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An Electronic Newsletter for the NASW Washington State Chapter

Index

March is Social Work Month!

Social Work Month....1-3 Make a Donation…...3-5 Slate and Petition ….6-8 Lobby Day ………...8-10 DOH Applications.10-11 Online CE…………….11

Thank you for your dedication and hard work. You are truly appreciated and needed greatly in the community. Thank you to our wonderful sponsors:

Continuing Ed……….12 Disclosure …….…13-15 Deceased Clients..16-22 Wounds of War.....22-27 Social Work Ads…….28

Happy St. Patrick‟s Day! „Tis the luck o‟ the Irish smilin‟ at ya! Wishin‟ you the best for a Happy St. Patrick‟s Day!

March 2011 is Social Work Month. These sponsors are supporting NASW-WA Chapter to honor the profession of Social Work.

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During these tough economic times many of the basic social work services and protections are being reduced or eliminated. The profession of Social Work has come together to be a stronger voice. The Social Work profession has to come together to be more visible. The Social Work profession has to come together to educate the public on who Social Workers are and how Social Workers contribute to our communities. The time for the profession of Social Work to come together is now! Social Work Month is March 2011 and the NASW Washington State Chapter reaching out to social work associations, social work schools, and social worker employers to invest in the profession


An Electronic Newsletter for the NASW Washington State Chapter

of Social Work. The NASW WA Chapter is delivering a moderate scale public education program about the profession of Social Work.

Seattle Times

The Social Work Month campaign is including:

Yakima Herald

1. 65 social work public education ads were developed by the National Association of Social Workers. They will be placed in eight daily newspapers throughout the state. The ads will run for four weeks. These ads will run on Wednesdays and Sundays during the month of March 2011. The ads will run in the following papers:

Spokesman Review Olympian Tri-City Herald

Columbian Everett Herald Walla Walla Union Bulletin 2. Short radio ads will be on several radio stations aired throughout the state during key drive times (between March 7 and April 4, 2011) to promote the profession of social work. The schedule is as follows: NPR Seattle • KUOW 94.9FM NPR Spokane • KPBX 91.1FM

NASW WA Chapter Office 522 N 85th St. #B-100 Seattle, WA 98103

Website: www.nasw-wa.org Email: info@nasw-wa.org

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• KSFC 91.9 FM • KPBZ 90.3 FM NPR Northwest Public Radio Pullman • KWSU 1250 AM • KWWS 89.7 FM • KNWY 90.3 3. We will advertise online on seattletimes.com under the "Living" section. These efforts will broaden the awareness and understanding of the public about the profession of Social Work. The benefits of the Social Work Month campaign are: 1. An increased awareness of the NASW brand. 2. An increased awareness of the public about who Social Workers are and what they do. Phone: (206) 706 – 7084 Fax: (206) 706 - 7085


An Electronic Newsletter for the NASW Washington State Chapter

March 2011 Volume 1, Issue 2

Make a Donation to Support the NASW-WA Chapter

NASW Washington Chapter, known for its legislative advocacy on behalf of the profession and the people we serve, its continuing education offerings, and its ongoing work educating the public about what Social Workers do, is launching a targeted fundraising campaign to meet three goals:

3. An increased understanding of the Social Work profession. Together, we can influence change. Together we can increase awareness. Together we can strengthen the profession of Social Work.

NASW WA Chapter Office 522 N 85th St. #B-100 Seattle, WA 98103

As a Social Worker and a member of NASW Washington State, you are already contributing to the profession on a daily basis, through the work you do and by paying your NASW dues. More than half of your dues go to the national organization in Washington, D.C., while the remaining 47% help the NASW Washington State Chapter, pay for the day to day operating expenses and basic infrastructure costs associated with an organization serving nearly 2,400 members. NASW Washington Chapter also works to raise funds through workshops, sponsorships, and web advertising, but in order to achieve more for the Profession of Social Work, we need to ask for your financial help. Website: www.nasw-wa.org Email: info@nasw-wa.org

1) Help us enhance our continuing education programs. NASW Washington State has worked to reduce costs as much as possible on continuing education offerings. In the past few years, we have partnered with other organizations and significantly reduced expenses for space and materials. We have added online CE which is available 24/7 through our CE Institute. At this point, we have cut costs as much as possible. We do not want to cut costs to the point where Phone: (206) 706 – 7084 Fax: (206) 706 - 7085


An Electronic Newsletter for the NASW Washington State Chapter

the quality or quantity of the courses suffer. We want to be able to afford national level speakers, we need to continue to ensure some of the workshops allow for networking opportunities, and we need to be sure the meeting space and materials are quality so we can compete with other continuing education providers. NASW Washington Chapter wants to continue to be the leader in delivering quality professional workshops with premier speakers. 2) Support the Operations of the Washington Chapter. It is a well kept secret that the Washington Chapter is staffed by two professionals. In addition to only two staff, the Washington Chapter also relies extensively on the efforts of volunteers. It is a goal to be able to hire more staff for the NASW WA Chapter Office 522 N 85th St. #B-100 Seattle, WA 98103

chapter office. To achieve this, the Washington Chapter has to generate additional revenue and grow its annual operating budget of $300,000 by an additional 10% to 20%. 3) Social Work Public Education. The NASW WA Chapter supports the national organization‟s efforts to improve the knowledge and understanding of the public about who Social Workers are and what Social Workers do. The Washington Chapter has purchased print ads in daily newspapers and is running radio ads to inform the public about the profession of Social Work. Your contribution will enable us to sustain this important outreach message. Through your financial support, we can pave the way for NASW Washington Chapter to gain visibility for Social Website: www.nasw-wa.org Email: info@nasw-wa.org

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Workers and strengthen our organization. Social Workers are known for giving time, money, and energy to those in need, through our work and our volunteer efforts. Please consider giving to your profession if you are able. A strong association will benefit Social Workers and those we serve. In the past, we have raised a small sum of funds to support the professional development education programs, the Social Work Public Education Campaign, and the day to day operations of the organization. Your support will enable the Washington Chapter to double its fundraising results! Please make your donation payable to the NASW Foundation – Washington Chapter. All donations are taxdeductible to the extent permitted by law. Check with your tax Phone: (206) 706 – 7084 Fax: (206) 706 - 7085


An Electronic Newsletter for the NASW Washington State Chapter

professional for specific advice on the tax deductibility for this, or any, donation. To maximize the funds raised for services to Social Workers, we are asking you to pay the postage. Please put a first class stamp on your donation envelope and send your donor card to: NASW Washington Chapter 522 North 85th Street, Suite #B-100 Seattle, WA 98103 We are able to accept checks or credit cards (VISA or MASTER CARDS only). You can also donate online at www.nasw-wa.org and click on the sponsorship and fundraising tab.

