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Illusion table of content

ILLUSION 1 me and my investigation 5 what is beauty? -theories of kant 23 beauty ideals - past and present 37 Does the media brainwash beauty ideals into us? 47 the golden ratio - what is the golden ratio? - my interpration 59 Experimental Typography - my own fontbibliography 67 what about plastic surgery? - objectification and pornography


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Illusion

Me and my investigation


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Illusion me and my investigation

Together with the people of my class we have chosen two themes: illusion and error. We could chose between the two and I chose illusion. With our own group we’ve done some research about illusion in all kinds of ways. This gave us a global view of illusion and all its ramifications. Then I specified my own research in beauty. I think it’s really fascinating to know what we consider as beauty and so I ended up reading the theories of Immanuel Kant. Kant concludes that our taste is subjective. Feelings of pleasure and displeasure are results from empirical judgement. He speaks of beauty and the sublime ; beauty as organized and the sublime as chaos. Kant claims that we never know with certainty whether our aesthetic evaluation has a truth value. I also compared beauty ideals of the past and the present, like Audrey Hepburn and Kate Moss, because they are considerate as perfection. This brought me to the subject of the golden ratio. The Golden ratio is a term used throughout the years. It’s dated from the times of Plato and Fibonacci to nowadays’ plastic surgery. I did a little experiment and I bought a lot of fashion magazines. Then I took my scissors and I cut all the heads out. Eventually, my scissors found a pattern. By doing this experiment, I concluded to make experimental work, books, posters, and cards next semester.


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“BEAUTY IS NOT AN IDEAL OF REASON, BUT OF IMAGINATION.” - I.KANT


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Illusion

what is beauty?


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AESTHE


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Illusion what is beauty?

ETICS An aesthetic judgment, in Kant’s usage, is a judgment which is based on feeling, and in particular on the feeling of pleasure or displeasure. According to Kant’s official view there are three kinds of aesthetic judgment: judgments of the agreeable, judgments of beauty (or, equivalently, judgments of taste), and judgments of the sublime. However, Kant often uses the expression “aesthetic judgment” in a narrower sense which excludes judgments of the agreeable, and it is with aesthetic judgments in this narrower sense that the “Critique of Aesthetic Judgment” is primarily concerned. Such judgments can either be, or fail to be, “pure”; while Kant mostly focusses on the ones which are pure, there are reasons to think that most judgments about art (as opposed to nature) do not count as pure, so that it is important to understand Kant’s views on such judgments as well.The “Critique of Aesthetic Judgment” is concerned not only with judgments of the beautiful and the sublime, but also with the production of objects about which such judgments are appropriately made; this topic is discussed under the headings of “fine art” or “beautiful art” [schöne Kunst] and “genius.”The most distinctive part of Kant’s aesthetic theory, and the part which has aroused most interest among commentators, is his account of judgments of beauty, and, more specifically, pure judgments of beauty.


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THE JUDGEMEN In the “Analytic of the Beautiful” with which the “Critique of Aesthetic Judgment” begins, Kant tries to capture what is distinctive about judgments of beauty by describing them under four heads or “moments.” These are as follows: First Moment Judgments of beauty are based on feeling, in particular feelings of pleasure (Kant also mentions displeasure, but this does not figure prominently in his account; for more on this point, see Section 2.3.6 below). The pleasure, however, is of a distinctive kind: it is disinterested, which means that it does not depend on the subject’s having a desire for the object, nor does it generate such a desire. The fact that judgments of beauty are based on feeling rather than “objective sensation” (e.g., the sensation of a thing’s colour) distinguishes them from cognitive judgments based on perception (e.g., the judgment that a thing is green). But the disinterested character of the feeling distinguishes them from other judgments based on feeling. In particular, it distinguishes them from (i) judgments of the agreeable, which are the kind of judgment expressed by saying simply that one likes something or finds it pleasing (for example, food or drink), and (ii) judgments of the good, including judgments both about the moral goodness of something and about its goodness for particular non-moral ends. Second Moment Judgments of beauty have, or make a claim to, “universality” or “universal validity.” That is, in making a judgment of beauty about an object, one takes it that everyone else who perceives the object ought also to judge it to be beautiful, and, relatedly, to share one’s pleasure in it. But the universality is not “based on concepts.” That is, one’s claim to agreement does not rest on the subsumption of the object under a concept (as for example, the claim to agreement made by the judgment that something is green rests on the ascription to the object of the property of being green, and hence its subsumption under the concept green). Relatedly, judgments of beauty cannot, despite their universal validity, be proved: there are no rules by which someone can be compelled to judge that something is beautiful. The fact that judgments of beauty are universally valid constitutes a further feature (in addition to the disinterestedness of the pleasure on which they are based) distinguishing them from judgments of agreeable. For in claiming simply that one likes something, one does not claim that everyone else ought to like it too. But the fact that their universal validity is not based on concepts distinguishes judgments of beauty from non-evaluative cognitive judgments and judgments of the good, both of which make a claim to universal validity that is based on concepts. It should be noted that later, in the “Antinomy of Taste,” Kant does describe the universality of judgments of beauty as resting on a concept, but it is an “indeterminate concept,” and not the kind of concept which figures in cognition. Third Moment Unlike judgments of the good, judgments of the beautiful do not presuppose an end or purpose [Zweck] which the object is taken to satisfy. (This is closely related to the point that their universality is not based on concepts). However, they nonetheless involve the representation of what Kant calls “purposiveness” [Zweckmässigkeit]. Because this representation of purposiveness does not involve the ascription of an end, Kant calls the purposiveness which is represented “merely formal purposiveness” or “the form of purposiveness.” He describes it as perceived both in the object itself and in the activity of imagination and understanding in their engagement with the object. (For more on this activity, see the discussion of the “free play of the faculties” in


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Illusion what is beauty?

