BUILDING AND PRICING GUIDE THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY ANNUAL
The Building and Pricing Guide features comprehensive, accurate and highly useful information that you can rely on. It is updated each year to ensure that all the most relevant information is aways at your fingertips. This book is an absolute must-have for anyone operating in the building & construction industry seeking to make well informed and cost efficient choices to get the job done.
Herewith a sample of the Building and Pricing Guide 2020/2021.
TO GET YOUR COPY CLICK HERE!
Buildaid® Technologies (Pty) Ltd 1995/008023/07
PO Box 130197, Bryanston, Gauteng, South Africa 2021 Tel +27 (0)11 706 7746 firstname.lastname@example.org - www.buildaid.co.za
Distributors: Blue Weaver: Tel: +27 (0) 21 701 4477 - Fax: +27 (0) 21 701 7302 - www.blueweaver.co.za
While every effort has been made to ensure that the information supplied in this book is as comprehensive and accurate as possible, the publisher cannot except liability for omissions or errors. The text, design, illustrations and photography within this publication or any part thereof may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means, including photocopying, recording, storage in an information retrieval system or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher.
Foreword Calculating building costs accurately and quoting remains a challenge. Consumers generally don’t understand the complexities of quoting and often rely on m2 building rates. A quotation should include every resource required to build a structure with quantities and related prices. This would include labour, material and specialist installations. If quotations are presented in this manner the consumer can compare apples with apples. A one-page quote is just not acceptable - you don’t know what has been included or excluded. For decades this publication has assisted contractors and clients in establishing accurate costs. It is also used by architects, engineers, quantity surveyors, students and government departments. Take your time when quoting and make double sure that nothing is left out. There are no winners on a project that has been undertaken below cost. Graham Alexander Executive Director Buildaid
Technical Directors Graham Alexander Gordon Alexander
Research and Production Manager Rodney Holtshausen
Marketing and Advertising Gordon Alexander Sharon Higgs Riette Stevens
Design and Layout Natalia Holtshausen
About using the Buildaid ® Building and Pricing Guide
There are many different resources used in the building industry; within one sector alone there may be catalogues and brochures that could fill the average bookcase. One of our objectives is to provide enough information in this publication to act as a gateway to further information. Most suppliers, service providers, contractors and manufacturers provide comprehensive and helpful information. Identifying what is required is generally the logical first step. As an example a user identifies that doors are required on a project. This information is obtained from drawings and/or a specification and schedule. After this the quantity is calculated and then the specification determined. Sometimes depending on the project, the specification is determined before the quantity. This process must be completed before a price can be allocated - logical but unfortunately it’s not always whats done in practice.
Its as simple as... one, two, three…
During construction the building industry follows a logical process, e.g. the roof comes after the walls. We have compiled the publication according to this process for ease of reference and more importantly to help readers work from A to Z and avoid missing a stage when calculating quantities and costs.
QUANTIFY How many or how much is required?
SPECIFY What are the specifications of the required product?
PRICE What does the required product cost to formulate a budget
*All prices on resources or materials are inclusive of VAT unless otherwise shown.
CHAPTER 1 • INTRODUCTION
Building Industry Rates Research has shown that over 40% of the information required to calculate the cost of a building is not on the average set of drawings (building plans). This is at the root of bad debt, bankruptcy and poor workmanship. Another fundamental problem is that architectural professionals are not employed to complete a full service and are often used to “just get the plans approved” – exacerbating the problem of not having enough information. Presenting the drawings to a contractor for a quote when 40% of the information is missing doesn’t make sense but it happens all the time. The result is that quotes come back and vary substantially and its not always clear what is included or excluded in the quotes. The next mistake is that the contract is awarded to the contractor with the lowest price which is almost certainly the wrong price. The average costs of a residence are split up into the following categories as a guideline Labour Material Sub-contractors Specialised trades Contractor’s costs (P&G) Contractors profit TOTAL
11% 35% 22% 9% 5% 18% 100%
A structure has a cost which can be measured and calculated very accurately. If a contractor’s quote is under cost, and referring to the table above, where is this amount going to be absorbed or made-up? The solution to this potential and common problem is to calculate building costs accurately. This publication offers guidelines and formulas that will help in achieving this goal.
Plant and Tool Hire
Foundations and Superstructure
Windows and Doors
Ceilings & Partitions
Carpentry & Joinery
Tiling & Tiles
Painting and Wall Coatings
Fasteners, Adhesives and Abrasives
Glazing and Shower Doors
Floors and Flooring
Index to Advertisers
CONTENTS • 3
Click here to purchase your copy
Building Basics CONTENTS Master Builders Association North
Cost of building
FEM (Workman’s compensation)
Building on a site
Project management schedule
Safety equipment and tools
IMPORTANT NOTE The information contained in this publication is based on independent research. This information is not always verified by manufacturers and suppliers and may contain some inconsistencies or errors. All information is therefore published without warranty. Information is published in good faith in an attempt to assist the building industry generally. Prices in this publication are guideline prices only, include VAT and exclude any trade discounts. Readers are advised to always contact manufacturers and suppliers for more information and current prices. CHAPTER 2 • BUILDING BASICS • 5
SHOULD YOU JOIN A VOLUNTARY BUILDING ASSOCIATION? For any builder the question of whether or not to join a voluntary association is an important one. There are a number of them and choosing the right one is essential. But how do you make the right choice? While joining a long-standing, reputable association does give you the benefit of their name behind yours, it’s also about the services you are offered as a member. Is your membership worth the fee? As a building contractor, you want to get on with the job. But you also have to keep up with new legislation and regulations. You need to ensure your Health and Safety practices are top-notch and within the legal requirements, and you need to ensure you do everything that is required so you can maintain a financially secure business. This means that relevant and comprehensive training, supplementary services and advice at your fingertips are essential.
THE MASTER BUILDERS ASSOCIATION NORTH Master Builders Association North has been operating for 113 years in the building industry. Members are held to a Code of conduct and ethics, good workmanship and compliance to Construction Regulations – this gives customers serious peace of mind when engaging an MBA North member. MBA North markets the association to all relevant target markets, from architectural professionals and developers to homeowners. But, coupled with that, MBA North offers members a variety of essential and beneficial services that will assist them in growing into the industry with the right skills and supplementary services. At one time or another, you will have found it necessary to consult with Industry experts in order to solve problems or obtain advice. You can avoid high costs/consultancy fees if you are a member of the Master Builders Association North (MBA North). Contractors who are not in a position to afford engaging experts to advise them on contractual, legal, labour, CHS, training and other matters may do so by drawing on the MBA membership. Member Contractors can draw on a pool of Industry expertise and network opportunities with fellow members of the Association. As a member, you’re given access to: • Legal & Contractual Consultation. • All members are given an audit of their legal policies as well as one hour of consultation free. Thereafter our consultation fees for members are at 50% less than market prices. • Construction Health & Safety (CHS) compliance • Our qualified Health & Safety Manager & Officers give all members a free once off CHS Consultation. Thereafter services are available to members at 40% less than market prices. • Education, Training & Transformation Services • We identify the training gaps in companies and fill these gaps by providing or sourcing training.
ACCOUNTABILITY The Association expects its members to maintain a high standard of workmanship and integrity and has accordingly drawn up a Code of Ethics, which members are required to adhere to, outlined here: A member shall conduct their business in a just and honourable manner and shall, in their dealings with clients, with members of the professions, other contractors and subcontractors, suppliers and employees, maintain at all times the high standard of business integrity required by the Association. A member is required to possess the necessary technical qualifications, knowledge and practical experience, or to employ, in a position of responsibility a person or persons possessing such qualifications, knowledge and experience, to ensure that all building projects are carried out in a workmanlike and economical manner. A member is expected to satisfy the building requirements of his clients and/or fellow members by complying with the spirit as well as the letter of his contractual obligations and to handle all business transactions with fairness and honour. A member is expected to organise his business administration effectively, to maintain adequate financial resources for the proper discharge of all contractual obligations, to assist, wherever possible, in the training of the skilled manpower needs of the Building Industry and, where applicable, to comply with all wage regulating measures for the Building Industry. A member is expected to try to persuade all qualified and suitable firms to join and strengthen the Association.
WHY SHOULD YOU JOIN THE ASSOCIATION AS A MAIN CONTRACTOR, SUB CONTRACTOR OR BUILDING MATERIAL SUPPLIER? As a member, you become part of the main-stream building industry, which means you can be actively involved in shaping the Industry legislation as part of the Association. Your voice alone may be silent, but a collective voice is able to influence legislation. You’ll also have access to other members, which puts you into a mutually beneficial networking space that creates business opportunities between members. To become a member, or to find out more about the myriad benefits offered to members, go to the MBA North website: www.mbanorth.co.za, or contact Sheilla Mofokeng on email@example.com or 011 805-6611
6 • www.buildaid.co.za
Home Loans Once you have decided to buy, build or renovate, the next step would be to decide on a budget. To obtain a home loan from a reputable financial institution is based on your credit status, the deposit and the pre-approval of the home loan. Looking at a home loan (of which the vast majority of people do), it is important to note that financial institutions generally do not offer more than an 80% loan. Therefore, a deposit is required of at least 10-20% of the purchase price, before approaching a bank for a loan. Some financial institutions do offer a 100% home loan for starter packages. Note that the seller should ensure that the municipal rates and taxes are paid up to date. The seller must produce an electrical compliance certificate. With building loans, financial institutions are reluctant to offer more than 70% of the cost of the building contract. The purchase price includes the land (site) and cost of the building. If the land is paid in full, this can be used as security for a loan for the cost of the building. Before one is able to secure a building loan, plans must be presented along with at least three quotes from a reputable building contractor (the building contractor must present proof of all risk insurance cover, and NHBRC and enrolment certificates), an engineers report is most often required – this can be obtained through the contractor, the design professional, or directly from an certified structural engineer. Coupled with this, one must present a comprehensive document outlining how and when the building contractor will be paid. With interest rate increases, it is important to ensure that whatever the rate is, at the time of purchase, allowance should be made for at least a 5 % increase, in your budget. This will ensure, adequate provision for any shortfall in payments. There is nothing worse making the decision to buy a dream home and then taking financial strain because of it. It is preferable to buy at a lower price and plan to buy higher at a later stage, than pursuing a deal out of your specific financial ability. (This can be addressed by applying for a ‘fixed rate’ bond, as explained later on). It is the normal today, to obtain a pre-approved home loan before embarking on buying a house. It is a strong indication of the lending rate a financial institution is willing to offer the client. Other factors playing a considerable influence on your budget, is personal commitments (monthly expenses) like household, vehicle finance, dependants and of course, financial history, which is all encompassed in the new terms of the National Credit Act. Once a property is found, it is not improvable for the bank to increase the value of the pre-approved loan offered based on the value of the property. This is not often the case, but it’s always good to ask. At the time of ready to purchase, the bank will require other documentation, such as a copy of the sale agreement, identity documents, marriage certificate and ante-nuptial agreement (where relevant), water and lights or rate account (which should be up-to-date) and can be used as a proof of residence document, bank statements dating at least three months previous, latest payslip or proof of income. This relates to an individual – companies buying properties will need to present audited accounts as well as personal financial documentation on each of the members or directors.
In the case of an existing home while applying for an additional bond or an extension to the existing bond for the purposes of renovating, the bank will send a valuator to the property to ascertain whether or not the loan amount applied for will firstly cover the costs of the proposed renovations, and secondly, whether the renovations will indeed increase the value of the home enough to cover the additional loan amount. The valuator or assessor will take into account recent property sales in the area, as well as aspects such as saleability of the home and viability of the proposed renovations. (For example, if plans are made to renovate the property, to the extent, that will increase its built value to higher than is achieved in property sales in the area, the bank will not easily approve the loan). This is known as over capitalising. It goes without saying that all the relevant documentation will be required by the bank for a renovation loan (as per a building loan), including plans and building contract prices. It is always a good idea to ask an estate agent to assess the property before approaching the bank. If one can prove that property sales in the area are in keeping with the increased value of the property, the bank will be more amenable to granting the loan. Should the homeowner feel that the bank’s assessor did not take all the elements and information into account, another assessment can be requested. Please note, however, the cost of this will be to the homeowner’s account.