Donor Card NASW Foundation – Washington Chapter c/o NASW Washington State Chapter 522 N 85th Street, Suite B 100 Seattle WA 98103 NASW WA Chapter Office 522 N 85th St. #B-100 Seattle, WA 98103

YES! Please count on my support for the NASW Washington State Campaign. I would like my contribution to go towards: ____ Helping to enhance professional education for social workers. ____ Supporting the operations of the NASW-WA Chapter. ____ Supporting the Social Work Public Election Campaign _____ $1,000 _____ $500 _____ $250 _____ $150 _____ $75 _____$50 _____ $25 Other amount: $______

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Contributions check or credit card payable to NASW Foundation WA Chapter. VISA _____ MasterCard ________ Credit Card: #__________________ Exp. Date: _____/_____ Security Code: ______ Signature: ___________________ Date: ___________________ Return payment and card to: NASW Foundation, c/o NASW WA Chapter, 522 N 85th St, #B 100, Seattle WA 98103

Name: ___________________ Phone: ___________________ Email: ___________________ Address: ___________________ City: ___________________ State: _______ Zip code: _______ Website: www.nasw-wa.org Email: info@nasw-wa.org

Phone: (206) 706 – 7084 Fax: (206) 706 - 7085


An Electronic Newsletter for the NASW Washington State Chapter

Announcement of 2012 Preliminary Election Slate and Petition Process Saturday, March 12, 2011, the 2012 preliminary election slate was reviewed by the Chapter Board of Directors. The Directors approved the preliminary slate. The 2012 preliminary slate has elections for statewide offices, regional representatives for the Chapter Board of Directors, and region representatives for the Nominations Leadership Identification Committee (NLIC).

to be informed of the petition process that allows a member to be added to the final ballot. The Washington State Chapter of the National Association of Social Workers is pleased to announce the candidacy of the following members for the positions indicated. The 2012 election slate is as follows: Statewide Positions Candidate Treasurer Elect (July 1, 2011 - June 30, 2012) Amy Ferlazzo Paul Snow

In accordance with the NLIC guidelines and procedures, the Chapter membership is required to be notified of the 2012 preliminary election slate. Also, the membership is required

V.P. Social & Political Action (July 1, 2011 June 30, 2013)

NASW WA Chapter Office 522 N 85th St. #B-100 Seattle, WA 98103

Website: www.nasw-wa.org Email: info@nasw-wa.org

Ann Allen V.P. Professional Devlopment (July 1, 2011 - June 30, 2013)

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Sarah Chamberlin BSW Student Rep.(July 1, 2011 - June 30, 2012) Alacia Hendrix Deidra Parsinen MSW Student Rep.(July 1, 2011 - June 30, 2012) Jamie Dinsmore Heidi Warren Region Positions (July 1, 2011 - June 30, 2012) Central Washington Region Rep. Cheryl J. Flowers-French Central Washington Region NLIC Rep. No candidates identified Inland Empire Region Representative Patricia Garcia Phone: (206) 706 – 7084 Fax: (206) 706 - 7085


An Electronic Newsletter for the NASW Washington State Chapter

Mount Baker Region Representative Amber Lynn Ford Mount Baker Region NLIC Region Rep.

which he or she resides. The positions that can be petitioned for are noted below: Statewide Positions Treasurer Elect

No candidates North Puget Sound Region Rep. Pat Lagerwey

V.P. Social & Political Action V.P. Professional Development

North Puget Sound NLIC Region Rep.

BSW Student Representative

No candidates identified

MSW Student Representative

Suburban King County NLIC Region Rep.

Region Positions Region Representatives

No candidates identified

NLIC Representatives

In accordance with Chapter NLIC guidelines and policies, a member is allowed to petition to be slated on the final ballot for a statewide position or slated to be on the final ballot for a regional position in

Members wishing to have their names added to the ballot by petition have 30 days from March 15, 2010 to submit a petition. The petition period will end close of business (5:00PM on April 14,

NASW WA Chapter Office 522 N 85th St. #B-100 Seattle, WA 98103

Website: www.nasw-wa.org Email: info@nasw-wa.org

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2011). The petitions must be received in the office by 5:00 PM on April 14, 2011. To be successful, a petition for a position elected by the membership statewide must include the signature and the printed legal name of 46 of 2,310 members, which is 2% of the total Chapter membership as of March 8, 2011, the most recent update of the Chapter membership database by the national office. For a branch position, the signatures of 2% of the total number of members of the branch are needed. The local branches require the following number of signatures: o Central Washington Region requires 2 signatures of 97 members; Phone: (206) 706 – 7084 Fax: (206) 706 - 7085

July

July

July

July


An Electronic Newsletter for the NASW Washington State Chapter

o Inland Empire Region requires 5 signatures of 226 members; o Mt. Baker Region requires 6 signatures of 289 members; o North Puget Sound Region requires 7 signatures of 333 members; o Suburban King County requires 6 signatures of 288 members. To have your name added to the final ballot you must be an NASW Chapter member. The signatures on the petition have to be signatures of members of NASW Washington State Chapter. All membership information, for candidates and petition signers, will be verified by the Chapter office to the NASW National membership database as of March 8, 2011. Any candidate who is

not a member or any signature on a petition from a non-member will invalidate the petition request to have a candidate added to the final ballot. If you are petitioning for a state wide position, you MUST have at least one signature from each of the nine Washington Chapter Regions.

NASW WA Chapter Office 522 N 85th St. #B-100 Seattle, WA 98103

Website: www.nasw-wa.org Email: info@nasw-wa.org

Official petition forms are available from the Chapter office and questions about the petition process may be addressed to John Edwards, Chairperson of the NLIC care of info@nasw-wa.org. Please put “Election Petition” in the subject line of the email. Please join me in congratulating the Chapter NLIC Committee for a job well done and the identified candidates to date

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wishing to serve the NASW-WA Chapter.