NT OF BEAUTY Section 2.2; for more on the notion of purposiveness, see Section 3.1). Fourth Moment Judgments of beauty involve reference to the idea of necessity, in the following sense: in taking my judgment of beauty to be universally valid, I take it, not that everyone who perceives the object will share my pleasure in it and (relatedly) agree with my judgment, but that everyone ought to do so. I take it, then, that my pleasure stands in a “necessary” relation to the object which elicits it, where the necessity here can be described (though Kant himself does not use the term) as normative. But, as in the case of universal validity, the necessity is not based on concepts or rules (at least, not concepts or rules that are determinate, that is, of a kind which figure in cognition; as noted earlier in this section, Kant describes it, in the Antinomy of Taste, as resting on an indeterminate concept). Kant characterizes the necessity more positively by saying that it is “exemplary,” in the sense that one’s judgment itself serves as an example of how everyone ought to judge.


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HOW ARE JUDG ABOUT BEAUTY Running through Kant’s various characterizations of judgments of beauty is a basic dichotomy between two apparently opposed sets of features. On the one hand, judgments of beauty are based on feeling, they do not depend on subsuming the object under a concept (in particular, the concept of an end which such an object is supposed to satisfy), and they cannot be proved. This combination of features seems to suggest that judgments of beauty should be assimilated to judgments of the agreeable. On the other hand, however, judgments of beauty are unlike judgments of the agreeable in not involving desire for the object; more importantly and centrally, they make a normative claim to everyone’s agreement. These features seem to suggest that they should be assimilated, instead, to objective cognitive judgments. In claiming that judgments of beauty have both sets of features, Kant can be seen as reacting equally against the two main opposing traditions in eighteenth-century aesthetics: the “empiricist” tradition of aesthetics represented by Hume, Hutcheson and Burke, on which a judgment of beauty is an expression of feeling without cognitive content, and the “rationalist” tradition of aesthetics represented by Baumgarten and Meier, on which a judgment of beauty consists in the cognition of an object as having an objective property. Kant’s insistence that there is an alternative to these two views, one on which judgments of beauty are both based on feeling and make a claim to universal validity, is probably the most distinctive aspect of his aesthetic theory. But this insistence confronts him with the obvious problem of how the two features, or sets of features, are to be reconciled. As Kant puts it: “how is a judgment possible which, merely from one’s own feeling of pleasure in an object, independent of its concept, judges this pleasure as attached to the representation of the same object in every other subject, and does so a priori, i.e., without having to wait for the assent of others?” (§36, 288)The argument constituting Kant’s official answer to this question is presented in the section entitled “Deduction of Pure Aesthetic Judgments,” in particular in §38, but versions of the argument are presented in the “Analytic of the Beautiful,” in particular in §9 and §22. The argument in all of its forms relies on the claim, introduced in §9, that pleasure in the beautiful depends on the “free play” or “free harmony” of the faculties of imagination and understanding. In the Critique of Pure Reason, imagination is described as “synthesizing the manifold of intuition” under the governance of rules that are prescribed by the understanding: the outcome of this is cognitive perceptual experience of objects as having specific empirical

features. The rules prescribed by the understanding, are, or correspond to, particular concepts which are applied to the object. For example, when a manifold is synthesized in accordance with the concepts green and square, the outcome is a perceptual experience in which the object is perceived as green and square. But now in the Critique of Judgment, Kant suggests that imagination and understanding can stand in a different kind of relationship, one in which imagination’s activity harmonizes with the understanding but without imagination’s being constrained or governed by understanding. In this relationship, imagination and understanding in effect do what is ordinarily involved in the bringing of objects under concepts, and hence in the perception of objects as having empirical features: but they do this without bringing the object under any concept in particular. So rather than perceiving the object as green or square, the subject whose faculties are in free play responds to it perceptually with a state of mind which is non-conceptual, and specifically a feeling of disinterested pleasure. It is this kind of pleasure which is the basis for a judgment of beauty. Kant appeals to this account of pleasure in the beautiful in order to argue for its universal communicability: to argue, that is, that a subject who feels such a pleasure, and thus judges the object to be beautiful, is entitled to demand that everyone else feel a corresponding pleasure and thus agree with her judgment of beauty. For, he claims, the free play of the faculties manifests the subjective condition of cognition in general (see for example §9, 218; §21, 238; §38, 290). We are entitled to claim that everyone ought to agree with our cognitions: if I perceive an object to be green and square, I am entitled to claim that everyone else ought to perceive it as green and square. But for this demand for agreement to be possible, he suggests, it must also be possible for me to demand universal agreement for the subjective condition of such cognitions. If I can take it that everyone ought to share my perception of an object as green or square, then I must also be entitled to take it that everyone ought to share a perception of the object in which my faculties are in free play, since the free play is no more than a manifestation of what is in general required for an object’s being perceived as green or square in the first place. The most serious objection to Kant’s argument can be put in the form of a dilemma; see for example Guyer (1979, p. 297), Meerbote (1982, pp. 81ff.) , Allison (2001, pp. 184-192), Rind (2002). Either the free play of the faculties is involved in all cognitive perceptual experience, or it is not. If it is not, then the central inference does not seem to go through. From the fact that I can


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Illusion what is beauty?

