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MULTIDISCIPLINARY PROJECT FINAL REPORT / 8th Cycle Smart Map / S.H.O.W. Mi / Team A


MULTIDISCIPLINARY PROJECT FINAL REPORT

SMART MAP

S.H.O.W. MI

Kai Chen, Architecture for Sustainability Design, Politecnico di TO ________________________________________ Luca Cioria, Computer Engineering, Politecnico di MI ________________________________________ Giovanni Fassio, Industrial Engineering and Management, Politecnico di TO ________________________________________ Filippo Pozzoli [Team Controller], Building Engineering/Architecture, Politecnico di MI ________________________________________ Sonia Pravato - Interior Design, Politecnico di MI ________________________________________ Anastasiia Stryzhevska - Architecture, Politecnico di MI ________________________________________

Principal Academic Tutor: Antonella Contin, Architecture and Planning, Politecnico di Milano

________________________________________


Other Academic Tutors: Alberto De Marco, Management and Production Engineering, Politecnico di Torino Luca Guerrini, Industrial Design, Arts, Communication and Fashion, Politecnico di Milano Pier Luca Lanzi - Electronics and Information, Politecnico di Milano External Tutors: Guido Arnone - EXPO 2015 - Settore Innovazione tecnologica Roberto Bottazzi - Royal College of London Bruno Cicciarello - Comau Robotics Alessandro Frigerio - UP! Design and Research Lab Gioia Gibelli - SIEP-IALE - SocietĂ  Italiana di Ecologia del Paesaggio. International Association for Landscape Ecology Ilaria Tosoni - Eth Zurich Institute for Spatial Development External Institutions: EXPO 2015 - Settore Innovazione tecnologica Eth Zurich Institute for Spatial Development Royal College of London SIEP-IALE - SocietĂ  Italiana di Ecologia del Paesaggio. International Association for Landscape Ecology

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Index 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Executive Summary 1.1. Targets 1.2. Market state of the art and users’ requirements 1.3. The right time, the right place 1.4. The product 1.5. Reaching the market 1.6. The wider vision Introduction 2.1. But first of all, are we really meant to need a map? 2.2. Getting Smart 2.3. Let's make it fun 2.4. Be social. Really social 2.5. Aiming too high? 2.6. Why here and now? 2.7. Here We Go Method of Work 3.1. Team Organization 3.2. Schedule of activities 3.2.1. Ideation 3.2.2. Formalization 3.2.3. Presentation (Mid term project) 3.2.4. Final Design 3.2.5. Pretotyping 3.2.6. Pitch Phases State of the Art 4.1. Urban Exploration and Maps 4.2. An Overview of the World of Apps 4.3. Case Studies 4.4. Expo Oriented Applications 4.5. Our nearest competitors not related to EXPO Users’ Requirement and market analysis 5.1. Structure of the Analysis 5.2. Who are the Stakeholders involved in the Project? 5.3. Principal Stakeholders 5.4. Institutional Stakeholders 5.5. Without Representation Stakeholders 5.6. Key Stakeholders 5.6.1. Citizens 5.6.2. Tourists

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6.

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5.6.3. Businesses 5.6.4. Attractions 5.7. Market Analysis 5.7.1. What 5.7.2. For Whom 5.7.3. Summary Milan: Culture, Tradition and Sustainable Citizenship and Tourism 6.1. New Tourism Trends 6.2. Cultural Heritage and Sustainability 6.3. Milanese Cultural Heritage 6.3.1. How do we represent it? 6.3.2. Treasure hunt in libraries 6.3.3. Selection process 6.4. Milan EXPO and Food 6.4.1. EXPO2015 6.4.2. Food in Milan 6.5. Transport Sustainability in Milan 6.5.1. Action Area C 6.5.2. Bike Sharing 6.5.3. Car Sharing 6.5.4. Collective Transport 6.5.5. S.H.O.W. Mi Answer to this problem 6.6. Digital Islands Product Design 7.1. Introduction 7.2. Why to develop an App? 7.3. Features 7.3.1. Custom Itineraries Generation 7.3.2. User preferences 7.3.3. Events 7.3.4. Dynamic Adaptation 7.3.5. Gamification 7.3.6. Social Real Network 7.4. Quality Content 7.5. Technical choices: effective geolocation 7.6. Mockup: a simple day with S.H.O.W. Mi 7.7. Comparative Differentiation with Current State of the Art Business Model 8.1. Market Size 8.2. Target 8.3. Business model: one side of the platform

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9.

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8.4. Users: the other side of the platform 8.5. Business model: resumen Results and Conclusions 9.1. Connection with EXPO 9.2. Sustainability and Profitability 9.3. Life after the Expo: scalability, replicability and other possible follow ups Bibliography

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Figures Index Figure 3.1: Team composition and organization Figure 3.2-1: Sketches made during a brainstorming Figure 3.2-2: Planning of the activities Figure 3.2.1: Some photos of S.H.O.W. MI team during some working sessions Figure 4.2: The figure shows statistics about Apps users and Apps downloading Figure 4.3: General overview of what is now on the market Figure 4.3-1: Maps with Me App Figure 4.3-2: Google Maps App Figure 4.3-3: Foursquare App Figure 4.3-4: Trip Journal App Figure 4.3-5: Chromaroma App Figure 4.3-6: ATM Mobile App Figure 4.3-7: Pleens App Figure 4.3-8: History Pin App Figure 4.4: EXPO oriented applications - Smart City App Figure 4.5-1: Banjo App Figure 4.5-2: City1Tap App Figure 4.5-3: PicaPica App Figure 5: Levels of Innovation Figure 5.2: Matrix of involved stakeholders Figure 5.7.1-1: represents the percentage ratio of categories for applications related to “map” and “Milan” Figure 5.7.1-2: represents the accessory of categories to different queries Figure 5.7.1-3: represent the relation between the app’s categories and secondary keywords related to them Figure 5.7.1-4: keywords for “map” for iOS applications Figure 5.7.1-5: keywords for “map” for Android applications Figure 5.7.1-6: keywords for “Milan” for iOS applications Figure 5.7.1-7: keywords for “Milan” for Android applications Figure 5.7.2-1: Number of anagraphic changes made due to internal migration in Italy Source: dati.istat.it Figure 5.7.2-2: Number of anagraphic changes made due to extenal migration in Italy Source: dati.istat.it Figure 5.7.2-3: Data for Lisbon Expo, 1998 Figure 5.7.2-4: Data for Hannover Expo, 2000 Figure 5.7.2-5: Data for Zaragoza Expo, 2008 Figure 6.3.2-1: Teatro alla Scala Figure 6.3.2-2: Palazzo Spinola Figure 6.3.2-3: Rotonda della Besana Figure 6.3.2-4: Abbazia di Chiaravalle Figure 6.6: Isola Digitale in Milan Figure 7.6-1: First view of the app Figure 7.6-2: Login Figure 7.6-3: Personal Data Input Figure 7.6-4: User preferences insertion Figure 7.6-5: Choice of preferences Figure 7.6-6: Logistics Figure 7.6-7/8/9: Countdown for the itinerary Figure 7.6-10/11/12/13: Editing of the itinerary Figure 7.6-14/15/16: App visualizations fot the first point, Teatro alla Scala Figure 7.6-17/18/19: 06. App visualizations that show check-in in new place, badges and sharing with friends Figure 7.6-20/21/22: 06. 07. App games: search for interesting things and try to be faster than your friends Figure 7.6-23: Social Real Network Figure 7.6-25/26/27: App visualizations for Abbazia di Chiaravalle Figure 7.6-24: Discounts for S.H.O.W. Mi users Figure 7.6-28/29: The diary of your experience Figure 8: Business Model Scheme Figure 8.2.1: Market structure Figure 8.2.3-1: PA Business Model Scheme Figure 8.2.3-2: Businesses Business Model Scheme Figure 8.2.4: Users Business Model Scheme Figure 8.2.5-1/2/3/4: S.H.O.W. Mi platform for businesses and public administrations Figure 9.3-1: vertical integration Figure 9.3-2: horizontal integration

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Table Index Table 4.3: Analysis of Apps market Table 9.2: Possible scenario

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Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI

1. Executive Summary

What if social networks would move from digital windows to real wonders outside? 1.1 Targets The whole project started with the ultimate target to give users their custom social experience of milanese cultural heritage, widely spread in the whole metropolitan fabric, this way promoting the direct interaction between the individuals and the town asset. As a declaration of intents, we meant to combine a deep engagement and entertainment potential in the trip experience, making some distance from usual cultural trips, with an highly assessed quality of information and narrations available to users. In order to meet current potential users’ requirements, we considered to work it out as a smartphone application to fill the voids in the already available competitors with the ultimate aim to create an unique software to embed all functionalities actually needed. What should be at first considered as a simple layered map as the many already exploited by everyday urban travellers becomes this way a smart device, turning itself into a bearer of different levels of knowledge and not constraining its potential to a mere tool for "urban survival". S.H.O.W. Mi, in a statement, aims to redefine the standards for an entertaining navigation, catching the chance of Expo 2015 - our main partner in the development of the project - to enhance milanese cultural heritage and literally bring it at hand of millions of visitors and of current and future citizens.

1.2 Market state of the art and users’ requirements A deep and complete market state of the art has been carried on before starting working out our very project, mainly focusing on navigation application - to sorted out according to which kind of contents and information they could provide users - and on Expo-related users facilities already available on application stores. The resulting framed shown us a very differentiated and polymorphic commercial asset, with several different applications sorted by contents and functionalities under a bunch of different topics and main commitments. What we found to be actually lacking, after a deep analysis of users’ preferences and requirements carried on exploiting both usual statistic researches and latest web data mining interfaces, was something providing a complete and integrated experience of urban navigation, dealing with social issues and embedding an attractive added value to bare orientation applied to everyday town trips. 11


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI Our state of the art analysis got after deeper. We indeed investigated the needs of public administration and small local enterprises to work out possible synergies and common platforms, which could lead to three different levels of benefit: an overall economic self sustainability for the project itself, an increased and restored interest towards historical and cultural attractions by those professionals operating and generating profits on field, the creation of a favourable social environment with a predictable increase of expected visitors and customers.

1.3 The right time, the right place The forthcoming happening of Expo 2015 is not the only reason why Milan should be now the right place for such a bet. Our field analysis proved that not only Milan has the tangible contents to let an application like this rely on a wide base of contents to exploit, but that there are the right side conditions for this project to be successful also relying on its only structure. The growing interest for a sustainable tourism and an empowerment of current usage of public means of transportation, the tight bond between cultural issues and milanese food culture, the recently occurred installation of Digital Islands in order to promote a smarter experience in the town fabric are just some of the considerable evidences that time and place are set to make S.H.O.W. Mi a possible and successful business out of a pretty basic idea. Coming to the bare matter, the harder part in the development of the application could have been the choice of contents itself, due to the more than 1500 culturally valuable buildings and spots we could track in Milan. An incredibly rich and differentiated cultural heritage, in a starving need for a custom device to help the potential visitors to choose what to visit best fitting their own tastes and preferences.

1.4 The product In working out the solution to the problem, we tried to leverage the full potential of the smartphone and rethink the experience of exploring a city with a new, modern mindset. The key feature is the intelligent generation of custom itineraries, based on user preference, time constraints and dynamic adaptations along the way. This is deeply integrated with the real time guidance feature, that optimizes the travel path and the employ of public transportation. You concentrate on the experience and the discovery, the app takes care of the logistics. An additional layer on top of itineraries is the gamification. Places can hide secrets to discover, challenges to take. Points are acquired following the path, and additionally coupons and discounts on tickets. All these challenges and experience will be provided thanks to augmented reality, such as the possibility to see the past in the smartphone instead of the presence of a structure, or using other tools such as Google Goggles or our proprietary gamification tools. The third layer, after intelligent itineraries and gamification, is the social one. We like calling it a social real network, a social network whose main focus is to have people meet and share in the real world. By crossmatching itineraries it’s possible to have groups of people, with common plans and interests, meet in person. Also here, a proprietary algorithm is able to identify users with similar interests, to connect them and to allow them to meet in the real world. This could be made before, during and after the experience. Additional sharing features are available in the app, such as sharing photos of places or additional comments, suggestions and reviews. The underlying foundation that makes all this possible is the quality content and the focus on the experience. We aim to give new value to the impressive cultural heritage of Milan, exposing the hidden 12


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI wonders and the forgotten secrets. A fun experience for tourists, but also a valuable tool to raise awareness of our heritage among the citizens.

1.5 Reaching the market When it comes to develop a business model for such a complex product, there are several issues to be taken into account. First of all, we need to clearly define the expected profitability for S.H.O.W. Mi, agreeing that the entry-level target should have been its self sustainability, in order to guarantee its survival as a cultural device even in case of revenues’ results would not prove to be fully satisfying. We therefore worked out different scenarios, considering a reasonable market size for each step of the product lifetime - from its launch in Expo 2015 environment to its becoming the reference of Milan smart navigation, involving step by step different actors to play their role in different side situations (small local enterprises and public administration above all) and working out hypothetical synergies according to win - win business strategies. At last, we also worked out some hypotheses for future follow ups, introducing different scenarios to assess a polyhedric scalability and a replicability in other places, aiming, as an ultimate aspiration, to become the standard application for urban textures’ navigation, enlarging the network of users and creating a new idea of citizens and users widely crossing the boundaries of Milan.

1.6 The wider vision Getting back the top of the chapter, what if, instead of watching, liking and commenting what people just around us are experiencing in their everyday life as the steadily increasing virtual sociality made us do, we could join them and share their upcoming activities, this way moving back to livable and exceptional places what social networks have nowadays constrained into virtual walls? This romantic wondering, alongside with the core targets which are deeply and completely explained in the pages to come, guided us through the design choices carried on, providing sort of a bigger, intellectual aim to what, at a first sight, may just be seen as another smartphone application. In a social era fastly evolving to a digitalization and virtualization of human relationships, we found a valuable core commitment in the meant restoration of offline social interactions, maintaining technology and innovation as the mean to enhance them and never to replace.

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Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI

2. Introduction S.H.O.W. Mi brand in project Smart.Map started with the final aim to give users a social, tailored and interactive experience of urban and cultural environment of Milan, encouraging and enhancing the direct interaction between the individuals and the town asset, therefore promoting a more aware social consciousness about the surrounding environment. In our bare opinion, this has to be reached through a deep development of the engagement and the entertainment provided by usual cultural trips, simplifying the overall travel experience and making it more user-friendly without depreciating the quality and the believability of information and narrations available to users. Trying to fulfill this task through the developing of a smartphone application has come without any struggle of reasoning: is there any other existing device with no need of its own dedicated - expensive - tangible hardware, bottom-low - when not totally null - costs of distribution, which is easy to carry around your trip and which is now naturally appealing to a wide and extremely differentiated target of users? There was definitely no point in working out any new complex electronic appliance we would not have the full skills to properly manage its growth, nor a kind of romantic retrofit to paper and pre-IT age technologies would have made any sense nowadays. We knew we had better focus on the content, exploiting the consolidated existing hardware provided by major high tech developers and already spread out all over the world to work out what should have been the missing piece in the mapping universe.