Lobby Day 2011 It was a cold blustery day as Pooh would say, for the annual NASW Washington State Chapter Lobby Day held on February 21, 2011. Lobby Day is an important grassroots advocacy event for NASW Washington State Chapter members and Schools of Social Work students. Lobby Day is an opportunity for the Social Work voice to be heard on issues important to the profession of Social Work and our clients. Lobby Day 2011 was held at the United Churches of Olympia. The program is a major event of the WA Chapter Legislative Action Committee (LAC). Lobby Day was chaired Phone: (206) 706 – 7084 Fax: (206) 706 - 7085


An Electronic Newsletter for the NASW Washington State Chapter

by Celeste Carey, VP of Social and Political Action and the participants were excitingly welcomed by WA Chapter President Taylene Watson. The nearly 150 participants heard presentations on children, homelessness, mental health, lending, and other Social Work profession issues. The participants came from all corners of the state and from most colleges and universities. The colleges and universities represented were: Pacific Lutheran University, Seattle University, Eastern Washington University, Western Washington University, University Washington - Seattle, University of Washington - Tacoma, Heritage College, and Walla Walla University. The student contingents NASW WA Chapter Office 522 N 85th St. #B-100 Seattle, WA 98103

were extremely enthusiastic and highly motivated. We look forward to student participation in the future. The NASW Washington Chapter Lobby Day activity is a broad collaborative effort in the social work and human services community. Presentations were made by Laurie Lippold, Childrenâ€&#x;s Alliance; Seth Dawson, Washington State Coalition on Homelessness and NAMI; and Bob Cooper, the NASW Washington Chapter Lobbyist. The issues discussed at Lobby Day were: 1. Apple Health for Kids, this is a comprehensive health insurance for Washington children and is facing severe funding cuts. The WA Chapter was Website: www.nasw-wa.org Email: info@nasw-wa.org

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asking that the funding levels for this vital program be maintained. 2. Payday Lending Protection, legislation was introduced in 2011 to repeal provisions of the payday lending statutes passed in 2009. Social Workers were advocating that these bills be defeated and to allow the 2009 provisions that protect low income families from borrowing money at excessive interest rates. 3. Working Connections Child Care Subsidy, this program assists working families to help them pay the high costs of child care so they can continue employment and

Phone: (206) 706 – 7084 Fax: (206) 706 - 7085


An Electronic Newsletter for the NASW Washington State Chapter

maintain self sufficiency. 4. Homeless Management Information Services, the legislation would improve access to housing by making informed consent requirements within HMIS more flexible. 5. Social Work Title Protection, this bill would require any private or public agency that has a position titled social worker to only fill the position with someone that has a degree in Social Work from an accredited School of Social Work. You can read the full Lobby Day briefing papers on the WA Chapter website.

discussed was Social Work Title Protection legislation. Brigitte Folz and Mike Parker, members of the WA Chapter LAC made an arousing presentation on the importance of Social Work Title Protection. The WA Chapter appreciates the tremendous contributions the members of the LAC made to make Lobby Day this year a huge success. We want to acknowledge the members of the Legislative Action Committee: Celeste Carey, Ann Allen, Audrey Allred, Betsy Elgar, Sara Ellington, Brigitte Folz, Brian Kelly McQuade, Mike Parker, Alexandra Salomon, and Jay Wellington.

The major Social Work profession issue NASW WA Chapter Office 522 N 85th St. #B-100 Seattle, WA 98103

Website: www.nasw-wa.org Email: info@nasw-wa.org

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The Washington State Mental Health Counselors, Marriage and Family Therapists, and Social Workers Advisory Committee is currently accepting applications for the following: Three public members One Licensed Independent Clinical Social Worker. One Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist. In order to qualify you must meet the following: Live in Washington. Cannot hold an office in a professional association for Phone: (206) 706 – 7084 Fax: (206) 706 - 7085


An Electronic Newsletter for the NASW Washington State Chapter

Mental Health, Social Work, or Marriage and Family Therapy. Cannot be employees of Washington State. Each professional member must have been actively engaged as a mental health counselor, marriage and family therapist, or social worker for five years immediately preceding appointment. Public members represent the public and cannot be affiliated with the professions listed in RCW 18.225. The committee meets four times each year. Members are paid $50 a day, and travel expenses.

NASW WA Chapter Office 522 N 85th St. #B-100 Seattle, WA 98103

If you have questions, please contact Betty J. Moe at DOH, Licensed Counselor Program, PO Box 47852, Olympia WA 98504-7852, (360) 2364912, or e-mail. You can get the application by accessing the DOH website.

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To view ONLINE CE workshops, go to our website, NASW-WA Website, click on the CE Institute button on the home page that says: ”NASW-WA ONLINE CE INSTITUTE”.

Applications must be received by April 1, 2011.

NASW-WA State Chapter has CE ONLINE! NASW WA Chapter has developed ONLINE CE for the 24/7 convenience of licensed Social Workers, Marriage and Family Therapists, and Mental Health Counselors. Select ONLINE CE from an OnDemand Catalog or participate in a live webcast.

Website: www.nasw-wa.org Email: info@nasw-wa.org

Phone: (206) 706 – 7084 Fax: (206) 706 - 7085


An Electronic Newsletter for the NASW Washington State Chapter

Upcoming Workshops Social Work Ethics: New Perspective, New Applications, Enhanced Fidelity Workshop March 25, 2011

Clinical Considerations in Addressing Addiction in the Family May 20, 2011 Presented by: Claudia Black, M.S.W., Ph.D.

Presented By: Jonathan R. Beard, LICSW, CPRP

Red Lion Hotel Bellevue 11211 Main Street Bellevue, WA 98005

Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center 101 West 8th Avenue Spokane, WA 99204

---------------

---------------------------

LASW/LICSW Licensure Exam Prep

Licensure Exam Preparation Workshop September 10, 2011 Presented by: Jonathan Beard, LICSW, CPRP

May 14, 2011

Presented By: Jonathan R. Beard, LICSW, CPRP North Seattle Community College 9600 College Way N. Seattle, WA 98103 ---------------------------

Seattle Area, Exact Location T.B.A. ----------------------

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Location T.B.A. ---------------------------

October 20-21, 20110 Supervision Workshop Presented by: Dr. Lawrence Shulman Swedish Medical Center, Cherry Hill Campus, Seattle, WA ---------------------------

Licensure Exam Preparation Workshop December 3, 2011 Presented by: Jonathan Beard, LICSW, CPRP Highline Medical Center, Burien, WA