GEMENTS Y POSSIBLE? demand agreement for my experience of an object as, say, green or square, it does not follow that I can demand agreement for a state in which my faculties are in free play, since the free play is not required for experiencing an object as green or square. But if it is involved in all cognitive perceptual experience, then it would seem that every object should be perceived as beautiful, and this is plainly not the case. A number of commentators have taken this objection, or considerations related to it, to be fatal to Kant’s claim that judgments of beauty are universally valid: see for example Meerbote (cited earlier in this paragraph) and Guyer 1979, pp. 319-324. Indeed, at least one commentator has taken the apparent weakness of Kant’s argument as an indication that Kant does not intend it to provide a complete answer to the question of how judgments of beauty are possible, but that he means instead to ground the possibility of such judgments on morality rather than on the conditions of cognition (Elliott [1968]; see also Section 2.3.4 below). But the argument has been defended by Ameriks (1982) (see also Section 2.3.5 below) and Allison (cited earlier in this paragraph); moreover Guyer (2003a, p. 60n.15) has recently expressed some doubt about his earlier (1979) rejection of the argument. The assessment of the objection just noted, and of Kant’s “deduction of taste” more generally, is complicated by a number of fundamental interpretive issues, which are discussed in the next section.


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JUDGEMENTS INTERPRETIV This section describes six issues which have arisen in connection with Kant’s account of pure judgments of beauty, and which are relevant to the assessment of his argument for the possibility of such judgments. There is an extensive secondary literature on these and related issues. Some references to this literature are given below; a useful source of further references is Allison (2001), which in addition to offering a distinctive interpretation of Kant’s aesthetics, also provides an extensive guide to recent discussions. Pleasure and Judgment. What is the relation between the feeling of pleasure and the judgment that the object is beautiful? Kant describes the judgment of beauty as “based on” a feeling of pleasure, and as claiming that everyone ought to share the subject’s feeling of pleasure, or, as he puts it, as claiming the “universal communicability” of the pleasure. This seems to imply that the pleasure is felt antecedently to the judgment of beauty. But in the crucial §9, which Kant describes as providing “the key to the critique of taste,” Kant suggests that the opposite is the case: the “merely subjective (aesthetic) judging of the object” both “precedes” and “is the ground of” the pleasure (218). Crawford addresses this apparent paradox by distinguishing the “judging” of the object which, according to §9, precedes the pleasure in it, from the judgment of beauty proper, which is based on the pleasure (1974, pp. 69-74). A distinction of this kind is developed in detail by Guyer, who draws on passages elsewhere in the text to defend the view that a judgment of beauty results from two distinct acts of reflecting judgment, the first identifiable with the free play of the faculties and resulting in a feeling of pleasure, the second an act of reflection on the pleasure which results in the claim that the pleasure is universally communicable. (See his 1979, especially pp. 110-119 and pp. 151-160; for a related discussion of the “key to the critique of taste,” see his 1982). While most commentators read the relevant paragraphs of §9 as requiring some kind of distinction along these lines, an alternative reading is offered by Ginsborg (see especially 1990, ch. 1, and 1991), who takes the judgment of beauty to involve a single, self-referential act of judging which claims its own universal validity with respect to the object and which is phenomenologically manifested in a feeling of pleasure. This view, like that of Aquila (1982), implies that the pleasure is not felt antecedently to the judgment of beauty but is, rather, identical with it. The issue raised by §9 is further discussed in Allison (2001, pp. 110-118) and in a recent symposium on Allison’s book (Longuenesse 2003, Ginsborg 2003 and Allison 2003); see also Longuenesse (forthcoming).


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Illusion what is beauty?