2.1 But first of all, are we really meant to need a map? To be honest, we kept on wondering about the real need for a map all along the development of S.H.O.W. Mi project. Of course, at first we carried on a deep existing market analysis just to be sure that we were not about to work out something already existing and, then, pretty useless. We collected all the data needed and compared all the existing application available to public both for free and for a variable purchasing fee, finding out that what was missing was not a map to show the bare itinerary to some user meaning to go from some place to another, nor a device to guide them step by step in the urban environment. What was really missing was something to properly guide users and tourists without any physical and geographical reference needed, but just according to their general preference. The roots on which these targets have been defined lay on the idea that guiding users the travel experience step by step for discovering the urban context, which they either visits or lives in, should not be something barely functional and useful to orientate in a complex artificial fabric like metropolitan one, but should involve some cultural contents to fit the availability of spare time, the necessity to move from one place to another and the individual preferences. We somehow needed to reinterpret the very concept of the “map�, turning the usual and static tangled paths of usual guides to the pure power of a blank paper sheet, providing the user with the chance to draw a unique and personally customizable in space and time. The prototype provides that the user, interfacing with an algorithm-learning machine, manages to define his own map, answering his interests and his daily mood not limiting to connect the places of interest set at the beginning, but dynamically evolving according social and user-sensitive interactions. The database stores a series of must-be-there points, from boulder to barely known ones, each one responding to different possible readings of Milanese environment. Each one enables to discover a certain way of seeing and interpreting the urban context, bringing out a specific feature to be something unique and different from any other town. This spots are not the departure/arrival of the infinite possible paths, but have to be linked each other through dynamic and always changing itineraries, changeable at any time and re-arrangeable after users’ choice or social happening, as, for instance, the meeting of a known per15


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI son whose trip somehow interacts with first user's.

2.2 Getting Smart The map, this way, becomes a smart device, and turns itself into a bearer of different levels of knowledge: it is no longer a mere tool of, we could say, "urban survival", but becomes an opportunity of a deep exploration addressed, through different modalities, to both citizens and tourists, maintaining dialogical relationships with the city, being both the subject and the object of the map. As a matter of fact, the virtual and the physical spaces merge in the adopted technology through physical WiFi hot spots, which are immediately identifiable and recognizable within the city and through which it is possible to verify the real own position along the itinerary and append user-defined contents, as if there were sort of "virtual urban blackboards" which could be created exploiting already operative Digital Islands in milanese town fabric. This way, every chance of moving through town becomes an immersive and involving experience, coming along user's need to reach some identified point of interest without letting the trip to be something bothering and to necessarily end up as soon as possible. It indeed becomes the real happening of the day, embedding the need to lead users to choose to be guided by a culture-oriented device with a motivating and involving system of virtual awarding program.

2.3 Let's make it fun The traveler’s profile has indeed to be structured with a game looking style, with a real time up to date score and virtual “badges” to gain fulfilling different tasks and quests along the trip, for example,stopping for a while to read the history of a wonderful church he is just passing by or, even better, popping in for a shots and completely free visit where having the chance to gain further points to award his curiosity and will to discover. The itinerary has this way to be designed with a clear social gaming approach, below the matrix of a "treasure hunt" layered on two different levels, limiting the access to some of the contents available for a place to the physical visit of it. Some basic information is indeed always available and readable, as if the app could work as a pocket urban encyclopedia, but most interesting parts, which are either related to the use of augmented reality and dynamic animations, are unlocked only upon the arrival to the place, through identifying the user by simply connecting to a WiFi open router placed on site. Visiting places, the users gain further points and badges, with the chance to figure as "expert visitors"to other “treasure hunters” who may be found on the same route at the same time.

2.4 Be social. Really social. A gamification approach turns to be fundamental in helping us with the creation of a social fidelity network of users who, getting in touch first through the app, choose to share their itineraries. This aspect is seen as fundamental according to our point of view: the faster growing need in nowadays society is indeed related to the possibility of sharing pictures, posts or anything else about the experiences in which someone has got through, sometimes even more than the experience itself. Our aim gets further: why shall we limit what to share to something that only people we know may see, like and comment? Why can't we make it real? What if you could share your route to make it visible to any other user being in the neighbors, no matter whether you know them or not, and maybe you could join each other and carry on exploring the town and its hidden wonders altogether? 16


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI At last, we realized: this was what we were definitely looking for. Something moving social interactions we all started being addicted to from a virtual and intangible interface to physical, living spaces, with the challenging aim to make online users to get back to an off-line experience of tangible values they are surrounded by. As an unavoidable priority, we are committed to an overall sustainability of the project, not only involving ecological and economical issues but also dealing with cultural topics that have to be precisely orientated by a social device like the one we are about to develop. Developing something social but closely related to the exploration of open spaces, instead of constraining people to steadily check out their virtual wall, immediately seemed to us to be the real surplus we could exploit to make a valuable piece of innovation out of our visionary ideas. The question, then, was no longer what to do, but how to make it possible.

2.5 Aiming too high? Of course we are not speaking about eating a piece of cake. But still we are in the era of great revolutions born out of a couple of brilliant minds working penniless in a car box. The challenge was to identify the best fitting circumstantial frames, to assess the economical feasibility of the whole project keeping aware of the funds we could rely on and to carefully plan the picture to draw for what we had just started imagine. For this very reason, we clearly identified who could need an application like S.H.O.W. Mi, not only meaning the final users, but considering all the possible side issues here coming to be involved. For example, we deepened the possible benefits that such an immersive application could bring to citizens and tourists for the usual exploitation of public facilities, as, for instance, public means of transport and administrative services. A dynamic and instantaneous bijective synergy with metropolitan transport facilities’ interfaces could incentivate the use of public means by, for example, suggesting the right bus to hop on at the right time, filling the gap between the adequate scale and presence of a public metropolitan net and an user oriented layout to an easy fruition of it. This coming to be part of a wider and more complex business plan involving public administration, cultural points of interest and small businesses widespread on the whole urban fabric, as precisely described at forthcoming Chapter 7. Go To Market Strategy. This all in order to keep the final product costless for final users, being this a rooting requirement for guaranteeing a high accessibility of the application and, therefore, a good overall functionality and a great scale potential for the application itself. In such a particular project, every choice to take must be deeply strategically and cannot be left to fatality.

2.6 Why here and now? Everybody knows how important is timing and market positioning in telling whether a project will be successful or not. In our very case, we took the greater advantage out of one of our main partners, meaning Expo 2015, to achieve best results without making any free effort. First of all, it is clear that a social application like the one we are aiming to propose needs a high number of starting users to link making them start uipsing S.H.O.W. Mi. No better occasion, therefore, than the greatest international fair passing through Milan to experience new ways for orientating tourists, catching the chance of a massive flow of human testers in order to work out what the mapping environment is likely to request to forthcoming years and developing chances. The one of Expo 2015 is one of that sort of unmissable trains to try and make it possible in our town, 17


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI Milan. There could not be any better istance to develop something like this.

2.7 Here We Go In the following chapters, we summed up all the work carried on along last two years, including both our visionary and conceptual ideas as well as most practical choices carried out in order to assess an hypothetical working cycle of the overall system. Of course words are not what is most needed, and for this very reason our core priority has been to work out a mock-up application to develop the inflation technology algorithms we needed to link our contents each other. Hoping to be clear and sure that they could have been helpful to better understand the bare meanings and possibilities of our projects, we posted several screenshots of possible user-application interactions, enriching our reliability layout and hereby proving the real development of a working prototype.

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Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI

3. Work method Dealing with a two years project is usually not an easy task. Most of all, it was not easy to coordinate team, composed by six students of different background, tutors and external institutions. A good organization, with a schedule of activities, milestones with external institutions, meeting within the team and with tutors, was the basis for our work. We are proud to say now, at the end of our two years project, that in spite of different experiences, part of the team abroad for studying or working, we were able to manage our time and to create S.H.O.W. Mi using the apport and the support of everyone in the team.

3.1 Team organization The team is composed by six students with a complex and different background; two engineers, IT and Logistics, two architects, specialized in sustainability and cultural heritage, one interior designer and one civil engineer and architect. We have decided to adopt a circular structure for our team, trying to avoid a hierarchic one, in order to exploit the capabilities and the imagination of every member of the team. Furthermore, we tried to apply a platform and dynamic structure, trying to model the correct team for each tasks, giving more responsibilities to one member in comparison to another one, or splitting the team in order to work on different subtopics with a final common meeting to share impressions and suggestions. In the next paragraph it will be explained step by step how the Team organization was modified in order to perform the different phases of the product and furthermore, these phases will be presented and analyzed in detail.

KAi chen

luca cioria

giovanni fassio

filippo pozzoli

sonia pravato

anastasiia Stryzhevska

Figure 3.1: Team composition and organization

3.2 Schedule of activities The first month of the project was used to discover ourselves, who we are, our ambitions and what we 19


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI could offer and provide for the project. After this important step, we started to organize our work with a long-term planning, made in a flexible way, in order to allow the possibility to modify it in the future.

Figure 3.2-1: Sketches made during a brainstorming

This planning was made together with the other team, with which we worked for the first year, before splitting us in our subprojects. ďŹ nal design

formalization

presentation

market analysis

ideation

technical analysis

pretotyping

SME Bologna

internal meeting

cultural analysis

Camera di Commercio

feedback

MIUR

re engineering

Figure 3.2-2: Planning of the activities

3.2.1 Ideation The ideation process is one of the most important phase of every project. The Idea, the basis one, is made in this period and it is really important to have the possibility to use all the imagination of the 20


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI components of the team. Everyone could have the right idea in the right moment, because imagination is not part of a mathematical scheme. That is why we have decide to give everyone the possibility to say what he considered right. We tried, in our small project, to apply the ideas and the principles of IDEO, one of the leading firms in Innovation Design. No one was more important than another one, and we gave the same time to everyone to expose and present his idea. Everyone has also the possibility to suggest, add things and remove things from others’ idea.

Figure 3.2.1: Some photos of S.H.O.W. MI team during some working sessions

3.2.2 Formalization In this phase, we structured our team in three subtasks, named respectively Market Analysis, Technical Analysis and Cultural Analysis. For each of this phase we have named a responsible member that has to guide the team and to keep note of all the solutions proposed. The team has continued to work in parallel and in a free structure in order to analyse these three main aspect of the problem. The coordinator of each subtask has the right to organize a meeting for his tasks, involving the member he considered right. At the end of the process we had an internal meeting with our tutors in order to show the results obtained. This process was reiterated many times in order to update functionality, to increase the compatibility between subtasks and to reach the goals of our external investors. 21


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI

3.2.3 Presentation (Mid term project) After two iteration of the formalization phase, we have decided, in accord with our tutors, to present our results, obtained after around one year of work, at the Smart City Exhibition 2012 in Bologna. Thanks to ASP, we had the possibility to a personalized desk for the two days Exhibition, in where we show the project in front of different investors and possible stakeholders, such as Comune di Firenze and CNR Palermo. We received also interesting feedbacks about our project and new ideas to integrate in, such as the possibility to use a different algorithm to perform the interaction between users. This period was full of meeting, because our project attracts the attention of Camera di Commercio di Milano, where we were invited to present our project inside the Tavoli Expo2015. Our project was considered one of the best presented and we have the possibility to do a second and more detailed presentation in front of Telecom SpA, that was present at Tavoli Expo2015. Finally, we decided to apply for a public funds proposed by MIUR; unfortunately we were not selected as a winner project, but also this experience was useful to increase our feedbacks and suggestions, allowing us to come back to the Formalization process with new, interesting and innovative ideas.

3.2.4 Final Design After a long process of Formalization, made after the feedbacks received in the presentation process, we decided to focus more on the final design of the application, such as which and how to present the app on the market, which functionality give for free and what business model we could apply to our project. The Final Design was made in collaboration with tutors and external institution trying to analyse one-byone all the functionalities in order to understand how to add this in the app.

3.2.5 Pretotyping Final Design is deeply related with Pretotyping phase, that is the period in which we really create the functions, the layout and the internal test of our application. Every function analysed in the final design passes through the pretotyping step, in order to verify its feasibility in terms of money, technology and time. It was really important to connect these two phases, because it allows us to change and to adapt fast the Design with the Implementation and Pretotyping process.

3.2.6 Pitch phases It could sound strange, but we have dedicated a specific and peculiar section to the Pitch phase, because we believe that a good presentation is as much important as good contents. That is why, during our phases we have dedicated part of the team in organizing pitches, talks and other presentation, such as the realization of a video or a website to promote our project.

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4 State of art This chapter explains the first phase of the work of our team, in which we have performed a thorough analysis of the state of art. Before starting a market analysis we explored the theme of urban exploration, investigating how it has always fascinated man and deepening in particular the interesting relationship between artistic movements of the twentieth century and the urban context. From here, we turned our attention to the issue of the map as a support, especially its adaptation to new media after exploring the world of apps and smartphones, producing an analysis of what currently exists in the market, in order to deduce the characteristics and parameters that could be useful in the later stages of concept and development of the project.

4.1 Urban Exploration and Maps The exploration of the city has always been an issue discussed by writers and artists. In particular, the avant-garde art in the Twentieth Century gave a special attention to the topic. Thus, thanks to Dadaism the action of crossing space is used as an aesthetic form, as well as the Surrealism introduces the “deambulations”. The heirs of these practices were the Situationists. The Situationist Movement, a political and individual aesthetic movement developed in the 60s, has developed important ideas about urban space. “To understand the city, Debord and Constant, elaborate the Psychogeography, documenting not just the representational spaces, but those who favor the sensations. (...) The situationists believe in nomadic and mobile city.”¹ Among the terms developed by the Situationists in fact there are dérive and psychogeography. They used the instrument of aimlessly walking in the city, like the flaneur of Baudelaire, as a political complaint and radical reinterpretation of the city and its spaces. This could give a rise to a personal geography of urban space, actually called psychogeography, which represented diagrammatically the psychological reactions of humans within some places, that are representational spaces that foster feelings. The city is interpreted as a subjective experience, comparing this experience with other emotions and passions that are determined by visiting certain places. Examples of this are the “Guide de Paris psychogéographique: discours sur les passions de l’amour” or “The Naked City. Illustration de l’’ Hypothèse des plaques tournantes en psychogeographique “of 1957. Some experiences still continue these experiments of urban exploration, as in the case of the Group Stalker. These premises show that have already been developed new ways to produce maps. Today in particular digital cartography is rapidly spreading. The static representation of the online world as a digital copy of the normal street guide, has been transformed into new communication tools that integrate geographic representation to the representation of informations. These new maps, not only represent the territory or define a route, but, above all, they construct new meanings and significations, generating thematic and customized maps responsive to the interests of users, which allow to obtain textual information, news, descriptions of places, events, photos and videos, friends location and other facilities and services. This has led today to a series of participatory and customizable applications through the progressive integration of functions and contents. The change was made possible ​​ by the implementation of writing interfaces that generated maps as “expressive surfaces ready to host speeches.”². New terms have therefore been coined to describe these applications with georeferenced systems: collaborative mapping, geosocial networking, neogeography. With the web 2.0 cartography, where users can contribute and share the design and content of the map, the concept of neogeography becomes central. Randall Szott was among the first to define the term: “Neogeography is, or should be, broad enough to include, [1] A.Detheridge, Scultori della speranza. L’arte nel contesto della globalizzazione, Einaudi, Torino, 2012 [2] C. Gianelli and D. Compagno, Visualizzazione e gestione del discorso in Google Maps: pratiche virtuali e territorio urbano, in EC Serie Speciale, Anno II, n. 2, 2008, p. 145

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Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI urban exploration and its Situationist offspring (like psychogeography), illegal architecture, site-specific sculpture, collaborative mapping, geotagging, guided walks, ephemeral cities, imaginary urban planning, altered maps, travel writing, place based photo blogging, etc.”. In the analysis that we have done, we then identified another important feature of the mapping services: the creation of complex hypertext, thanks to the spread of geotags. These hypertexts are characterized by multiple layers that combine, also thanks to the initiative of users, notes, photographs, videos, pictures, itineraries and any other kind of data according to the principles of the mashup. The ability to bring together objects from other “content sharing” sites is a fundamental points of web mapping. Speaking strictly of the theme of maps, the presentation of data takes place in several ways, creating interactive maps and allowing dynamic exploration showing points of interest, geo-referenced photographs or texts. The user is immersed in the map and can perform different actions in order to view data, information and infographics. A series of functions were therefore developed to refer to the digital maps. Among these “drill down”, which allows you to switch between a general map to more specific information; “zoom”, allows you to enlarge the map and see information otherwise not visible, “timeline”, tools through which, by moving the cursor over it, you can generate variations, such as temporal changes, in the content of the map, “points of interest”, generating indicators in the map that allow you to create relationships between points; “before and after”, which allows you to view two conditions of the place at different times. Particularly interesting is the tendency of some applications to consider the maps as social networks. This is done for two main reasons: first the maps are considered tools for personal expression, communication and sharing with others in a manner similar to social networks and furthermore users create an overwrite of the geographical map through the user-generated content: the maps take so expressive purposes and contribute to the recognition of identity, in a similar way to what happens in the social world.