Ethics Workshop September 23, 2011 Joan Golston, DCSW, LICSW Seattle Area, Exact

NASW WA Chapter Office 522 N 85th St. #B-100 Seattle, WA 98103

Website: www.nasw-wa.org Email: info@nasw-wa.org

Phone: (206) 706 – 7084 Fax: (206) 706 - 7085


An Electronic Newsletter for the NASW Washington State Chapter

March 2011 Volume 1, Issue 2

look at yours since you wrote it. In keeping with the maxim of digging your well before you‟re thirsty, now might be the best time to review it. This article explains what should be in your disclosure statement, what you should do with it, and what can happen if you don‟t comply.

ask to inspect yours. Here‟s how your statement is most likely to come under scrutiny. When the DOH receives a complaint that it deems it to be within its purview (a broad standard indeed!) they will assign it to an investigator. The investigator usually writes the health care provider and asks for a copy of the client‟s records including the disclosure statement. Your disclosure statement is supposed to be part of your client‟s records. If there is no statement or if it is lacking in some respect, that in itself is unprofessional conductiv and can be an independent basis for disciplinary action. Usually, however, it will become an additional factor the Department considers in deciding

WOULD YOUR DISCLOSURE STATEMENT WITHSTAND SCRUTINY? By A. Stephen Andersoni, JD, MBA

Licensed Clinical Social Workersii are required to have a disclosure statement and provide it to their clientsiii. Chances are you haven‟t taken a good NASW WA Chapter Office 522 N 85th St. #B-100 Seattle, WA 98103

I help Social Workers and other health care providers when complaints are made against their license. Time and again I have seen very good clinicians create problems for themselves because their disclosure statement was inadequate in some respect. The Department of Health does not have a cadre of Disclosure Statement Inspectors who will come around from time to time and Website: www.nasw-wa.org Email: info@nasw-wa.org

Phone: (206) 706 – 7084 Fax: (206) 706 - 7085


An Electronic Newsletter for the NASW Washington State Chapter

how to handle the complaint. It can be combined with other allegations in a Statement of Charges to create an impression of multiple offenses. Disclosure Statements are mandated by the legislaturev and regulated by the Department of Health.vi They are intended to provide clients with accurate information about the clinician and the practice prior to treatmentvii. This information must include: 1. The right of clients to refuse treatment; 2. The right and responsibility of clients to choose the provider and treatment modality which best suits their needs; 3. The extent of NASW WA Chapter Office 522 N 85th St. #B-100 Seattle, WA 98103

confidentiality provided by law; 4. The license holder's education and training; 5. The methods of treatment modality and therapeutic orientation the clinician uses; 6. The proposed course of treatment when known; 7. Billing information, including client's cost per treatment session, and billing practices, including any advance payments and refunds; 8. Name of the firm, agency, business or clinician‟s practice; 9. Licensee‟s name, business address and telephone number; 10. Washington state Website: www.nasw-wa.org Email: info@nasw-wa.org

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license number; 11. Department of Health contact information so the client may obtain a list of the acts of unprofessional conduct as defined in RCW 18.130.180; and, 12. The name, address and telephone number for the health professions complaint process.viii An Associate must also disclose, during the first professional contact, that he or she is an associate under the supervision of an approved supervisor. The information must be specific to the type of treatment service offered, in a language that can be easily understood by the client;ix and contain Phone: (206) 706 – 7084 Fax: (206) 706 - 7085


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sufficient detail to enable the client to make an informed decision whether or not to accept treatment from the clinician. The disclosure must be signed and dated both by the client and the clinician. The client‟s signature must follow a statement that the client has been provided a copy of the required disclosure information and that the client has read and understands the information provided. In my experience, the most common defects are that the statement is unsigned by one or both parties; it is undated; not current; neglects to provide the requisite DOH contact information; or some combination of the above. However, if any of the required NASW WA Chapter Office 522 N 85th St. #B-100 Seattle, WA 98103

information is missing, the statement is out of compliance. Hopefully, you will never have the experience of a complaint made against your license. However, you are not in control of what your clients might do, or for that matter, what third parties such as a member of the client‟s family or a health insurer might do. There is no reason to add fuel to the fire by having to turn over an inadequate disclosure statement. Get them cleaned up now. It better serves your clients and reflects well on you. --------------------------------© 2011 A. Stephen Anderson, JD, MBA, 3316 Fuhrman Ave E, Suite 250, Seattle, WA 98102; 206.306.9464; (Fax)1.888.315.5938; astephenanderson@gmail. com. Mr. Anderson is a

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specializing in litigation and health care law. He represents health care providers in disciplinary matters and consults with providers on various legal issues that come up in their practice. He has frequently presented at continuing education programs. This discussion applies equally to mental health counselors and marriage & family therapists. 1 RCW 18.225.100. Firms, agencies or businesses having more than one licensee involved in a client‟s treatment may provide disclosure information general to that agency in lieu of one from each individual licensee. WAC 246-809-700. The better protocol would be to do both. 1 RCW 18.130.180(7). 1 RCW 18.225.100 1 WAC 246-809-700; WAC 246-809710 1 This means: “at the commencement of any program of treatment” per RCW 18.225.100; “prior to implementation of a treatment plan” per WAC 246-809700. 1 Current information is available at here. 1 This could require translation into another language in some instances. The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views and opinions of NASW Washington State Chapter. This article is reprinted with the permission of the author.

Seattle attorney Website: www.nasw-wa.org Email: info@nasw-wa.org

Phone: (206) 706 – 7084 Fax: (206) 706 - 7085


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“May your pockets be heavy and your heart be light, May good luck pursue you each morning and night!” --Irish Blessing Privacy Protections for Deceased Clients‟ Records By Sherri Morgan, Associate Counsel, LDF and Office of Ethics and Professional Review, Carolyn I. Polowy, NASW General Counsel, and Amber Khan, Legal Researcher ©2010 National Association of Social Workers. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction Social workers are informed occasionally of the death of a client or former client. In addition to feelings of sadness, this occurrence may generate a number of responses, including legal questions and concerns. The focus of inquiries to NASW‟s legal office is generally on the topic of how to NASW WA Chapter Office 522 N 85th St. #B-100 Seattle, WA 98103

handle requests for access to information about the deceased client. The proper response will vary depending on the source of the request and elements of the client‟s clinical case. This LDF Legal Issue of the Month article reviews the basic issues social workers may need to consider in handling the confidential records of deceased clients and identifies other resources that may be appropriate to access in specific situations.

