access/Circulation

key Market

Program Program analysis shows that the indoor market is the largest component of the space. Offices and a demonstration kitchen have their own access points. Entry can also be gained through the MBTA station.

Office Seasonal Demo Kitchen MBTA Garage Program Diagram

39


Site Analysis P recedent

Santa Caterina market Architect: EMBT Location: Barcelona / Spain Program: Permanent Public Market - renovated interior, new roof

Completed: 2002

The Santa Caterina market in Barcelona takes cues from its surroundings to create a market that is both iconic and fitting for the place. The scale of the project reflects the role of the market as a place for people. Various techniques, such as large overhangs, skylights, and slatted openings, work to bring diffused light into the market. ***http://www.mirallestagliabue.com/

Main Entry

40

Rear View

Roof Plan


Structure The market is supported by three trusses that pierce the undulating roof. This allows for plenty of space inside and permits the roof to move freely. S tructure P lan

S tructure S ection Sunlight The roof utilizes large overhangs to diffuse harsh Spanish sunlight. Skylights allow light to enter the deep interior of the space. B uilding S ection

41


Site Analysis P recedent

Rotterdam Central market Architect: MVRDV Location: Rotterdam / Netherlands Program: Open Air Public Market - supermarket, housing, underground parking

Expected Completion: 2014

The Rotterdam market is a landmark. Though it stands out from its surroundings, it actually does much to embrace the city’s priorities: access to sunlight, balconies for every apartment, a covered market, and open views. MVRDV played with the form to acheieve maximum benefits. ***http://www.mvrdv.nl/#/projects

interior view

42

front view

building in cotext


Sunlight The shape of the building works in several ways: it brings sunlight to the residential units yet limits its access to the market stalls. This keeps the market lit without making it too warm.

Scale The building accounts for multiple scales: both the urban fabric and the pedestrian. This makes it both a landmark and a comfortable plce to visit.

43


Interviews

di ionescu - market manager | motor avenue farmer’s market | Los Angeles F ull interview : 5/4/13 1. First and foremost, can you tell me about the Motor Ave. Market, what you do there, why you decided to start a market, etc. - I started out as an intern with the Motor Avenue Improvement Association. The idea of a farmers’ market had been kicking around for a while and I found it an interesting project so I took it on. Many people and business owners in the community felt that they could use a community event like a farmers’ market that would provide a space for neighbors to interact and local businesses to market their products and services to the community, as well as the larger goal of providing fresh fruits and vegetables to the community and creating a farm-to-table connection with local farmers. I serve as manager and deal with vendor recruitment and relations, booking live bands, renewing our permits, dealing with inspections, etc. 2. What are the agencies that you’ve had to deal with in order to make it a reality? How long did the process take? - City: Bureau of Street Services(for closing down the street), Fire Department County: health department(for temporary event permit and food vending permit), agricultural commissioner(for Certified Farmers’ Market certification), Council office (helped with seed funding). It took almost two years start to finish to get sponsorship and funding, permits, recruit vendors, and purchase supplies and figure out storage and logistics to start the market. 3. Who are your farmers? How do/did you find them? - Our farmers come from several agricultural areas surrounding Los Angeles including Ventura, San Bernadino, and Riverside counties. 4. Is the market seasonal? Could it be year round? - Year round, rain or shine. 5. My thesis is a study of movement: how fast do you see people moving through the market? What causes them to slow down? - People spend more time when there is live music (we try to have that every week), events going on (sometimes we have school groups perform, etc). 6. Who are your most usual customers, and what time/what day are they usually there? - They vary from families with young kids (we have pony rides and a petting zoo) to college students to older folks. The middle of the market day (11-1 or so) seems to usually be busiest.

44


I ssu e s / M i ss i o n & G o a l s

Issues Demographic: The Financial District belongs to downtown Boston - a culturally rich area privy to pedestrians. These include office workers, tourists, students, and some residents. Though the area is frequently vistited, it is not a place of pause. The issues identified are related to need for amenities needed by a motile population - such as places to sit, eat, and rest. Due to the high income of people who populate the area, crime rates are fairly high in terms of robbery, assault, and rape. Therefore, the building must address ways in which to ensure the safety of its occupants at all times. Social: Demographic information shows that there is a high concentration of financially stable people who frequent this area. However, there is also an overlooked population of struggling homeless. This creates a significant disparity between the expected and the seen in the Financial District. The building should address the underserved population through program and design. Political: The Greenway belongs to multiple agencies that all have a say in what goes on. The City of Boston, the Rose F. Kennedy Greenway Conservancy, the Boston Redevelopment Authority, etc. All of

these agencies want to make the Greeneway the best place it can be, but all want to achieve it according to their own vision. Therefore, convincing all the politi cal powers that this is the best solution for Dewey Square will pose a certain challenege. ***http://homes.point2.com/Neighborhood/US/Massachusetts/ Suffolk-County/Boston/Financial-District-Demographics. aspx

mission and goals The mission of the public market and transit access is to provide a much needed, but missing, amenity to the people of downtown Boston. The building will do two things besides providing food and access: it will integrate into the Greenway and revitalize the adjacent park at Dewey Square, and it will become a new landmark allowing for clearer wayfinding to various modes of transit currently kept out of sight. Through the achievement of these goals, the building will help slow pedestrian walking speed in the Financial district by creating areas and reasons to pause. By clarifying the route to one’s destination, occupants will experience less confusion, anxiety, and stress about missed connections.

45


M a ss i n g S tu d i e s

35’

35’

view north-east

view south

35’

view west

35’

view south-east

Conclusion

46

The code restrictions limit the height of the building to 35’, which is in sharp contrast to surrounding buildings. The scale of the building will, in general, be rather small as compared to the rest of the Financial District.