4.2 An overview of the world of Apps Mobile Apps downloaded 309 bn

205 bn

Apps users in 2012 Extimated Apps users in 2017

131 bn percentage of Apps dowloaded for free in 2012

81 bn 45 bn

2012

2013 E

2014 E

2015 E

2016 E

extimated percentage of Apps dowloaded for free in 2017

Figure 4.2: The figure shows statistics about Apps users and Apps downloading

Since 2008, year of the opening of the App Store launched by Apple, the smartphone has become the bearer of increasingly varied and surprising functionality, starting the era of mobile computing and generating a user base of more than a billion people. According to recent statistics made ​​by the company Compuware, 85% of users prefer Apps to mobile site because they are faster and easier to use than sites. The strengths of the mobile world can be summarized in: connection point of pervasive technologies, personalization and identification, simplicity and rapidity of usage, location based, social integration. In 2012, about 45 billion of Mobile Apps have been downloaded in the world, with a year on year growth rate around 80%. For 2013, the Research Companies predict a download of Apps between 70 and 80 billion. Among these, about 80%, according to ABI Research, will be apps for smartphones. According to 24


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI estimates, in 2016 almost 310 billion of Apps will be downloaded. The increase in sales of smartphones and tablets, and their spread to the world’s population, justifies the continued growth in mobile dowload App. Portio Research has calculated that, in 2012, Apps users have been about 1.1 billion, and there will be more than 4 billion in 2017. Interesting data is the rise of the App downloaded for free: the percentage is estimated to grow from 89% in 2012 to 93% for 2017 showing a trend that users are more likely to pay in-app functionality rather than a fixed cost at the time of download, without having the possibility to test the app.³ Apps are thus become part of people’s life and they more and more affect our daily experience. Many actions of real life are in fact completed by virtual actions, for example to book a table in a restaurant or a room in a hotel, to “tag” a video or a song, to share a photo or to be guided by the maps to a destination. Today we live in an increasingly Augmented Space that includes wireless points, ubiquitous computing, augmented reality and a lot of new technologies that have the aims to create a relationship beetwen the real and the virtual”. Strong focus was also given to the analysis of the trends that currently guide the social web and influence our experience, especially through mobile devices identifying in sharing and customization its two main and complementary directions. The evolution of social networks has in fact caused the intensification of the idea and the sharing action, based on concepts such as virality and playfulness; just think about the Facebook share button rather than the possibilities offered by Instagram, a vehicle through which talk about the world. Sharing has become the engine of online sociability creating real communities whose members are gathered mostly around issues of common interest and the concept and usage of hashtag, especially in Twitter, is the most significant example of this process. At the same time, a set of principles, such as relevance or filters, decisively determine the type of information we are exposed to, showing the second direction, after sharing, in which online platforms are moving: the personalization and customization, a fundamental tool in order not to submerge the users by the flows of information and knowledge in which the net immerses us, allowing the users to get in contact with his selected, filtered and customized interests and news, avoiding others. We analyzed also another important trend: gamification. The term means the application of some game design techniques to non-game experiences. Today lot of businesses use gamification to improve their strategies, trying to create more loyal users and to lock in them, and this concept is spreading rapidly in the mobile applications market. In the world of the apps, the use of gamification consists in add game mechanics within applications. This causes a greater involvement and engagement of the user who can challenge himself or others, score points and earn medals, compete to be the winner, the faster than the others, reaching new functionality and games passing level.

4.3 Case Studies In this paragraph some of the most interesting map-based applications will be analyzed. Our team has mapped several applications in accordance with a parameterized system of evaluation, similar to a Multi Criteria Decision Aid, in order to obtain different useful indicators for our project S.H.O.W. Mi. We divided our apps in several categories despite being aware that it is impossible to get a rigid classification of the app on the market due to the complexity of the content and the mix of features and functionality present in each of them. Therefore, for each application, in order to obtain a number of categories that could be analyzed in more detail below, the most distinctive functionality has been evinced. In the table below we present the result of this analysis. In order to create this table we have briefly analyzed all of apps identified and then we focused on the most emblematic cases that summarize the main features. [3] S. Venuti, Il mercato delle Mobile App: un’analisi empirica degli strumenti di promozione e delle classifiche di App Store e Google Play. Master Degree thesis in Management Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, 2013

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Tripadvisor

City Maps 2go

Tourist eye

Maps with me

smAnd

Foursquare

Glympse

Map Dood

Prettymap

Walking Papers

Panoramio

ATM

Discover Palladio

Leonardo Around

Pleens

Percorsi emotivi

Color me

History Pin

Vodafone Milano BBD

Gotham Guide

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Triposo

Stay.com

Google Maps

Locus

My tracks

Trip Journal

Share Route

Chromaroma

Paragliding Map

Qibla Map

Garden Registry

London Typographica

Emography

Mappa Emozionale dei Luoghi della Memoria Antifascista

East Paris Emotion Map

PDPal

Wikitude World Browser

Layar

Nearest Tube

TagWhat

Figure 4.3: General overview of what is now on the market

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GUIDING

TripAdvisor CityMaps2Go OFFLINE MAPS

TouristEye MapsWithMe Triposo Stay.com

ONLINE NAVIGATORS

GoogleMaps Locus SmAnd FourSquare

I AM HERE

Glympse MapDood

SHARE ROUTE

COMMUNITYGENERATED

MyTracks TripJournal ShareRoute Chromaroma Prettymaps WalkingPapers Panoramio

SELECTED INFO

iATM Paragliding Map Qibla Map Garden Registry London Tipographica Discover Palladio Leonardo Around Pleens

EMOTIONAL MAP

Percorsi Emotivi Emography Geoblogging East Paris Emotion PDPal Color Me History Pin Vodafone Milano BDD

AUGMENTED REALITY

Gotham Guide Wikitude World Browser Layar Next Tube

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TagWhat

AUGMENTED REALITY

FACTS & HISTORY


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI SOCIAL INTERACTION

USERS' FEEDBACK

EMOTIONAL APPROACH

GAMIFICATION

TURN-BYTURN

SPECIALIZED INFO

29 Table 4.3: Analysis of Apps market


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI

01. Ofine Maps This category includes all applications that allow you to browse maps and routes in offline mode. Their main goal is to be a guide for users, allowing them to orient themselves and reach certain locations indicated by them. Within this category, there are applications that are strictly related to the cartographic consultation, while others have information like restaurants, attractions, hotels and an integration with other applications in order to be used also online where additional content is proposed to the user. Figure 4.3-1: Maps with Me App

02. Online Navigators Belong to the category “online navigators� all Apps whose main objective is to allow the user to navigate and move around in unknown or partially known place. Among these, perhaps the most significant example is Google Maps which can be considered the most used and popular navigation app in the world. Google Maps, like the other apps in this category, allows users to search for places and shops, calculate a route between two points, to explore the world through different views. Apps in this category usually do not have a real social side (though Google Maps is integrated into the Google+ social network), in fact, their main function is to search for information rather than create and share content. Figure 4.3-2: Google Maps App

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03. I am here! This category of apps allows you to record and share your location with your contacts through the use of GPS and WiFi. Users after checkin into a place where they are, can receive, as in the case of Foursquare, points and prizes or “badges�, as awards for goals exceeded. The apps in this category have a strong social component: it is possible to see the movement of your friends, share comments about the places you visit, register at one place and then inform others where you are located. In some cases, the applications can inform the user about places and activities that would interest him, determined thanks to his check-in. In other cases, they can give users, based on their location, useful information.However most of these applications do not give any information about the contents, intended as cultural content of the place visited. Figure 4.3-3: Foursquare App

04. Share Routes The apps in this category allow the user to record an itinerary and share it with other users, both within the application and in other social networks. The shared routes are mainly related to sport and tourism. In the first case the app share data such as number of kilometers traveled, the difference in height, speed and thus creates a sort of report of the activities and results that can be compared and shared with friends. In the second case, as Trip Journal Apps, allow users to document traveling routes and share them with friends and family, creating a sort of travelogue that shows the user experience, while also allowing the inclusion of photos, videos and comments. Figure 4.3-4: Trip Journal App

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05. Community generated This kind of apps involves the user as active actor that creates, thanks to the process of adding content, a stratification of the map. These apps respond to the needs of the users to tell about places and about themselves, creating a personal territory and a customized map. Users can create new maps, especially thematic ones, with other users, in which explain their point of view about a place, represent spaces that host moments of interest, notify favorite public spaces or attractions visited during a journey, share places to which they are attached, convey an emotion or relate the landscape through a photograph. On the other hand, other applications use specific data, learned by users, to generate thematic maps very particular, for example related to emotions, public transport or religion. Figure 4.3-5: Chromaroma App

06. Selected info This category of apps collects all the applications that focus on maps related to a particular theme. This creates mappings that are real catalogs which collect inside them information and content related to a particular area. This creates a very broad category that stores a number of applications that they tell, through maps, precise themes, but linked to any field imaginable: from the historical point of view, services, art, tourism, to activities or very particular information as in the cases listed in the previous pages. Figure 4.3-6: ATM Mobile App

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07. Emotional Maps This category of apps wants to represent those applications that show examples of emotional geography, that is maps of the space characterized by contamination between the reality geographic locations and individuals perception. Since 2002, the emotional geography has spread worldwide, becoming one of the most interesting aesthetic movements. In this regard, Christian Nold is one of the greatest exponents, author of maps that tell the emotions of those who travel certain places or maps that record the heartbeats. Many applications, taking up this type of mapping, have thus generated maps related to users emotion, which are then highly involved in the implementation of these interior geographies. Figure 4.3-7: Pleens App

08. Augmented Reality Today there are many applications based on augmented reality. These AR-based Apps use smartphone camera to display the physical place on the screen, which is subsequently overlaid with new virtual layers that give the user additional informations, such as photos, videos, sounds, comments, memories, metatags and paths. These Apps use geo-tagged location data in order to create an augmented city. A typical feature of these applications is the localized communication, in fact only if the visitor is in presence of the object (hic et nunc) he can reach contents and informations. A typical example is the layering of historical images overlaid on contemporary scenarios. These applications allow the user to live sensory experiences and create a strong relationship with the context. Figure 4.3-8: History Pin App

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4.4 EXPO oriented applications Although EXPO 2015 is our institutional stakeholder we try not to have overrated expectations. We know that there are a lot of developers of applications that state that they are sponsored or supported in any other way by EXPO 2015. We have presented our project during Tavoli Tematici EXPO 2015 event in Camera di Commercio di Milano and had a broad overview of our potential competitors on the market of applications developed for Milan for the EXPO period. We are also aware of the fact that we can not know about the products developed confidentially. What we can do is to analyze the announced one to be sure that our proposed functionalities do not overlap. The most promoted application developed for EXPO is the one developed by Telecom Design and Click’n’Tap. It is called Smart City App. Its promotional video can be found on the EXPO web site. This app is aimed to enrich the experience of visitors of EXPO allowing to navigate through town via next-generation LTE mobile connectivity networks and the most advanced devices. It incorporates technologies creating augmented reality in order make the usual sightseeing an unforgettable experience. App contains maps of public transportation infrastructure, news page and customizable city map. It is positioned as all-in-one application for EXPO 2015 visitors.

Figure 4.4: EXPO oriented applications - Smart City App

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4.5 Our nearest competitors not related to EXPO 06. Banjo (http://ban.jo) This application integrates information received from the biggest social networks to give the opportunity to explore what is happening right now anywhere in the world. It allows searching for events by keywords returning geographically related output. It lets user to receive notifications when his/her Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Forsquare or LinkedIn friend is nearby. Available for both iOS and Android. Can be used worldwide. Figure 4.5-1: Banjo App

City1Tap (https://www.city1tap.it/) Site specific Milano Guide. Integrates news page from corriere.it, GiroMilano tool from ATM public transportation company services, bikesharing and taxi renting, reviews on events and places from vivimilano.it and discount coupons. Available for both iOS and Android. Figure 4.5-2: City1Tap App

PicaPica (https://about.picapica.io/) PicaPica is a tool for creation of customizable maps for city exploration. These maps can be shared and publicly discussed. It will contain the rewarding mechanism to encourage users to post their content and rate the content published by other users. It is available only for iOS. Figure 4.5-3: PicaPica App

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5. Users’ Requirements and Market analysis Dealing with an innovative and new product is always not trivial. When you produce a new type of car, you could use market analysis about customers, about market shares and so on in order to understand your possibility with the new car model. On the other side, when you try to create a new product, and probably a new market, it is really difficult to analyse data and to find information in the past; for this reason, the first challenge and choice you have to do is if the level of innovation you want to put in your product. If we imagine the innovation as a line, we could create a new product with different levels on innovation and the more we innovate, the more we add degrees to our innovation.

Product Innovation

Figure 5: Levels of Innovation

Process Innovation

-

Users Innovation

interest

Market Innovation

+

Innovation is not a monodimensional measure such as length; it is made on many layer such as Product + Innovation, Users Innovation, Market Innovation. Innovation, Process Every innovator and entrepreneur that wants to deal himself with a new idea, has to imagine how far he wants to push his concept. When we start to think about show.MI we had toInstitutional handle this Innovation dimensions, and trying to find a Principal compromise between our willingness to innovate and the needs of the users that are averse to innovation. stakeholders stakeholders inuence

5.1 Structure of theKey analysis stakeholders

Without representation be stakeholders involved and

We decided to analyse internally who could why, trying to identify their needs and their importance in comparison with other stakeholders. In a second period we then decided to analyse the market needs not internally, but asking directly users to show us their necessities. Finally we tried to integrate our analysis searching for a compromise and a solution in order to solve the present needs that we discovered thanks to the market analysis with the needs, that could be future needs or not expressed needs, that we founded using an internal analysis.

5.2 Who are the stakeholders involved in the project? In order to realize show.MI we had to decide which stakeholders are involved and how are these stakeholders involved in the process. Under the definition of stakeholders we find customers, partners, institutions, public administrations and more generally everything that has an interest or is involved in our project. For the purpose of this report, we define four families of stakeholders: - Principal stakeholders - They have the possibility to influence the product 37


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI - Their presence in the project is active and they participate in the product realization - Institutional stakeholders - They have the possibility to influence the product - They do not participate in the project as active member - Key stakeholders - They have the possibility to influence the product - They do not participate in the project as active member - They will use the product - Without representation stakeholders Product Innovation Process Innovation Users Innovation Market Innovation - They do not have the possibility to influence the product - Their rights are not explicitly made -

+

interest

+

Principal stakeholders

Institutional stakeholders

Key stakeholders

Without representation stakeholders

inuence

Figure 5.2: Matrix of involved stakeholders

Every family of stakeholders as a different role in the project and a different level of importance; in show. MI we tried to take into account all these stakeholders trying to analyse their requests and needs.