Applicable Standards for Release of Information The NASW Code of Ethics requires that the confidential records and information of deceased clients be protected according to the same Website: www.nasw-wa.org Email: info@nasw-wa.org

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standards that apply to living clients (NASW, 2008, Standard 1.07(r)). The Code permits the release of information upon consent of the client or “a person legally authorized to consent on behalf of the client” (NASW, 2008, Standard 1.07(b)). This may include, for example, parents of a minor child, the legal guardian of a vulnerable adult, or the executor or administrator of the estate for a deceased individual. The Code of Ethics further states that when releasing information to the client, information in the record should be withheld only for compelling professional reasons (NASW, 2008, Standard 1.08). The Code does not address access to records by representatives in this section; however, in Phone: (206) 706 – 7084 Fax: (206) 706 - 7085


An Electronic Newsletter for the NASW Washington State Chapter

Standard 1.07 it clearly states that an authorized representative may consent to the release of confidential information. This could encompass a release of information to the representative as well as to an authorized third party. Most states require disclosure to clients of their own records (and by extension, to their representatives) and the medical privacy regulations promulgated under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) identify access to records by clients as one of the mandatory patient rights (45 CFR § 164.524(a)). HIPAA further specifies that a “personal representative” may make privacy decisions on behalf of a client or deceased client (45 CFR § 164.502(g); see NASW WA Chapter Office 522 N 85th St. #B-100 Seattle, WA 98103

also U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003)). Thus, social work ethical standards, state and federal law, all offer support for the concept that the executor or administrator of the estate of a deceased client has a right to obtain a copy of the client‟s clinical record upon offering documentation of their authority to act on behalf of the deceased and providing written authorization to release the records. HIPAA also gives permission for health care entities (including clinical social workers) to release information about deceased clients without consent or authorization in the following circumstances: to notify law enforcement of a Website: www.nasw-wa.org Email: info@nasw-wa.org

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death that the health care entity believes may have been caused by criminal conduct (45 C.F.R. § 164.512(f)(4)) to a coroner or medical examiner for the purpose of identifying a deceased person, determining a cause of death, or other duties as authorized by law (45 C.F.R. § 164.512(g)(1)) to funeral directors, consistent with applicable law, as necessary to carry out their duties with respect to the decedent 45 C.F.R. § 164.512(g)(2). Disclosing confidential information about a deceased client under the above circumstances is not Phone: (206) 706 – 7084 Fax: (206) 706 - 7085


An Electronic Newsletter for the NASW Washington State Chapter

mandatory; therefore, seeking written consent from the legal representative of the deceased client is a valid and ethical approach, even if the information is requested by police, a coroner or funeral director. Options for Responding to Request for Records of Deceased Clients While social workers may recognize that the executor of a client‟s will or the administrator of their estate has the authority to request and access confidential client records, several options for responding to such requests may be valuable to consider, such as the following: Determine whether disclosing the record is likely to endanger NASW WA Chapter Office 522 N 85th St. #B-100 Seattle, WA 98103

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someone—Both HIPAA (45 C.F.R. § 164.524) and the NASW Code of Ethics permit withholding information when it is necessary to prevent harm to the client; however, when a client has died this consideration is no longer a factor. The HIPAA medical privacy regulations extend this limitation to situations where the disclosure of information may harm the authorized representative or another person (45 C.F.R. § 164.524 (a)(3)(iii). The procedures for denying information include notifying the individual of the right to a review of the

denial decision. The Code of Ethics states that only that portion of the record that would cause harm is appropriate to withhold (NASW, 2008) and HIPAA requires that access be provided to any other portions of the record beyond that which is legitimately denied (45 CFR § 164.524 (d)(1)).

Website: www.nasw-wa.org Email: info@nasw-wa.org

Phone: (206) 706 – 7084 Fax: (206) 706 - 7085

Offer a treatment summary— HIPAA permits health care providers to offer a summary of treatment in lieu of the entire file (45 C.F.R. § 164.524(c)(2)(ii) . If the social worker or agency is going to charge an additional fee for creating the summary this


An Electronic Newsletter for the NASW Washington State Chapter

should be clearly stated and the requesting individual has the right to accept or reject the offer of a summary. The individual may still request the entire file; however, depending on the circumstances, the requesting party may find a summary to be sufficient. Provide the “medical record,” but withhold separate psychotherapy notes—HIPAA permits mental health practitioners to withhold access to detailed psychotherapy notes that are maintained separately from the primary clinical record (45 C.F.R. § 164.524(a)). NASW WA Chapter Office 522 N 85th St. #B-100 Seattle, WA 98103

The primary record (or “medical record” in HIPAA terminology) must contain sufficient documentation to meet regulatory standards. The LDF article, Social Workers and Psychotherapy Notes, provides detailed information on this topic (Morgan and Polowy, 2006). To meet ethical standards, information in psychotherapy notes should only be withheld for compelling professional reasons, such as preventing suicide or homicide (Reamer, 2006, p. 78).

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health practitioner—If the emotional stability of the requesting survivor is a credible concern, a responsible course of conduct may be to release the record to the treating clinician for the surviving family member, with their written authorization.

Offer to release the records to the survivor‟s mental

Release a complete copy of the client‟s record--The executor/administ rator of the deceased client‟s estate has the right to a copy of the record unless the information would endanger someone. The concern about danger has to be more serious than the social worker‟s vague feelings of discomfort about

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the personal nature of the information. Requests from the attorney for the estate that are accompanied by a written authorization from the executor or administrator of the estate generally require mandatory disclosure. What Records are Required? Additional concerns that may arise for social workers when records of deceased clients are requested are whether the social worker has met professional treatment standards and whether their clinical records sufficiently document the treatment. The purposes of clinical recordkeeping are multiple and may vary depending on a number of factors such as the NASW WA Chapter Office 522 N 85th St. #B-100 Seattle, WA 98103

treatment setting and the requirements of third-party payers (Morgan and Polowy, 2001). The NASW Code of Ethics requires that records accurately reflect the treatment provided, are timely and sufficient to facilitate the delivery of services, include only relevant information, maintain privacy and allow for appropriate access (NASW, 2008, Standard 3.04). Generally, a summary progress note dated for each clinical session is a minimum expectation; however, other appropriate material may include an assessment, treatment plan and collateral contacts (Reamer, 2006, p. 159-60). A welldocumented record is an important element to support the legal defense of a social worker in the event that Website: www.nasw-wa.org Email: info@nasw-wa.org

March 2011 Volume 1, Issue 2

they become the target of a legal complaint. Social workers may also create an addendum to a record to supplement the existing documentation or draft a closing treatment summary to highlight important aspects of the clientâ€&#x;s case. In both situations the additional material should be dated contemporaneously with the date the report was completed. Altering a clinical record may incur severe penalties and should be avoided; however, supplementing the record with an addendum or summary may be beneficial for the clinician as well as the requestor of the record. Any additions should be dated with the actual date of the new entry.