There are a number of financial institutions that offer homes loans, but not all of them offer building loans – it is important to shop around before settling on any one in particular.
When taking out a home loan, the owner is often (not always) required to have life insurance to the value of the loan. This life insurance is paid for by the homeowner and is ceded to the bank. This is to ensure in case of death, the loan amount will be covered. Homeowners insurance is also a requirement and covers such things as a burst geyser, structural failure and the like. Homeowner’s insurance must be adequate to cover the cost of re-building. It does not cover movable property – this will need to be insured separately under a householder policy. Once a loan is approved, transfer of the property will proceed. Ownership will be recorded in the Deeds Registry, in the relevant province. The registration of ownership with the Deeds Registry will result in a Title Deed. Generally, the Title Deed is held by the bank that the bond is with. The Mortgage Bond is prepared by conveyancing attorneys and is lodged in the Deeds Office. The Mortgage Bond details the conditions and terms of the bond and pledges the property to the bank for the amount of the loan. Transfer duties are paid to the government (Deeds Office), based on the sale price of the property. The conveyancing attorneys will also charge a fee for registering the Mortgage Bond. From the date that the bond is registered at the Deeds Office, or transfer has taken place, the responsibility for paying rates, taxes and insurance is with the bondholder and the bank will begin to charge interest on the loan amount. Interest is regarded as a scary word and seems to loom over most people as an unidentifiable, ever increasing number. Interest is calculated from the day of transfer and is based on the current lending rate. Financial institutions offer various different rates and a potential homeowner can expect a rate such as ‘prime less 2’ and the likes. This means that if the prime-lending rate is 8.5%, the bank will lend money at an interest rate of 6.5%. One can take the option of paying a bond back at a variable
CHAPTER 2 • BUILDING BASICS • 07
interest rate. This means that interest payments are at the mercy of the normal fluctuations (this can be scary as some people will remember that interest rates rose above 20% some years ago, rendering monthly payments almost impossible to many bondholders). Of course, when interest rates drop, the reverse is true and one can enjoy much lower monthly re-payments. Financial institutions do offer a fixed rate option. This option can be taken up over the full period of the bond, or for only one year and then reassessed. This option certainly helps when one has opted for a bond that is at the absolute limit of affordability, because the monthly payment will always be the same no matter what the current interest rate is. With this option, however, the rate of interest is generally a little higher than the current interest rate. If this option is taken over the full bond period, then one will usually benefit. A capped rate option is also good to look at when it is imperative to only pay up to a certain amount each month. With the capped option, one will agree with the bank what the maximum payment can be each month. The bondholder will then be able to enjoy the benefits of lower monthly
payments if the interest rate decreases, while only paying the maximum agreed to when the interest rate increases. There is a cost involved with this method, but it can be useful at the beginning of a home loan period when the loaned amount is high. This option is not always available and is generally harder to achieve, as the criteria are more stringent. A reductive loan is one in which the rate of interest is guaranteed to decrease by a set percentage over an agreed period (usually less than five years). This means that the interest charged will be reduced every, for example, six months by a percentage (e.g. 0.25%). This will apply whether the interest rate increases or decreases. Even if one has taken out a loan over 20 years, one can pay the loan back in full or in part at any time before the 20 years are up. Please note, however, that a penalty for early repayment will be charged within the first three years of a bond contract period. Even if one has taken out a loan over 20 years, one can pay the loan back in full or in part at any time before the 20 years are up. Please note, however, that a penalty for early repayment will be charged within the first three years of a bond contract period.
THE 5 MOST COMMON CHALLENGES INVESTORS FACE WHEN STARTING OUT. There is no way you can avoid challenges while going through the property journey. The reality is, if you try to do this by yourself, property investing will be difficult, time consuming and stressful. Yet if it’s done right, it can give you what no other job can, FREEDOM. And that is worth fighting for. In this article, we are going to unpack the 5 most common challenges for property investors as well as how to overcome them. Property, like other businesses, requires dedication, education and support. It’s never easy to go through the failures and disappointments of property, but this tough journey leads to an amazing view. These are the 5 most common challenges and how to overcome them.
1. I just don’t have the time FFrom our experience of coaching thousands of people around the country, this is the most common excuse we hear. The truth is time is not the problem. We are all born with 24 hours in a day. Whether you are Richard Branson, Andrew Walker, Lebo Gunguluza, Patrice Motsepe or Vusi Thembekwayo… you only have 24 hours. Nothing more, nothing less. Time is not the excuse. Even if you have kids and are working a full-time job, you can choose to wake up 30 minutes earlier to get your property work done. If you don’t, it just means that property isn’t a big enough priority in your life. “We always make time for the things that matter the most.” – Andrew Walker, property investor, global businessman, the founder of the SA Property Investor Network and father of 2 kids. Time is the only thing that you can’t buy more of. It’s a precious resource that needs to be used correctly. The key advice here is to implement 2 life
08 • www.buildaid.co.za
changing time management techniques, namely; • Goal setting: We recommend you plan your week every Sunday. Every 10 minutes of planning saves you 1 hour of execution. Therefore, if you can commit to planning your week for 1 hour every Sunday, you can buy back 6 hours of execution time per week. That’s over 20 hours per month and over 300 hours per year. • Time sheets: It might sound strange that we recommend you track your hours, but you can’t improve what you cannot measure. Use excel and analyse where your time goes and where it can be improved. You can see the percentage of his working time (i.e. x axis) over the various months of 2019. At times he spent over 15% of his working day on property, other times it slumped to 5%.
2. Accurate deal analysis This is a tricky element for most people. They are not sure what is a good deal and what’s not. Instead of using tried and tested formulas, people get seduced to buy an ‘investment’ property. The key formula that you need to become familiar with is Return on Investment. That is the metric that tells you whether this is a deal to invest in or not. The equation for Return on Investment is; Annual Profit Capital invested
Kickstart your property journey today! www.joinsapinnow.com We strive to create the largest networking community of private property investors in SA. Connecting like-minded investors and power team members in the industry with the tools, guidance and the network they need to grow and excel.
OUR MEMBERSHIP PACKAGES
Perfect for expanding your knowledge, network & property portfolio Free Property Accelerator Course Exclusive Members only Events Discount on property listing and tenant vetting Inclusive Lightstone Reports 240 FREE TPN Reports p/annum Free Virtual Q&A Session with Industry Experts Discount on Mastermind Group Coaching Pitch your Property Deals at our Events
This is for you if you are serious about Property Investment as a key part of your wealth strategy Includes ALL BENEFITS from Intermediate Online 12 Module Property Fundamentals Course with on- demand videos, expert interviews and demonstrations as well as essential documents and tools 10% off Purchases from Tile Africa Preferential Attorney Transfer Fees + Discounts with Vetted Service Providers Free Mastermind Group Coaching with The Property Academy
SA Property Investors Network. Connect Today. Expand Tomorrow.
Let’s say that you found a great flip opportunity in the East Rand. The resale value is R1 million. Let’s say you buy it for R700k with cash. The additional costs (buying costs, renovations and holding costs…) total to R200k. That means you are making a R100k profit. Is it a good deal? Most people say, “Of course, you’re making a profit.” But you can’t be sure yet. You need to work out your ROI first. The ROI on this deal is: (Profit) R100 000 = 11,11% (Capital invested) R900 000 *(R700k + R200k) 11,11% is not that super attractive, right? One way of looking at this is you could compare the return you get in the property deal with what your interest rate at the bank is. If you are getting 8% interest at the bank, then this deal doesn’t make sense. The bank is providing you a risk-free return of 8%, whereas this property deal is bringing you an 11,11% return with risk attached. I say risky because what if you don’t sell the property for R1 million? Or, what if it takes 3 months longer to sell? Or, what if the renovations cost is double from what you expected? The 11,11% return is not ideal, as we recommend returns of over 15%. How can you improve that? Through the power of OPM (Other People’s Money)! Let’s say you get a loan from the bank for 90% of the R700k purchase value. Then your cash needed to invest is R70k (10% deposit) and the R200k of additional costs. Therefore, your return is: (Profit) R100 000 = 37,03% (Capital invested) R270 000 *(R70k + R200k) By changing the profit or the capital you invest, you can drastically change the ROI. At 37,03% we justify the risk for investing in property. The Property Academy, the educational partner of SA Property Investors Network hosts various webinars where they cover all the fundamental calculations you need to know as an investor. VISIT THERE WEBSITE TODAY to explore free webinars, workshops and expert courses that you can complete online.
3. Become the area expert Sometimes when analysing a deal the numbers may look good! Be careful, as the property could be cheap for a reason! At the end of the 1 Day Workshop you will have a good idea as to what your strategy is, once you do you can then choose an area where your strategy works. Its called SAP
10 • www.buildaid.co.za
S = Strategy A = Area P = Property Now you can become the local expert, go out and buy a map of the area. Start speaking to Estate Agents and Letting agents, get their opinion as to where you should and shouldn’t buy and why? To every Town or City there will of course be good and bad areas, some investors use the same colours as a robot to help them map out where they should and shouldn’t buy. Red – Don’t buy (There will be a reason) Amber – Buyer beware. Should be okay but just tread with caution Green – Great area for investment To help we recommend using the tool TPN (tenant profile network) to do your area analysis. TPN is filled with tons of valuable insights, so go check them out. For instance, you can see in their reports that TPN tells you which areas are green (good), yellow (ok) and red (bad) in terms of your chances of getting your rent paid on time. This gives you a powerful advantage and full view when analysing a deal in terms of financial rewards and potential risks.
4. Not using the right power team members Many people try to save a few bucks by going to cheap contractors. Instead of getting a qualified architect, they might go to an uncle who took a drawing course once. Instead of an experienced Estate Agent, they settle for an entry level Estate Agent who charges 1% less commission. If you pay peanuts, you will get monkeys. At the SA Property Investors Network we understand that you might not know who the best accountant, lawyer or builder might be. That’s why connecting you with the right power team members is something offered by SA Property Investors Network to all the FREE Members. But also remember that when digging for gold, you should not worry about the cost of a shovel! Make sure your power team is vetted, experienced and qualified and then, pay them well! DON’T GIVE UP Last but not least, most people give up just before they get their first deal. And let me tell you, the hardest deal to close is the first one. Once you’ve closed the first one and gone through the process of raising capital and transferring the property into your own name, your confidence grows 10fold. You think, ‘was that all there was to it?’ The next deal you do will come easy. Feel better. Go smoother.
At SA Property Investors Network, we understand how difficult the journey can be and that’s why we connect hundreds of fellow investors so that they can learn from one another. We aim to inspire South Africans to tap into the possibilities that property investment offers to help investors create more efficiencies within their current property portfolios and to help property entrepreneurs build REAL wealth, using property as a vehicle.
Property is a peoples game. The more people you know, the more deals you can find, the more money you can raise, the more success you will get out of property. We also encourage you to attend educational workshops and to explore online courses as hosted by The Property Academy as we believe that, “Knowledge without action is wasted, Action without knowledge is deadly!” Andrew Walker
CONNECT TODAY – EXPAND TOMORROW Visit www.joinsapinnow.com to enrol and become a member today!
It’s the same principle we teach babies. When a baby is born, we don’t expect him/her to walk on the first try, right? We start by getting them to crawl, then they try to walk, which leads to a lot of stumbling. But they never give up. We keep pushing them through every past failure. We pump them up. We give them hope. After the 10th time, they fail. 20th time is a failure. 50th time, they might still fail. But, eventually, the baby starts to walk and grows into a fully capable adult. That’s the secret to walking as well as property investing. NEVER GIVE UP.