5.3 Principal stakeholders Principal stakeholders are basically the members that participate in the project, such as Professors, Tutors, external tutors and university department involved in the project. It could seem trivial to consider these people as stakeholders, but it is not, because more of the results of the project depends on the personalities of this principal stakeholders. In our project we decided to define only two principal stakeholders: DIAP and EXPO2015. As a University department, DIAP (DIpartimento di Architettura e Pianificazione) has the aim to promote innovation in the sense of cultural Innovation, cultural heritage and innovative ways to explore a city. On the other hand, EXPO2015 is a firm, and as every firm, has the aim to make money; all the innovation process are filtered by their profitability in the short and medium term and tailored on the present customers. Their vision and aim is not to discover a new market and new customer, but to exploit the present market reaching as much users as possible. 38


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI It is easy to see the first controversy in this project, where the two principal stakeholders have a complete different aim and approach we had to deal with. The first challenge, proposed even before analyzing possible users and market, was to find a compromise between these different needs.

5.4 Institutional stakeholders In this family of stakeholders we find all the public administration involved in the product and also the associations and firms that have an interests in follow the development of the product, trying to indicate a way for a future follow-up or for future changes. We identified Comune di Milano, ATM, Regione Lombardia, Camera di Commercio Milano as Institutional Stakeholders. Their Aim is to develop tools to increase the visibility of Milan, the number of tourists and also the liveability of the city, with smart solutions able to provide new services, or simply the same services in a different way, possibly reducing queues (physical and technological) and increasing the return in term of satisfactions’ index, both for tourists and citizens. The institutional stakeholders are, as EXPO2015, basically tailored on users experience and needs, trying to serve services in the best way. Their aim is not in term of profitability but in term of liveability.

5.5 Without representation stakeholders This stakeholders have not the possibility to talk and to express their opinion. They are also called mute stakeholders. They represent feelings, things and stakeholders that are not tangible or not have the possibility to talk, such as the Earth (seen as Environment) and Animals. Also if they are not key stakeholders, it is important to take into account that they are present in the system and every decision we made, it could affect also these stakeholders.

5.6 Key stakeholders This category is the most important for the success of the product. Key stakeholders are all the users of the show.MI, such as citizens, tourists, businesses and tourist attractions. Show.MI is in fact a platform, that tries in different ways to create a connection between these different key stakeholders, in order to share informations, stories, desires and offers. As every platform, it is important to understand the implication of the two-side market, where on one side we have the final users (tourists and citizens) and on the other side we have the “providers of services� (businesses and attractions). The needs of every side of the market is to have as much users as possible on the other side. It easy to understand it thinking about Google. If we were not able to find what we are searching on, we will probably change Google platform for another one that has a bigger offer. Unfortunately, or fortunately, show.MI is not only a platform that connect two-sides of the same market, but it is also a vertical platform, such as a social network, that tries to connect the same size of the market using special algorithm based on some certains logics. As facebook, users would like to use a product with as much users like them as possible, in order to have 39


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI the possibility to find new connections, to share their experience or simply to enlarge their network. We have considered this family as the most important for show.MI and that is why we analysed deeply the peculiarities of every of these stakeholders.

5.6.1 Citizens Citizens are an important category because have the possibility to spend a lot of time in the city, and becoming tourists in their own city over the weekend . The category can then be understood in the broadest sense, integrating all those people who live in Milan for a certain period of time, becoming temporary inhabitants of the city, such as students from other cities or countries, Erasmus students, workers , etc. Anyway, citizens that live in Milan are overrun by smartphone applications about their city; there are apps for moving around the city, for taking public transports, for discover places, book events, buy tickets and so on. Every citizen uses more than 6 app on average in his normal day across Milan. Probably if there will be an app, only one, that allows the access to all the others, that serve as a meta-app for the others it could be used by citizens. Furthermore, there is a lack of qualitative information, it is not easy, in the social world to find the right information furnished by the right person. The true and the right are no more based on the authority of the speakers but on the number of likes and shares of this “true�. Our product tries to avoid this new conception, trying to give citizens the possibility to have an authoritative Institution that provides culturally new contents, new ways to explore their city, tailoring the services on the basis of citizens’ needs. Not all of them, but customized for every citizen.

5.6.2 Tourists Tourists need an aid, a tool to navigate the city easily, a way to easily find what they want in the shortest time possible. They have no time to download 10 apps, to search different opinions and to find a solution. It is more probable that they will search for a qualitative and authoritative service, that will cover all these needs, especially the necessity to not waste their time. The biggest dimension for a tourist is time, how much do they see in one day, what do they see in 3 hours. Tourist want to see everything about a city in the shortest time.

5.6.3 Businesses As a two-side market platform, we provided the possibilities for businesses, such as restaurants, shops and other activities, to be in the app, in order to provide their commercials, their offers or simply in order to be reached by as much people as possible. Their needs is to have a big basis of citizens and tourists and, in relation with the type of the shops, with only citizens or only tourists (such as body shops).

5.6.4 Attractions Under attractions, we put all the possible places, squares, museum and every kind of aggregation points 40


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI not only driven by a business aim. Churches, Museums, Exhibitions search for an app to inform citizens and tourists about what they do and when they do it, about what an user could find in these places and also how to show tourists the specific attraction. Many small churches or exhibitions have not the possibility to reach an huge amount of people and also they do not have the possibility to enlarge their network, creating an itinerary that involves also this small attraction points. They need something that helps them increasing their visibility and their users’ experience.

5.7 Market Analysis After performed the internal analysis, based on our personal opinion and our idea of the market of Tourism Application, we decided to directly analyse the market. The possibilities are many, and they could be categorized in two main categories: survey based and internet based. Survey based analysis are the classical way to explore a market, creating a survey, tailored on the questions we want them to answer, and trying to have as many answer as possible in order to randomly recreate the size of the market. This type of analysis suffers of lack of randomness, lack of numbers of users and usually lack of true. It could be possible that a person is not able to identify its needs on a survey. Internet based analysis are made using the researches made by every single user on a platform (such as Google, Yahoo). These data are stored and it is possible to query in order to find the data needed. The plus of this type of market analysis is that it involves much more people than a normal survey, it is without the willingness of the user, so it is unbiased (in fact it could happen that the only users that answer the questions are the user interested in), it is more randomized and most of all, it attracts a bigger part of users than Survey based. In fact, it is a matter of fact that Survey based analysis today are proposed by young enterprises on social networks. Unfortunately, the average age of social network users is definitely less than the average age of Google’s research users. Lastly, it could seem strange, but Internet based surveys have the capability to individuate better future needs and future requests made by users. We will not discuss here why and how it is possible, but as an empirical demonstration, it is interesting to notice how Google Flu is able to predict where Flu will go in the future and in which country the seasonal flu will arrive first. Because of these reasons, we decided to use Internet based analysis in order to analyse the market and understand what users need and which users could be involved in this type of project.

5.7.1 What The instrument we used is called Versus and it is developed by Density Design Lab. It is still under development but our group had an access to it during the ASP Spring School 2012. Versus is a tool for data visualization for controversy mapping. It is possible to map only an ongoing controversy e.g. the one that is being currently talked about. We actually had no need in exploring controversies possibly surrounding interactive mapping tools. What we considered useful is an output about state of art that the tool provides. We kindly ask forgiveness from the creators and developers of this marvelous instrument for the obvious misuse or rather unforeseen use. 41


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How Versus works? At first it requests an input of 1 keyword and 1 internet link. The output is a table consisting of 64 lines with links to pages linked to the initial one that contain the requested keyword. User is asked to manually select the relevant ones and assign a keyword to each of them. Assigned keywords will later form a net of actors in the final visualization. The output of this second stage is a result of a search performed by the instrument. For each link from the ones selected during the previous stage an analysis is performed. This analysis consists in the selecting of new keywords from the verbal content of each page that can be reached by the link from previous step. Each of these new keywords has a relevance index. Proceeding one can visualize the relations between principal stakeholders in form of interactive diagram. But what we needed was the .csv file with data from this intermediate stage – keywords and their relevance indexes. We did four relatively generic queries in order to get an overview of interests as broad as possible. We were searching for keywords “map” and “Milan” on web pages of smartphone applications existing or announced for iOS and Android. In this way we figured out in which categories applications related to our starting keywords exist.

searchtools socialnetworking

weather

sports

navigation

productivity

reference entertainment

lifestyle

Figure 5.7.1-1: represents the percentage ratio of categories for applications related to “map” and “Milan”

milan

navigation

sports map

lifestyle entertainment searchtools socialnetworking productivity weather reference

Figure 5.7.1-2: represents the accessory of categories to different queries

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social network

navigation

hotels location gps business local weather app google map technology

sports searchtools social networking entertainment weather lifestyle productivity

Figure 5.7.1-3: represent the relation between the app’s categories and secondary keywords related to them

To visualize the output of analysis of secondary keywords performed by Versus we have chosen a relatively common but highly intelligible format – a tag cloud. The instrument we used to create them is called Tagul. Here you can see the outputs we got.

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Figure 5.7.1-4: keywords for “map” for iOS applications Figure 5.7.1-5: keywords for “map” for Android applications Figure 5.7.1-6: keywords for “Milan” for iOS applications Figure 5.7.1-7: keywords for “Milan” for Android applications

Results obtained showed the interesting trend: the most popular keyword was “social network” but the most popular category was “navigation”. Here we started thinking that if we will manage to combine both social networking and navigation we will have an offer with a high potential for success.

5.7.2 For whom Having found the general framework to stay in we wanted to understand better the needs of each group of our potential customers. What are they asking for and which needs can be fulfilled with navigational application containing social networking tools? Citizens Milan citizens already navigate through town using numerous existing generic (e.g. GoogleMaps) and 44


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI specialized (e.g. AtmMobile) applications. There are specific tools for finding ongoing art exhibitions or touristic attractions. The question is do they know what to search? Is there an app with the content of highest quality that will navigate them through the back street they never suspected to exist? Do they know a lot about the town they live in? According to the data from ISTAT Lombardy has the highest quantity of changes made into the anagraphic data of its residents due to the changes in the residence caused both by internal and external immigration in Italy. We want to show this city to those who work here without noticing how beautiful and variegated this city is. Citizens will be able to explore it by themselves or together with their existing or new friends with a little help from our app.

Campania

Lazio

Molise

Abruzzo

Abruzzo

Campania

Lazio

Molise

Marche

Lombardia

Puglia

Lombardia

Puglia

Umbria

Umbria Basilicata Trentino Alto Adige / Südtirol

Basilicata

Liguria

Provincia Autonoma Bolzano Calabria / Bozen Piemonte

Toscana Calabria Trentino Alto Adige / Südtirol

Marche

Toscana

Valle d'Aosta / Vallée d'Aoste

Provincia Autonoma Trento

Liguria

Emilia-Romagna Sicilia

Provincia Autonoma Bolzano / Bozen

Piemonte

Valle d'Aosta / Vallée d'Aoste

Provincia Autonoma Trento

Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Sicilia

Veneto

Emilia-Romagna

Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Sardegna

Sardegna Veneto

Figure 5.7.2-1: Number of anagraphic changes made due to internal migration in Italy Source: dati.istat.it

Figure 5.7.2-2: Number of anagraphic changes made due to extenal migration in Italy Source: dati.istat.it

Why we think that they will want to? According to the data of ISTAT 34.3% of residents of Lombardy declare that they have visited a museum or an exhibition at least once in 2012. Moreover 26.0% declare to have intentionally visited on archeological site or a monument during the 2012. Considered that the population of Milan at the beginning of 2012 was 1 240 173 we calculate that among the locals potentially interested are 425 000 for museums and 325 000 for monuments. Compared with the national statics it shows that we are dealing with fairly interested audience. Tourists During the EXPO 2015 Milan expects to welcome the record amount of tourists. Some of them might use this chance to visit not only exhibition site but also the city. This effect most probably won’t be long term. To make this conclusion we researched the touristic statistics for cities that previously hosted EXPO. 45


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Figure 5.7.2-3: Data for Lisbon Expo, 1998 Figure 5.7.2-4: Data for Hannover Expo, 2000 Figure 5.7.2-5: Data for Zaragoza Expo, 2008

What about the quantity of tourists that annually visit Milan without such a specific event as EXPO? In 2010 accommodation establishments in Lombardy reported arrival of by 6.466.236 Italian clients. 46


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI EXPO expects to attract 15 million of Italian visitors which is more than twice the annual quantity for the whole region. Still even the current statistics seems to be sufficient enough to try to conquer a share of this market. There is a huge variety of multimedia tools free of paid that can be used to explore the city. The most popular among them are the ones that have analogs for all the important touristic destinations of the world (e.g. Tripadvisor). They are generally not content quality oriented and their credibility is based on the customers rating for the attraction points and itineraries. There are less popular specific navigation tools there are considered to be extremely useful by the small amount of users. There are no customizable tools potentially usable by a wide variety of tourists for specific content they are particularly interested in. Businesses Considering the fact that we have already decided that our product provides navigational services and social networking tools what we can possibly offer to local businesses is a potential client guided physically to their store or existing or loyal client that can share the information with his social connections. The credibility of personal recommendation is much higher compared to the confidence to the information received from mass media. Will there be enough potential clients among small and medium enterprises? According to the data of Eurosat for 2010 Lombardy is the most “entrepreneurial” region in Europe with more than 820 thousand companies. In Lombardy there is 1 company for almost every 10 inhabitants (ratio of firms per population: 8.4%), compared to slightly less than 1 company for every 20 inhabitants in Europe (4.3%). Most of them are small enterprises on average, the company in Lombardy employees 4.2 persons, compared with media of 9.8 in Europe. Armed with such statistics we feel more that confident about the potentials of our project. Attractions What we can offer to the attraction point placed on our map is a constant traffic of visitors. According to the data provided by the initiative “Milano nei Cantieri dell’Arte”, Milan has in total 42 museums, more than 200 historic buildings and nearly 1,500 buildings under monumental constraint. By aggregating the social attention around the objects of historical and cultural value our project may help to raise the consciousness about the importance of these entities both for creation of the image of the city and conserving the memory and experiences of multiple generations.

5.7.3 Summary The analyzed data leads us to conclusion that the smartphone application we must project is about to deal with navigation and social networking. Our main users are citizens and tourists with the preference given to citizens.There are grounds to expect that the monetization of our app may be possible through partnership with small local enterprises. By using the historical and cultural attractions we are not only gaining profit from them but also create a favorable social environment for them and provide them with customers that may be ready to pay.

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6. Milan_ Culture, Tradition and Sustainable citizenship and tourism Sustainable citizenship and tourism is one of the key concept of S.H.O.W. Mi. The realization of sustainability is through a careful context study and a set of design and valuation process. Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world, with an annual average growth rate about 5% that brings revenue and resources to the places visited, but at the same time has various impacts on the territory. This impacts could be summarized in two key aspects: impacts on environment, including pollution and damage caused by tourists and the risk of increasing of traffic and emission of greenhouse gases, that has an effect on global climate change. Furthermore, it is important to notice how there is also a negative socio-cultural impact, that means that a sudden and forced tourism development may lead to a breakdown of a society and cause loss of entire cultural tradition. Sustainable tourism aims to lower negative impact of tourism activities on environment and local culture. S.H.O.W. Mi tends to promote tourism in Milan following sustainable concepts on cultural, environmental and economic aspects. The same problems could be addressed to citizens: nowadays many people have lost the curiosity to explore more about their city, closing their imagination and following what other people suggest them. This is because of social network culture, that is creating a generation of uncultured, not curious and lazy people. This could lead to a lost in our cultural heritage, that is probably the biggest of the world, and it will be an incredible loss for our country and for us as citizens. On the other hand, sustainability for citizens intended as environmental sustainability, trying to increase and enlarge the consciousness that other people will arrive after us and our earth needs more attention by ourselves. S.H.O.W. Mi aim is to increase the consciousness of environmental and cultural sustainability in citizens and tourists, trying to create a platform that let us express our curiosity, our smartness without following the false suggestions of the flat “social cultural network world�.