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shoes” of the deceased for purposes of carrying out any legal activities.

creating an addendum or closing summary may ease some of the concerns as to whether the file will be sufficiently understood by the requestor. In any situation where there is notice of legal action against the social worker, the professional liability insurer should be immediately contacted.

Analysis and Conclusions A straightforward request for clinical records may be made for many purposes unrelated to possible action against the social worker. Social workers who are concerned about the consequences of releasing confidential information about a deceased client also need to be concerned about the consequences of not releasing information when the request is made with legitimate authorization from a legal representative for the estate. From a legal perspective, a request from the executor or administrator of a deceased‟s estate has a similar legal status to requests made by the client. The executor or administrator may be said to “stand in the NASW WA Chapter Office 522 N 85th St. #B-100 Seattle, WA 98103

HIPAA offers social workers with credible concerns about possible danger to the requesting person or another individual some options to prevent harm that may result from accessing confidential information. This may include withholding specific portions of a client‟s record or obtaining the requestor‟s consent to release the information to a responsible and appropriate third party such as a treating clinician or legal counsel. If a social worker has additional clinical material to contribute or wishes to provide an overview of significant elements of the treatment process, Website: www.nasw-wa.org Email: info@nasw-wa.org

Protecting the privacy interests of clients does not end with the client‟s death. The social worker needs to be aware of the continuing ethical limitations and legal exceptions to be considered in any request for a deceased client‟s records. References 45 CFR § 164.502 (2003). [Online]. Available at http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara /cfr/waisidx_03/45cfr164_03.ht ml (last visited October 4, 2010). 45 CFR 164.512 (2003). [Online]. Available at http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara

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An Electronic Newsletter for the NASW Washington State Chapter /cfr/waisidx_03/45cfr164_03.ht ml (last visited October 7, 2010). 45 CFR § 164.524 (2003). [Online]. Available at http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara /cfr/waisidx_03/45cfr164_03.ht ml (last visited October 4, 2010). Morgan, S. and Polowy, C. (2006). Social workers and psychotherapy notes. National Association of Social Workers, Legal Defense Fund, Legal Issue of the Month [Online]. Available at https://www.socialworkers.org/l df/legal_issue/200606.asp (last visited October 4, 2010). National Association of Social Workers (2008). NASW code of ethics [Online]. Available at http://www.socialworkers.org/p ubs/code/code.asp (last visited October 4, 2010). Polowy, C. and Morgan, S. (2001). Social workers & clinical notes. National Association of Social Workers, General Counsel Law Note. Wash., DC: Author.

PART I Confronting the Hidden Wounds of War

The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views and opinions of NASW Washington State Chapter. This article is reprinted with the permission of the author, National Association of Social Workers National Chapter.

Part I—The Toll among Our Veterans and Its Causes By Sam Coleman, PhD, MSW The United States is still deeply involved in two protracted insurgencies, first in Afghanistan since 2001, and Iraq beginning in 2003. The wars have come home, most notably in the numbers of American servicemen and women killed or wounded— easily exceeding 5,400 fatalitiesj and well over 37,400 wounded in

Reamer, F. (2006). Ethical standards in social work, A review of the NASW Code of Ethics (2nd ed.) NASW Press: Wash., DC. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (2003). Personal representatives [Online]. Available at http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/ hipaa/understanding/coveredent ities/personalreps.html (last visited June 22, 2010).

The information contained in this article is provided as a service to members and the social work

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community for educational and information purposes only and does not constitute legal advice. We provide timely information, but we make no claims, promises or guarantees about the accuracy, completeness, or adequacy of the information contained in or linked to this article and associated Web sites. Transmission of the information is not intended to create, and receipt does not constitute, a lawyer-client relationship between NASW, LDF, or the author(s) and you. NASW members and online readers should not act based on the information provided in the LDF article or Web site. Laws and court interpretations change frequently. Legal advice must be tailored to the specific facts and circumstances of a particular case. Nothing reported herein should be used as a substitute for the advice of competent counsel.

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These combined articles originally appeared in the Summer and Autumn, 2010 editions of The Maryland Social Worker, and are reproduced with the kind permission of the NASW Maryland Chapter. The author has modified Part II to include more information specific to California.

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action.ii Even those returning from war zones with bodies intact, however, are experiencing a host of problems that play havoc with their emotional functioning. The Grim Statistics A comprehensive study conducted by the Rand Corporation in 2007 sought to discover prevalence rates of “mental health and cognitive conditions” among troops who had returned from Iraq and Afghanistan. The survey found 11.2 percent of respondents reporting depression or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Another 12.2 percent reported traumatic brain injury (TBI), and yet another 7.3 percent indicated some combination of both TBI and a mental health condition, for a total estimate exceeding 30 percent.iii America‟s veterans are particularly vulnerable to selfdestruction: 18 commit NASW WA Chapter Office 522 N 85th St. #B-100 Seattle, WA 98103

suicide every day, on average.iv The suicide rates among active duty personnel and returned veterans in recent years have hit record highs. Between 2005 and 2007, the rate among male veterans between the ages of 18 and 29 spiked up 26 percent.v The Veterans Administration may be understating the extent of the problem, too; in 2008, CBS News documented an attempt in the VA administration to conceal suicide frequency.vi Veterans of our ongoing wars are more prone to pathological behavior as well. A New York Times investigation found 121 instances in which an Iraq or Afghanistan veteran killed someone in the United States after returning from war.vii Alcohol-related problems have risen among younger veterans. In one study, combat veterans from Iraq and Afghanistan were 31 percent more Website: www.nasw-wa.org Email: info@nasw-wa.org