OF BEAUTY: VE ISSUES The Free Play of Imagination and Understanding. What is it for the faculties to be in “free play”? Kant describes the imagination in the free play as conforming to the general conditions for the application of concepts to objects that are presented to our senses, yet without any particular concept being applied. Because of Kant’s view that concepts are, or at least correspond to, rules by which imagination “synthesizes” or organizes the data of sense-perception, this amounts to saying that imagination functions in a rule-governed way but without being governed by any rule in particular. The free play thus manifests, in Kant’s terms, “free lawfulness” or “lawfulness without a law.” But there is an apparent paradox in these characterizations which is left unaddressed by Kant’s own, largely metaphorical, explanations. It is left to commentators to try to explain how such an activity is intelligible and why, if it is indeed intelligible, it should give rise to, or be experienced as, a feeling of pleasure. Some commentators try to make sense of the free play by appealing to the phenomenology of aesthetic experience, for example to the kind of experience involved in appreciating an abstract painting, where the subject might imaginatively relate the various elements of the painting to one another and perceive them as having an order and unity which is no conceptual; see for example Bell (1987, p. 237) and Crowther (1989, p. 56). Others try to find a place for it in the context of Kant’s theory of the imagination as presented in the Critique of Pure Reason. Two contrasting accounts along these lines are those of Guyer, who identifies the free play with the first two stages of the “three-fold synthesis” described by Kant in the first edition Transcendental Deduction (Guyer 1979, pp. 85-86), and of Makkreel (1990, pp. 49-58), for whom the free play is an activity of schematizing pure concepts without the involvement of empirical concepts. While there have been a great variety of accounts suggested in recent years (for a partial survey, see Guyer forthcoming), they almost all share the assumption that the free play is distinct from the judgment of beauty. This assumption, however, is rejected by Ginsborg, who identifies the free play as a non-conceptual mental state which involves a claim to its own universal communicability with respect to the object (1997); this means, on her reading, that it is to be identified with the judgment of beauty. The Intentionality of the Pleasure. Does the feeling of pleasure in a judgment of beauty have intentional content? According to Guyer, the answer is no (see especially 1979, pp. 99-119). Although Kant sometimes describes pleasure as awareness of the free play of the faculties, Guyer takes the relation


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between the free play and the feeling of pleasure to be merely causal. The pleasure is “opaque”: while one can come to recognize that one’s feeling of pleasure is due to the free play, this is not because the pleasure makes one immediately aware of it, but rather because reflection on the causal history of one’s pleasure can lead one to conclude that it was not sensory or due to the satisfaction of a desire and hence (by elimination) must have been due to the free play. While many commentors follow Guyer on this point, opposing views have been taken by e.g., Aquila (1982), Ginsborg (1990, ch. 1, and 1991), Allison (2001, in particular pp. 53-54, p. 69 and pp. 122-123) and Zuckert (2002). The Character of the Claim to Agreement. What kind of claim to agreement is made by a judgment of beauty? Kant says that a judgment of beauty demands agreement in the same way that an objective cognitive judgment demands agreement (see e.g., Introduction VII, 191 and §6, 211). But one might still raise a question about the character of the demand, either because there is a question about what it is for a cognitive judgment to claim agreement, or because it is not clear that the claim can in fact be the same, given that in the aesthetic case one is claiming that others share one’s feeling. Guyer 1979 argues that the claim should be understood as a rational expectation or ideal prediction: someone who judges an object to be beautiful is claiming that under ideal circumstances everyone will share her pleasure (1979, pp. 139-147 and pp. 162-164). Rogerson (1982) criticizes the rational expectation interpretation, arguing instead that a judgment of beauty makes a moral demand on others to appreciate the object’s beauty. A third option is that the demand is genuinely normative (as opposed to predictive), yet without being a moral demand. This option is developed and defended in Rind (2000); it is also assumed, with varying degrees of explicitness, by a number of other commentators, including Allison (2001; see especially p. 159 and pp. 178-179). The question of whether the demand is a moral one has immediate implications for how Kant’s argument for the universal validity of judgments of beauty is to be understood. Most commentators understand it along the lines sketched in 2.1 above, as relying only on assumptions about the conditions of cognition. But some commentators, for example Elliott (1968), Crawford (1974), Rogerson (1986) and Kemal (1986) have taken an appeal to morality to play a central role in the argument.


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Illusion what is beauty?

Is Beauty Objective? Should judgments of beauty be regarded as objective? Ameriks has argued (1982, 1983) that in spite of Kant’s claim that judgments of beauty are “subjectively grounded,” they are nonetheless objective in the same sense that judgments of colour and other secondary qualities are objective. Similar views are proposed by Savile (1981) and Kulenkampff (1990); see also the references offered by Ameriks at (2003, 307n.1). The claim is challenged by Ginsborg (1998); for discussion see Ameriks (1998, 2000) and Allison (2001, 128-129). Negative Judgments of Beauty. Kant’s discussion of judgments of beauty focuses almost exclusively on the positive judgment that an object is beautiful, and relatable, of the feeling of pleasure in a beautiful object. He has very little to say about the judgment that an object is not beautiful, or about the displeasure associated with judging an object to be ugly. (As noted in Section 2.7 below, he does take the appreciation of the sublime to involve a kind of displeasure, but this seems to be a different kind from the displeasure that might be involved in judging something to be ugly.) Does his treatment allow for negative judgments of beauty, either that an object is not beautiful or that is ugly? The importance of the question has been emphasized by Allison (2001), who takes it to be a criterion for a satisfactory interpretation of Kant’s theory of taste that it allow for negative judgments of beauty (2001, p. 72; see also pp. 184-186); others who have emphasized the need to consider the role of the ugly in Kant’s account of aesthetics include Hudson (1991) and Wenzel (1999). Some commentators have denied that Kant acknowledges the possibility of such judgments (for references, see the endnotes to Allison 2001, pp. 184-186; Guyer 2005a, ch. 7). another view is that while Kant allows for them, they should not be treated symmetrically with positive judgments of beauty (Ginsborg 2004).


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JUDGEMENTS SOME CRITIC


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Illusion what is beauty?