P r o g r a m / C o st E st i m a t e

Public Market Square Footage

Public Market & transit Cost Analysis

Vegetable & Fruit | 2170 sf 10% Meat | 1085 sf 5% Refrigeration | 325 sf 1.5% Dairy | 1085 sf 5% Seafood | 2170 sf 10% Refrigeration | 325 sf 1.5% Sweets | 868 sf 4% Baked Goods | 2170 sf 10% Non-Alcoholic Drinks | 1085 sf 5% Alcoholic Drinks | 1085 sf 5% Horticulture | 434 sf 2% Seasonal | 651 sf 3% Restaurant/Cafe | 1085 sf 5% Kitchen | 434 sf 2% Office | 1085 sf 5% Circulation | 5642 sf 26% total 21700 sf 100%

Building Costs: 21700 gsf @ $250/gsf $5,425,000 11000 gsf @ $350/gsf $3,850,000 Fixed Equipment: .08(9275000) $742,000 Site Development: .15(9275000) $1,391,250 Total Construction: $11,408,250

transit access Square Footage Red Line Lobby | 2750 sf 25% Silver Line Lobby | 1100 sf 10% Retail | 2200 sf 20% Circulation | 4950 sf 45% total 11000 sf 100%

total overall square footage

|

***See appendix for square footage reference

32700 sf

Site Acquisition: $5,599,300 Building Demolition: $0.00 Moveable Equipment: .08(9275000) $742,000 Professional Fees: .06(11408250) $684,495 Contingencies: .10(11408250) $1,140,825 Administrative Costs: .01(11408250) $114,082.50

total budget required

$19,688,952.50

***According to the BPMA Financial Proposal, in 2012 a Public Market in Boston would cost about $250/gsf. This includes costs associated with signange, way finding, tenant imrpovement allowances, and preconstruction services.

47


The Pace

of

Space

H ow S peed S hapes U rban A rchitecture

48


Table

of

book one |

Thesis Proposal

1

book two|

program

27

C o n t e n ts

B ook 3 | A ppendix

Appendix 49 Z oning map C odes - A rticle 49 G reenway P lanning G uidelines BPMA P rogram BPMA F inancial P rojections F inancial D istrict D emographics I nterviews

50 52 58 60 61 62 63

49


A pp e n d i x Z oning M ap

50


A pp e n d i x

S pecial D istrict M ap

51


A pp e n d i x C odes

;ARTICLE 49 CENTRAL ARTERY SPECIAL DISTRICT (;Article inserted on June 7, 1991*) TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Section 49-1 49-2 49-3 49-4

Statement of Purpose, Goals, and Objectives...........................3 Recognition of the Central Artery Special District Plan ...................................................................................3 Physical Boundaries..................................................................3 Applicability ...............................................................................4

49-5

Relationship to Other Districts...................................................5

49-11

49-6

Use and Dimensional Regulations Applicable in the Central Artery Special District......................................5

Regulations Applicable to the Government Center/ Central Artery Area..........................................................25

49-12

The Application of Design Guidelines Within the Central Artery Special District......................................6

Regulations Applicable to the Financial District/ Central Artery Area..........................................................33

49-13

Regulations Applicable to the South Station/ Central Artery Area..........................................................41

49-14 49-15 49-16 49-17

Regulations .............................................................................43 Severability..............................................................................43 Definitions ...............................................................................43 Appendix .................................................................................43

49-7 49-8

Design Guidelines Applicable Generally in the Central Artery Special District............................................7 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Interim Restoration Design Guidelines Applicable Generally in the Central Artery Special District Consistency With the Central Artery Special District Plan Design Particularity and Continuity Quality Standards for Parks, Open Space, Sidewalks, and Streets Establishing the Boulevards District Open Space Form Design Guidelines for Cross Streets Design Guidelines for New Infill Buildings and Boulevard Public Buildings Sidewalk Dimensions for the Boulevards and Cross Streets

Regulations Applicable to the Bulfinch Triangle/ Central Artery Area..........................................................11

49-10

Regulations Applicable to the North End/Central Artery Area ......................................................................16

(Editor's Note: This table of contents is added for the convenience of the user. It has not been adopted as part of this Article.)

**As amended through October 24, 2002.

ARTICLE 49 – CENTRAL ARTERY SPECIAL DISTRICT

49-9

Appendix A - Definitions

*Date of public notice: May 9, 1991 (see St. 1956, c. 665, s. 5).

52

Page

1


A pp e n d i x

C odes

governed by the zoning regulations in effect for such parcel as of January 1, 1991.

;SECTION 49-8. Design Guidelines Applicable Generally in the Central Artery Special District. In order to ensure that the restoration of the surface parcels, Boulevards, and Cross Streets of the Central Artery Special District are of a high-quality design that benefits the City of Boston, the following design guidelines are applicable generally to all Proposed Projects in the Central Artery Special District.

(;As amended on March 19, 1992.) ;SECTION 49-5. Relationship to Other Districts. Parcels within the Central Artery Special District shall also be deemed part of adjacent zoning districts for all purposes under this Code, as follows:

1.

1.

Bulfinch Triangle District (Article 46): Parcels 1, 1A, 2, 2A, 3.

2.

North End Neighborhood District (Article 54): Parcels 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 11A, 12.

3.

Government Center/Markets District (Article 45): Parcels 7W, 7E, 9, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17N, 17S.

4.

Financial District (prospective): Parcels 18N, 18S, 19, 21, 22N, and 225.

5.

South Station Economic Development Area (Article 40): Parcel 23N.

6.

Fort Point Channel District (prospective): Parcel 20. On Parcel 20: (a) the provisions of Article 27D, Downtown Interim Planning Overlay District shall not apply to any Proposed Project, notwithstanding any contrary provision of said Article 27D; and (b) any Proposed Project for which a license is required pursuant to M.G.L. Chapter 91 and its implementing regulations shall be subject to the Tidelands Regulations of the Harborpark District - North End/Downtown Waterfront, as set forth in Section 42A-5, other than the provisions of subsection 7 of said Section 42A-5 (Provision for Cultural Uses in the Downtown Waterfront Subdistrict).

Parcels identified by the MDPW as numbers 23 (southern portion), 24, 25, 26, 26A are within the Chinatown District, subject to the provisions of Article 43. These parcels are included in the Chinatown Gateway Special Study Area and two Recreation Open Space (OS-RC) Subdistricts.

1.

Within the Central Artery Special District, uses are allowed, conditional, or forbidden on each parcel as set forth in Sections 49-9 through 49-13. No land or Structure in said parcels shall be erected,

ARTICLE 49 – CENTRAL ARTERY SPECIAL DISTRICT

5

a.