March 2011 Volume 1, Issue 2

likely to take up binge drinking than those without combat experience.viii Veterans of the recent wars are more likely to be involved in vehicular accidents; the Boston Globe reported last year that Iraq and Afghanistan veterans are 75 percent more likely than civilian counterparts to die in auto accidents. The rate for motorcycles is 148 percent higher.ix What‟s happening to these people? And where can we, as social workers, provide solutions? Present-day Warfare We must first recognize some essential facts about the nature of warfare today as practiced in Iraq and Afghanistan. Mortal danger has been a fact of war for millennia, but the current conflicts are counterinsurgencies fought in the midst of civilian populations indifferent or hostile to Phone: (206) 706 – 7084 Fax: (206) 706 - 7085


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the American military presence. In the words of a former medic attached to a tank and artillery battalion in Iraq, “Civilians were the casualties—cross-fire people, people driving by or sitting outside their homes.”x Our soldiers are under constant threat in a chaotic environment, unclear of the line between civilians and hostile forces. A former Marine sergeant who took part in the 2004 siege of Fallujah summed it this way: “It‟s criminal to put such patriotic Americans…in a situation where their morals are at odds with their survival instincts.”xi These conditions on the ground reflect the military brass‟ policies for executing wars, resulting in what noted psychiatrist Robert Jay Lifton has termed “atrocity-producing situations.”xii The consequences are magnified by our soldiers‟ reliance on

weaponry that delivers tremendous destructive power. The bullets from a .50 caliber machine gun, for example, can easily pass through automobile dashboards and engines. A 30 mm chain gun (a single-barrel automatic cannon mounted on Army helicopters) demonstrated its devastating effect to the civilian world via a leaked videotape after our soldiers had fired on civilians and their mini-van in Baghdad in July 2007.xiii High explosives used by those on all sides of our conflicts detonate with many times the velocity of predecessor materials. One combat veteran observed, “Weapons aren‟t prejudiced. They don‟t see good or bad, white or black, whatever. When they go off, they go everywhere.” xiv Granted, some soldiers are emotionally insulated from the pain and deaths of others. An

estimated two percent actually enjoy killing.xv We identify them as psychopaths. Taking part in lethal violence, however, more often exposes the soldier to PTSD as an actor than as victim. Michael Uhlin, a veteran suffering from PTSD, wrote in 2008 that, “our PTSD seems related, not necessarily to what happened to us…but to what we did to others, especially to the unarmed and innocent.”xvi His suspicion had been corroborated some years before by Rachel MacNair in a systematic study that culminated in her 2002 book analyzing the phenomenon of perpetration-induced traumatic stress.xvii The study did not pass unnoticed in the military, prompting at least one article a few years later by an Army ethicist,xviii and more recent research has also shown that responsibility

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for killing is a significant predictor of PTSD.xix The Peril of Sexual Assault Enlisted women in America‟s military face another danger, and it lurks in the ranks of their fellow service members. The nearly 200,000 women among active duty service personnelxx experience sexual abuse at a rate significantly higher than they would were they civilians.xxi The shame and stigmatization felt by victims result in notoriously low rates of reporting, and the Department of Defense‟s own procedures for detecting and documenting incidents are glaringly inadequate.xxii Even so, a 2008 meta-study of Military Sexual Trauma (MST, defined as assault with a sexual dimension or/and sexual harassment combined with threat), found prevalence rates as high as 30 percent of the NASW WA Chapter Office 522 N 85th St. #B-100 Seattle, WA 98103

female respondents surveyed.xxiii Nor is this exclusively a problem for women: men in the military have also been subjected to MST.xxiv No clinician would be surprised to learn that the experience of MST results in increased probability of PTSD and other serious health consequences. xxv Military Culture America‟s military doesn‟t empathize with soldiers experiencing emotional stresses because it would weaken the “warrior ethos” and obedience to the chain of command. Take the case of Sergeant Kristofer Goldsmith. In May of 2007, after he received an extension of his three-year contract with orders to return to Baghdad, he attempted suicide with a dozen Percosets and a liter of vodka. His superiors responded by charging him with “malingering” Website: www.nasw-wa.org Email: info@nasw-wa.org

March 2011 Volume 1, Issue 2

and depriving him of an honorable discharge— and his educational benefits along with it. The Army had meted out such punitive discharges to 21 Iraq soldiers since 2003.xxvi The Marine Corps treats its distressed service members similarly. The marine who takes up substance abuse and violent behavior at home after returning from multiple tours of duty will find himself dismissed from the Corps with something less than an honorable discharge. In the first four years of the Iraq War, a full one-third of 1,019 cases of such discharges were found to have had PTSD or some other combatrelated mental disorder.xxvii Said one Marine Corps officer, “Look, we don‟t want to diagnose marines with PTSD. We need them to get back into the fight.”xxviii One solution devised by the Department of Defense is medication. A survey Phone: (206) 706 – 7084 Fax: (206) 706 - 7085


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taken in late 2007 revealed that 12 percent of combat troops in Iraq and 17 percent in Afghanistan were using prescription antidepressants or sleeping pills.xxix Person-inEnvironment Few enlisted men and women enjoy the options and resources of middle- and upper middle-class Americans, and that fact alone should alert us to a deficit in resilience in this population. The label “volunteer military” glosses over young peoples‟ reasons for enlistment. A desire to protect the country has always been one motive for young enlistees, but there are stronger draws, among them economic stress, yearning for achievement, and an escape from communities in socioeconomic decline. America‟s rural communities contribute NASW WA Chapter Office 522 N 85th St. #B-100 Seattle, WA 98103

disproportionately to recruitment, and the people living there are almost 30 percent more likely than city dwellers to be living in poverty.xxx In addition to the commonly cited social stresses of military life like familial disruptions, predatory lenders and auto dealers exploit soldiers with a vengeance.xxxi Military wives have an exceptionally high unemployment rate that targets them for workfrom-home scams.xxxii The current Great Recession is aggravating all of these vulnerabilities, hammering our veterans even more than the civilian sector of America‟s workers and middle class. At 15 percent, unemployment among male veterans well exceeds the overall national rate (9.7 percent).xxxiii Taking It All In for Genuine Understanding Website: www.nasw-wa.org Email: info@nasw-wa.org

March 2011 Volume 1, Issue 2

None of this is the stuff of Veterans Day parades and other “support the troops” romanticism. We must grasp all of these facts in our minds and hearts, however, if we are to serve as compassionate and understanding agents of genuine assistance, empowerment and reform. That‟s a strength we have as social workers, and here is one area of effort in which we can and must apply it. Citations for Part I i iCasualties.org http://www.icasualties.org/ Retrieved April 28, 2010. ii Figure calculated as a total of Iraq and Afghanistan injuries, found in CNN U.S. edition http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2003/iraq/ forces/casualties/index.html for Iraq, and http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2004/oef.c asualties/index.html for Afghanistan. Retrieved May 3, 2010. iii Rand Corporation. 2008. “Invisible Wounds: Mental Health and Cognitive Care Needs of America‟s Returning Veterans.” Research Highlights, p.2. Research Brief retrieved April 12, 2010 from http://www.rand.org/multi/military/veterans / iv Maze, Rick. 2010. “18 Veterans Commit Suicide Each Day.” (Posted Apr 26). Retrieved April 13, 2010 from http://www.militarytimes.com/news/2010/0 4/military_veterans_suicide_042210w/ v CBS / AP. 2010. (January 11). “Suicide Rate of Young Veterans Soars.” CBS News.com. Retrieved April 13, 2010 from http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2010/01/ 11/national/main6083072.shtml vi Keteyian, Armen and Pia Malbran.