OF BEAUTY: CISMS Kant’s account of judgments of beauty has been criticized on the grounds that the argument for their universal validity, that is the Deduction of Pure Aesthetic Judgments, is unsuccessful. Criticisms have also been raised against various aspects of Kant’s characterization of judgments of beauty in the Analytic of the Beautiful. Objections have been raised in particular to Kant’s view that judgments of beauty are disinterested, and to his supposed commitment to aesthetic formalism (the view that all that matters for aesthetic appreciation is the abstract formal pattern manifested by the object, that is, the way in which its elements are interrelated in space and/or time). For discussion of the questions of disinterestedness and formalism, see Guyer (1979, chs. 5 and 6), and on the question of formalism, ch. 6) and Allison (2001, chs. 4 and 5). Typically objections to Kant’s view of pleasure as disinterested appeal to the apparently obvious fact that we do in fact take an interest in the preservation of beautiful objects (see for example Crawford 1974, p. 53). For a different kind of objection based on an appeal to the cognitive role of aesthetic judging, see Pillow (forthcoming).Kant has also been criticized for a view that is taken to be a consequence of the thesis that judgments of beauty are disinterested, namely the view that aesthetic experience requires a special attitude of “psychical distance” or “detachment” from the object appreciated: this criticism is generally taken to be implicit in Dickie’s well-known (1964) discussion of the “myth of the aesthetic attitude.” Zangwill (1992) argues that this criticism is misplaced.Kant’s view that the pleasure in a beautiful object is non-conceptual has been taken to commit him to the objectionable view that the capacity to make conceptual distinctions can play no role in the appreciation of beauty. This criticism is addressed by Janaway (1997).


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FREE AND BEAUTY


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ADHERENT This article so far has been concerned only with “pure” judgments of beauty. But Kant also allows for judgments of beauty which fall short of being pure. Judgments of beauty can fail to be pure in two ways. (a) They can be influenced by the object’s sensory or emotional appeal, that is, they can involve “charm” [Reiz] or emotion. (b) They can be contingent on a certain concept’s applying to the object, so that the object is judged, not as beautiful tout court, but as beautiful qua belonging to this or that kind. The second kind of impurity is discussed in §16 in connection with a distinction between “free” [frei] beauty and “adherent” or “dependent” [anhängend] beauty.The distinction is important because Kant suggests that all judgments of beauty about representational art are judgments of adherent rather than of free beauty, and hence that they are all impure. While some art works can be “free beauties,” the examples Kant gives are all of non-representational art: “designs a la grecque, foliage for borders or on wallpaper…fantasias in music,” and indeed, Kant adds, all music without a text (§16, 229). It might be supposed from this that Kant’s core account of judgments of beauty is only peripherally applicable to art, which would make it largely irrelevant to the concerns of contemporary aesthetics. However, this consequence is debatable. For example, Allison argues that judgments of dependent beauty contain, as a component, a pure judgment of beauty. The purity of this core judgment is not undermined by its figuring in a more complex evaluation which takes into account the object’s falling under a concept (2001, pp. 140-141).Kant’s suggestion that representational art has “adherent” rather than “free” beauty, and that judgments about such art fail to be pure, might also invite the objection that Kant takes nonrepresentational art to be superior to representational art, so that, say, wallpaper designs are aesthetically more valuable than the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. This objection is challenged by Schaper (1978, ch. 4, reprinted in Guyer 2003) and by Guyer (2005a, chs. 4 and 5).


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THE SU Kant distinguishes two notions of the sublime: the mathematically sublime and the dynamically sublime. In the case of both notions, the experience of the sublime consists in a feeling of the superiority of our own power of reason, as a supersensible faculty, over nature (§28, 261).In the case of the mathematically sublime, the feeling of reason’s superiority over nature takes the form, more specifically, of a feeling of reason’s superiority to imagination, conceived of as the natural capacity required for sensory apprehension, including the apprehension of the magnitudes of empirically given things. We have this feeling when we are confronted with something that is so large that it overwhelms imagination’s capacity to comprehend it. In such a situation imagination strives to comprehend the object in accordance with a demand of reason, but fails to do so. “Just because there is in our imagination a striving to advance to the infinite, while in our reason there lies a claim to absolute totality, as to a real idea, the very inadequacy of our faculty for estimating the magnitude of the things in the sensible world [viz., imagination] awakens the feeling of a supersensible faculty in us” (§25, 250). The fact that we are capable, through reason, of thinking infinity as a whole, “indicates a faculty of the mind which surpasses every standard of sense” (§26, 254). While Kant’s discussion of the mathematically sublime mentions, apparently as examples, the Pyramids in Egypt and St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome (§26, 252), he claims that the most appropriate examples are of things in nature. More specifically, they must be natural things the concept of which does not involve the idea of an end (§26, 252-253): this rules out animals, the concept of which is connected with the idea of biological function, but it apparently includes mountains and the sea (§26, 256).In the case of the dynamically sublime, the feeling of reason’s superiority to nature is more direct than in the mathematical case. Kant says that we consider nature as “dynamically sublime” when we consider it as “a power that has no dominion over us” (§28, 260). We have the feeling of the dynamically sublime when we experience nature as fearful while knowing ourselves to be in a position of safety and hence without in fact being afraid. In this situation “the irresistibility of [nature’s] power certainly makes us, considered as natural beings, recognize our physical powerlessness, but at the same time it reveals a capacity for judging ourselves as independent of nature and a superiority over nature…whereby the humanity in our person remains undemeaned even though the human being must submit to that dominion” (§28, 261-262). Kant’s examples include overhanging cliffs, thunder clouds, volcanoes and hurricanes (§28, 261).The feeling associated with the sublime is a feeling of pleasure in the superiority of our reason over nature, but it also involves displeasure. In the case of the mathematically sublime, the displeasure comes from the awareness of the inadequacy of our imagination; in the dynamical case it comes from the awareness of our physical powerlessness in the face of nature’s might. Kant is not consistent in his descriptions of how the pleasure and the displeasure are related, but one characterization describes them as alternating: the “movement of the mind” in the representation of the sublime “may be compared to a vibration, i.e., to a rapidly alternating repulsion from and attraction to one and the same object” (§27, 258). Kant also describes the feeling of the sublime as a “pleasure which is possible only by means of a displeasure” (§27, 260) and as a “negative liking” (General Remark following §29, 269). He also appears to identify it with the feeling of respect, which in his practical philosophy is associated with recognition of the moral law (§27, 257).Judgments of the sublime are like judgments of beauty in being based on feeling, more specifically on pleasure or liking. They are also like judgments of beauty in claiming the universal validity of the pleasure, where that claim is understood as involving necessity (everyone who perceives the object ought to share the feeling) (§29, 266). But as we have seen, the pleasure is different in that it involves a negative element. The following differences