To the extent practicable, such parcels should be landscaped and maintained to permit safe, convenient public access.

b.

Use of such parcels for parking, for storage of equipment or materials (other than for the Central Artery Project), or for highintensity uses such as pushcart vending is strongly discouraged.

c.

During any such interim period, parcels should be graded in conformity with adjacent grades and should be engineered and landscaped so as to prevent the accumulation of water, avoid damage to neighboring foundations of buildings and/or the tunnel structure and its appurtenant structures, and protect public safety and welfare.

2.

Consistency With the Central Artery Special District Plan. Any Proposed Project within the Central Artery Special District shall be reviewed, pursuant to Large Project Review or Small Project Review, for consistency with the conceptual design and programming objectives and specific recommendations set forth in the Central Artery Special District Plan, and for consistency with the overall objectives set forth in the Plan for the provision of public open space within the District.

3.

Design Particularity and Continuity. The primary design organization for the overall District should recognize that each of the five adjacent districts (Bulfinch Triangle District, North End Neighborhood District, Government Center/Markets District, Financial District, and South

(;As amended on May 17, 1993 and January 26, 1996.) SECTION 49-6. Use and Dimensional Regulations Applicable in the Central Artery Special District.

Interim Restoration Design Guidelines Applicable Generally in the Central Artery Special District. In order to protect the safety and health of the public, enhance the visual character of the District and adjacent uses, and protect the physical integrity of adjacent parcels and uses during the reconstruction period of the surface Boulevards, Cross Streets, and reuse parcels, the following guidelines are applicable after the completion of work in connection with the Central Artery depressed roadway construction project in a given parcel and prior to the commencement of work on the permanent surface use of said parcel.

ARTICLE 49 – CENTRAL ARTERY SPECIAL DISTRICT

7

53


A pp e n d i x C odes

Station Economic Development Area) of the Central Artery Special District has a distinct character that should be reflected in parcel design and Cross Street design. At the same time, it should recognize that the districts are connected by the north/south Boulevards and sidewalks which define the edges of the overall Central Artery project and that the design should provide for continuity among the districts and transitions from one district to the next. 4.

Quality Standards for Parks, Open Space, Sidewalks, and Streets. The quality of design and construction for open areas within the Central Artery Special District, including landscaping, paving materials, street furniture, light standards, amusements, and decorative elements, should be consistent with that of the major public and private downtown open spaces of Boston including Christopher Columbus Park, Post Office Square, Copley Square, the public spaces of Faneuil Hall/Quincy Markets and Rowe's Wharf, and the streetscapes of successful pedestrian streets such as Washington Street at Downtown Crossing and Charles Street.

5.

Establishing the Boulevards. The design and construction of each Proposed Project should develop and reinforce the character of the northbound and southbound surface Boulevards as tree-lined streets connecting the parcels and subdistricts of the Central Artery and providing a sense of continuity for the District as a whole. These Boulevards will provide new, stronger links to existing and proposed downtown developments. In addition, the Boulevards will reconnect the downtown neighborhoods of Chinatown and the Old West End to the Waterfront and will also create new north/south pedestrian connections between those neighborhoods which do not exist presently. Trees, evenly spaced approximately twenty-five (25) feet oncenter in either single or double rows, sidewalk paving, street furniture, and lighting along the Boulevards should provide the primary organizational design elements for the Boulevards and should be reinforced through the infilling and rehabilitation of buildings along the corridor. Trees should be selected from a variety of tree forms and types suitable for streetscape plantings. Trees should be at least four-inch (4") caliper upon initial planting. Wherever technically feasible, Boulevards and their Cross Streets between Causeway Street and Kneeland Street should be planted on both sides with at least a single row of street trees along each of the sidewalks, unless otherwise specified in the Central Artery Special District Plan or in design review. Each sidewalk and its street crossing of the Boulevards or Cross Streets should be delineated by special paving

54 ARTICLE 49 – CENTRAL ARTERY SPECIAL DISTRICT

8

materials such as granite or brick pavers, and the crossing should continue the width of the sidewalk which it is extending or connecting. 6.

District Open Space Form. Parcels 13 through 17S and Parcels 18N through 22S form two long north/south axes that should be designed to enhance the linear organization down the center of the parcels. The central axis may be a view corridor, a pedestrian or activity area, architectural elements or circulation path within a building, or an overall design concept which visually connects the parcels of the gateway plaza at Dewey Square to Rowe's Wharf/High Street and visually connects Rowe's Wharf/High Street to Christopher Columbus Park/Faneuil Hall. For the neighborhood Parcels 8 and 10 in the North End and Parcel 23S at South Station, an equal effort should be developed to reinforce the diagonal crossing of the parcel as well as the Cross Streets of Hanover Street, North Street, Sudbury Street, Atlantic Avenue, and Beach Street. The internal paths within the North End and South Station parcels may be more flexible than in the Downtown Waterfront and Financial District parks and should, in fact, reinforce the diagonal pedestrian cross-parcel movement.

7.

Design Guidelines for Cross Streets. As an integral element of the overall Central Artery Plan, the Cross Streets will serve to reconnect Boston's historic streets to Boston Harbor. The Plan provides for the reconnection of seven historic streets across the Central Artery toward the waterfront. These streets include Traverse Street, Hanover Street, North Street, Atlantic Avenue, Broad Street, Oliver Street and Pearl Street. All these streets except North Street extend the downtown pedestrian and vehicular network across the Artery. North Street provides for only a direct pedestrian connection. Wherever technically feasible, the layout and design of the intersections between the Boulevards and the Cross Streets should be typical right-angle intersections with a pedestrian phase signal and cross walks for each of the four directions except where exit or entry ramps prohibit such a pedestrian crossing. The entire section of Hanover Street, State Street, High Street, and each of the Cross Streets within the waterfront area between State Street and High Street should also be paved with special feature pavement in order to reduce the visual separation between the parcels. The raising of the street grades for Milk Street and India Row should be considered in order to further enhance the connection between the waterfront parcels.

8.