CHAPTER 2 • BUILDING BASICS • 11
2.2 Contract documents The JBCC (Joint Building Contracts Committee) contracts are recommended for building projects. There are types of contracts for larger and smaller projects to suit different circumstances. These are the Principal Building Agreement and the Minor Works Agreement and they are available from the Vendors listed on the JBCC website or online from ‘Contracts on Demand’. What is to be done? The specification and drawings must be annexed to the contract, a clear description of what must be done and the materials and services to be used. How much will it cost? The contract amount that will be paid at predetermined & agreed intervals. How long with it take? The contract period – a contract must allow for extension and should have a penalty clause. It is a good idea to employ the services of a lawyer to at least check the contract before signing. The legal fees compared to the average contract amount are negligible.
General Information Although contracts will vary in content, the following should be included in a building contract: 1. Full names and addresses of the parties. The addresses will be the domicillium citandi et executandi, being the address the parties have chosen where all notices of processes arising out of the contract may validly be delivered. 2. Specification – annexed to the contract 3. Working drawings and schedules – annexed to the contract. The drawings should be approved by the local authority. 4. The contract amount and a schedule of how and when this amount will be paid if a deposit is payable, this should also be included in the contract document. 5. Prime cost amounts – sums of money provided in the contract documents for materials and goods to be obtained from a supplier and to be fixed/installed by the contractor. If after purchasing an item, the amount spent exceeds the prime cost amount allowed in the contract, then the employer will be liable for the difference. The amount payable will be paid by the employer to the contractor
bespace make your space work GET A FREE ASSESSMENT 12 • www.buildaid.co.za
on presentation of the suppliers invoice. If the amount spent is less than the prime cost amount allowed in the contract, the contractor will credit the contract amount with the difference. 6. Provisional amounts – sums of money provided for nominated subcontractors, selected sub-contract amounts, budgetary allowance or any other monetary provisions. If monies exceed or are less than the amounts budgeted for, then the process described under prime costs will apply. 7. Extraordinary costs payable – must be listed and the party responsible for the payment stated. For example; connection fees and plan approval costs. 8. Commencement and completion dates – the duration of a contract would usually exclude the December holiday period which is traditionally the builders’ holiday period. 9. Penalty clause – the penalty payable for late completion should be a reasonable amount, but at least equivalent to the cost of alternative accommodation. 10. Variations – before variations occur, a method must be agreed on how the contract price and duration will be affected. 11. Extension of time – if the contract has allowed for and extension of time, circumstances leading to the extension must be specified. 12. Insurance – the parties must agree who is responsible for the various insurances. For example; public liability, theft, etc. 13. Retention – this has always been a contentious issue. If a reasonable amount is held for a reasonable period then retention should be in every contract. The industry norm is 3% of the contract amount held for three months by the Contractor’s attorney. It is not advisable that the employer, particularly in home building, holds the retention. 14. Defects Liability – it must be agreed by the parties what patent or latent defects the contractor will be responsible for and for how long. 15. Default and cancellation – the contract must clearly define how the contract can be cancelled if one party defaults. The employer’s default is usually because of non-payment and the contractor’s default because of non-performance. 16. The contract should constitute the entire agreement between the parties and no alteration or addition thereto shall be of any force or effect unless reduced to writing and signed by both parties. 17. The contract must be signed by both parties and witnessed.
he Joint Building Contracts Committee® NPC (JBCC®) was registered in 1997 as a Non Proﬁt Company. The Committee is representative of building owners and developers, professional consultants and general and specialist contractors who contribute their knowledge and experiences to the compilation of the JBCC documents that: • • • •
portray the consensus view of the constituent members; are published in the interests of standardisation and good practice with an equitable distribution of contractual risk for use throughout Africa - and elsewhere!
All JBCC® documents have been approved by the Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) and for use by national, provincial and local authorities in South Africa. Periodic revisions of the JBCC® contract documentation suite ensure that documentation remains current.
011 482 3102
PO Box 3137, Houghton, 2041, Johannesburg, RSA
List of relevant contracts/ agreements within the JBCC Series and forms The Principal Building Agreement (PBA)
The document is the cornerstone of the JBCC Agreements. The Agreement is made up of the nine sections starting with definitions of all the primary elements and phrases. The next sections are ordered as closely as possible to the project execution sequence. The Contract Data is a schedule of all the variables required to complete the Agreement. The Agreement is designed to be used with or without bills of quantities. The building industry, like almost every aspect of modern life, does not stand still, and JBCC found it necessary to publish regular revisions to deal with changing circumstances, the latest being the May 2018 Edition 6.2 The Nominated/Selected Subcontract Agreement (N/S) See Principal Building Agreement. The document covers both nominated and selected subcontractors and is modelled on the Principal Building Agreement with all common clauses retaining the same numbering. Preliminaries The document covers all generally recurring aspects of preliminaries for most types of projects and therefore simplify tendering and administering of building contracts. Users should note that this document has been specifically formulated for use with all editions of the Principal Building, N/S Subcontract and Minor Works Agreements and maintains the same definitions and numbering style as are consistent throughout the JBCC Agreements.
work group. The agreements require that the contract value shall be adjusted according to the procedure laid down in a CPAP listing the appropriate base month. Waiver of Contractor’s Lien This form can be used for both the Principal Building and Minor Works Agreements and requires the provision of a Payment Guarantee from the employer. The waiving of the lien by the contractor is of contractual significance. Construction Guarantee (PBA) The form makes provision for a construction guarantee in a variable or fixed form as selected by the contractor. Some form of collateral will be required by the provider of the guarantee. The guarantor’s maximum liability is stated. This is restricted to the payment of money on demand. Payment Guarantee (PBA) The form makes provision for a maximum aggregate amount being the Guaranteed Sum which is intended to cover the potential risk of default by the employer. Some form of collateral will be required by the provider of the guarantee. The guarantee is restricted to the payment of money on demand. Advanced Payment Guarantee The form makes provision for an advance payment to be made to the contractor or N/S subcontractor to cover the early purchase of materials or equipment that would not qualify for payment certification. Some form of collateral will be required by the provider of the guarantee. A “transfer of ownership” is considered to be an inadequate substitute.
Minor Works Agreement The Agreement is designed for use where the works are of a minor and simple nature. The employer appoints a principal agent to administer the contract and direct contractors appointed for specialized work and installations that will not fall within the contractor’s responsibilities or liabilities.
Payment Certificate (PBA) The Payment Certificate is a standard form that provides for the setting out of all the financial elements due between parties. These include the valuation of the work carried out to date, materials used on and off site, expense or loss incurred by the employer or contractor, tax on such amounts and interest.
Adjudication Rules Adjudication is an accelerated form of dispute resolution in which the adjudicator determines a dispute as an expert and not as an arbitrator. Adjudication is now one of the dispute resolution processes for the Principal Building and N/S Subcontract Agreements and these Rules are to be read in conjunction with the dispute clause of the Agreements. The State will in future also make use of this form of dispute resolution.
Payment Certificate Notification (PBA) This notification is required to be issued to all N/S subcontractors indicating the amount related to their contract that is included in the payment certificate issued to the contractor. It is not a certification of the monies due between the contractor and the N/S subcontractor.
Form of Tender This document is for use with the Principal Building Agreement, N/S Subcontract Agreement and the Minor Works Agreement. The form sets out the primary Conditions for Tendering, the Tender Sum and the tenderer’s choice of Preliminaries and Security options.’ Site Possession Certificate This certificate records the hand-over of the site to the contractor which is an act that is contractually significant and should be formally recorded. Contract Price Adjustment Provisions (CPAP) Escalation adjustment based on a workable formula method rather than on actual cost changes simplifies claims and accounting procedures. To achieve this objective it is necessary to agree on a “basket” of work groups and the weighing of the elements of the
14 • www.buildaid.co.za
Recovery Statement (PBA) The Recovery Statement which is issued simultaneously with the payment certificate, accounts for items of expense or loss that are not part of the contract value. These items include penalties and interest. Certificate of Interim Completion (N/S) The contractor issues the Certificate to N/S subcontractors. It corresponds in most respects to the practical completion certificate issued by the principal agent. Certificate of Practical and Final Completion (PBA) The Certificate, issued by the principal agent, covers Practical and Final Completion as well as Sectional completions where applicable. Certificate of Practical and Final Completion (MWA) The Certificate issued by the principal agent, covers Practical and Final Completion, related to the works.
2.3 Building specifications
To estimate the cost of a project without a specification is impossible and to enter into a contract without one is very short-sighted. Too many building contracts are entered into with vague information. The specification should form an integral part of the building contract. It is important to note that there is no such thing as a standard specification as no two structure are alike or use the same materials. The format of the Buildaid Building & Pricing Guide forms the basis of a specification. Each section and sub-section should be looked at separately and the information used to compile a specification for each particular trade or process
Guidelines to the content of a well prepared specification Foundations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Describe soil conditions Describe site levels and the effects on the floor levels Damp proof layers Poisoning Filling and compaction - concrete strengths Retaining Walls First fixed items by plumber and electrician.
Superstructure 1. Damp proof layers 2. Type of brick and mortar - description of how bricks should be laid and thickness of mortar joints 3. Reinforced lintels and beams 4. Window and door positions and heights 5. Expansion joints if required must be well described - chimneys and fireplace units
Window Schedule 1. Type and make of window 2. Sizes of windows (sizes vary between suppliers and the windows may be fitted later in the building process) 3. Type of glass to be used in each window (this forms a glazing schedule) 4. Position of each window in the structure 5. Type of lintels to be used above windows 6. External and internal window sills per window - positioning of the window in the wall – burglar proofing 7. Special features to the structure around the window - finish to the window e.g. paint
Door Schedule 1. Type of frame 2. Position of each frame in the structure, in the wall and position of hinges and number 3. Type of door 4. Special features 5. Finish of frame and door e.g. paint
Roofing 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Roofing Type (e.g. timber or concrete) Details of structural requirements Roof Covering Waterproofing Rainwater Disposal Special Feature (e.g. Skylights)
Electrical 1. Each point must be clearly marked on the drawings e.g. plugs, lights, light switches and to which lights, geyser point, telephone, TV, intercom, etc 2. Light fittings should be specified or at least a P.C. amount should be allowed 3. The length and type of cables from the boundary to pools and outbuildings must be specified. 4. Describe any special fittings and their requirements.
It is absolutely vital to create a comprehensive specification for any building project. To guarantee accurate costing, one cannot use general notes and specifications. As the word suggests, a specification contains specific information. For example, a door is not simply a door – it has a frame and furniture (hinges, handles, locksets) and can be made from a number of different materials.
Plumbing 1. Each plumbing point must be marked on the drawing showing the exact position e.g. bath 2. The finished height of certain fittings must also be indicated e.g. vanity slab 3. The drain and associated fittings should be shown on the drawing. This is a Municipal requirement 4. External garden taps 5. Fittings in the kitchen. Coordination between the kitchen manufacturer and plumber is essential 6. Describe any special fittings and their requirements (e.g. a spa bath).
Sanitaryware and Fittings 1. Clearly define by supplier code and description 2. All items should be clearly marked on the specification as to where they will be fitted in the structure and when.
Plastering 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
External and internal plaster finishes Screeds Special features A sample panel should always be used on site Soffit finishes
Kitchens and Cupboards 1. A specialist supplier should be used to detail these items. A provisional amount should be allowed 2. Final electrical points should be determined after the kitchen has been designed
Ceilings and Insulation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Describe the type of ceiling and insulation by room Finish to ceilings e.g. Rhinolite, paint Ceiling heights Type of cornices per room Position of trap doors Description of any special features (e.g. air conditioning ducts, soundproofing etc.)