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Illusion what is beauty?

UBLIME should also be noted:(particularly emphasized by Kant) In making a judgment of the sublime, we regard the object as “contrapurposive,” rather than purposive, for the faculties of imagination and judgment (§23, 245). While judgments of the sublime do involve the representation of purposiveness, the purposiveness differs from that involved in a judgment of beauty in two ways. (a) It is not the object, but the aesthetic judgment itself which is represented as purposive. (b) The aesthetic judgment is represented as purposive not for imagination or judgment, but for reason (§27, 260) or for the “whole vocation of the mind” (§27, 259). The claim to universal validity made by a judgment of the sublime rests, not on the universal validity of the conditions of cognition, but rather on the universal validity of moral feeling (§29, 255-256). While we can correctly call objects beautiful, we cannot properly call them sublime (§23, 245); sublimity strictly speaking “is not contained in anything in nature, but only in our mind” (§28, 264). While judgments of beauty involve a relation between the faculties of imagination and understanding, the faculties brought into relation in a judgment of the sublime are imagination and reason (§29, 266). The importance of the sublime within Kant’s aesthetic theory is a matter of dispute. In the Introductions to the Critique of Judgment, Kant has a great deal to say about the beautiful, but mentions the sublime only fleetingly (FI XII, 249-250) and in the Analytic of the Sublime itself he notes that “the concept of the sublime in nature is far from being as important and rich in consequences as that of its beauty” and that the “theory of the sublime is a mere appendix to the aesthetic judging of the purposiveness of nature” (§23, 246). Kant’s views about the sublime also appear to be less historically distinctive than his views about the beautiful, showing in particular the influence of Burke. On the other hand, Kant’s account of the sublime has been influential in literary theory (see Section 2.9 below), and the sublime also plays a significant role in Kant’s account of the connection between aesthetic judgment and morality (see Section 2.5 below).


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“WHAT IS BEAUTIFUL IS GOOD, AND WHAT IS GOOD WILL SOON BE BEAUTYFUL.” - SAPPHO


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Illusion

Beauty ideals


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Illusion Beauty ideals

BEAUTY IDEALS FROM PREHISTORY TO ROARING TWENTIES.


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PREHISTORY

GREEK AND ROMAN

VENUS FIGURE

BIG CURVES

FIRM HIPS

BIG BUTT

BIG BREASTS

BEAUTY IS GODLINESS

DISCOBOLUS

YOUTHFUL AND CURVY

MOTHERHOOD

SLIM WAISTE

WHITE MAKE-UP


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Illusion Beauty ideals

GOLDEN RATIO

MIDDLE AGES

PYTHAGORAS

BEAUTY AND MATHS

1.61803399

SYMMETRIC

PROPORTIONED

RELIGION

BEAUTY = SIN ASCETIC

SMALL BREASTS LOCATED HIGHER

ROUND BELLY

LILY WHITE BLOND HAIR

WIDE HIPS BIG BUTT


28 BAROQUE AND ROCOCO

RENAISSANCE

SMALL BREASTS HIGHER LOCATED

V - SHAPE

SLIM WAISTE WIDE HIPS

FOREHEAD

BLONDE HAIR WHITE SKIN

CHUBBY = WEALTH

PALE SKIN SMALL BREASTS

BLUE MAKE-UP = BLUE BLOOD

ROCOCO = PETITE

ROCOCO = CORSET


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Illusion Beauty ideals

FIN DE SIECLE

ROARING TWENTIES

HIGH WAISTE

STRAPPRED BODY

BUTT = NOT IMPORTANT

MORE NATURAL STRAPPED BODY

FOCUS ON BREASTS AND BUTT

OPPOSITION AGAINST IDEALS

BOYISH FIGURE

TIED BREASTS SHORT HAIR

MARILYN MONROE TWIGGY

SKINNY = NEW IDEAL


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AND WHAT ABOUT THE BEAUTY IDEALS OF NOWADAYS?