Design Guidelines for New Infill Buildings and Boulevard Public Buildings. Any new buildings on Parcels 1, 1A, 2, 2A, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 11A and rooftop additions on Parcel 20, as well as facade renovations, should be designed so that the exterior proportions,

ARTICLE 49 – CENTRAL ARTERY SPECIAL DISTRICT

9


A pp e n d i x

C odes

scale, massing, window treatment, materials, colors, and architectural detailing are compatible with the observable architectural character of the existing structures in the adjacent neighborhood. Any new public buildings on Parcels 6, 12, 17N, 19, and 21 should be designed so that their exterior proportions, scale, massing, window, treatment, materials, colors, and detailing establish a unique building design vocabulary that sets these public buildings apart from their surrounding district buildings. These buildings should establish a visual presence along the corridor both day and night through the use and incorporation of lights and transparent glazing. 9.

Sidewalk Dimensions for the Boulevards and Cross Streets. Except as otherwise expressly provided in design guidelines for individual parcels, sidewalk width for the Boulevards, the parcels which parallel the Boulevards, the Cross Streets, and the pedestrian crossings shall follow generally the dimensional requirements outlined below. a.

The width of the outer Boulevard sidewalks (east side of the northbound Boulevard, west side of the southbound Boulevard) may vary from parcel to parcel because of the existing buildings which face the corridor. However, the minimum dimension generally should not be less than twelve (12) feet unless restricted by existing buildings, and the maximum dimension should not exceed twenty-five (25) feet except as follows: (i)

along the northbound Boulevard between Hanover Street and Endicott Street, width should not exceed thirty-five (35) feet.

(ii)

The sidewalk width should be at least twenty-five (25) feet in front of Marketplace Center, the Long Wharf Marriott Hotel, Rowe's and Foster's Wharfs, and the Federal Reserve Bank building.

(iii)

b.

A plaza space of approximately forty-five (45) feet in sidewalk width should be developed in front of the Government Center Garage for the entire length of that block.

The width of the inner Boulevard sidewalks (west side of the northbound Boulevard, east side of the southbound Boulevard) should not be less than seven and one-half (7-1/2) feet nor more than twelve (12) feet, except as follows: (i)

c.

The sidewalks along the Cross Streets should not exceed fifteen (15) feet in width along the entire Central Artery corridor except as follows: (i)

d.

On State Street and the southern sidewalk of Pearl Street, the sidewalk width should not exceed thirty (30) feet.

The width of pedestrian-only crossings which extend adjacent streets or pedestrian pathways across the Central Artery corridor should not exceed thirty (30) feet. These crossings include the following: (i)

Salem Street extension

(ii)

North Street extension, as the southerly portion of Parcel 10

(iii)

Walk-to-the-Sea extension

(iv)

Broad Street extension

(v)

Dewey Square, as the extension of Federal Street

;SECTION 49-9. Regulations Applicable to the Bulfinch Triangle/Central Artery Area. The purpose of zoning regulations applicable within the Bulfinch Triangle/Central Artery Area is to encourage appropriate residential and commercial development and to restore the traditional urban plan and scale of the Bulfinch Triangle/Central Artery Area. The significant housing development, ground floor retail, and service uses planned for this area will promote a vital residential and mixed-use neighborhood. The design of any development in the Bulfinch Triangle/Central Artery Area should respond to the residential and service needs of the adjacent community. In addition, the design should consider the historic resources of the adjacent Bulfinch Triangle Area which merit protection and public interpretation. These resources are characterized by the historic brick and masonry structures of four to nine stories with cast iron storefronts; the Causeway/Canal Street area, which traditionally has been a transportation corridor with varying modes including water, train, trolley, and subway; and the historic street grid of the Bulfinch Triangle and pedestrian crossing connections at Traverse Street.

On Parcels 19, 21, 22N, and 22S the sidewalk width should not exceed twenty (20) feet.

ARTICLE 49 – CENTRAL ARTERY SPECIAL DISTRICT

55 10

ARTICLE 49 – CENTRAL ARTERY SPECIAL DISTRICT

11


20, the maximum allowed FAR shall be five (5) and the maximum allowed building height shall be two hundred thirtyfive (235) feet for any Proposed Project built in conjunction with, or following, the construction of the vent tower. Additional pp e n d i xdimensional requirements, including but not limited to yards, building setbacks and open space, shall be determined for any C odes Proposed Project through Large Project Review.

A

District, Downtown Crossing, and Federal Street. The remaining parcel area should be developed as a Thematic Garden and complement both Dewey Square plaza and the Botanical Garden program proposed for Parcels 19 and 21.

5.

(ii)

Parcels 22N and 22S (Dewey Square) a.

Open Space Designation. Parcels 22N and 22S are hereby established an Open Space Subdistricts. Parcel 22N is subject to the provisions of Article 33 applicable to Parkland Open Space (OS-P) Subdistricts. Parcel 22S is subject to the provisions of Article 33 applicable to Urban Plaza Open Space (OS-UP) Subdistricts. In addition, the provisions of this Article ARTICLE 49 – CENTRAL DISTRICT apply. In ARTERY the event SPECIAL of a conflict between Article 33 and this 39 Article, the provisions of this Article shall govern. b.

c.

d.

Use Regulations. Allowed uses on Parcels 22N are those uses allowed in Parkland Open Space Subdistricts pursuant to Section 33-9. Allowed Uses on Parcel 22S are those uses allowed in Urban Plaza Open Space Subdistricts pursuant to Section 33-15. In addition, Cultural Uses, Restaurant Uses, and Local Retail/Service Uses are allowed on Parcels 22N and 22S. Dimensional Regulations. On Parcels 22N and 22S, the maximum allowed footprint area for any building shall be twelve hundred (1,200) square feet. The maximum allowed Lot Coverage is ten percent (10%) for Parcel 22N and fifteen percent (15%) for Parcel 22S. The maximum allowed building height at grade or on a raised landscape terrace shall be thirtyfive (35) feet for Parcels 22N and 22S. Design Guidelines. This paragraph establishes design guidelines applicable to any Proposed Project on Parcel 22N or 22S subject to design review pursuant to Section 49-7. (i)

(ii)

56

Parcel 22 is conceived as two major spaces: Parcel 22S, a paved urban plaza at Dewey Square, and Parcel 22N, a thematic garden. The Dewey Square plaza should be a minimum of fifteen percent (15%) of the total parcel area. It should be both a gateway/performance plaza and a major pedestrian link which would allow for an unobstructed new and direct access for the high volume of pedestrian traffic from South Station to the Financial District, Downtown Crossing, and Federal Street. The remaining parcel area should be developed as a Thematic Garden and complement both Dewey Square plaza and the Botanical Garden program proposed for Parcels 19 and 21. The paved plaza should be large enough to incorporate pedestrian uses such as food vending, newspaper, or flower shops. A major piece of public sculpture should be displayed in order to create an identity and a focal point for Dewey Square and activate the space. The location of the sculpture should respond to the main entry of the South Station headhouse.