Ironmongery 1. Locks and door handles per door and hinges 2. Towel rails and rings and exact position for fitting (bathroom accessories) 3. Type of curtain tracks or blinds. 4. Specify specialised fittings CHAPTER 2 • BUILDING BASICS • 15
Specialised (Sub) Contractors
1. 2. 3. 4.
1. Paving 2. Fencing and walling 3. Swimming pools and water features - landscaping and boreholes 4. Tennis courts and squash courts 5. Awnings and blinds 6. Wash lines 7. Staircases and balustrades 8. Bars and pubs 9. Spa baths 10. Saunas 11. Solar heating 12. Strong rooms and safe doors 13. Air conditioning 14. Alarms, security systems and intercoms 15. Garage doors 16. Gates and metalwork 17. Skylights 18. Decking 19. Braais and Fireplaces
Skirtings and quadrants Mirrors Architraves Special features
Wall and Floor Tiling 1. 2. 3. 4.
Type of tile per room Height of wall tiling Bathroom accessories When allowing an amount for tiling per m2 the quantity to be laid must be specified 5. Colour of grouting and edge trims required 6. Special features, patterns and tiling layouts
Painting 1. 2. 3. 4.
Type, number of coats and colour of paint per room Include door and window frames Specialised coatings Specialised finishes
Flooring 1. 2. 3. 4.
Floor levels specified to accommodate different flooring thicknesses Type per room Special features e.g. under floor/carpet heating Specialised finishes – edge trims, threshold details etc.
16 • www.buildaid.co.za
2.4 Cost of building
It is obviously imperative to ensure that an accurate cost estimate is created before building commences. The more detailed a specification, the more accurate a cost estimate can be. As previously mentioned this publication is set up to assist in the creation of a specification and costing of the specification.
Beware of square meter rates The graphic below depicts four structures with equal square meterages, but with varying degrees of complexity. The wall lengths are then calculated for each structure showing a difference of over 40% between structure A and structure D. This clearly shows as described above, that no two structures are the same, therefore there are no two building costs the same. Hence, one should be careful of quoting or being quoted with a square meter rate.
Don’t be fooled by building rates quoted per m² On the following pages there are two examples of a home including a floor plan, roof plan and summary of costs. The two examples are both 159.3m2 and include the same facilities with regard to the number of bedrooms, bathrooms living areas etc. House type 2, however will cost 18% more to build.
It must be categorically stated that there really is no such thing as a standard building rate per square meter. Because no two structures are the same, no two building costs are the same. This does not just relate to the finishes in a building, as finishes on average only make up between 20 – 30% of the total building cost. Over the following pages, we demonstrate that design has a great influence on the cost of building, by taking two houses of different design and costing the project – the result shows two vastly different square meter rates, even though similar internal finishes have been specified. Below is a simple example showing four shapes, all 150m2 but with vastly different wall lengths.
After careful examination you will see that: • The external walls of house type 2 are more complex and longer • House type 2 uses custom windows and French doors • Type 2 uses a mono pitch roof with parapets resulting in a large quantity of brickwork and flashings. The roof over house type 1 is simpler • The total cost of finishes is the same in both house types While the two example houses weren’t intended to win a design competition, they both demonstrate how costs can differ dramatically. With a little more manipulation and changes to finishes, house type 2 could easily cost 30% more that house type 1.
CHAPTER 2 • BUILDING BASICS • 17
THE FEDERATED EMPLOYERS MUTUAL ASSURANCE COMPANY (RF) (PTY) LTD The Federated Employers Mutual Assurance Company (FEM) was established as a mutual insurer in 1936 and, on the introduction of the Workmen’s Compensation Act of 1941, was granted a licence by the Department of Employment and Labour to continue to transact workmen’s compensation insurance for the construction industry. YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1936
TARGET MARKET Construction industry MISSION STATEMENT We strive to deliver an excellent and sustainable workers’ compensation service to all stakeholders by: • Being the preferred provider of COID cover • Raising awareness and promoting health and safety, as well as accident prevention • Ensuring efficient pay-outs, quality care and empathy to our claimants • Engaging and empowering our workforce
COMPANY VISION We care about the quality of life for injured workers and their dependants, and champion health and safety, for the benefit of all policyholders and society. DESCRIPTION OF PRODUCTS / SERVICES FEM provides compensation for construction workers, who are covered under FEM policyholders for severe occupational injury, disease or death while on duty. DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS Our business operations are essentially confined to the insurance of employers against their liabilities under the Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act of 1993 (COID Act).
FEM provides Workmen's Compensation cover alongside the state Compensation Fund in terms of the Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act (Act No.130 of 1993, also known as the COID Act). The COID Act is aimed at providing compensation in the form of payment and medical aid for disablement caused by accidents to or industrial diseases contracted by employees in the course of their employment and for death or disease resulting from such accidents. The COID Act gives powers to the Director-General to appoint a commissioner who has specific functions in terms of the COID Act. One of those functions is to administer the insurance policies, in terms of the COID Act, thus resulting in the State being the insurer and the administrator of the compensation fund. The Minister of Labour, in terms of section 30 of the COID Act, can issue a licence to carry on the business of insurance of employers, against their liabilities to employees, to a mutual association. FEM is one of the two private sector companies that have been issued a licence to provide services under the COID Act. The compensation, in terms of the COID Act, is funded by the employers. The Act places an obligation on these employers to make contributions on an annual basis. According to the aforementioned licence, FEM is only permitted to provide services to employers ‘in building operations ranging from demolition work to painting and plastering, or tombstone erection to the construction of swimming pools, or electrical contracting to gas fitting and plumbing, to name a few construction sub-categories’. Such employers have an option of either insuring their workmen’s compensation liability with the Compensation Fund or with FEM.
BENEFITS OF FEM MEMBERSHIP 1. Access to private healthcare for injured employees – FEM has established relationships with an extensive list of private hospital groups. 2. MSO – a group of qualified case managers who monitor treatment and ensure it is in line with the injury, thus eliminating over-servicing. 3. Administration done by FEM includes requesting of all reports until finalisation of claims. 4. Online submission of claims documentation to help speed up processing. 5. Accident statistics available online enabling benchmarking against other construction companies. 6. Recover costs from the Road Accident Fund, for motor vehicle accident claims, on the employer’s behalf. 7. On-site training for claims and underwriting training at FEM offices around the country on request. 8. Me r i t R e b a t e s p a id o n f av o u r a bl e cl a i m s experiences.
THE FEDERATED EMPLOYERS MUTUAL ASSURANCE COMPANY (RF) (PTY) LTD (FEM) 011 359 4300 | firstname.lastname@example.org | www.fem.co.za Physical address: Building 2, Glenhove and Oxford Bldg, 114 Oxford Road, Houghton, Johannesburg Postal address: Private Bag X87109, Houghton, 2041
_____ FEM is one of the two private sector companies that has been issued a licence to provide services under the COID Act, and currently covers in excess of 6000 construction companies and more than 300000 employees.
FEM provides compensation for construction workers, who are covered under FEM policyholders for severe occupational injury, disease or death while on duty.
House type 1 – floor plan
House type 1 – roof plan
20 • www.buildaid.co.za
House type 1 summary
House type 1 summary Costs for house type 1 R 1 701,07
Foundations & surface bed
R 118 264,73
Superstructure & yard walls
R 86 889,48
Aluminium window frames - glazed
R 50 222,01
Reinforced concrete slabs Roofing
R 0,00 R 145 063,30
R 68 717,75
R 48 007,92
R 56 972,28
R 49 546,98
R 34 817,89
Finishing items Sanitaryware & fittings
R 40 876,64
Ironmongery & fittings
R 5 722,73
Doors & sundries
R 9 606,01
Finishing timber & sundries
R 1 498,81
Labour finishing carpenter
R 4 782,57
R 12 262,99
Built-in cupboards (bedrooms)
R 34 063,86
R 10 900,44
Carpets to bedrooms
R 8 992,86
Wall & floor tiling
R 61 314,95
R 8 175,33
R 40 876,64
R 10 900,44
Mirrors and sundries
R 2 725,11
Finishing items - total
R 252 699,36
R 912 902,76
Average contractors costs & profit Total building cost Total covered m2 area Building cost per m2
Site establishment and excavation
R 217 106,93 R 1 130 009,70 173,16 R 6 525,85
The figures above are shown as an example of the difference in costs related to the design of a home and are not an accurate indication of bulding costs
CHAPTER 2 • BUILDING BASICS • 21
House type 2 – floor plan
House type 2 – roof plan
22 • www.buildaid.co.za
House type 2 summary House Type 2 Costs for house type 2 R 1 701,07
Foundations & surface bed
R 127 040,08
Superstructure & yard walls
R 177 937,12
Aluminium window frames - glazed Reinforced concrete slabs Roofing
R 85 390,92 R 7 492,80 R 120 357,31
R 90 048,60
R 52 382,10
R 64 006,06
R 70 540,32
R 31 456,26
Finishing items Sanitaryware & fittings
R 40 876,64
Ironmongery & fittings
R 5 722,73
Doors & sundries
R 9 606,01
Finishing timber & sundries
R 1 498,81
Labour finishing carpenter
R 4 782,57
R 12 262,99
Built-in cupboards (bedrooms)
R 34 063,86
R 10 900,44
Carpets to bedrooms Wall & floor tiling
R 8 992,86 R 61 314,95
R 8 175,33
R 40 876,64
R 10 900,44
Mirrors and sundries Finishing items - total Sub total Average contractors costs & profit Total building cost Total covered m2 area Building cost per m2 Variance in cost example 1 & 2
Site establishment and excavation
R 2 725,11 R 231 834,27 R 1 060 186,91 R 257 198,07 R 1 317 384,98 173,15 R 7 608,35 18,00%
The figures above are shown as an example of the difference in costs related to the design of a home and are not an accurate indication of bulding costs
CHAPTER 2 • BUILDING BASICS • 23
2.5 Architectural drawings There are some basics that are required by all local authorities in terms of building projects. However, it is vital to check with your local authority in terms of what their specific requirements are before submitting drawings for approval. If drawings are not approved before building commences, the local authority has the right to stop all building activities and indeed, if the plans are not in accordance with their regulations, to order that the building be torn down. Please note that The Architectural Profession Act 2000, Act 44 of 2000 was published on 1 December 2000 and came into operation on 26 January 2001. This replaces the Architectural Act of 1970 which affects all persons practicing in the architectural profession. Among other factors, the Act affects who is allowed to submit plans for approval. Please ensure that a registered architectural professional has signed off your drawings before submitting to your local authority. For more information on The Act and the changes affected please log on to www.sacapsa.com
Elevations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Elevations named (north, south, etc) Ground lines indicated Drainage layout Correct colouring used Exterior and interior finishes Window and door openings
Sections 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Scale Correct colouring used Roof pitch Foundation measurement Damp proof course and membranes Vertical heights and levels of floors relative to one another
Please note that some plans, when approved, may have to be started within a year of approval and once started, may have to be completed within a specific time. Each plan submitted must contain certain information and this may differ slightly from area to area. Plans will need to be coloured according to colour codes specified by the local authority. All drawings should consist of as many plans, sections and elevations as may be necessary to indicate, where relevant, the position, form, dimensions and materials of the proposed building to be erected. Below is a list of the minimum requirements to be included on a set of working drawings.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
It should be noted that working drawings (the drawings used on site) should far exceed the content of the plans submitted for approval. There are a number of drawings that some authorities don’t require, for example: roof plan and electrical plan.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Scale Stand number and surrounding stand numbers Stand dimensions North point Building lines & servitudes Distance from structure to stand boundaries Existing and/or new drainage Access to stand and surrounding road names New and existing structures
Floor Plan 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Scale All dimensions Designation of all rooms Correct colouring used Section lines Window schedules Drainage layout Work to be demolished (where applicable)
24 • www.buildaid.co.za
General Engineers certificate (where necessary) Plans signed and dated by owner and architectural professional Plan title M2 area schedule of existing and new work Coverage schedule (where necessary) Soil report where necessary Stair, roof, concrete slab and drainage notes
NOTE: See typical drawings that follow. (These are a few examples and do not show everything that can be done)
BUILDING BASICS SITE PLAN
GROUND FLOOR PLAN
CHAPTER 2 • BUILDING BASICS • 25
FIRST FLOOR PLAN
WEST & EAST ELEVATION
26 • www.buildaid.co.za
NORTH & SOUTH ELEVATION
CHAPTER 2 • BUILDING BASICS • 27
GROUND FLOOR PLAN (PLUMBING)
28 • www.buildaid.co.za
FIRST FLOOR PLAN (PLUMBING)
BUILDING BASICS DOOR AND WINDOW SCHEDULE
CHAPTER 2 • BUILDING BASICS • 29
GROUND FLOOR PLAN (ELECTRICAL)
FIRST FLOOR PLAN (ELECTRICAL)
30 • www.buildaid.co.za
CHAPTER 2 • BUILDING BASICS • 31
2.6 Building on a site Building on a site is not simply a matter of finding a design and a site to suit ones needs. There are many aspects to consider and look out for; such as the gradient or slope, northern or southern hemisphere in terms of the western sun, entry, building lines and servitudes, view and shape. Climatic conditions determine the importance of orientation. The combination of all these aspects on a site is more complex than one would imagine. Also take time to check out the soil conditions on the stand chosen – certain soils can pose difficulty for building and may also pose landscaping difficulties, adding costs to the build. Remember to check if the site chosen is in a proclaimed township and what municipal services are offered (for example, some areas do not have rubbish collection services). Also check what the rates and taxes are for the area as this will become part of the monthly cost of living and will be due for payment on transfer of the property.