6.1 New tourism trends This need of a new consciousness for tourists and citizens is fortunately recognized also by tourism itself. It is interesting to notice how the new tourism trends are oriented on a more sustainable, naturalistic and cultural sustainable experience instead of on a social mass tourism experience. Tourists expect to learn about culture, history of places. Besides famous monuments, the demand of exploring hidden and less-known cultural knowledge of visited places is expanding. There is an increasing number of tourists that are no more satisfied by visiting local museums, but tend to go deep into a local place to get more experience and richer information such as less-known history, daily life of local people, diverse cultural and traditional details. Today more and more individual tourists go visiting a place independently from any travel agency and they try to collect informations by themselves. The development of new portable devices with connection on internet made the trend more evident. Bike tours and walking tours become a fashion in big touristic cities. Another visible trend is that more tourists like to participate in recreation, sports and adventure during the tour. There are some travel agencies that start to offer walking tours rather than on a bus.

6.2 Cultural heritage and sustainability Cultural heritage oriented tourism and citizenship is based on attractions of local heritage that can represent activities and human cultural style of life of the past. As Lindberg described in his thesis, 49


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI “cultural heritage are crucial to people's identity, self-respect and dignity… Tangible heritage may be an avenue through 4 which the conscious tourist starts to grasp a basic understanding of the past and /or living culture…”. In his work, there is also a brief summary of impacts and here are listed the parts related to cultural heritage. potential positive impacts on heritage: · building community pride; · enhancing the sense of identity of a community or region; · promoting intercultural/international understanding; · encouraging revival or maintenance of traditional crafts; · broadening community horizons; · providing funding for site preservation and management; · enhancing local and external appreciation and support for cultural heritage. potential negative impacts on heritage: · commodification and cheapening of culture and traditions; · alienation and loss of cultural identity; · undermining of local traditions and ways of life; · conflict over land rights and access to resources; · damage to attractions and facilities; · loss of authenticity and historical accuracy in interpretation; · selectivity in which heritage attractions are developed. The concept of sustainable heritage is to promote these positive impacts and lower negative impacts. On one hand it needs to raise public awareness about the importance of protecting and preserving heritage and enhance local and external appreciation and support, on the other hand it will be better if tourists and citizens are educate and regulated of responsible activities. What S.H.O.W. Mi may contribute is to draw more attention to the heritage of various kinds, leading users to acquire more knowledge about the culture and the territory. As foreseen in 2015 there will be 10 times of tourists arriving in Milan, at that time the negative impacts may force the city’s heritage protection into a serious situation, it’s meaningful if we can reduce the number of large tourist groups and encourage more individual tourism to give heritage a better tutelage.

6.3 Milanese Cultural Heritage S.H.O.W. Mi is, in this first phase, deeply connected with the area of Milan. This is because of our external institutions and partners and because of the decision to apply our model first in one city and then trying to exploit it around. That is why in this section, we focused our attention on Milan cultural heritage, how to save it from the negative impacts of citizenship and tourism 2.0 and how to increase for them, the consciousness of a heritage to be saved and protected.

6.3.1 How do we represent it Being quality oriented in terms of contents, we made a research about buildings and public spaces that [4] K. Lindberg, Sustainable Tourism and Cultural Heritage, Paris, 1999

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Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI might have a potential to enter in our list of points of historical and cultural value. We discovered that Milan in addition to 42 museums has more than 200 historical buildings and almost 1500 that correspond to the criterion of culturally valuable. Since we wanted to show them within their cultural and historical context we had to define a rather short list of points to be able to produce content based on serious research that involved consultations with experts and significant bibliographical research. We picked the objects giving a priority to their ability to tell stories, valorizing less known but potentially interesting objects as well as the ones of which Milan is proud providing less known facts and legends about them. In our case innovation lays in the engagement of new technology we use to tell the old stories to keep them alive and in the creation of new and hidden connections within places, based on different and customized criteria: for every user it could happen that different connections are created, following his interests and his way to connect things together.

6.3.2 Treasure hunt in libraries We started with a profound bibliographical research. There are numerous printed fonts of information about milanese architecture open for public or available on special occasions, about works of art in public domain and in private collections, about existent public spaces and ones that faded away centuries ago having left only slight hints reminding about their existence. What we did at first was a huge database of all potentially interesting entities. By huge we mean about 400 units. Second step was to reduce this database because quality and quantity are in an inverse relationship. We were simply unable to produce quality content for all the entities and had to find a set of criterions based on which our selection will still provide a holistic description of the Milanese cultural heritage.

6.3.3 Selection process We have chosen four main categories for our points of interest: - starting point; - meeting point; - pass by point; - distant attractions.

We needed these typologies as building components for our custom created itineraries. Starting point is a well known building or object that is easy to find in the urban tissue and is always worth visiting. It is an entity that is important on national or world level. To provide an example of such point we might mention Teatro alla Scala or San Lorenzo. Figure 6.3.2-1: Teatro alla Scala

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Pass by point is the one to be discovered while you are following the itinerary. It may be an inaccessible private palace or a ruin of a Roman structure or a public space with great history that is no longer evident to those who are not attentive enough. Palazzo Spinola is a perfect example of such.

Figure 6.3.2-2: Palazzo Spinola

Meeting points are mostly public spaces convenient to transfer a virtual conversation through the socializing component of our app to the real world one, meet a fellow traveler or simply make a pause. It is a place well connected to the public transportation infrastructure but not overcrowded and stressful.

Figure 6.3.2-3: Rotonda della Besana

The last category we have chosen is a so called distant attraction. Some of the objects of Milanese cultural heritage lie in the periphery and due to their geographical position get less attention that they deserve. We thought that we had to inform our users about their existence and must try to decoy them there. Distant attractions are usually the finishing points of on itinerary and are proposed only to users who had not limited the length of a route. An example of difficulty visitable but totally worth it attraction is Abbazia Chiaravalle. Figure 6.3.2-4: Abbazia di Chiaravalle

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Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI As a result of such selection we obtained a compact database of 60 points of interest. This amount permits us to form an insanely big quantity of itineraries. Being mixed with local business’s proposals and Social Real Network tools they will provide a unique experience in exploring the city to each and every of it’s users.

6.4 Milan EXPO and Food S.H.O.W. Mi is highly related, at least in the first phase of development, to the big event Milan EXPO. We need users to explore the city as an extension of the whole event. By this concept, S.H.O.W. Mi must become the enhancement, instead of the distraction of the EXPO.

6.4.1 EXPO 2015 A very important international event, expecting participation of over 130 countries plus a significant number of international organizations, Milan EXPO 2015 is the The most talked about project in italy of recent years. The keywords of the Milan EXPO are food, energy, planet and life. The main site will be located at northwest of Milan, but events will be not limited in that area, actually it will be a festival of Milan city and all surrounding areas, various activities will be housed in the urban area. EXPO 2015 is foreseen as a booming fiesta of cultural and economic activities. As known, the theme of 2015 EXPO is about culture and technologies related to food, with focus on the right to healthy, secure and sufficient food on the planet. The chosen theme of the EXPO is the result of regarding one of the name cards of Italy and a worldwide topic. Food, as a basis resource for human life, has a deep influence on human’s culture and economy. From quality food making to food shortage in poor countries, food related topics concern the people all over the world.

6.4.2 Food in Milan Italian cuisine is well known in the world, for its high quality, good taste and healthiness. The food industry in Italy includes numerous family firms and companies, with excellent tradition and innovation. Besides fashion and design of which Milan is well known, the city has its own typical cuisine like other Italian cities. Regional diet and multicultural diet coexist in Milan, the abundant culinary culture is a wealth stored in multitudinous restaurants, shops, markets, farms and abbeys. During the 6 months of the event and a long period after the event, Milan will be crowded by several times of tourists comparing the past. As the EXPO theme calling for attention of food, Milan becomes the gateway of Italian food culture for many foreign tourists, the local food resource of Milan must be exploited. SMART.MAP can use its platform to build a connection between tours and food, giving users a multilevel experience and extended knowledge about Italian food and Milanese culture. We will show the local nutrition habits to our users in two ways: - historical sites related to food production or distribution; - local food related businesses. Vegetable gardens in Piazza Duomo, old markets, abbeys that saved and carried through middle ages antique techniques of cultivation – all of this is awaiting for our future clients. And for thos who are 53


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI hungry we propose special offers or personal invitations to attend our partner’s restaurants or shops.

6.5 Transport Sustainability in Milan Transport sustainability is a crucial part of our sustainable project, it concerns environmental, social and economic impacts at the same time. A sudden increased of tourists in 2015 will challenge the Milanese traffic in an extreme situation. S.H.O.W. Mi’s opportunity is to advocate and promote the sustainable transportation, particularly on the diversity of transport means, eventually relieve the potential transport problems. Furthermore Milan is a high car-dependent city, about 70% of pm 10 emission comes from road traffic. The problem of pollution concerns citizens and tourists. Milan’s transport policy is mainly aiming to reduce the pollution. In 2008, the mayor of Milan started a program called Ecopass area for cutting down the traffic and air pollution, the result was not satisfactory. New public concerns push the policy makers to take two new methods, one is the adoption of congestion charge in 2012, another is setting monitor system for air quality. Generally Milan’s transport sustainability strategies focus on limiting car pollution and promoting bicycle and public transportation sectors.

6.5.1 Action Area C Area C is a congestion charge introduced in Milan. The program aims to improve the living conditions for those who live, work, study and visit the city. Its objectives include: 1) reduce traffic in the ZTL Circle of Bastioni; 2) make more effective public transport networks and encourage the development; 3) protect the right of individual mobility in accordance with the common; 4) find resources for sustainable mobility: pedestrians, cycling and traffic at moderate speeds; 5) improve the quality of urban life by reducing the number of accidents, the stop wild, the noise and air pollution. The experimental period of Action Area C is 12 months from January 2012. The result of the air condition improvement can be valuated by monitoring the concentration of black carbon, which is an indicator of pollution 'proximity' to the source traffic, corresponding the pm10 and the pm 2.5. The final results has proved the difference on these indicators in the experimental period, the black carbon decreased by 47% for the 10 pm and 31% for the 2.5 pm. On 27 March 2013, Area C was approved as a permanent program.

6.5.2 Bike sharing Bike sharing is already distributed in 160 cities in Italy. In Europe, the average number of bike offering for every 10,000 inhabitants is 15.6 bikes, which means 2,090 bikes are needed for Milan. The bike sharing system of Milan is called BikeMi, run by ATM company, it has 1,900 bikes available today, which is a bit less than the European average. There are 188 BikeMi stations distributed across the city. After Area C experimental period, the season ticket holders had been doubled, the approving of the permanence will create a increasing demand of bikes in Milano. Project SMART.MAP as well has an ambition to improve bike sharing to a higher stage, by stimulating app users in Milan to use bikes during and after the EXPO.

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6.5.3 Car sharing Car sharing can make a big contribution for transport sustainability. An estimate says that for each carsharing in addition, there are between 12 and 14 private cars less in circulation. So far, there are several companies providing car sharing services in Milan, such as EQsharing, GuidaMI, E-Vai, Car2go and Refeel. The initiative feedback is positive, a larger market has been expected among the developers. Many users decide to sell their private car after experienced car sharing. Technology is playing an important role in car sharing development, electric cars are welcomed, with numerous charge station distributed in city, moving in these cars can be convenient. And policies are supporting this movement as well, electric cars can use parking gratis and they are free from congestion charge. Another fact is worth mentioning is that there are already many apps with which you can book the vehicles, from one month to a quarter of an hour before you need it.

6.5.4 Collective transport Public transportation plays an important role in solving urban transport problem. Collective transport in Milan is in many forms. Milan has 8 railway lines, 3 subway lines, 21 tramways, 4 trolley bus lines and numerous normal bus lines, total length reachs more than 1,5000 km. The whole system is integrated and efficient, today the ATM has equipped new information devices described as interactive digital signage totems. These devices are put in metro entrances and bus stops, it allows people to get public transport information by easily moving fingers. The system has been tested in and the ATM company is seeing it positive for the future.

6.5.5 S.H.O.W. Mi Answer to this problem S.H.O.W. Mi aims to provide users an integrated transport service, and encouraging people to travel in sustainable ways. The function of S.H.O.W. Mi requires to set a transport strategy to connect the existing resources, which means utilizing and cooperating with the bike sharing project, car sharing companies, milan’s public transport systems and the digital islands project. We will guide our users to bike and car sharing point and encourage them to use public transportation. How can we do that? By including in our itineraries the proposals to use those services with an explanation what our user will gain in terms of social and economical benefits and trying to engage them in this kind of game, basically the environmental world game, allowing them to reach new level, earning real money and reaching in the short term a consciousness about environmental problems.

6.6 “Isole Digitali” Isole Digitali are multifunctional service stations in Milan. The initial phase began on 14th October, 2013. An “island” is a small public space equipped by seats, Wi-Fi, sockets, and touch screen totems. It is marked graphically on the street pavimentation. Now there are 15 islands across Milan and there will be two times more by February of 2014. Users of digital islands can surf the internet for free, recharge their phones and PC, use totems to get 55


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI information about public transport and various services provided by Comune di Milano. In totem’s interface Italian and English are both supported. Digital islands give access for charging the electric car or to rent an electric vehicle from EQSharing (Electric Quadricycles Sharing). The islands design is based on the paradigm of smart. The intelligent LED system varies the lighting intensity depending on the number of people present, making stations usable in the evening and at night, meanwhile ensuring energy saving. The smart mobility aspect in the project include system of information and communication, technologies of zero emission, efficiency promoting and pollution reduction. The whole cost of Digital Islands is about 3 million euros. The City of Milan has designed the Project, but did not have to spend money on the implementation thanks to external funding and sponsors. The project will correspond to 2015 EXPO as a new element participating in the conversion of Milan into a smarter city. As said Cristina Tajani, the Councillor for the Labour, Economic Development, University and Research “The digital Islands represent a virtuous example of collaboration between the public and private sectors in the provision of content and services in favor of more ‘intelligent’ and open city. For us it is also a way to communicate in a visible manner Milano Smart City project, a project that lives through cooperation between different actors: government, businesses and citizens. “ For as a possibility to communicate our existence through the physical media is a really valuable one. Initially we wanted to create our own network of communication. A decision not to do that is due to our unwillingness to participate in the process of creation of visual pollution from which modern cities are clearly suffering. We are including all the Digital Islands on our map and will encourage our users to pass them in order to become more familiar with commodities offered.

Figure 6.6: Isola Digitale in Milan

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7. Product Design In this chapter we analyze in details our applications, starting from the technological choices and the analysis of the main features, until the development of the mock-up and the narration of a story.

7.1 Introduction The proposed solution is a smartphone application that integrates all the concepts developed so far, namely an intelligent guiding system, a platform to deliver quality content and a social interaction environment to connect users. The aim is to generate a distinct added values for tourists and, even more importantly, citizens, transforming the experience of living Milan into something memorable and fun. Unlike a traditional guide, show.MI develops a two way interaction with its users. Content is proposed in an interactive form, with a layer of gamification to better engage users.