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“A MOMENT ON THE LIPS, FOREVER ON THE HIPS.”


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“AN APPLE A DAY KEEPS THE FAT AWAY.”


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“CINEMA, RADIO, TELEVISION, MAGAZINES ARE A SCHOOL OF INATTENTION: PEOPLE LOOK WITHOUT SEEING, LISTEN WITHOUT HEARING.” - R. Bresson


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Does the media brainwash beauty ideals into us?


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INFLUENCE OF ME

According to Leonard Eron, senior research scientist at the University of Michigan, “Television alone is responsible for 10 percent of youth violence.� This is only 10 percent, and not including the effect it has on body image, sexuality and eating disorders. Youth everywhere are being influenced by magazines and movies on television, and not in good way. Each movie or magazine depicts some sort of image for the youth to imitate.


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Illusion Brainwash of media

EDIA ON BEAUTY. What is the proper definition of “Beauty”? The women displayed on television everyday are young, tall and thin. This description reminds me of a Barbie doll. Fat, short and old are not seen as very attractive characteristics. It very rarely is someone with those qualities described as beautiful. Because of the women on television, girls everywhere worry about losing those extra 10 pounds, wearing those nice shiny heals to look taller, or putting on that extra make-up to look younger. According to media activist Jean Kilbourne, “Women are sold to the diet industry by the magazines we read and the television programs we watch, almost all of which make us feel anxious about our weight.” Excessive exercise and dieting have been over-advertised in newspapers, commercials, and magazines, causing women to be more self-conscious about their body. These women then try to compete, with the assumption that they will attract more men that way. We owe most of this to the film industry for showing all beautiful women as the skinny, Barbie-like ones. Canadian researcher Gregory Fouts reports that, “Over three-quarters of the female characters in TV situation comedies are underweight, and only one in twenty are above average in size.”The disturbing part of this is that no matter how hard many women try to achieve that level of “beauty,” only a small percentage succeed, causing the rest more harm that good. Research shows that if a girl did look like a Barbie doll, she would not last very long. Her body would not be able to support itself from how thin it is, and she would die.In addition, movies show that the “fat” woman is ugly and hurtful comments such as, “Why don’t you just wear a sack?” are used. These, meant to hurt the person’s feelings, are unintentionally giving the audience ideas that there is something wrong with being a little on the heavy side.Not only that, but heavy women are rejected from certain jobs because of how they look, such as television broadcasting. If a woman is not thin, they do not hire her, telling her she will discourage the audience from watching. The “thin woman” standard is not only used for broadcasting, but for selling food and cars. The usual advertisement for cars has a woman leaning on it, wearing immodest clothing. The same woman is also the waitress that serves that great new plate.As long as movies and shows display “thin, beautiful” women, girls everywhere will continue to harm themselves through binge-eating, anorexia and excessive exercise without realizing it. Girls will lose whatever self-esteem they have and their character will become shallow to the point where all that matters is looking good, rather than having a good personality.


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“BEAUTY IS IN THE

WHAT IS MEANT?


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EYE OF THE BEHOLDER�

Simply, many people see beauty in many different ways. This becomes a complex question when faced with different views and opinions of what the definition of beauty is or consist of. Culture plays an integral part of how individuals and society defines beauty within their cultural boundaries. Beauty in China can mean differently in India. As we look through different cultures and time periods, we see that beauty comes in all distinct shapes and sizes. While that may be the case, the majority can agree that beauty always identifies a person.


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““GEOMETRY HAS TWO GREAT TREASURES: ONE IS THE THEOREM OF PYTHAGORAS; THE OTHER, THE DIVISION OF A LINE INTO EXTREME AND MEAN RATIO. THE FIRST WE MAY COMPARE TO A MEASURE OF GOLD; THE SECOND WE MAY NAME A PRECIOUS JEWEL.” - Johannes Kepler


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The Golden Ratio


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PHIDIAS (490–430 BC) made the Parthenon statues that seem to embody the golden ratio.

PLATO

(427–347 BC) in his Timaeus, describes five possible regular solids (the Platonic solids: the tetrahedron, cube, octahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron), some of which are related to the golden ratio.

EUCLID

FIBONACCI (1170–1250) Mentioned the numerical series now named after him in his Liber Abaci; the ratio of sequential elements of the Fibonacci sequence approaches the golden ratio asymptotically.

(c. 325–c. 265 BC) In his Elements, gave the first recorded definition of the golden ratio, which he called, as translated into English, “extreme and mean ratio”.

PACIOLI

(1445–1517) Defines the golden ratio as the “divine proportion” in his Divina Proportione.

C. BONNET

(1720–1793) Points out that in the spiral phyllotaxis of plants going clockwise and counter-clockwise were frequently two successive Fibonacci series.