The paved plaza should be large enough to incorporate pedestrian uses such as food vending, newspaper, or flower shops. A major piece of public sculpture should be displayed in order to create an identity and a focal point for Dewey Square and activate the space. The location of the sculpture should respond to the main entry of the South Station headhouse.

(iii)

The design for Parcel 22S, which is also known as Dewey Square, should maintain a public character and ARTICLE 49 – CENTRAL ARTERYtoSPECIAL accessibility the park;DISTRICT the use of high walls or mounds40 that obstruct views through the park or parcel from the sidewalks is discouraged. A major view corridor from the South Station headhouse entrance towards Rowe's Wharf and/or the cultural facility proposal for Parcels 19 and/or 21 should be recognized. (iv)

In order to mitigate the existing/remaining tunnel vent stack and reduce the wind impacts upon the thematic garden, large sculptures, kiosks, and/or pavilions in addition to dense tree plantings should be considered as companions to any vent structure in Dewey Square area.

(v)

The Thematic Garden should be designed to provide a pedestrian experience, as well as a visual experience from the adjacent office towers. A variety of architectural and landscaping elements such as pavilions, sculptural elements, trellises, or low walls with viewing windows to define the edges of the parcel should be integral elements in the design.

(vi)

A pedestrian entry point to the Thematic Garden should be located at Dewey Square. The reconstructed vent structure may be incorporated into the design of one or more of the urban design elements which will surround Dewey Square.

(;As amended on January 26 and May 9, 1996.) ;SECTION 49-13. Regulations Applicable to the South Station/Central Artery Area. The purpose of zoning regulations applicable within the South Station/Central Artery Area is to promote open space in the South Station area that provides the opportunity for passive recreational activities for the many transit commuters and visitors that enter Boston through the South Station public transportation node and to improve pedestrian connections between the South Station/Dewey Square area and the Financial District, Leather District and Chinatown. The design of any development in the South Station/Central Artery Area should respond to the open space, residential, and service needs of the adjacent community. In addition, it should consider the historic resources of the adjacent South Station, Dewey Square, and Leather District areas which merit protection and public interpretation. The South Station Headhouse, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, has been a key element of the city core from the


;SECTION 49-13. Regulations Applicable to the South Station/Central Artery Area. The purpose of zoning regulations applicable within the South Station/Central Artery Area is to promote open space in the South Station area that provides the opportunity for passive recreational activities for the many transit commuters and visitors that enter Boston through the South Station public transportation node and to improve pedestrian connections between the South Station/Dewey Square area and the Financial District, Leather District and Chinatown. The design of any development in the South Station/Central Artery Area should respond to the open space, residential, and service needs of the adjacent community. In addition, it should consider the historic resources of the adjacent South Station, Dewey Square, and Leather District areas which merit protection and public interpretation. The South Station Headhouse, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, has been a key element of the city core from the south. A principal historic urban design would be to redefine Dewey Square and reinforce the connections between its historic structures and those in the Leather District. 49 – CENTRAL ARTERY SPECIAL DISTRICT ARTICLE 41

A pp e n d i x

1.

C odes

Parcel 23N a.

Open Space Designation. Parcel 23N is hereby established as an Urban Plaza Open Space (OS-UP) Subdistrict, subject to the provisions of Article 33 applicable to OS-UP Subdistricts in addition to the provisions of this Article. In the event of a conflict between Article 33 and this Article, the provisions of this Article govern.

b.

Use Regulations. Allowed uses on Parcel 23N are uses allowed in an Urban Plaza Open Space Subdistrict, pursuant to Section 33-15.

c.

Dimensional Regulations. No buildings are allowed on Parcel 23N.

d.

Design Guidelines. This paragraph establishes design guidelines applicable to any Proposed Project on Parcel 23N subject to design review pursuant to Section 49-7. (i)

Parcel 23N should be planted with rows of trees and shrubs and/or flowers in a pattern that provides for pedestrian access across the parcel to and from South Station and linearly along the inside edge of the parcel.

(ii)

Paving should define pedestrian desire lines, and benches and lighting should be provided to accommodate pedestrians.

(iii)

Special attention should be paid to the design of the Essex Street intersection, and pedestrian islands should be designed to reinforce and extend the pedestrian link between Chinatown and Dewey Square.

(;As amended on May 9, 1996.)