Gradient or Slope Most sites have a gradient or slope which can be very deceptive. A site that looks level could have a gradient of two meters. Sites with steep gradients are more difficult to build on and therefore more costly, but if designed correctly, a house can be very attractive when incorporating a gradient. A house on a gradient will obviously have stairs. Entry on a steep gradient is important when considering easy access to the parking area and garage.
Slope can prove deceptive if not calculated correctly
Entry Entry is a very important factor and in the southern hemisphere it is preferable to have the entry on the southern, eastern or western boundaries, allowing one to take full advantage of the northern portion of the site for living and entertainment areas and to optimise energy efficiency. In some developments, sites are restrictive in terms of entry, which can affect the layout and orientation of the house.
32 • www.buildaid.co.za
Building Lines and Servitudes
One needs to be aware of the building lines and servitudes when viewing a site. A site could have a six meter building line, leaving very little space for building. Servitudes such as power lines or underground pipes can also be restrictive as one cannot build over a servitude. It is however, very uncommon for a servitude to run right across a site, they usually run along a boundary. Information on building lines and servitudes can be sourced from your local authority.
View Not all sites have a view, but if one is fortunate enough to have a view, one should take full advantage of it. A southern view does tempt a designer to place the living and entertainment areas on the southern side of the house, leaving them in permanent shadow and making them cold. A site with a western view can cause complications because of the harsh afternoon sun penetrating the rooms on the western side. A site with an eastern view will get the morning sun, which is not as harsh as the afternoon sun, but will leave the rooms in shadow in the afternoon. The ideal view is north.
Typical illustration of building lines and servitudes
The shape of a site can also be restrictive, particularly when the northern boundary is the shortest, or the view is on the shortest boundary. Most sites are rectangular, but it is possible for a site to be triangular or to have up to six straight boundaries.
Illustration of how a site shape may influence a positioning of a building
2.7 Project management schedule The example that follows of a project management schedule outlines the activities which must take place within a building project, and if any activity is not covered in this schedule the reader would need to add the additional activity or activities. The schedule covers an eight week period and should be filled in, using the markers as a legend, for the entire duration of the project. (Not only the first eight weeks)
CHAPTER 2 • BUILDING BASICS • 33
34 • www.buildaid.co.za
BUILDING BASICS CHAPTER 2 • BUILDING BASICS • 35
Safety Equipment And Tools Hard hat
For protection against falling objects
Rubber boots For wet work
For protection against dust and vapours
Reinforced with metal for protection of feet
To protect hands against cuts
This protects against falling when working on scaffolding, roofs or other precarious locations
To protect eyes from dust, vapour,
A medical kit should contain at least the following: Bandages & plasters, disinfectant, cotton wool, rubber surgeon’s gloves, painkillers, small pair of scissors for cutting bandages and antiseptic cream. All items should be sealed and kept as clean as possible.
Safety Processes And Procedures Overview
A site with good housekeeping standards runs more smoothly and instils discipline in the building team, which will also influence the building team to work in a more organized and precise manner – thus ensuring better safety. It is also vital to keep a site in good running order, by ensuring that every tool and piece of equipment is in good working condition.
Please remember that first aid is only for an emergency and the person giving first aid should be aware of his/her limitations. Immediately phone emergency services. If one is unsure what to do, it is best to wait for professional medical treatment. However, there are a few steps that one can take while waiting for a professional: Eliminate the cause of the injury (for example, if someone has suffered an electrical shock, switch off the power supply immediately before touching the injured person and then pull them away from the source).
36 • www.buildaid.co.za
If a person is bleeding, ensure that you are well protected (use the gloves from the first aid kit) and stop the bleeding by keeping pressure on the wound and apply a bandage.
Do not move a person if you suspect they have broken a bone, specifically if there is evidence of a back injury. Make them as comfortable as possible and wait for medical assistance.
Poison – if you suspect a person of having been in contact with or swallowed/inhaled poison, keep the person calm, establish what type of poison has been ingested and immediately contact the Poison Info Centre (0800 333 444).
If a person is unconscious, it is best to try to gently wake them because if they have a concussion or other head injury, they should be kept awake to limit damage.
Heart attack - Signs of a heart attack include - Tight squeezing pain in the chest, moving from the chest towards the left or right arm and the neck coupled with sweating, anxiety, vomiting, and weakness. If this happens, place the person in a sitting position (with legs down) and keep checking his/her pulse. If the pulse stops or the person passes out, start CPR immediately.
Make sure the person is breathing properly – if not, loosen their clothing and administer CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation – this is the act of breathing into someone’s mouth to fill their lungs, at the same time applying regular pressure to the chest over the heart to ensure the heart continues to beat. This must be repeated until such time as the person is breathing freely without help).
BBF Bova Safety Footware Range Image
Style Style Number: Description:
Steel toe cap, Anti-static, Podiatry Approved
SRC Slip Resistant / 300ºC direct and radiant heat / 100% waterproof sole
Steel toe cap, Anti-static, Podiatry Approved
SRC Slip Resistant / 300ºC direct and radiant heat / 100% waterproof sole
8 inch boot
Steel toe cap, Anti-static, Podiatry Approved
SRC Slip Resistant / 300ºC direct and radiant heat / 100% waterproof sole
8 inch boot
Steel toe cap, Anti-static, Podiatry Approved
SRC Slip Resistant / 300ºC direct and radiant heat / 100% waterproof sole
6 inch boot
CHAPTER 2 • BUILDING BASICS • 37
Local ENGINEERING STRENGTH IN EVERY STITCH
The quality and durability of our safety wear goes beyond the fabric alone. Every garment is triplestitched and every pocket bar tacked, offering you high quality protection that lasts
COMFORT IS KEY
With a wider back yoke for ease of movement
ALWAYS BE SEEN
An employee who can’t be seen is not a safe employee. That’s why BOVA utilises internationally renowned VizLite™ Reflective Tape, known for its high quality and long-lasting reflective qualities
ZIPPERS THAT LAST
A garment that cannot close will not protect a wearer in the way it was meant to. That’s why BOVA utilises YKK Zippers on all our garments - a world-leader in fastening products
T H E
E N G I N E E R I N G
W I T H I N
BOVA, Africa’s leading safety footwear brand, have taken another great stride in safety, adding a locally manufactured range of BOVA Workwear to our portfolio. Our workwear range focuses on creating a quality fit engineered for purpose, rather than a one-size-fits-all approach. This ensures that you don’t under-spec on some garments, compromising on employee safety, or over-spec on other garments, compromising on cost-effectiveness. Our range of purposely engineered garments offer an array of materials, colours and finishes and can be customised to fit your unique requirements. The 100% cotton garments in our range are made from locally sourced fabrics in support of our broader South African economy.
For a safety workwear range engineered for purpose, visit www.bova.co.za
Security Servest–bridging the security gap in South Africa The burden of high rates of violence and crime continues to plague South Africans from all walks of life. In fact, the recent State of Urban Safety in South Africa Report (2018/2019). Violent property crimes in the country has just been increasing since 2011. According to the report robbery with aggravating circumstances increased by 25%, robbery at residential premises increased by 21%, robbery at non-residential premises increased by 15% and carjacking has increased by an alarming 58%. The report further states that the rise in criminal activities is a failure of policing and highlights that the police are poorly equipped to prevent crime or catch perpetrators. The role of private security has been critical in bridging these gaps. At Servest, we understand our client’s pain points, the value they place in enjoying their spaces and the comfort they deserve knowing someone is taking their safety and security needs seriously. We understand the importance of personal safety and the need to create safe environments to enhance people’s experiences and spaces; to ensure their comfort in any environment, be it at home, work or at leisure. Servest provides dynamic solutions for people, their businesses and homes, tailor made for each individual client. Our uncompromising assessment process enables us to determine our client’s unique needs for infrastructure, assets, people, and the wider society. Our risk management approach is based on a trusted model which includes physical security, process mapping, and the use of modern technology, all topped with strong on and off-site management support. Safety and security matters are best handled by well-trained personnel with the operational and technical expertise to handle any situation in any environment. We have entrenched a culture of safety among our security teams and encourage both accountability and commitment from all our colleagues. With state-of-the-art digital technologies we provide both onsite and remote monitoring and reaction for effective crime prevention. We also understand the complex nature and peculiarity of South Africa’s labour and industrial action. We are mindful of the voluntary principles of human rights and the basic codes of conduct within the security industry and incorporate these principles into all aspects of delivering our security solutions.
40 • www.buildaid.co.za
Servest’s off-site monitoring services range from continuous remote surveillance to event triggered monitoring, as well as proactive dialin CCTV touring/patrols. Our highly trained surveillance operators observe, interpret, predict, anticipate and evaluate the potential risk from our state-of-the-art control centres, and can dispatch PSIRA accredited security colleagues with the agency of each individual matter.
010 446 2553 email@example.com @SplintersWorkshopSA splintersworkshop www.splintersworkshop.co.za 617 Maretsel Place, Wychwood, Johannesburg
WHAT WE ARE An open-access workshop where users can complete their DIY projects in a workshop catering for small and large wood & metalwork needs, in a fun, safe, recreational space. The space is also ideal for group and corporate training sessions.
WHAT WE OFFER Splinters Workshop is ﬁtted with all the machinery and tools you need for your DIY metal or woodwork project. You may book an all-access workshop space for your project or join us for an instructed class.
OUR STORY Back in 2013, we came up with the idea of shared workshop space. As enthusiastic do-it-yourselfers, we just loved ﬁxing things and making random stuﬀ! Both Marco and Andre have previously done woodwork having the tools and our home workshops, though obviously nothing on the scale of the Splinters Workshop. After much discussion, we decided undoubtedly it would be very cool if we could set up space where we would be able to play with tools all day and others could join us and together we could learn to ﬁx things and build even more random stuﬀ! Over some drinks, we thought this was a great idea, and decided that this was the best idea ever, and so the seed that would become Splinters Workshop was sown! So welcome to Splinters Workshop. A place of adventure, where everything you can imagine, you can make!