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2008. “VA Official Grilled about E-mails.” (Published April 23). CBS News.com. Retrieved April 24, 2010 from http://www.cbsnews.com//stories/2008/04/ 23/cbsnews_investigates/main4038839.sh tml? tag=contentMain;contentBody vii Sontag, Deborah and Lizetter Alvarez. 2008. “Across America, Deadly Echoes of Foreign Battles.” New York Times (Published January 13). Retrieved March 25, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/13/us/13 vets.html?_r=2&hp viii Fox, Maggie [article editor]. 2008. “Alcohol Abuse Rises among Combat Veterans: Study.” Thomson Reuters (August 12). Retrieved May 1, 2010 from http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k5/vetsAlc/v etsAlc.htm ix MacQuarrie, Brian. 2009. “For Returning Vets, a Tragic Toll on the Roads.” The Boston Globe (July 26). Retrieved on April 4, 2010 from http://www.boston.com/news/local/massac husetts/articles/2009/07/26/for_returning_ vets _a_tragic_toll_on_the_roads/ x Richards, Eugene [interviewer]. 2008. “War Is Personal: Mike Harmon, Age 25, Brooklyn, New York.” The Nation, 287 (8): 21 (September 22). Journalists Christopher Hedges and Laila Al-Arian gathered and published statistics and accounts of civilian casualties in Iraq in their 2009 book and audio CD from Nation Books, Collateral Damage: America‟s War Against Iraqi Civilians. xi Al-Arian, Laila. 2008. “Winter Soldiers Speak.” The Nation, 286 (13): 5 (April 7). xii Lifton, Robert Jay. 2004. “Conditions of Atrocity.” The Nation (May 13). Retrieved February 12, 2010 from http://www.thenation.com/doc/20040531/lif ton xiii Gardner, David. 2010. “'Ha ha, I Hit 'em'.” Daily Mail (UK). Updated April 7. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnew s/article-1263822/WikiLeaks-videoReutersjournalistscivilians-gunned-US-pilots.html xiv Jason Gunn, Army Iraq Veteran, interviewed in Before You Enlist. 2006. DVD. Telequest / American Friends Service Committee. xv Grossman, Dave (Lt. Col.). 1995. On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to

Kill in War and Society, p. 50. Boston: Little, Brown & Company. xvi Uhlin, Michael. 2008. “PTSD from the Inside Out.” VFP Newsletter, p.19 (Summer). xvii MacNair, Rachel M. 2002. Perpetration-Induced Traumatic Stress: The Psychological Consequences of Killing. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. xviii Kilner, Peter G. 2005. “The Military Ethicist‟s Role in Preventing and Treating Combat-related, Perpetration-Induced Psychological Trauma.” (January 3 Draft). Retrieved from http://www.usafa.edu/isme/JSCOPE05/Kil ner05.html xix Maguen, Shira et al. 2010. “The Impact of Reported Direct and Indirect Killing on Mental Health Symptoms in Iraq War Veterans.” Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23 (1): 86-90. Available on-line at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal /123263451/PDFSTART xx The exact figure as of September, 2007, is 195,991; figure compiled by the Women Research and Education Institute, retrieved from the U.S. Military Violence Against Women web site, http://usmvaw.com/information-statistics/ xxi Suris, Alina, and Lisa Lind. 2008. “Military Sexual Trauma: A Review of Prevalence and Associated Health Consequences in Veterans.” Trauma, Violence, and Abuse, 9 (4): 250-269. xxii Wright, Ann. 2010. “Congress Told That DOD Data on Sexual Assault and Rape in Military Is „Lacking in Accuracy, Reliability and Validity‟.” Common Dreams.org (February 15). Retrieved May 6, 2010, from http://www.commondreams.org/print/5285 2 xxiii Suris and Lind. xxiv Suris and Lind p. 251. xxv Suris and Lind. xxvi Madhani, Aamer. 2008. “Mental Health and the Military Mind-set.” Los Angeles Times, A25 (June 15). xxvii Dobie, Kathy. 2008. “Denial in the Corps.” The Nation, (February 18). p.12. xxviii Dobie, p.18. xxix Thompson, Mark. 2008. “America‟s Medicated Army.” Time.com / CNN (June 5). Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8 599,1811858,00.html

xxx Mark, Jason. 2007. “Swords into Plowshares.” The Nation, p. 8. (April 2). xxxi Public Citizen News. 2010. “Wall Street Reform Must Protect Military, Civilians from Auto Dealer Financing Fraud.” 30 (2): 12 (March/April). Refer also to American Public Media. 2009. “Debt of Service: Personal Finance in the Military” (February 20). Retrieved May 1, 2010, from http://marketplace.publicradio.org/projects/ project_display.php?proj_identifier=2009/0 2/ 20/mm_military_debt_of_service xxxii Lerner, Sharon. 2010. “The Part-time Bind.” The American Prospect, 21 (3): 3942. xxxiii Zoroya, Gregg. 2010. “Joblessness Hits Male Vets of Current Wars.” USA Today (Updated April 7). Retrieved April 27, 2010 from http://www.usatoday.com/news/military/20 10-04-06-vets_N.htm?csp=34

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Part 2 of this article will be featured in the July electronic issue of Currents! The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views and opinions of NASW Washington State Chapter. This article is reprinted with the permission of the author, National Association of Social Workers California Chapter and the National Association of Social Workers Maryland Chapter.

ii

This discussion applies equally to mental health iii RCW 18


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March 2011 Volume 1, Issue 2

.

These are two of the March 2011 Social Work Ads!

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