57


A pp e n d i x

Greenway District Planning Study Use and Development Guidelines

G reenway P lanning G uidelines

Greenway District Planning Study Use and

Square Dewey Square

Overview

Goals

Goals

Potential Development Sites Potential Development Sites

04. Guidelines by Subdistrict / Dewey Square

e densest built surroundings > Fill in underutilized building edges at the periphery of The Hardware/NSTAR site presents a unique opportunity pedestrians ofDewey all theSquare has both the the densest Square built surroundings to solidify the built of the of Financial The District side of > Fill in underutilized building edges at theedge periphery Hardware/NSTAR site presents a unique opportunity nway. In this and regard, the Greenway. Further, development onto this site could the Dewey highest volume of pedestrians of all the the Square solidify the built edge of the Financial District side of e mature stage of its urban > LeverageInthe pedestrian counts in future provide an appropriate transition from the subdistricts along the Greenway. thisexisting regard,high Dewey theFinancial Greenway. Further, development on this site could eas where theSquare “scars”isof the public realmstage improvements buildings along Street to the open spaces of perhaps at a more mature of its urban > Leverage the existingDistrict high pedestrian countsHigh in future provide an appropriate transition from the Financial parent. With the exception than those areas where the “scars” of the Dewey Square. The building should be massed in a way along High Street to the open spaces of development public realm improvements District buildings e, there are relatively few > Locate any new construction at the northwest portion that relates to the highly articulated buildings along High Central Artery are more apparent. With the exception Dewey Square. The building should be massed in a way new buildingsofmight be located of the subdistrict wherefew the context is >already Street, and negotiates the portion scale change that between 73toHigh the Hardware/NSTAR site, there are relatively Locatedense, any new construction at the northwest relates the highly articulated buildings along High ewey Squarelocations should therefore opportunities to improve Purchase Street are where Street 45 High Street.dense, where significant new buildings might bethe located of theedge subdistrict theand context is already Street, and negotiates the scale change between 73 High and the potential for new negativeopportunities environmental ment and more on small-scale in this area. The goals forgreat, Dewey Square should therefore to improve the Purchase Street edge are Street and 45 High Street. impacts and is small he public realm andless reinforce great, and the potential for new negative environmental focus on large development more on small-scale 16 ewey Square as a place and a improve the public realm and reinforce impacts is small interventions that edge of One the Financial Center, > Enable Summer Streetand Crossroad to serve as a physical definition of Dewey the Square as a place a nderutilized because of the connection fromFinancial the Downtown Greenway destination. The northwest edge of One Center,and the > Enable the to Summer Street Crossroad to serve as a ramps located Strategic Fort Point because Channel,ofthe waterfront,from the Downtown and the Greenway to for there. example, is presently the underutilized theSouth Boston connection r locations could andramps the Boston Convention and Exposition ventreclaim structure and highway located there. Strategic the Center. Fort Point Channel, the South Boston waterfront, ersify and strengthen additionsthe at this and similar locations could reclaim and the Boston Convention and Exposition Center. he Square. The area already underutilized areas and diversify and strengthen the nce of pedestrians, few around the Square. The area already groundand floora uses entions should give has an additional established abundance of pedestrians, and a few son to pause.select programmatic interventions should give additional pass-through visitors a reason to pause. Subdistrict Legend Subdistrict Area Boundary Key Height Alignment Height Datum Specific Dimension Area of Proposed Programmatic Activation Important Pedestrian Node Significant Connections Pedestrian Connections Significant Building Entries

58

Potential Development Sites

Subdistrict Le


A pp e n d i x

G reenway P lanning G uidelines

N

Boston Redevelopment Authority

Dimensional Criteria 1 The total height at the Hardware/NSTAR site should match the heights of 150 and 160 Federal Street, or approximately 350’.

2 Development on the Hardware/NSTAR site should be articulated in such way as to establish

connections to other significant datum lines in adjacent buildings. 3 Lower-level development on the Hardware/NSTAR site should reinforce the Purchase Street street edge by aligning streetfront building edges with existing adjacent buildings and matching existing building heights in the area.

Programmatic Goals 1 Inactive building edges fronting Dewey Square should be filled in with uses that diversify the ac-

tivity mix of the Square. In particular, these include the northwest edge of One Financial Center and the base of 175 Federal Street. 2 Given its centrality to the life of Dewey Square, the impact of future uses on Parcel 22 should be considered in all development proposals around the subdistrict. Establishing physical links and complementary uses at the ground level to the park parcel are desired.

Connectivity 1 As the longest Crossroad, Summer Street both anchors and is anchored by the concentration of

activity in Dewey Square. Planning efforts to date have attempted to balance the legibility of the street against the multi-directional qualities of the Square. Future interventions along this spine should enhance this balance. 2 The connection between South Station and the Federal Street “gateway” to Dewey Square is the most heavily travelled pedestrian corridor in the City. Development near this entry point should improve the physical conditions of the public realm at this important location. 3 Dewey Square is the only portion of the Greenway with a number of significant and active building entries facing the park. Future development should not only face the park, but also extend the internal porosity of the public realm already present in these buildings.

59


A pp e n d i x BPMA P rogram

TABLE III: SEASONAL INTERIOR VENDORS

TABLE II: YEAR ROUND INTERIOR VENDORS PRODUCT

YEAR ROUND PROVIDER

GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCE A

EST. # OF VENDORS

EST. SF

AREA ON LAYOUT

SEASONAL PROVIDER

GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCE

EST. # OF VENDORS

EST. SF

vegetables/ herbs

farmers farmer coop

boston metro central

1 1

100 sf 100 sf

plaza/hanover

orchard fruit

farmer farmer coop

central berkshires

1 1

100 sf 100 sf

plaza/hanover

farmers

pioneer valley

1 1

100 sf

plaza/hanover

horticulturalist

boston metro

1

100 sf

plaza/hanover

6

600sf

PRODUCT

vegetables/ herbs

farmer farmer farmer coop

se/cape-islands central berkshires pioneer valley

1 1 1 1

430 sf 345 sf 285 sf 250 sf

12 24 7 30

orchard fruit

farmer farmer coop

central berkshires

1 1

280 sf 275 sf

23 8

soft fruit

meat

farmer farmer

central berkshires

1 1

230 sf 245 sf

22 25

horticulture

farmer coop

central pioneer valley

1 1

280 sf 250 sf

26 29

total

dairy

private indiv., coop

boston metro berkshires

1 1

250 sf 745 sf

32 13

fish

fisherman coop

se/cape-islands

1 1

390 sf 215 sf

27 17

private indivs.

se/cape-islands

2

770 sf 515 sf

37 28

coop ma maple

statewide

coop

statewide

private indiv.

boston metro

1 1 1

290 sf 110 sf 290 sf

15 6 20

vegetables/ herbs

private indivs.

boston metro

2

365 sf 285 sf

10 19

orchard fruit

poultry

shellfish maple syrup honey chocolate bread pasta baked goods

specialty items preserves

1

638 sf

2

boston metro

2

1340 sf 250 sf

1 31

soft fruit

290 sf 290 sf 250 sf

36 33 16

bakery

1 1

295 sf 365 sf

35 9

bread

1 1 1

500 sf 165 sfw 445 sf

5 21 18

specialty food orchard fruit horticulture

boston metro

3

boston metro

private indiv.

boston metro

coffee roasters tea blenders softdrinks

private company

northeast

private company

northeast

private company

boston metro

private

se/cape-islands central

2

360 sf

11 34

private indiv.

boston metro

1 1 1

345 sf 310 sf 315 sf

4 3 14

total

60

private indiv.