WHAT WILL YOU MAKE?
Gauteng Property Inspections Do you have R150 000 spare cash to repair the roof after you have moved in to your new house? How about R300 000 – R400 000 to repair the rising damp? R120 000 to repair a structural crack you did not notice?
You might think it is wonderful that the seller painted the house, inwardly we sigh, because our inspection is now going to take longer, because we must find what the seller is hiding. Do you have the experience to find the hidden cracks and damp? We do.
Most people do not and that is why it is important to have a full property report done before you buy your dream home. It is advisable to make your offer subject to a full home inspection and the outcome thereof being acceptable to you, the purchaser.
Basic Essential Inspection
When you view a property before you buy it, you normally view it with your “heart”. You want to make sure it will meet your and your family’s needs. You make sure the furniture will fit and that you can host great birthday’s and family gatherings. You are bullied by your emotions, you are bullied by the seller, and you are bullied by the agent, and you need someone in your corner who will protect you from the bullies. Gauteng Property Inspections are experts at that. We will give you an objective report highlighting the defects, but also give you maintenance guidelines. Once you know what is needed to get your biggest investment into tip top condition, you can make an informed decision. And it will eliminate nasty surprises.
If you “do not sweat the small stuff” then this inspection is the one for you. We only look at the 4 big items that can be very expensive to repair: ✓ Damp ✓ Cracks ✓ Roof ✓ Stormwater
Full Property Inspection
Do you climb on top of the roof when you view a property? Or into the roof space above the ceiling? We do. This is a very important part of a property inspection.
When you buy your biggest investment, the only instruction you get is to pay the bond and utilities. Nothing else. There is no maintenance manual, except for The Proud Home Owner. Most people do not know when to do maintenance and they don’t know how to do maintenance, so they just leave it until it is broken, and then they replace the items. To replace items is much more expensive than to do maintenance. For instance if you treat the sprockets and brandering (exposed roof timber) on a 3 bedroom house, it will cost in the region of R5 000, BUT if you only have to replace 30% of the rotten sprockets it will cost in the region of R50 000. PLEASE REMEMBER: Insurance will not consider your claim if the loss or damage was as a result of a lack of maintenance. Read the fine print of the insurance document, you must do regular maintenance.
Do you open all the cupboards, check for leaks, flush the toilets and walk around the entire perimeter and check the boundary walls? We do.
42 • www.buildaid.co.za
During a recent maintenance inspection for a client we found roof trusses with fire damage. The seller never declared that there had been a fire in the roof, and had emigrated. The agent knew about the fire, as he had been selling houses in that area for more than 15 years, but also neglected to inform the buyer. The buyer had no recourse and had to replace some trusses at his own expense. Insurance does not cover claims such as these.
Gauteng Property Inspections
FULL HOME INSPECTIONS BEFORE YOU BUY CONSTRUCTION QUALITY CONTROL DAMP & CRACK REPORTS CERTFIED ROOF INSPECTORS MAINTENANCE INSPECTIONS SNAG LISTS COMMERCIAL & INDUSTRIAL DUE DILIGENCE INSPECTIONS
Marisia Robus 082 884 2588 firstname.lastname@example.org
Our factual report will give you an advantage to make an informed decision before you buy and there will be no costly surprises after occupation.
We do maintenance inspections for sectional title complexes, blocks of flats or houses of property investors, private homes, retirement villages, commercial and industrial properties. With our report you can do regular maintenance the correct way, and when you sell your property, you will not be penalised because it is in a poor condition, but you will get your asking price because the property is in such a good condition.
Due Diligence Inspection For Property Investors
Property Investors should have a good power team behind them, but the most underrated and least used tool, is a full property inspection. With a full property report you have solid ammunition to negotiate an even lower price. We do our inspections in terms of National Building Regulations and NHBRC Guidelines, so there is no guessing and arguing. You will present the seller with cold, hard facts. We work very closely with our property investors and tailor make the reports to their needs. When they have the reports, they know how many sink units must be replaced, how many BIC hinges must be replaced, how many toilets do not work etc. They can do an accurate costing of how much they must spend on the property immediately, in the first year and every year after that.
It is also important to remember that unless a seller has roof leaks, he will probably not get onto the roof or into the roof space above the ceiling. So, he might be 100% correct if he declared that he does not have any roof issues. If the seller says he has repaired a roof leak, do you know if it was done properly? This is not the way to repair a roof leak.
In what condition is the waterproofing and has it been serviced regularly? We also offer inspections of only single issues you are concerned about, such as:
Our inspectors are ITC Certified Roof Inspectors (Institute for Timber Construction) and we are the only property inspection company in the country who have ITC inspectors. Roof problems can be very expensive to repair. When a king post pulls out of the nail plate like this, it is serious. Imagine not knowing about this defect and you only find out when the roof collapses!
Gauteng Property Inspecons 44 • www.buildaid.co.za
Contact us for all property inspecons: Pre-purchase, maintenance, damp, cracks, roof, snag list, industrial and commercial.
Maybe you have bought a house before and know how expensive it is to repair (not patch) damp. We will do a damp inspection and advice on the correct way to repair, not patch the damp.
Did you know that there are 15 different types of cracks? Not all of them are serious but most of them are unsightly.
It is important to understand what type of crack it is, what caused it and how to repair it. One very important thing to remember is that cracks are caused by movement, and you cannot stop movement, you must accommodate it.
Gauteng Property Inspecons
If you repair a crack, it will not return, but if you just patch it with a popular filler, it is guaranteed that it will return.
Use your full property condion report to negoate a beer purchase price.
www.gautenginspect.co.za CHAPTER 2 • BUILDING BASICS • 45
The Proud Home Owner When you buy a car, you get an owner’s manual as well as a service manual. You get a manual for your printer, clothes and even your husband. But when you buy a house, which is probably your biggest investment, the only instruction you get is to pay your bond monthly.
You will be able to supervise the project with confidence and will know what to look for, and when to pay special attention to certain procedures. We want YOU to be in control of your project and not to be told what is correct or not.
If you neglect to do regular maintenance, your biggest investment will deteriorate severely and when you one day want to sell your house, you will get a lower price.
Be lenient about many items, but do not compromise on quality of workmanship.
But there is a manual for home owners, which gives you all the information you need to look after your investment: The Proud Home Owner.
The Proud Home Owner was written according to National Building Regulations as well as NHBRC Guidelines and good building practice. There are entire chapters on roof leaks, damp and cracks and how to identify and repair, not patch it. Albert van Wyk was motivated to write this book when he discovered the general lack of supervision by inexperienced foremen who are unable to guide the unskilled workers on site. This is your guidebook on how to own and manage a house.
Gutters must be cleaned regularly and kept free of all debris. If they get clogged water will pond and the gutters will start to rust. Trees hanging over the roofs will drop leaves and seeds in the gutters. Sand and dust is blown on to the roof and when it rains it washes into the gutters. If it is left there, seeds will start to grow.
If you are a proud home owner then this book will benefit you, if you are not a proud home owner, then this book will guide you to become a proud home owner. Homeowners do alterations and additions to their properties to make it more comfortable and to add value. Unfortunately, the poor workmanship and construction mistakes do not add value and money is wasted.
To clean your gutters once a month will cost R100 in water and R50 of your gardener’s wages. But if they are rusted through, it will cost in excess of R15 000 for a small 3 bedroom house to replace the gutters. TIP: If you see water dripping from a downpipe a day or two after it rained, the gutter is blocked.
You are not expected to have the experience or knowledge about construction and maintenance, ask the experts or refer to The Proud Home Owner
Rising damp is one of the biggest problems in South Africa. This is due to poor building practice by unskilled builders who work without proper supervision on site who do not build according to National Building Regulations. Damp can be identified early when paint and plaster are starting to blister and peel on the walls. Rising damp is usually noticed at the bottom of the walls first because this is where it comes from. To repair, not patch damp, is very expensive.
46 • www.buildaid.co.za
proud home owner Albert van Wyk Gauteng Home Inspections A guide to: Constructing a new house Managing alterations Buying a property Maintenance Identifying cracks and damp
DO NOT BUY, BUILD OR DO ALTERATIONS BEFORE READING THIS BOOK
Marisia Robus 082 884 2588 email@example.com www.proudhomeowner.co.za
CL TO ICK AN SUB HER D D SC E YO OW RIB E UR NL O NO COP AD W! Y
Demolitions 80 Soil conditions
Excavations 82 Tree felling/stump removal
Site offices, storage and ablutions
Below ground drainage and geotextiles
IMPORTANT NOTE The information contained in this publication is based on independent research. This information is not always verified by manufacturers and suppliers and may contain some inconsistencies or errors. All information is therefore published without warranty. Information is published in good faith in an attempt to assist the building industry generally. Prices in this publication are guideline prices only, include VAT and exclude any trade discounts. Readers are advised to always contact manufacturers and suppliers for more information and current prices. CHAPTER 6 • SITEWORKS • 49
OVERVIEW Before building work commences on a site, it is important to know in advance the variations that exist, concerning site conditions. For example, the foundations will need to be designed to suit the soil conditions; levels might need to be established to suit the building; or trees might need to be removed or the shape of the building might need to be changed to accommodate the trees. Site investigations are essential, to ensure costs are recognized, before any building work commences, to prevent any financial surprises.
Municipal by-laws or estate planning: Certain rules and codes of conduct need to be adhered to for the duration of the building process. For example, ablution facilities on site or the storage of building materials.
REFERENCE: 1. www.municipalities.co.za 2. www.sabinet.co.za
It is also recommended to take account of any signs or records of flooding, water run-offs from neighboring properties, or the existence of swamp or marsh conditions.
Refer to ‘THE HOW-TO OF BUILDING’ practical building guide publication for more information.
6.1 Demolitions It should be noted that not all building sites require demolitions. This only relates to a site where there is an existing structure, that is either to be completely or partly demolished as part of the building project. The local authority must grant permission before any structure can be demolished.
Demolition rates All rates include labour, material, setup and indirect costs, profit. (unless otherwise specified). See Table 6.1. Rates exclude rubble removal unless clearly indicated.
Table 6.1 Demolition rates
Unit Guideline rate
Concrete Break up and remove concrete columns (includes rubble removal)
R 3 318,44
Break up and remove concrete beams (includes rubble removal)
R 4 950,78
Break up and remove concrete foundations (includes rubble removal)
R 3 667,74
Break up and remove 100mm surface bed (includes rubble removal)
R 1 390,52
Break up and remove 150mm surface bed (includes rubble removal)
R 1 632,35
Break up and remove 200mm surface bed (includes rubble removal)
R 1 981,65
Break up and remove 250mm surface bed (includes rubble removal)
R 2 673,55
Break up and remove 100mm suspended slab (includes rubble removal)
R 1 934,63
Break up and remove 150mm suspended slab (includes rubble removal)
R 2 129,44
Break up and remove 200mm suspended slab (includes rubble removal)
R 2 485,47
Break up and remove 250mm suspended slab (includes rubble removal)
R 3 076,61
Break up and remove half brick walls (110mm)
Break up and remove one brick walls (220mm)
Remove glazed aluminium shopfronts 3 000mm high
Remove glazed tiles to walls excl. mortar
Break up and remove plaster from walls
Take up ceramic tile floor finish, inclusive of screed and remove to stockpile
Take up and remove floor screed approximately 50mm thick and remove to stockpile
Remove timber skirting and remove to stockpile
Take up timber floors and remove to stockpile
50 • www.buildaid.co.za
Table 6.1 Demolition rates (continued)
Take up vinyl floor tiles and remove to stockpile
Take up vinyl floor sheeting and remove to stockpile
Take up fitted carpeting and remove to stockpile
Take up carpet tiles and remove to stockpile
Take up and remove to stockpile - interlocking brick paving
Take up and remove to stockpile - standard brick paving
Take out and remove window including sills and pelmets from one brick wall - up to 3m² in size
Take out and remove window including sills and pelmets from one brick wall exceeding 3m²
Take out and remove window from brick wall to be demolished - up to 3m²
Take out and remove window from brick wall to be demolished - exceeding 3m²
Take out and remove single door frame
Take out and remove double door frame
Demolish and remove partitioning
Take out and remove Rhinoboard ceilings and brandering
Take out and remove Rhinoboard ceilings excluding brandering
Take out and remove suspended ceiling tiles inclusive of hangers and framework
Remove 1 800mm high mesh fencing excluding removal of bases to posts
Remove 1 800mm high mesh fencing including removal of bases to posts
Remove toilet and cistern
Remove wash hand basin
Remove stainless steel urinal
Remove small wall mounted urinal
Take up ceramic floor tiles and remove to stockpile
Windows and doors
Ceilings and partitions
Plumbing and sanitaryware fittings
Remove large ceramic urinal Remove bath
Remove shower base
Remove kitchen sink
Take off and remove steel corrugated or IBR roof sheeting
Take off and remove concrete or clay roof tiles
Take off and remove timber roof trusses based on floor area
Remove existing thatch and cart away
Remove existing thatch roof structure (including thatch, laths and battens)
Remove gutters and downpipes and brackets
Remove Fascia boards
Large scale demolition Demolish and remove single storey 200 m² house consisting of brick walls, surface beds, foundations and steel roof sheeting.