7.2 Why to develop an app? We evaluated various forms of possible outputs for the project, and decided to focus on a mobile applications for various reasons that will be here explained. The possibilities evaluated, of which more than one can be selected, are all based on a modern technological platform because the nature of the project in itself is not compatible with traditional, paper based content presentation. After a mobile application, the other possibilities were an interactive website and a pervasive, kiosk like installation. The website, while potentially being a valuable addition to the project, didn’t satisfy the main requisite of mobility and geolocation. We want our solution to accompany the user, minimizing difficulty in accessing it. On the contrary, the kiosk approach would be of very easy access (computers, in the form of kiosks, places in areas of interest). However, the main limit in this case would be the lack of personalization and custom social features that are associated with a personal device. Moreover, we would lose the guidance outside of the POIs (point of interest). For these reasons, the final decision was to develop an application, with geolocation features, the only solution that covers all the needs presented.

7.3 Features We tried to leverage the full potential of the smartphone and rethink the experience of exploring a city with a new, modern mindset. To best describe the features that have been designed for show.MI the application can be seen as structured in 3 separate, but highly related, layers. The first layer is the generation of custom itineraries, personalized for each user, and with guidance features to ease the exploration of the city and to let the user concentrate on content. The second layer is the gamification component of the application, to stimulate use of the exploration features and provide a better fruition experience of the content. The third layer, the social layer, is closely related to the gamification part as it provides interaction with other users. The differentiating characteristics of this layer is that the interaction extends to the physical world, with real encounter, and that is why we call it a social real network.

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Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI

7.3.1 Custom itineraries generation The intelligent generation of custom itineraries is a key features of show.MI. We define an itinerary as a sequence of exploration activities in Milan, which are not limited to the visit of a POI. For instance, lunch in a particular restaurant, a bus trip that lets you view a relevant avenue, or simply some time to relax in a park can all be integral part of an itinerary. To create the itinerary a constraint based optimization algorithm is used, in order to satisfy the following requirements: user preferences, logistic constraints and events. A deeper description of these requirements follows below. The idea of constraint based optimization is to find a set of locally optimal solutions of a problem that are guaranteed to respect the constraints defined. For instance, in our case, a solution is a sequence of actions and the quality of the solution depends on how many constraints/preference are respected. As an example, if the user wanted to use buses, did we manage to provide a bus only itinerary? If the user was interested in romanic churches, how many could we include? Answering to these question in a quantitative way lets us search for optimal itineraries with an optimization algorithm.

7.3.2 User preferences With user preferences we mean the taste and interests of the user. What type of POI is more dear and important to the specific visitor? We can provide choices such as “architecture”, “museums”, “parks” or even go deeper, specifying the historical period and category of the POI. logistic constraints Logistic constraints are mainly relative to transportation and availability of POIs. The first and most important logistic constraint is defined by the opening hours of POIs, which has to be respected. This is therefore a mandatory constraint (has to be satisfied, there is no sense in going to a museum when it’s closed). Also, the user has the ability to define times of non availability. For example, if they want to take a morning off and relax at the hotel that slot of time could be simply marked as not available. On the contrary, transportation is not a mandatory constraint and is a more complicated problem with flexible solutions. The user has the ability to chose the preferred way of moving around, which will be prioritized over the others. The available choices will be among public transportation, bike sharing, personal bike, car and walking. (public transportation) Certain choices can have finer grained controls, in particular public transportation is a diverse system that encompasses both underground and overground vehicles. If time permits, we will value buses and trams more than metro, since they let the users visually explore the city while moving. Also, trams in Milan have a strong historical value and could be thought of an attraction by themselves. (bike sharing) Bike sharing is a new addition to the public transportation network, and is becoming more and more successful across all major european cities. The bike sharing service in Milan is called Bikemi, and it follows the typical rules of bike sharing: the user can subscribe for a short term usage (1 day or 7 day) for a low price (2.5 euros for 1 day, 6 euros for 7 days as of November 2013). With this subscription, all trips of 30 minutes or less are free, and the user can pick up and put back bikes at any available Bikemi station. We found this approach to be highly compatible with our vision of exploration, where we try to move incrementally through the city rather than just jumping to the main touristic spots. Thanks to the technology provided by Bikemi, we can have a real time list of all station and their availability, so that the itinerary can intelligently adapt and chose between bike and public transportation. (car) 58


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI By default, the car is not taken into account as an available vehicle since it’s only accessible to a small subset of our users. However, where available, it can be added as an option manually and forced as the preferred transportation system. We try to create a beautiful and enjoyable experience without the need for cars/taxis, and therefore put our efforts more on the integration of the public transportation rather that use of personal vehicles. (walking) In central areas, where the concentration of POIs is very dense, walking remains the preferred way of moving. As always, if the user prefers not to, alternatives are provided dynamically. More on this topic will follow below in the “dynamic adaptation” paragraph.

7.3.3 Events In the context of our application, events can be mainly of two types: public events and social events. Public events are normal events open to the public: a theater representation, a festival and so on. Social events are meetings defined inside the application thanks to our social real network. More on this will be explained later. For both cases, in the generation of the itinerary, they behave as POIs that are only available for a very limited amount of time. Therefore the optimization will work as usual, if the event can be inserted and it’s interesting to the users, the itinerary will be adapted in order to fit it at the right time.

7.3.4 Dynamic adaptation Even though the algorithm created will be highly tailored to the user and adapted to the specific conditions defined (times, transports, etc..) it will always need to be changed on the go. All plans are worthless if they cannot be flexibly adapted to the ever changing environment, and facilitating this is a key approach of our application. Not only it will be easy to change any part of the itinerary with other suggested activities (or forcing our choice of activity), but this information will be used to optimize future suggestions. In technical terms, the user actions contribute to the definition of his feature set, or “taste profile”. This is the numerical representation of what the users prefers, and is used to provide intelligent suggestions and alternatives along the way. An example to make this clearer is a user that, for two times in a row, asks for public transportation instead of bike during the day. The application will learn that, for some reason, the users prefers public transportation at the moment (maybe they’re tired, or the weather is not good). This finding will be used to tailor further predictions and prioritize public transportation for the duration of the day.

7.3.5 Gamification An additional layer on top of itineraries is the gamification layer. With gamification we mean “game like” features that are added onto a platform not principally defined as a game. These features aim to make it both more fun and more engaging to use the platform, so as to achieve secondary benefits through gratification. It’s a concept more and more relevant today, both in the enterprise and in the consumer world, to stimulate the use of tools and consumption of content that would otherwise be less entertaining. Typical gamification features are badges, leaderboards and challenges. (badges) 59


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI Virtual badges are given to the user when they achieve a specific goal. For instance, in our application, a goal could be “3 churches visited!” or “more than 10km walked”. These badges serve as gratification to the user, and are shown publicly (if allowed) on the user profile in order to stimulate pride and sense of accomplishment. (leader boards) Leader boards are ordered lists of users based on their accomplishment around a specific subject. An example could be “the most active users of the day”, a leader board showing for instance the 10 most active users today, or the most social ones (those who met the most people). Leader boards have a very strong positive effect on people in them because they set you apart, and above, based on your accomplishments. They can also serve as stimulators for others to achieve such positions. (challenges) Challenges are fun tasks assigned to a user to entertain him while discovering something. They are private (although they could produce a virtual badge) and are meant to be active and enjoyable. In Show.MI we developed a few challenge concepts, such as the image search, where a photo is shown on the smartphone along with some clue, and the user has to find the object in the real world. When the object is found, new information is revealed and we can unlock a next step or directly achieve an “explorer badge”. Virtual reality is a key tool in such games, where we try to merge the mobile app experience with real world activities. Show.MI exploits all these three implementations of gamification, with the objective of increasing content consumption (stimulating users to follow the itinerary) and social interaction (providing public profiles, badges and leaderboards).

7.3.6 Social Real Network The third layer, after intelligent itineraries and gamification, is the social layer. We call it a social real network, a social network whose main focus is to have people meet and share in the real world. This is quite different from the usual definition of social networks, where the goal is to keep users engaged on the platform. On the contrary, our goal is to get users off the platform and into the physical world. Sharing the experience of discovering, while at the same time discovering the people we meet. To help the user discover other users and meet them, we exploit two important parts of the application: the itinerary and the profile. Thanks to the itinerary, we can suggest to meet people that are going to visit the same POIs at similar times, or in general people whose itinerary can be adapted to match. The profile is also useful as it can be used to match people based on their interests, preferences and language. As a complement to this offline experience, the usual features of a social networks are still in place. Sharing comments, pictures and itineraries is a good way to interact online with others, or keep in contact with people we already met.

7.4 Quality content The underlying foundation that makes all this possible is the quality content and the focus on the experience. We aim to give new value to the impressive cultural heritage of Milan, exposing the hidden wonders and the forgotten secrets. A fun experience for tourists but also a valuable tool to raise awareness 60


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI of our heritage among the citizens.

7.5 Technical choices: effective geolocation A few technical choices had to be taken in consideration of the selected platform (mobile application on smartphone) and the requested features. In particular one important problem was related to geolocalization. How to determine with accuracy if the user reached a POI? How to create interactive challenges inside a closed space? The solution that were evaluated were 3: GPS, QR codes and WiFi Hotspots. (GPS) While the GPS might seem the most obvious solution, it’s actually very problematic. It only works outside with a clear view of the sky, and only with difficulty in cities. Also, battery consumption is quite high. GPS can still used in the guidance part, in order to provide directions, but not when the POI is reached. (QR codes) QR codes are images that, when scanned with a compatible application, can reveal a code (typically a url). If a specific, location based code were to be written to each QR code, we could have manual geolocation through the phone camera. This system is a viable solution, and also provides a clear connection with the territory. In the context of this solution, the idea of active QR codes was developed, indicating the possibility to not only read a QR code, but also write information to it (through a web service, since the QR code remains a passive element). This would create a wall of information, like a guest book, that would only be accessible when physically present in that precise location, providing a strong connection between information and the physical world. (WiFi Hotspots) Similar to the previous solution, WiFi spots can be manually geolocalized and used as a location provider. This was the chosen solution because it also solves the problem of internet connectivity for users without a 3G access to the network. Moreover, it doesn’t require the user to take a picture and can be managed automatically by the application.

7.6 Mockup: a simple day with S.H.O.W. Mi

Andrea Rossi had seen the promo QR code of the app among the services recommended on Isola Digitale information stand. He downloaded the app and starts using it for the first time. Figure 7.6-1: First view of the app Search for Hidden Opportunities and Wonders in MIlan

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Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI Data input

Log in Andrea creates a new account or uses his existing Facebook account to log in. tell tell us us what what you you like like to to create create the the right right itinerary itinerary for for you! you!

can can we we call call you you by by name? name?

Personal data input

name name

Discover Discover the the wonders wonders ofof Milan, Milan, having having fun! fun!

where where are are you you from? from?

User name and country of origin is selected. What we really care about on this stage is to figure out if we are dealing with foreigner or a local. The YOUR YOURPICK PICK resulting communication varies for different cases.

italy italy

Login Login with with Facebook Facebook

switzerland switzerland email email adress adress

germany germany

password password

tell tell us us what what you you the the right right itinerar itinera

france france sign sign up up

ancient ancientruined ruined monument monument

Figure 7.6-2: Login Figure 7.6-3: Personal Data Input

Preferences input

... [3]

tell tellus uswhat whatyou youlike liketo tocreate create the theright rightitinerary itineraryfor foryou! you!

IS ISPREPARING PREPARINGYOUR YOURITINERARY ITINERARY

... [2]

tell tellus uswhat whatyou youlike liketo tocreate create the theright rightitinerary itineraryfor foryou! you!

IS ISPREPARING PREPARINGYOUR YOURITINERARY ITINERARY

YOUR YOURPICK PICK

ancient ancientruined ruined monument monument YOUR YOURPICK PICK

Andrea must pick from the proposed generic categories the ones he is interested in. All our how howmuch muchtime do dowe wehave? have? point of timeinterest have indexes of relativity to each proposed category. At this point the initial IS ISPREPARING PREPARINGYOUR YOURITINERARY ITINERARY preference profile creation is how howdo doyou youwant wantto tomove? move? terminated. However further meet people people dynamic changes aremeet expected.

... [1]

START START END END

Figure 7.6-4: User preferences insertion Figure 7.6-5: Choice of preferences

ROTONDA ROTONDADELLA DELLABESANA BESANA

L'abbazia L'abbaziadidiChiaravalle Chiaravalle(in(inlatino, latino,Sanctæ SanctæMariæ Mariæ Clarævallis ClarævallisMediolanensis, Mediolanensis,conosciuta conosciutaanche anchecome come

36’ 36’ ABBAZIA ABBAZIADI DICHIARAVALLE CHIARAVALLE

L'abbazia L'abbaziadidiChiaravalle Chiaravalle(in(inlatino, latino,Sanctæ SanctæMariæ Mariæ Clarævallis ClarævallisMediolanensis, Mediolanensis,conosciuta conosciutaanche anchecome come

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Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI

Logistics

tell us what you like to create the right itinerary for you!

To create the first itinerary we still lack some information. We want to know how many time Andrea wants to spend on the exploration of the city and how would he prefer to move. To avoid tiring Andrea with too many questions we do not ask him to provide his geographical position. This data will be gathered from the built in GPS tracker.

how much time do we have? START END

how do you want to move?

ancient ruined monument

CK

YOUR PICK

Figure 7.6-6: Logistics

Exploration New itinerary is being created! If the result of automatic selection is contains places that happen to be out of Andrea’s interests edit locality he can edit it at the beginning remove or fromon itinerary the go. change visit time

edit itinerary reset and create new add/remove place change transport

meet people

meet people

share on fb

ROTONDA DELLA BESANA

L'abbazia di Chiaravalle (in latino, Sanctæ Mariæ Clarævallis Mediolanensis, conosciuta anche come

36’ ABBAZIA DI CHIARAVALLE

L'abbazia di Chiaravalle (in latino, Sanctæ Mariæ Clarævallis Mediolanensis, conosciuta anche come

ABBAZIA DI CHIARAVALLE

logClarævallis out Mediolanensis, conosciuta anche come L'abbazia di Chiaravalle (in latino, Sanctæ Mariæ

36’ ROTONDA DELLA BESANA

L'abbazia di Chiaravalle (in latino, Sanctæ Mariæ Clarævallis Mediolanensis, conosciuta anche come

explore! ABBAZIA DI CHIARAVALLE

L'abbazia di Chiaravalle (in latino, Sanctæ Mariæ Clarævallis Mediolanensis, conosciuta anche come Santa Maria di Roveniano) è un complesso monastico cistercense situato nel Parco Agricolo Sud nel comune di Milano, tra il quartiere Vigentino e il quartiere Rogoredo. Fondata nel XII secolo da san Bernardo da Chiaravalle[1] come filiazione dell'Abbazia di Cîteaux, attorno ad essa si sviluppò un borgo agricolo[2], annesso al comune di Milano nel 1923.

open in google maps rate and review

explore!

ABBAZIA DI CHIARAVALLE

L'abbazia di Chiaravalle (in latino, Sanctæ Mariæ Clarævallis Mediolanensis, conosciuta anche come Santa Maria di Roveniano) è un complesso monastico cistercense situato nel Parco Agricolo Sud nel comune di Milano, tra il quartiere Vigentino e il quartiere Rogoredo. Fondata nel XII secolo da san Bernardo da Chiaravalle[1] come filiazione dell'Abbazia di Cîteaux, attorno ad essa si sviluppò un borgo agricolo[2], annesso al comune di Milano nel 1923.

Figure 7.6-7/8/9: Countdown for the itinerary

go to Abbazia di Chiaravalle and check in to vote!

go to Abbazia di Chiaravalle and check in to vote!

they are also visiting

they are also visiting

63


END END

how howdodoyou youwant wanttotomove? move?

Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI Start Andrea has chosen to visit a distant attraction point and get there by bike provided by Bike.Mi. We proposed Abbazia Chiaravalle. Since it is a weekend there are no available bicycles nearby and he must walk from the Duomo zone, where we know he is now, to Cinque Giornate square to get a bike. Andrea had opted for meeting fellow travelers. Near the bike sharing point he will meet those who will react on his call to join him. We will show it to all users that are within 5 min reaching distance from the gathering point and had not disabled the pop up notifications. telltell usus what what you you likelike to to create create thethe right right itinerary itinerary forfor you! you!

telltell usus what what you you likelike to to create create thethe right right itinerary itinerary forfor you! you!

how how much much time time dodo wewe have? have? START START ENDEND

how how dodo you you want want to to move? move?

ry rary

edit editlocality locality

create createnew new

remove removefrom fromitinerary itinerary

ancient ancient ruined ruined monument monument

ove e place place

YOUR YOUR PICK PICK

YOUR YOUR PICK PICK

nsport ransport

explore! explore!

bfb

A DIDI CHIARAVALLE CHIARAVALLE

36’ 36’

A DA DELLA DELLA BESANA BESANA

hiaravalle avalle (in latino, (in latino, Sanctæ Sanctæ Mariæ Mariæ diolanensis, anensis, conosciuta conosciuta anche anche come come

... .. 1] 1]

open openiningoogle googlemaps maps rate rateand andreview review

explore! explore!

ABBAZIA ABBAZIA DIDI CHIARAVALLE CHIARAVALLE

ABBAZIA ABBAZIA DIDI CHIARAVALLE CHIARAVALLE

gogo to to Abbazia Abbazia di di Chiaravalle Chiaravalle and and check check in in to to vote! vote!

gogo to to Abbazia Abbazia di di Chiaravalle Chiaravalle and and check check in in to to vote! vote!

theythey areare alsoalso visiting visiting

theythey areare alsoalso visiting visiting

L'abbazia L'abbazia di Chiaravalle di Chiaravalle (in latino, (in latino, Sanctæ Sanctæ Mariæ Mariæ Clarævallis Clarævallis Mediolanensis, Mediolanensis, conosciuta conosciuta anche anche come come Santa Santa Maria Maria di Roveniano) di Roveniano) è unècomplesso un complesso monastico monastico cistercense cistercense situato situato nel Parco nel Parco Agricolo Agricolo SudSud nel comune nel comune di Milano, di Milano, tra iltra quartiere il quartiere Vigentino Vigentino e il quartiere e il quartiere Rogoredo. Rogoredo. Fondata Fondata nel XII nelsecolo XII secolo da da san san Bernardo Bernardo da Chiaravalle[1] da Chiaravalle[1] come come filiazione filiazione dell'Abbazia dell'Abbazia di Cîteaux, di Cîteaux, attorno attorno ad essa ad essa si sviluppò si sviluppò un borgo un borgo agricolo[2], agricolo[2], annesso annesso al comune al comune di di Milano Milano nel 1923. nel 1923.

hiaravalle avalle (in latino, (in latino, Sanctæ Sanctæ Mariæ Mariæ diolanensis, anensis, conosciuta conosciuta anche anche come come

change changevisit visittime time

L'abbazia L'abbazia di Chiaravalle di Chiaravalle (in latino, (in latino, Sanctæ Sanctæ Mariæ Mariæ Clarævallis Clarævallis Mediolanensis, Mediolanensis, conosciuta conosciuta anche anche come come Santa Santa Maria Maria di Roveniano) di Roveniano) è unècomplesso un complesso monastico monastico cistercense cistercense situato situato nel Parco nel Parco Agricolo Agricolo SudSud nel comune nel comune di Milano, di Milano, tra iltra quartiere il quartiere Vigentino Vigentino e il quartiere e il quartiere Rogoredo. Rogoredo. Fondata Fondata nel XII nelsecolo XII secolo da da san san Bernardo Bernardo da Chiaravalle[1] da Chiaravalle[1] come come filiazione filiazione dell'Abbazia dell'Abbazia di Cîteaux, di Cîteaux, attorno attorno ad essa ad essa si sviluppò si sviluppò un borgo un borgo agricolo[2], agricolo[2], annesso annesso al comune al comune di di Milano Milano nel 1923. nel 1923.

edit edit itinerary itinerary reset reset and and create create new new

NG YOUR YOUR ITINERARY ITINERARY

add/remove add/remove place place meet meet people people ROTONDA ROTONDA DELLA DELLA BESANA BESANA

L'abbazia L'abbazia di Chiaravalle di Chiaravalle (in latino, (in latino, Sanctæ Sanctæ Mariæ Mariæ Clarævallis Clarævallis Mediolanensis, Mediolanensis, conosciuta conosciuta anche anche comecome

36’36’ ABBAZIA ABBAZIA DI DI CHIARAVALLE CHIARAVALLE

L'abbazia L'abbazia di Chiaravalle di Chiaravalle (in latino, (in latino, Sanctæ Sanctæ Mariæ Mariæ Clarævallis Clarævallis Mediolanensis, Mediolanensis, conosciuta conosciuta anche anche comecome

change change transport transport

meet meet people people

share share onon fb fb

ABBAZIA ABBAZIA DI DI CHIARAVALLE CHIARAVALLE

Clarævallis Clarævallis Mediolanensis, Mediolanensis, conosciuta conosciuta anche anche comecome loglog out out L'abbazia L'abbazia di Chiaravalle di Chiaravalle (in latino, (in latino, Sanctæ Sanctæ Mariæ Mariæ

36’36’ ROTONDA ROTONDA DELLA DELLA BESANA BESANA

L'abbazia L'abbazia di Chiaravalle di Chiaravalle (in latino, (in latino, Sanctæ Sanctæ Mariæ Mariæ Clarævallis Clarævallis Mediolanensis, Mediolanensis, conosciuta conosciuta anche anche comecome

explore! explore! ABBAZIA ABBAZIA DI DI CHIARAVALLE CHIARAVALLE

L'abbazia L'abbazia di Chiaravalle di Chiaravalle (in latino, (in latino, Sanctæ Sanctæ MariæMariæ Clarævallis Clarævallis Mediolanensis, Mediolanensis, conosciuta conosciuta ancheanche come come SantaSanta Maria Maria di Roveniano) di Roveniano) è un complesso è un complesso monastico monastico cistercense cistercense situatosituato nel Parco nel Parco Agricolo Agricolo Sud nel Sud comune nel comune di Milano, di Milano, tra il quartiere tra il quartiere Vigentino Vigentino e il quartiere e il quartiere Rogoredo. Rogoredo. Fondata Fondata nel XIInel secolo XII secolo da da san Bernardo san Bernardo da Chiaravalle[1] da Chiaravalle[1] come come filiazione filiazione dell'Abbazia dell'Abbazia di Cîteaux, di Cîteaux, attorno attorno ad essa ad siessa sviluppò si sviluppò un borgo un borgo agricolo[2], agricolo[2], annesso annesso al comune al comune di di MilanoMilano nel 1923. nel 1923.

go go to Abbazia to Abbazia di Chiaravalle di Chiaravalle andand check check in to in vote! to vote! they they are also are also visiting visiting

Figure 7.6-10/11/12/13: Editing of the itinerary

64


rg

O

Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI Know more! The starting point is always a well known and easy to find object. In Andrea’s case it is Teatro alla Scala. This particular point has following options: - learn about history of the place; - to become familiar with repertoire; - view sample promotional content; - get a link to the ticket booking site - share information about his user’s geographical position with other users.

LA SCALA - VIDEO

TEATRO ALLA SCALA

show events

Excelsi Teatro

go to www.teatroallascala.org explore the theater!

PALAZZO SPINOLA - GIOCO Excelsio with Roberto Bolle and Alina Somova Teatro alla Scala_Milan PALAZZO SPINOLA

check in events visit the palace play!

10

VISIT POINT

Figure 7.6-14/15/16: App visualizations fot the first point, Teatro alla Scala

65


ALA - VIDEO SCALA - VIDEO PALAZZO SPINOLA - GIOCO

Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI TEATRO TEATRO ALLA SCALA ALLA SCALA

On the go

PALAZZO SPINOLA

show events show events

Walking down the San Paolo str. Andrea’s attention is asked to pay attention to the Palazzo Spinola. It is a headquarters of the one of the oldest Gentlemen’s Clubs in Europe - Società del Giardino. Options for this point are: - General info; - A game - to find on the façade an emblem of Società del Giardino and get point convertible SPINOLA into bonuses; ALAZZO - GIOCO PALAZZO SPINOLA - GIOCO - share information about his user’s geographical position with other users. Excelsio with Roberto Bolle Alina Bolle Somova Excelsio withand Roberto and Alina Somova Teatro alla Scala_Milan Teatro alla Scala_Milan

go to www.teatroallascala.org go to www.teatroallascala.org

check in

explore the theater! explore the theater!

events

visit the palace play!

TEATRO ALLA SCALA

TEATRO ALLA SCALA

opera

PALAZZO SPINOLA

Excelsio with Roberto Bolle and Alina Somova Teatro alla Scala_Milan

opera

PALAZZO SPINOLA

Excelsio with Roberto Bolle and Alina Somova Teatro alla Scala_Milan

10 10

VISIT VISIT POINT POINT

check in check in events

events

visit the palace visit the palace play!

play!

FIND THE “SOCIETÀ DEL GIARDINO”

TEATRO ALLA SCALA opera

10

THEY DID THE CHECK IN HERE!

10

VISIT POINT

Nastia

VISIT POINT

FINDFIND THE THE “SOCIETÀ DEL DEL “SOCIETÀ GIARDINO” GIARDINO”

Sonia

USE THE CAMERA, MATCH THE USE THE CAMERA, MATCH THE SYMBOL OF “SOCIETÀ DEL SYMBOL OF “SOCIETÀ DEL GIARDINO” IN THE FRAME GIARDINO” IN THE FRAME AND PRESS THE CAMERA AND PRESS THE CAMERA BUTTON TO PROCEED BUTTON TO PROCEED

THEY DID THE CHECK IN HERE! Nastia

USE THE CAMERA, MATCH THE SYMBOL OF “SOCIETÀ DEL GIARDINO” IN THE FRAME AND PRESS THE CAMERA BUTTON TO PROCEED

Sonia

Giovanni

USE THE CAMERA, MATCH THE SYMBOL OF “SOCIETÀ DEL GIARDINO” IN THE FRAME AND PRESS THE CAMERA BUTTON TO PROCEED

Figure 7.6-17/18/19: 06. App visualizations that show check-in in new place, badges and sharing with friends Figure 7.6-20/21/22: 06. 07. App games: search for interesting things and try to be faster than your friends

66 IMAGE FOUND!

Giovanni

IMAGE FOUND!

IMAGE FOUND!

THEY DID THE CHECK IN HERE! Nastia

Sonia

Giovanni


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI There were points that Andrea signed as ones he would not like to stop by. Next time we will know that he is not into fossil antiquities! Andrea rejected the ruins of Terme Erculee, Antico Verziere at Largo Augusto and decided to move directly to Rotonda della Besana to attend an exhibition while he is waiting for his eventual fellow-travelers.

Make a Pause

EET PEOPLE

ERARY

Rotonda della Besana is quiet public space hidden in the middle of noisy central area of Milan. It is a perfect place for spending a dinner pause, enjoying a quarter of an hour of the sun on the bench or attend one of the exquisite exhibitions organized at former San Michele ai Nuovi Sepolcri church.

ROTONDA DELLA BESANA - MEE

I'm fascinated by this place! Place little known, the Rotonda della Besana is a quiet place not far from the convulsive center of Milan. Sitting on the stone benches or in the park, the noise of traffic and people become a distant noise. We have been to the event Plan City Milano! and ...

Figure 7.6-23: Social Real Network

Dinner? We know that Andrea is about to start a long journey. And that he has some time to make a Pause. That is why he will receive on offer from our partner - Taverna NASTIA Degli Amici located in 245 m from the RotondaSONIAdella Besana.

TRATTORIA DEGLI AMICI

LUCA’S BADGES

Love this place! La chiesa architettonicamente è molto interessante, stupendo il coro ligneo proprio al centro della navata centrale.

LUCA

VISITING NOW! want to meet or talk with Luca?

bikers

food lover

bench fan

L'abbazia di Chiaravalle è davvero un luogo magico, un salto indietro nel tempo a pochi minuti di macchina da Milano. In uno dei giardini c'era anche un mercatino con prodotti enogastronomici e prodotti naturali.

Figure 7.6-24: Discounts for S.H.O.W. Mi users GIOVANNI

send a message

Address: Via Spartaco, 4 20135 Milan ancient ruined Phone:02 5519 4005 monument Reviews 4.2/5 LUCA’S PHOTOS

Un modo alternativo alla solita macchina è arrivarci in bici dal Corvetto. Si attraversa un parco ed è facile arrivarci. Lo spettacolo è molto affascinante! I monaci hanno prosciugato le paludi, inventato le marcite, seminato bellezza e cultura che hanno fatto grande e

YOUR RATING add comment ...

save

ancient art and monument

parks and walks

modern architecture

local food

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26 Cordusio M1 27 Duomo M1 M3 28 Missori M3

Smart Map, MI Via Larga 29 S.H.O.W. 30 L.go Augusto 31 Palazzo di Giustizia

PRESENTE

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32 C.so P.ta Vittoria

PASSATO

MERCATO DEL VERZIERE - PASSATO PRESENTE + EVENTI )) Into the fields!

Andrea meets others and continues his journey. Abbazzia di Chiaravalle has a lot of misteries to reveal, stories to tell and surprises to present. IL MERCATO DEL VERZIERE Paolo Sala (1859-1924)

CHIARAVALLE - PASSATO PRESENTE+TESTO VERZIERE BIO

Every Saturday / Stecca3, Via De Castillia 26 / from 9 am to 5 pm

legende milanesi

ABBAZIA DI CHIARAVALLE PRESENTE

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PASSATO

SATO PRESENTE + EVENTI )) PRESENTE

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PASSATO

PASSATO PRESENTE+TESTO VERZIERE BIO

Every Saturday / Stecca3, Via De Castillia 26 / from 9 am to 5 pm

IL MOSTRO TARANTASIO legende milanesi

La fantasia popolare narra che un tempo nelle acque del Lago Gerundo vivesse un drago di nome Tarantasio che, avvicinandosi alle rive, faceva strage di uomini e soprattutto di bambini e che ammorbava l'aria circostante con il suo alito asfissiante. Le esalazioni, in effetti, erano dovute alla presenza nel sottosuolo di metano e di idrogeno solforato, un fenomeno misterioso per la popolazione che, pertanto, incolpava esseri sconosciuti e fantasiosi. Il fantomatico mostro, secondo la leggenda, fu ammazzato da uno sconosciuto eroe che prosciugò anche il lago: altri non era che il capostipite dei Visconti di Milano che, dopo tale

PASSATO

IL MOSTRO TARANTASIO il logo Agip

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Figure 7.6-25/26/27: App visualizations for Abbazia di Chiaravalle

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IL MOSTRO TARANTASIO

La fantasia popolare narra che un tempo nelle acque del Lago Gerundo vivesse un drago di nome Tarantasio che, avvicinandosi alle rive, faceva strage di uomini e soprattutto di bambini e che ammorbava l'aria circostante con il suo alito asfissiante. Le esalazioni, in effetti, erano dovute alla presenza nel sottosuolo di metano e di idrogeno solforato, un fenomeno misterioso per la popolazione che, pertanto, incolpava esseri sconosciuti e fantasiosi. Il fantomatico mostro, secondo la leggenda, fu ammazzato da uno sconosciuto eroe che prosciugò anche il lago: altri non era che il capostipite dei Visconti di Milano che, dopo tale


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI Memories In the end of the journey Andrea will be asked to rate the places he visited and will get a journal of his travel to keep and share the memories.