boston metro

distributor

boston metro

37

13,188sfB

TEMPORARY PROVIDER

EST. # OF VENDORS

EST. SFC

AREA ON LAYOUT

4 3 3

mix

3 on congress 7 on plaza

pioneer valley berkshires central

3 3 3

mix

3 on congress 6 on plaza

northeast se/cape-islands berkshires

3 3 2

mix

2 on congress 6 on plaza

private indiv.

central boston metro

2 2

mix

private indiv.

boston metro northeast

4 2

mix

private farmer indiv. farmer coop

se /cape-islands central metro boston berkshires

31 31

280 sf mix 275 sf

private indiv.

se/cape-islands central

1 2

mix

farmers

total

GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCE berkshires pioneer valley northeast

farmers

farmers

boston metro

coop

beer spirits horticulture

PRODUCT

private indivs.

roasted nuts

wine

TABLE IV: TEMPORARY EXTERIOR DAY STALLS/TABLES

private indiv.

private indivs.

AREA ON LAYOUT

46

2 on congress 3 on plaza 2 on congress 4 on plaza 23 3 on congress 3 on 8plaza 3 on plaza

3,700sf

A Berkshires (farthest western reaches), Pioneer Valley (Hampden, Hampshire & Franklin counties) Central (Worcester County), Northeast (Essex and Middlesex Counties), Boston Metro (Towns within 25 miles of Boston Proper), Southeast, Cape Cod & Islands Region includes part of Norfolk, all of Bristol, Plymouth, Barnstable, Dukes and Nantucket B Includes the Flex space on Figure 6 in the RFP (Now #36) and the addition of Areas 15, 16 & 17. Excludes Area 8 & 12 (1,363 SF) in the RFP. Indicates increased footage for change of Bakery location. See page 8 for explanation on alternate use of Area 8 & 12 and page 11 for proposed design. C The vendor Stalls are 10 x 10 ft and Tables are 5 x 10 ft

PARCEL 7 BOSTON, MA — COMPONENT I | BOSTON PUBLIC MARKET ASSOCIATION

9


Surveys & Site Conditions Verification

$30,000

0.2%

Traffic Engineer

$25,000

0.2%

Parking/BTD work & PIC for signage etc.

Civil Engineering

$45,000

0.3%

Utility Coordination

$5,000

0.0%

Food Service Consultant

$50,000

0.3%

Lighting Consultant

$30,000

0.2%

Health/Code Consultant

$50,000

0.3%

$25,000

0.2%

$10,000

0.1%

CONCEPTUAL PROJECT BUDGET If needed for MHC/Section 106 Review

Testing/Commissioning

$75,000

0.5%

Owner's test materials & LEED Commissioning

Security/Tel/Data

$30,000

0.2%

$0

0.0%

$30,000

0.2%

Geotech / Site Environmental Engineering

Confirmatory only - no design work

A pp e n d i x

5. FINANCIAL PROPOSAL

1, 2012 Permitting Studies/Modeling BOSTON PUBLIC MARKETMarch

March 1, 2012

CONCEPTUAL PROJECT BUDGET Historic Consultant

A. FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS

I. BUDGET

GROSS AREA OF FACILITY

Other BPMA Consultants LEED DEVELOPMENT FEES GROSS AREA OF FACILITY Project Management/BPMA Owner's Rep

28,000 GSF

ACQUISITION COSTS

% OF TOTAL

NOTES

$0

0.0%

Acquisition/RFP Legal

$20,000

0.1%

Acquisition engineering/environmental/DD SUBTOTAL ACQUISITION COSTS

$40,000 $60,000

0.3% 0.4%

TOTAL HARD COST

$7,000,000

46.7%

Tenant Improvement Allowances

$1,110,000

7.4%

$30,000 per permanent stall @ 37 perm stalls

$350,000

2.3%

Marquee & banners for Market District

$50,000

0.3%

Cost estimating, etc.

$945,556

6.3% 63.0%

Site Acquisition Cost

Preconstruction Services Hard Cost Contingency (10%) SUBTOTAL HARD COSTS

$9,455,556

@ $250/GSF

10% of total hard costs

Enforcement Protocol Legal HARD COSTS Financing LegalCOST TOTAL HARD Title / Recording Tenant Improvement Allowances Public ExteriorRelations/Marketing Signage & Wayfinding Marketing & Advertising Preconstruction Services Capital Campaign Costs(10%) Hard Cost Contingency

0.2%

RFP Consultants' fees + Reimbursables

DESIGN/PERMITTING/CONSULTANTS

Construction Lender engineering fees Preparation Costs Construction Lender legal fees Title / Recording DESIGN/PERMITTING/CONSULTANTS Lender's Appraisal Architecture Basic Services

Architecture Basic Services

$600,000

4.0%

Basic Arch Svcs

Structural/MEPFP Engineering

$250,000

1.7%

All Structural/MEPFP consultants

A/E Permitting Services

$50,000

0.3%

Presentation materials etc etc

A/E Reimbursables

$68,000

0.5%

Landscape Architecture

$15,000

0.1%

Minor plaza improvements, street furniture, etc.

Urban Design/Planning

$20,000

0.1%

Market District coordination

Surveys & Site Conditions Verification

$30,000

0.2%

Traffic Engineer

$25,000

0.2%

Parking/BTD work & PIC for signage etc.