R 100 268,63
Demolish and remove swimming pool measuring 12m x 6m x 2m deep
R 25 114,36
CHAPTER 6 • SITEWORKS • 51
6.2 Soil conditions Soil conditions play a very important part when excavating foundations for a building. The nature and bearing capacity of the soil influences the structural requirements of a building and any settlement of the soil needs to be taken into consideration. Refer to Table 6.3 Types of soil. Specific soil types are not discussed here as the variables are countless and it is always recommended that the services of a geotechnical or structural engineer be used in assessing specific soil conditions before any building work commences. However, we outline the basic characteristics of general soil types below, to provide the reader with a better understanding of the importance of taking soil conditions into consideration.
6.3 Excavation The equipment most commonly used to clear a site is a TLB (tractor loaded backhoe) or sometimes, a frontend loader. This must be used by a skilled operator and will cope with most site clearing tasks. This equipment is supplied with an operator. As the rental of the equipment is time related, careful instruction is important to avoid unnecessary movement of soil and time wasting. A site with 100m2 of lightly uneven ground and a covering of grass or weeds can be cleared and ready for construction in about four hours. It must be noted that some hire companies have a minimum fee, which can be half a day (or six hours). Sometimes earthfill is needed to either level a site or fill depressions, or even for fill after foundation brickwork has been completed to the underside of the surface bed. This fill is either builders’ rubble or a soil that is suitable and safe to use for that particular application. Your local sand and stone supplier will generally undertake to transport this filling material. The building contractor will have to assess the quantities needed for this purpose. Most transporters of aggregates or fill use 6m3 or 10m3 trucks, and it would be advisable to order in these quantities, where possible. Some building sites require excess soil to be removed from site to a dump or building site where fill is needed. In most cases, this would be the task Typical soil volume conversion factors after excavating and placing and compaction of a TLB and trucks, and would be undertaken by your local aggregate supplier or plant hire company.
Table 6.2 Typical soil volume conversion factors after excavating, placing and compaction
Altered condition (volume) Bank
Bank cubic metre is one
The volume of material that has
m3 of the natural in situ
been disturbed has swelled due
causes a reduction in
undisturbed material that
to the action of loading and
volume, known as
is to be excavated
excavation; an increase in bank
volume has now occurred known as bulking Sand
Bank volume – Bank cubic metre is one m3 of the natural in situ undisturbed material that is to be excavated
Loose volume – the volume of material that has been disturbed has swelled due to the action of loading and excavation; an increase in bank volume has now occurred known as bulking
Compacted volume – Compaction always causes a reduction in volume, known as shrinkage Notes: These values are only indicative of the typical variation in soil volume between the different states of density, which may occur during the process of excavation. Moisture content of the material will also affect these factors.
52 • www.buildaid.co.za
Types of Soil
Table 6.3 Types of soil
plant life etc.). The thickness of ground is usually very soft and easily compressible and
various in thickness from geographic location and climate. Any (top) surface soil should be removed before any excavations commence or any foundations are poured
The (top) surface layer of most of our soil is a layer of decomposed matter (vegetation,
Varieties of sub-soils are present in South African conditions, and they need to be assessed before any sort of foundation can just be placed in position to carry a specific bearing load. The hardness of these soils varies considerably from clay, sand, gravel, and
many types of rock strata and may range in particle size from large stones to colloidal clay. The type of sub-soil is therefore a significant factor to deal with when designing the structure. Some of these soils can be easily compressed, whereas others may be very hard
Buildings can be built on sand, but the design should spread the bearing load evenly; in
which case a reinforced raft foundation would suit these conditions better than a wide strip footing. Sand is unstable and needs to be mixed with other suitable materials before compaction, to provide better strength
Clay soil remains wet underneath the foundations and SOG (slab on ground), which is
very unstable to the structure. Furthermore, clay soils expand (heave) when wet and contract when dry. Foundations for these soil conditions would usually necessitate deep or raft or piled foundations, increasing the costs of the building
Filled ground does not always provide the strength required to carry heavy loads. The filled ground depends on the type of ground used for the filling and the quality thereof. The material used when filling must be suitably compacted in layers to avoid settlement
of the ground. Filled ground like refuse dumps or landfill sites, are not recommended for any types of buildings due to settlement of the organic matter and the possibility of high instances of methane gas coming from the ground. Geotechnical testing of the soil in these conditions must be obtained before the local authority will approve any proposed buildings
Swampy or waterlogged ground is not suitable for any type of building; should it occur
in certain circumstances that no alternative site is available, sub-soil drainage needs to be put in place before any excavation can start and test holes would need to be excavated to determine if the ground is stable enough to carry the proposed loads
Rocky ground is hard and durable, and performs well as a base to carry considerable
loads. However, boulders and rock outcrops can present a problem and may need to be excavated, which will increase the costs of the building. It is recommended that the services of a structural engineer be used in conditions like this
CHAPTER 6 • SITEWORKS • 53
Bulking and Shrinkage Material or soil excavated from its natural state is classed as loose volume and increases in volume known as bulking, and when the same material is brought back for fill, a reduction in the volume of the material takes place, known as shrinkage, mainly due to compaction. The type of soil or material being excavated or placed will influence these bulking or shrinkage factors see Table 6.2, but generally for estimating purposes a bulking factor of about 1.2 can be used, and a shrinkage factor of about 0.85 can be used. Bulking is where material excavated must be consolidated. The loose material occupies a greater volume than the compacted material – this called bulking. The moisture content of the material also affects bulking.
Excavation rate buildups Table 6.5 Rate Build-ups
54 • www.buildaid.co.za
Table 7.6 Guide to bulking factors Table 6.4 Guide to bulking factors
Type of material
Earth and soil
Rock and rubble etc
Bulking is therefore an increase in the volume of material after excavation and shrinkage is the decrease in volume of material after placing and compaction. Refer to Table 6.4.
Site work rates Table 6.6 Sitework rates
All rates include labour, material, setup and indirect costs, profit. (unless otherwise specified)
Tree felling and stump removal Girth of the tree must be measured 1.00m above ground level. Rate include grubbing up roots and stumps and cart away, filling holes with hard dry earth to ground level and compacting. Tree not exceeding 200mm girth
R 1 226,56
Tree exceeding 200mm not exceeding 500mm girth
R 1 415,26
Tree exceeding 500mm not exceeding 1000mm girth
R 1 751,38
Tree exceeding 1000mm not exceeding 1500mm girth
R 2 417,73
Tree exceeding 1500mm not exceeding 2000mm girth
R 3 903,75
Tree exceeding 2000mm not exceeding 2500mm girth
R 6 120,98
Tree exceeding 2500mm not exceeding 3000mm girth
R 9 611,95
Site clearance Site clearance allows for digging up and removing buried rubble, rubbish, vegetation, debris, grass, shrubs, bush and trees not exceeding 200mm in girth from the surface of natural ground Site clearance
Stripping of topsoil to average depth of 150mm and stockpile on site
Filling and compaction Using selected earth from excavations or stockpile on site unless otherwise specified. Includes spreading, watering and levelling. Includes compaction in layers not exceeding 150mm thick. Backfilling surface trenches and holes
Backfilling retaining walls
Back filling surface trenches and holes with selected earth supplied by contractor and carted to site
Compaction to trenches alone
Compaction to for under floors and paving to 93% of Mod AASHTO
Rubble removal Removal of rubble less than 1m³ Removal of rubble small loads
Removal of rubble large loads
Skip bin rate - heavy load rubble - (priced based on 5 day hire)
Remove burnt contents, roof trusses, roof coverings and stockpile for removal
Poisoning Poisoning of ground or earth beneath surface beds
THE HOW-TO OF BUILDING PRACTICAL BUILDING GUIDE CHAPTER 6 • SITEWORKS • 55
BUILDING AND PRICING GUIDE
N AVA OW ILB LE
CALCULATING BUILDING COSTS ACCURATELY AND QUOTING REMAINS A CHALLENGE.
HERE K C I L C ASE H C R TO PU PY! O C R YOU
Consumers generally do not understand the complexities of quoting and often rely on m2 building rates. A quotation should include every possible resource required to build a structure with quantities and related prices. This includes labour, material, and specialist installations. If quotations are presented in this manner the consumer can compare apples with apples. A one-page quote is just not acceptable - you do not know what has been included or excluded. The Building and Pricing Guide features comprehensive, accurate and useful information that you can rely on. It is updated each year to ensure that all the most relevant information is always at your fingertips. For over two decades this publication has assisted contractors and clients in establishing accurate building costs. It is also used by architects, engineers, quantity surveyors, students, and government departments.
A BEST SELLER AND THE ONLY PUBLICATION OF ITS KIND IN SOUTHERN AFRICA!
Concrete Slabs CONTENTS Overview
Types of slabs
Full flow and roof outlets
IMPORTANT NOTE The information contained in this publication is based on independent research. This information is not always verified by manufacturers and suppliers and may contain some inconsistencies or errors. All information is therefore published without warranty. Information is published in good faith in an attempt to assist the building industry generally. Prices in this publication are guideline prices only, include VAT and exclude any trade discounts. Readers are advised to always contact manufacturers and suppliers for more information and current prices. CHAPTER 8 • CONCRETE SLABS • 57
OVERVIEW The discovery in the early part of the Industrial Revolution of the adhesive characteristics of Portland cement led to the widespread use of concrete; and later steel-reinforced concrete, a medium that showed considerable benefits over traditional materials such as stone, bricks and timber. In the case of double or multi-storey construction, reinforced concrete soon became the world-wide preferred medium for use in structural elements, including suspended floors. For most of the two preceding centuries solid reinforced slabs poured into formwork on site was the typical way in which such suspended slabs were constructed.