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Illusion The Golden Ratio

In mathematics and the arts, two quantities are in the golden ratio if the ratio of the sum of the quantities to the larger quantity is equal to the ratio of the larger quantity irrational mathematical constant, approximately 1.61803398874989.Other names frequently used for the golden ratio are the golden section (Latin: sectio aurea) and golden mean. Other terms encountered include extreme and mean ratio, medial section, divine proportion, divine section (Latin: sectio divina), golden proportion, golden cut, golden number, and mean of Phidias. In this article the golden ratio is denoted by the Greek lowercase letter phi, while its reciprocal. At least since the Renaissance, many artists and architects have proportioned their works to approximate the golden ratio—especially in the form of the golden rectangle, in which the ratio of the longer side to the shorter is the golden ratio—believing this proportion to be aesthetically pleasing (see Applications and observations below). Mathematicians have studied the golden ratio because of its unique and interesting properties. The golden ratio is also used in the analysis of financial markets, in strategies such as Fibonacci retracement.


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J. KEPLER

(1571–1630) Proves that the golden ratio is the limit of the ratio of consecutive Fibonacci numbers,[18] and describes the golden ratio as a “precious jewel”: “Geometry has two great treasures: one is the Theorem of Pythagoras, and the other the division of a line into extreme and mean ratio; the first we may compare to a measure of gold, the second we may name a precious jewel.” These two treasures are combined in the Kepler triangle.

M. OHM

(1792–1872) Is believed to be the first to use the term goldener Schnitt (golden section) to describe this ratio, in 1835.

E. LUCAS

(1842–1891) Gives the numerical sequence now known as the Fibonacci sequence its present name.

M.BARR

(20th century) Suggests the Greek letter phi, the initial letter of Greek sculptor Phidias’s name, as a symbol for the golden ratio.

R. PENROSE (b.1931) Discovered a symmetrical pattern that uses the golden ratio in the field of aperiodic tilings, which led to new discoveries about quasicrystals.


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Phi is a mysterious number which has some related quantities and shapes, and it appears in the proportions of the human body, and other animals’, in plants, in DNA, in solar system, in art and architecture, in music, etc. Nevertheless, it had been debated on whether or not it is a natural beauty-maker ever since the first renowned experience that a German physicist and psychologist Gustav Theodor Fechner conducted in the 1860s. His experience is simple: a person needs to choose the most pleasing rectangle among ten rectangles that are placed in front of him, and all have different ratios of length to width. The result shows that 76% of all choices are the three rectangles having ratio of 1.75, 1.62, and 1.50, which are really close to the value of pie (approximately 1.618). Is there enough evidence to show the result? Maybe not, many psychologist have repeated similar experiments ever since, the results are rather conflicting, and inaccurate. Later on, this topic has extended to the determination of the origin of facial attractiveness.Dr. Stephen Marquardt is a former plastic surgeon, has used the golden section and some of its relatives to make a mask that he claims that is the most beautiful shape a human face can ever have, it used decagons and pentagons as its function that embodies phi in all their dimensions. Dr. Marquardt has been studying on human’s facial beauty for many years. According to him, beauty this word can be defined as a mechanism to ensure humans recognize and are attracted by others. The most beautiful faces are just are the ones that are the most easily recognizable as human.A perfect smile: the front two teeth form a golden rectangle (which is said to be one of the most visually satisfying of forms, as it is formed with sides of 1 and 1.618). There is also a Golden Ratio in the height to width of the center two teeth. And the ratio of the width of the two center teeth to those next to them is phi. And, the ratio of the width of the smile to the third tooth from the center is also phi.

The windpipe divides into two main bronchi, one long (the left) and the other short (the right). This asymmetrical division continues into the subsequent subdivisions of the bronchi. It was determined that in all these divisions the proportion of the short bronchus to the long was always 1/1.618. Human health is affected by facial proportions. Biologically, people who have long faces have more chances of having breathing problem, suffering from sleep apnea. And People with shorter faces tend to have abnormal jaw development due to the excessive pressure on the jaw joint, suffering from headaches because their jaws are positioned in a manner that can restrict blood flow to the brain.


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““TYPOGRAPHY NEEDS TO BE AUDIBLE. TYPOGRAPHY NEEDS TO BE FELT. TYPOGRAPHY NEEDS TO BE EXPERIENCED.” - Helmut Schmid


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Experimental Typography


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The assignment is to make a typography in theme of illusion. I am planning to make an alphabet which isn’t readable from a distance, but when you come closer, you’ll notice that the little strokes and arches are part of a letter and together an alphabet. This will create a view of illusion, because from a distance you can’t see what’s really there. You even can’t see it’s an alphabet. Next semester I want to make my alphabet digital in ‘Fontlab’. I want to make lot’s of posters with several quotes. These posters will be presented in several places of Antwerp.


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A E I M Q U

B C D F G H J K L N O P R S T V W X Y Z


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A E I M Q U

B C D F G H J K L N O P R S T V W X Y Z


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BIBLIOGRAPHYhttp://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-aesthetics/#2 BOEK KANT DAT IK HEB GELEZEN UIT BIB (NOG OPZOEKEN HOE DIE WEER NOEMT) SITES VAN MAITĂŠ OP FACEBOOKhttp://www.easternecho.com/index.php/article/2010/01/media_influence_our_perception_of_beautyhttp://mediadiet.wordpress.com/ wwhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_ratio http://library.thinkquest.org/trio/TTQ05063/phibeauty1.htm


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procesfolioillusion  

procesfolio illusion, beauty is an illusion.

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