Civil Engineering

$45,000

0.3%

Utility Coordination

$5,000

0.0%

Confirmatory only - no design work

Food Service Consultant

$50,000

0.3%

Food Service Consultant Startup Expenses

Lighting Consultant

$30,000

0.2%

Health/Code Consultant

$50,000

0.3%

Permitting Studies/Modeling

$25,000

0.2%

Historic Consultant

$10,000

0.1%

If needed for MHC/Section 106 Review

Historic Consultant

Testing/Commissioning

$75,000

0.5%

Owner's test materials & LEED Commissioning

Testing/Commissioning

Security/Tel/Data

$30,000

0.2%

$0

0.0%

$30,000

0.2%

Geotech / Site Environmental Engineering

Other BPMA Consultants LEED

8% of basic services fees

20 mths @ 10,000/mth

Structural/MEPFP Engineering FINANCING CARRY A/E Permitting Services Construction Debt Carry

A/E Reimbursables Mezzanine Debt Carry Landscape Architecture LEASING FEES Urban Design/Planning Retail Leasing Surveys & Site Conditions Verification

0.1% 0.2%

0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.2% 0.1%

$0 $7,000,000

0.0% 46.7%

$10,000 $1,110,000

0.1% 7.4%

$200,000 $350,000 $450,000 $50,000

1.3% 2.3%

$525,000 $945,556

3.5% 6.3% 63.0%

$9,455,556

Construction/Perm/Mezz Loan Arrangement SOFT COSTS Construction Origination/Commitment PUBLIC RFPLoan PROCESS $25,000

$20,000 $25,000 $40,000 $50,000 $60,000 $25,000 $15,000

SUBTOTAL FINANCING HARD FEES COSTS

PUBLIC RFP PROCESS

BOSTON PUBLIC MARKET

$480,000 % OF 3.2% TOTAL 24 mths @ $20,000/mthNOTES $0 0.0%

Acquisition Contracts &engineering/environmental/DD Leases Legal SUBTOTAL ACQUISITION COSTS Real Estate Legal

SOFT COSTS Preparation Costs

BPMA Staff Overhead ACQUISITION COSTS Site Acquisition Cost LEGAL/PUBLIC RELATIONS Acquisition/RFP Permitting Legal Legal

HARD COSTS

Exterior Signage & Wayfinding

28,000 GSF $200,000 1.3%

BPMA F inancial P rojections

3.0% 0.3%

$0

0.0%

$0

0.0%

$0 $25,000 $0

0.0% 0.2%

Depends on debt structure, if any @ $250/GSF $30,000 per permanent stall @ 37 perm stalls Pre-opening campaign Marquee & banners for Market District Initialestimating, collateral materials & public awareness Cost etc. 5% capital campaign 10%ofof$11M total hard costs

RFP Consultants' Assumes no Debt fees + Reimbursables

0.0%

$0

0.0%

$0 $600,000

0.0% 4.0%

Basic Arch Svcs

$250,000

1.7%

All Structural/MEPFP consultants

$50,000 $0 $68,000 $0

0.3% 0.0% 0.5% 0.0%

Presentation materials etc etc Assumes no Debt 8% of basic services fees

$15,000

0.1%

Minor plaza improvements, street furniture, etc.

$20,000 $0 $30,000

0.1% 0.0% 0.2%

Market District coordination No brokerage protection

OTHEREngineer SOFT COSTS Traffic

$25,000

0.2%

Parking/BTD work & PIC for signage etc.

Civil Engineering Property Taxes After Conveyance

$45,000 $0

0.3% 0.0%

Utility Coordination Exempt

Geotech / Site Environmental Expenses Engineering Logistics/Transportation/Misc

$5,000 $25,000

0.0% 0.2%

Confirmatory - no design work Development only period BPMA expenses

$50,000 $500,000

0.3%

Allowance for staff, equipment, vehicles, etc.

Lighting Consultant Operating & CapEx Reserve

$30,000 $1,000,000

0.2% 6.7%

2 yrs operating reserves

Health/Code Consultant(10%) Soft Cost Contingency SUBTOTAL SOFT COSTS Permitting Studies/Modeling

$50,000 $548,667 $5,486,667 $25,000

0.3% 3.7%

10% of total soft costs

$10,000 $15,002,222

TOTAL DIRECT COSTS

$75,000

36.6% 0.2% 0.1% 100.0% 0.5%

If needed for MHC/Section 106 Review Owner's test materials & LEED Commissioning

Security/Tel/Data $30,000 0.2% $15 million encompasses work that is to be The projected total development budget of approximately Other BPMA Consultants $0 0.0% funded by three distinct sources: (i) private fundraising by the Parcel 7 designee, (ii) the 2008 Agricultural Bond creation of 0.2% a Boston Public Market, and (iii) MassDOT funding LEED Bill’s appropriation of $4 million for the $30,000 for base buildingFEES and utility upgrades. DEVELOPMENT

DEVELOPMENT FEES Project Management/BPMA Owner's Rep

$200,000

1.3%

20 mths @ 10,000/mth

Project Management/BPMA Owner's Rep

$200,000

1.3%

20 mths @ 10,000/mth

BPMA Staff Overhead

$480,000

3.2%

24 mths @ $20,000/mth

BPMA Staff Overhead

$480,000

3.2%

24 mths @ $20,000/mth

LEGAL/PUBLIC RELATIONS

LEGAL/PUBLIC RELATIONS

Permitting Legal

$25,000

0.2%

Permitting Legal

$25,000

0.2%

Contracts & Leases Legal

$50,000

0.3%

Contracts & Leases Legal

$50,000

0.3%

Real Estate Legal

$25,000

0.2%

Real Estate Legal

$25,000

0.2%

Enforcement Protocol Legal

$15,000

0.1%

Enforcement Protocol Legal

$15,000

0.1%

$0

0.0%

Financing Legal

Depends on debt structure, if any

Financing Legal

$0

Depends on debt structure, if any PARCEL 7 BOSTON, MA 0.0% — COMPONENT I | BOSTON PUBLIC MARKET ASSOCIATION

61 25


A pp e n d i x F inancial D istrict D emographics

62


A pp e n d i x

I nterviews

***Unfortunately, I was not able to get answers to my questions in time. mimi Hall - operations manager | boston public market association 1. What’s your position at BPMA? 2. What are the agencies you’re working with in order to make the Haymarket market a reality? Has it been a difficult process? If so, why? 3. Had the BPMA considered any other sites for the market? Why did you choose the Haymarket area? 4. Who do you expect will be shopping there? 5. Do you envision the market to be seasonal or will it be open year round? Is food the only thing sold? 6. How do you find the farmers? Are they all local? Do they have to be? 7. What markets has the BPMA studied as precedents, if any? 8. In terms of market circulation, how do you organize the stalls? Is there a hierarchy to the types of wares being sold? 9. About cost: what is an average per square foot cost of a market (like, what’s the rent for the space you have, or how much did it cost to purchase)? 10. What kind of equipment do you need? is it all permanent or is it movable? 11. Do you have any administrative/office areas within the space? Does the BPMA plan on renting any of the space out?

63

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