As is the case with most industries, pressure to reduce the costs of both labour and material, and the need to erect buildings in the shortest possible time have led to the derivation and application of a wide variety of methods of slab construction, many of them featuring the use of precast concrete components. This publication attempts to provide a brief overview of the characteristics and benefits of the various types of suspended slabs currently available to South African users. Courtesy of Peter Erasmus/W. Hendrikz - C. Galatis & Associates Consulting Engineers
8.1 Types of Slabs Cast insitu reinforced concrete (rc) This pioneering method of constructing suspended floor slabs is still commonly in use, the concrete slab system able to be being formed in a variety of ways depending on the type of formwork system most appropriate to the particular application. The method of construction, entails the erection of steel or/and timber formwork (essentially a mould) that allows for the creation of the most effective structural form into which the designed reinforcing steel is placed prior to the pouring of the insitu concrete. Compared with other precast systems say, cast insitu slabs require a relatively high density of vertical support below the slab thus severely restricting other building activity below the slab while it undergoes curing, usually for a minimum of 14 days after being poured. The formwork may be arranged to create a uniformly thick solid slab with a flat soffit (underside) or it may be configured for instance, to produce a profile that features a series of deeper downstanding beams with thinner slab elements supported on these beams. In this respect, Cast Insitu slabs are by far the most flexible of any of the slab systems in use, the formwork allowing for virtually any configuration, including curves, staircases, and long cantilevered (projecting) portions of slab. The solid and non-modular nature of this type of slab lends itself readily to the incorporation of services within the concrete. That having been said, the reader will understand that custom-made formwork may be very expensive, and often require the skills of highly qualified site personnel. It is for this reason that a series of standardised types of steel and timber formwork systems have been developed, and these are used mainly by larger contracting companies in the construction of commercial and industrial projects. In all instances, the soffit of the slab may be cement plastered to produce a finish suitable for painting.
Hollow core slabs (HCS) This type of system comes closest to being able to be described as a fully precast system featuring as it does reinforced or pre-stressed panels as the only component in the system. The term “hollow core” is used to describe the presence of continuous voids created while forming the panels in the off-site casting facility, the purpose of these holes to reduce the self-weight of the panel, up to 30% compared with a solid slab of the
58 • www.buildaid.co.za
same depth. As is the case with all precast concrete systems, the units are modular, available in widths of 900mm or 1200mm. Different panels vary in thickness from 120mm to 250mm, and depending on the applied load, capable of free-spanning up to 12m. The size and mass of these panels require the use of mechanical lifting, usually in the form of a mobile crane, to place them in position on the support structure. For most applications temporary propping is not required, but in some instances the panels are required to be provided with a structural concrete topping. Cost implication: Probably the most outstanding benefit of this type of system is the speed with which the panels may be placed, depending on the complexity and site access, sometimes as much as 10 times quicker that a cast insitu or other type of precast system. The incorporation of services is not as easily achieved as in the case of a cast insitu slab, but in most instances they can be accommodated. The panels form a V-groove where they abut in the soffit of the slab. In more sophisticated types of buildings this is sometimes not acceptable to Architects and a suspended ceiling is often installed to hide the appearance of the groove.
Rib and block slabs (R&B) (also referred to as “plank and block, or “beam and block”) This type of system is more accurately described as a composite precast concrete flooring system. The precast components of the slab comprise usually rectangular shaped precast reinforced or pre-stressed concrete ribs, (the tensile component) and hollow concrete blocks that fit between the ribs to form nonstructural void-formers located in the slab where the slab is redundant from a design point of view. The compressive component of the system is provided by the insitu concrete that is poured onto the precast components, the bonding of the two creating the composite slab. The concrete that covers the blocks is provided welded mesh fabric to resist the development of shrinkage cracks. The components of a Rib and Block system are light enough to allow for placing by means of manual labour. The use of void-formers in varying heights allows for the creation of composite slabs in various depths usually ranging from 170mm the 425mm, the deepest slab capable of free-spanning a maximum of 10 meters under light loading.
The Selection of Concrete Repair Materials South Africa’s infrastructure network faces the same problem as that of several other countries – a harsh sulphate and chloride-rich environment, as well as aging structures which are being over-used whilst servicing a rapidly growing population. There are a number of factors such as strength, durability, coefficient of thermal expansion, permeability, low drying shrinkage, chemical properties, and modulus of elasticity that must be considered to select the most appropriate, compatible, cost-effective repair materials. 1. Strength Bond and compressive strengths are important properties in almost all repairs and protective works. The strength of the base material and repair materials should be nearly the same or that of repair materials should be slightly higher. This is to achieve a proper and uniform flow of stress and strains through materials. Bond and compressive strengths are particularly important when identifying structural and non-structural repair applications. Knowing the difference between both is key in choosing a cost effective, durable and structurally suitable repair solution. 2. Durability The repair material needs to be durable under exposure conditions to which the defected structure is exposed. It should demonstrate adequate resistance against chemical attack and resistance to any form of energy such as ultra-violet rays and heat. Surface preparation also plays a key role in ensuring a repair carried out with a suitable mortar is durable and appropriate for the intended purpose and environment. 3. Coefficient of Thermal Expansion The repair material must have a coefficient of thermal expansion similar to that of the existing concrete to make sure that undue stresses are not transferred to the bonding interface or the substrate. Thermal incompatibility may cause failure either at the interface or within the material of lower strength, particularly for overlays. 4. Low Drying Shrinkage Due to the fact that shrinkage in the existing concrete/structure has already occurred, it is essential for repair materials to have the lowest possible drying shrinkage to ensure there is no failure between the bond of the new repair material and the underlying existing concrete surface. 5. Permeability The permeability of the repair materials should be low to prevent the penetration of aggressive substances such as carbon dioxide, water, oxygen, and industrial gases and vapours. This is to protect the reinforcement from corrosion. As a rule of thumb; the higher the compressive strength then the lower the W/C ratio. The lower the W/C ratio then the lower the permeability of the concrete. 6. Modulus of Elasticity The modulus of elasticity of the repair material must be similar to that of the existing concrete. In non-structural repairs, a lower modulus of repair material is desirable to help in the relaxation of tensile stresses induced by restrained drying shrinkage.
7. Chemical Properties A pH close to 12 (alkaline environment) of repair material is better for corrosion protection to embedded reinforcement. Otherwise, additional protection for the existing reinforcement may be provided by cathodic protection, reinforcement coatings placed directly on the reinforcement or externally placed coatings on the concrete.
MAPEI has positioned their product offering not as individual products, but as a total system solution for construction projects. The MAPEI range of repair and skimming mortars meet varying requirements and technical needs within the local construction market - giving your structure the durable finish needed to prolong and sustain the asset’s lifecycle.
8.2 Design Guidelines In situ (reinforced concrete)
Reinforced hollow core
Many in situ slabs are designed to span in two directions, with the main reinforcement running in both directions, provided sufficient lateral support exists to carry such slabs. Typically these types of slab allow greater spans and loads to be accommodated, like parking garages. Other alternatives to accommodate greater loads and spans include downstand beams and or upstand beams, although not usually used in residential buildings. Mushroom heads on columns reduce potential bearing problems (push through) of flat slabs where downstand beams need to be avoided.
Slabs are designed as simply supported ribbed slabs in the conventional manner. However they are more versatile than the prestressed slab, since longitudinal top reinforcement can be cast-in for cantilever action.
One way spanning slabs only require lateral support to the walls or columns that carry them, and since they do not bear on walls in the non-span direction, this type of slab design is used more in residential type applications, as it can allow for greater flexibility of layout/design of a typical double storey building. An alternative form of suspended slab is “a waffle slab”, or more commonly referred to as a “coffer slab”, formed by in situ concrete beams integral with the slab. Coffers are formed on the soffit by formers which are later removed; (reducing self weight), and hence the use of less concrete. Flat slabs in upper floors have been mainly used where ceilings are to be formed directly on the soffit. Coffered soffits of in situ tee beams can be found mainly where suspended ceilings are used. And more rarely where the soffit is left exposed as cast.
Prestressed hollow core Slabs are designed as simply supported pre-tensioned ribbed slabs, in accordance with the requirements of SABS 0100-1 or the appropriate National code. The prestressing force opposes the tendency to downward deflection and causes an upward camber in the units under no-load conditions. Together with the high-strength concrete employed, larger span/depth ratios can be achieved than with reinforced concrete. In lightly loaded roof slabs, for instance, span/depth ratios around 50 are not uncommon.
Rib and block Rib and block system slabs are designed as a series of ‘T’ sections with the in situ cast concrete providing the compression flange, and the precast beam the tension reinforcement. The beams and the composite slab are designed for specific spans and loads and are reinforced accordingly, (complying with the relevant National Code.) Two or more beams may be placed together to accommodate concentrated line loads parallel to the span. If necessary blocks may be omitted over the support to increase the shear capacity (called a stiffener rib).
Table 8.1 Pricing items for comprising different slab systems
Time related costs (P&G)
Hire of shuttering
Hire of support formwork
Precast material delivery to site
Beam and Block
Hollow core Reinforced
Panel and topping
º Incl. above
Fix reinforcing steel
Concrete (including placing)
Textured paint/Tyrolean finish
Erection of material Propping
º Item needs pricing • Price normally included supply and erection X - This item may need pricing
60 • www.buildaid.co.za
8.3 Void Formers • FR Grade is treated with a flame retardant and is ideal for • industrial applications where fire safety requirements must be met. As the material shrinks away from ignition sources without further burning, it is suited to exposed applications. The above are available in FR grades. • X Grade is a low-density material used mainly in void forming and packaging. • Beads and granules are used in lightweight concrete, and as fill for bean bags. Metal boxes (or slab boxes) are manufactured in different sizes to create voids in a slab for down lighters. They are positioned into the slab and the necessary tubing is done before the concrete is poured or cast.
Expanded polystyrene (EPS); can be used in various different ways: • To create different levels of the finished concrete level of a slab, especially from internal to external thresholds, or where steps are required; • Special designs in soffits of flat slabs; • Recesses (voids) for lighting or other services required in the soffit of a slab. • Sagex polystyrene is manufactured in a range of grades for a variety of applications to suit customer requirements: • 16D is used in building insulation applications as core material for panels, cold room insulation, packaging and flotation. • 24D and 32D are used in applications which require greater cross-breaking and compressive strengths, such as in floor and roof slab insulation, and where a better finish is required, such as in display applications.
Rates and Pricing Table 8.2 Pre-cast slabs
R440.00 - R460.00
R450.00 - R490.00
R510.00 - R550.00
R620.00 - R760.00
Note: All prices dependant on design, spans and loading and exclude for engineers certificates and transport Prices are a guide and you are urged to contact suppliers for updates. All the prices exclude Crane hire
Table 8.3 Insitu slabs
In-Situ Concrete Required (m³ per m²)
Nominal reinforcing required
R 11370.00/TON 0.340 60kg/m³ All prices dependant on design, spans and loading and exclude for engineers certificates and transport
Prices are a guide and you are urged to contact suppliers for updates All the prices exclude Crane hire
Table 8.4 170mm Insitu concrete installation
Temporary propping and slab erection - Decking and scaffolding Downstand/upstand beam shuttering Side shuttering and Cantilevers ( solid areas)
R270.00 m² R387/m R 166.00/m²
25Mpa Ready mix - Pump mix
Hand mix - 25Mpa
Prices exclude pump establishment and pumping rate
CHAPTER 8 • CONCRETE SLABS • 61
BUILDING AND PRICING GUIDE
N AVA OW ILB LE
CALCULATING BUILDING COSTS ACCURATELY AND QUOTING REMAINS A CHALLENGE. Consumers generally do not understand the complexities of quoting and often rely on m2 building rates. A quotation should include every possible resource required to build a structure with quantities and related prices. This includes labour, material, and specialist installations. If quotations are presented in this manner the consumer can compare apples with apples. A one-page quote is just not acceptable - you do not know what has been included or excluded. The Building and Pricing Guide features comprehensive, accurate and useful information that you can rely on. It is updated each year to ensure that all the most relevant information is always at your fingertips. For over two decades this publication has assisted contractors and clients in establishing accurate building costs. It is also used by architects, engineers, quantity surveyors, students, and government departments.
HERE CLICK HASE RC ! TO PU COPY R U O Y
A BEST SELLER AND THE ONLY PUBLICATION OF ITS KIND IN SOUTHERN AFRICA!