JUNE 10th, 2013 YOUR VISIT DIARY

explore your diary share on facebook add elements

We visited isited an am ...

search diaries

DIARY

5 comments

JUNE 10th, 2013

T

We visited isited an amazing installation yesterday! ... 5 comments

Figure 7.6-28/29: The diary of your experience

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Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI

7.7 Comparative differentiation with current state of the art There are globally famous (e.g. Banjo) and local (e.g. City1Tap) applications offering its users geographically tagged monitoring of what is happening around. There will be a specific app for city navigation developed for EXPO 2015 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Smart City App. The are A LOT of city guides of different quality and usability. The usual pattern is the inverse relationship between quality and usability. Apps developed with great attention to usability are lacking content about non commercial attractions(e.g. Tripadvisor). Non profit applications with captivating content are condemning their users to struggle with bugs are controversial design decisions. There are treasure hunt games and educational apps developed by private individuals for specific market segments or for their own amusement. In this ocean of proposals we had to find a niche and be innovative in it. How did we manage to do that? 1) High quality non user generated content We will have user generated ranking system, feedbacks and recommendations. But we think that this is not enough. Unlike our competitors we do not rely on others in terms of content generation. We donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t believe that it is possible to export from, for example, Twitter content that will be interesting to a significant part of our future clients.Yes, we personalize the search output for every user. But each and every its part is made to be interesting for a broad audience. 2) Dynamic adaptivity in navigational application We observe and learn from users about their interest to make sure that the next time they will ask us a generic question we will know a precise answer. We have executed very profound research on the given territory and we believe to know it better than the majority of others. This knowledge will allow us to be as precise about Milan attractions and infrastructure as no one can be. 3) Educational content in a mass market app We are not going to position ourselves as educational application. Such image will most probably scare away the majority of our potential users. What we want to do is to propose a unique experience of city navigation that will leave a pleasant aftertaste and a light hunger for new discoveries.

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8. Business Model S.H.O.W. Mi is a platform where users could share their emotions, share what they have seen, discover new friends and also, of course, keep in contact with the other side of the platform, that are museums, theaters, businesses, churches, small zone markets and events. When we had to deal with this problem, we have many options possible in order to perform our business model, starting from the basic ones through new and innovative ways of doing this type of business. After a deep analysis of all the possible options, we tried to create a third degree price discrimination, offering different products for different target of users and different size of the platform and most of all, we create a new business model, a new idea to produce revenue and increase the critical mass of users, that is fundamental in this type of applications. Before trying to analyse the peculiarity of our business model, we will define the market size and the possibility of growth and expansion that S.H.O.W. Mi has in a short medium term.

PA

businesses Search for Hidden Opportunities and Wonders in MIlan

users

cultural activities discounts ent advertisin gâ&#x20AC;? â&#x20AC;&#x153;intellig

Figure 8: Business Model Scheme

advertising beneďŹ ts

8.1 Market size PA

businesses

Search for Hidden Opportunities and Wonders in MIlan

Search for Hidden Opportunitie and Wonders in MIlan

The municipality of Milan has 1,298,996 inhabitants (at May 30st, 2013). The region of Lombardia, net of the inhabitants of Milan, has residents, for a total population of 9,859,275 persons.5 servi8,560,279 ces s.h.o.w .the mi platform feeTourism From the data available at the dbacks Observatory of Milan we know that the province of Milan in first half of 2012 has had a total of 3,101,146 tourists. Only Milan scored in the same period 2,146,641 arrivals, confirming its position as the main reference point for tourists.6 We can then calculate the expected amount of tourist for the whole raise sustainable and 2012 with a projection of the first half of 2012. Comparing awareness this figure with the finalcultural balance of 2011, we observe that there is a positive trend of growth in tourism in Milan, which is intended to remain in particular in view of the great event of EXPO 2015 also if we have analyzed different pattern after EXPO exhibitions in Europe. We also know that on average, each tourist stops for 2 nights in Milan. This leads us to assume an average visit duration of 3 days. booking users app for free [5] http://www.istat.it/it/lombardia [6] http://www.visitamilano.it/turismo/operatori/Osservatorio_del_turismo/Dati_flussi_e_ricettivita.html sustainable behaviour

premium version

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Capitolo 7 la 7

Also the data provided by EXPO about visitors expected in Milan (20 million, of which 5,000,000 foreigners)7 allows us a strong optimism regarding the use of our application and exceeding the Critical Mass necessary for the proper functioning of any business model based on web and mobile applications. All these data allow us to look with optimism to the strong tourism market in Lombardia and especially in Milan, relying on a market of more than 4 million stable tourists per year, 1.3 million of residents and an event that has few equals in the world and will certainly be a source of a strong rebound in tourism, in the economy and in the city of Milan itself.

2012

2015

2,146,641 tourists in Milan

20 million tourists in Milan (5,000,000 foreigners)

9,859,275 Lombardy population

1,298,996 Milan inhabitants

Figure 8.2.1: Market structure

8.2 Target As every application, also S.H.O.W. Mi could be downloaded by everyone, but the core of the app and the most important functionalities are thought for citizens. So S.H.O.W. Mi is a social network for people that live in Milan, is a way to explore in a cultural way their city, to share events, to book restaurants and visit. It is also a new way and idea to recreate a social real network, made by people and not by app, trying to aggregate people in the most clever way as possible but the aim will be to connect people in base of their cultural interests. Finally, the interesting part of S.H.O.W. Mi is its strong connections with EXPO themes and enviromental sustainability. This means that many points will be chosen following EXPO ideas, such as some places linked to “Via dell’acqua”. The app will also encourage and increase the usage of different means of transport, such as bike.MI, car pooling, ATM and of course, walking. Based on this specific target, the app will be above all for citizens, with an italian version and an english version. The idea is also to create a network of S.H.O.W. Mi users in different cities, in order to exploit and to create a community of high cultural citizens of Milan today, and of the World tomorrow.

8.3 Business model: one side of the platform In this subsection we will focused our attention on the “provider” side of the platform, where Public Administrations, businesses, museums and events are in. [7] http://www.expo2015.assolombarda.it/expo/expo-2015

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Starting from Public Administration, we will use our app to promote the territory, to connect different places creating new itineraries with unexpected connections and to exploit the possibility of creating cultural and environmental consciousness in citizens and tourists. It is possible via app to be connected real time with the PA, sharing situations, comments and news that will be hardly known if not shared. On the other side, we will provide to PA a lot of data, in respect to privacy laws and users options, about habits, interests and feelings of citizens and tourists that are using our app around the city. In exchange for the service of the promotion of the territory, the creation of culturally itineraries, the rediscovery of forgotten cultural heritage and also in exchange of information and feedbacks that we can get from users, the PA will undertake to pay a fee in discounts on museums, transports and services directly managed by the PA itself. This means that there is no outlay of money, but an exchange between services and discounts; our idea is to create a positive benefits for show.MI, thanks to offers for our users that are not easy to have in another way and also a positive benefit for PA, because it could increase not only its knowledge about citizens and tourists, but also try to increase the usage of public transport thanks to offers and discounts. This will translate in a no-money saving, because it will reduce pollution in the city and it will guide citizens to a new environmental culture. As a matter of fact, our business model expects for the “sale” of this information and service to promote tourism to the PA in the face of an economic recognition quantified in the form of “subsidized tickets”, so as not to require a compensation in money, always difficult to obtain. Take the case of one visit to the Museum of Science and Technology in Milan for example. The ticket currently costs € 10.00 per person (for an adult). The PA has agreed to recognize to S.H.O.W. Mi’s users a discount rate equal to 20%. However, the user will receive just 15% of discount. The 5% difference is a “commission rate” in favor of S.H.O.W. Mi for the service offered. This automatically entail an incentive for users to use our application, since it would derive direct benefits in terms of discount. With this system S.H.O.W. Mi is able to give value to the information of tourists and also to encourage the latter to the use of the services provided and managed by the PA, as they are subject to a discount. Businesses and commercial activities will be involved in a similar way as the one used by Tripadvisor, Groupon and Google Maps. In return to get detailed information about citizens who visit the city of Milan and especially in exchange for a policy of “intelligent advertising” businesses may be willing to recognize a percentage of their income to S.H.O.W. Mi or to offer a discount to the customer, using the dynamics already known from other applications such as Groupon. In particular, the idea in this case would be to include, along the path of visit suggested to the user, a business linked to the itineraries chosen by him as, for example, a typical restaurant. These suggestions will only appear if the user accepts this option, otherwise, in order not to diminish quality, no businesses advertisement will be inserted in the itinerary. Of course, restaurants would be interested in appearing as places recommended in our application, as it would get free commercial, but, for the reason expressed above, that means the necessity and the willingness to have an high qualitative application for living and experiencing Milan, only high qualitative businesses will be inserted in, using as benchmark for example GamberoRosso and ViaMichelin for

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discou discounts

Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI restaurants and other several sources for typical shops.

It is interesting to notice how the deal and agreement with the businesses could be reached in two PA ways: one with an outlay of money and the other one without money, in the same way used for public PA administration. In exchange to the possibility to be in our application, we will ask businesses to apply different prices for businesses our users and to suggest and propose discounts. Search for Hidden Opportunities and Wonders in MIlan

businesses

users

For example, assuming a price of € 35 per person for a meal and a proposed discount of 20% offered users by restaurant, thecultural user will receive an actual discount of 14%, while 6% of its total expenditure will go to S.H.O.W. Mi.activities Search for Hidden Opportunities and Wonders in MIlan

cultural activities

advertising benefits

advertising benefits

PA PA

discounts ent advertisin i l l e g” “int g

s e r vic e s fe ed b acks

raise sustainable and cultural awareness

s e r vic e s fe ed b acks

8.4 Users: the other side of the platform users

businesses

Search for Hidden Opportunities and Wonders in MIlan

Search for Hidden Opportunities and Wonders in MIlan

s.h.o.w . mi platform

s.h.o.w . mi platform

raise sustainable and cultural awareness

Figure 8.2.3-1: PA Business Model Scheme

users

businesses

Search for Hidden Opportunities and Wonders in MIlan

Search for Hidden Opportunities and Wonders in MIlan

discounts ent advertisin i l l e t g” “in g

app for free

Figure 8.2.3-2: Businesses Business Model Scheme

booking

premium

booking version and tourists that is In this subsections we will summarized the business model proposed to both citizens app for free premium basically the same apart of the possibilities and the interest in this app. version sustainablefree for every type of users. The first decision we made, was to provide this app completely behaviour This will increase our possibility tosustainable extend the mass of users in a short time without asking them to behaviour connect their credit card. Italy is in fact one of the worst country in credit card usage and we do not want to scary our possible future and new customers.

There will be different functionalities, basically for free, but some of these need to be unblocked; also here, there are two possibilities (as for businesses) to realize this exchange: with and without money. The possibility with money consist simply in paying for extending the software to a premium version, while the second possibility consist in earning enough credits (the app and its functionalities work on credits and not on true money, such as BitCoin) to unlock the new features. This credits are earned simply using the app; the more an user uses the app for explore Milan, for book events and find new and interesting events in Milan, the more credits he will earn. Furthermore, this is the only app that allow the user to earn money without doing anything. The app take care, if used in background, on what you do and in the way you use it, rewarding you more if you use public transports during the day, or bike.MI instead of your private car. 74


activities discounts ent adv i l l Smart Map, S.H.O.W. “inte g MI ertising”

advertising benefits

These credits that you earn could be used to unlock new functionalities or to “utilize” discounts and bonuses, such as free businesses PAtrip on a bus. Search for Hidden Opportunities and Wonders in MIlan

Search for Hidden Opportu and Wonders in MIlan

seruser vices connected with the app all the day on, he could earn credits For example, if we imagine an s.h.ousing .w. mi platform fe ed b acks public transport (thanks to our auto-recognition of the transport you are using), eating in a restaurant that is inside our application (also if he did not use the app to reach it), meeting new friends thanks to our social real network option or simply walking around the city following our itineraries and winning or raise sustainable participating in our augmented reality and cultural games.

cultural awareness

users

app for free

booking

premium version

sustainable behaviour Figure 8.2.4: Users Business Model Scheme

8.5 Business model: resumen The secret of our business model is that there is no money in the game! The second secret is that this business model functions. S.H.O.W. Mi is a platform that transfers discount tickets and offers from one side of the platform to another, trying to increase the users of the apps thanks to cultural and new experiences, social real network and the possibility to play games against other citizens in Milan. How could we survive? This is the most interesting part of the business model, because it is not clear to understand how S.H.O.W. Mi could create money for itself, without an exchange of money in the app. First of all, S.H.O.W. Mi has also a second platform for businesses and public administrations, that is useful to control flows of citizens and tourists, to understand its own position in the market and the result competitors. This platform is internet based and it is not furnished for free for businesses (for public administration it is). Furthermore, many events, attraction places and other small interesting points have an high potential but it is not easy for them to exploit this potential, due to the lack of capability in the cultural sector and the lack of connections. For example, it is not probable that someone will do many kilometers in order to see a small church if there is nothing else to see in the surrounding area. S.H.O.W. Mi serves as a creator of itineraries and stories, trying to exploit the possibility of every single attraction points with new stories, new games in the place and most of all, connecting every small place each other in order to create a network and new itineraries that before seemed impossible to be made. This service is not provided for free by S.H.O.W. Mi and it is another way of revenue for our project. Lastly, users could decide to boost their app without waiting to reach enough credits and this could be made using real money in order to acquire credits on our personal market. 75


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI

www.smartmap.showmi.com www.smartmap.showmi.com

email email adress adress password password signsign up up

SHOW SHOW MI PLATFORM MI PLATFORM

Analytics Analytics

USERS USERS PROFILE PROFILE

My CALENDAR My CALENDAR

MY PROFILE MY PROFILE

version version 1.1 1.1

my firm my firm competitors competitors itineraries itineraries feedbacks feedbacks

my clients my clients history history numbers numbers of visits of visits

calendar calendar

about about me me keywords keywords my balance my balance discounts discounts

UserUser _________ _________ Copyright Copyright 2013 2013

LOG OUT LOG OUT

www.smartmap.showmi.com www.smartmap.showmi.com

fresh fresh ingredients ingredients

urban urban agriculture agriculture

km 0km food 0 food

"The "The pleasure pleasure of eating of eating should should be be an extensive an extensive pleasure, pleasure, notnot thatthat of the of the mere mere gourmet. gourmet. People People whowho know know thethe garden garden in in which which theirtheir vegetables vegetables have have grown grown andand know know thatthat thethe garden garden is healthy is healthy will will remember remember thethe beauty beauty of the of the growing growing plants, plants, perhaps perhaps in the in the dewy dewy firstfirst lightlight of morning of morning when when gardens gardens areare at at theirtheir best. best. Such Such a memory a memory involves involves itself itself withwith thethe food food andand is is oneone of the of the pleasures pleasures of eating. of eating. (pg.(pg. 326, 326, TheThe Pleasures Pleasures of of Eating)" Eating)" Wendell Wendell Berry, Berry, TheThe Art Art of the of the Commonplace: Commonplace: TheThe Agrarian Agrarian Essays Essays of Wendell of Wendell Berry Berry

MY PROFILE MY PROFILE about about me me keywords keywords my balance my balance discounts discounts

editedit datadata

SHOW SHOW MI PLATFORM MI PLATFORM

Analytics Analytics

USERS USERS PROFILE PROFILE

My CALENDAR My CALENDAR

MY PROFILE MY PROFILE

version version 1.1 1.1

my firm my firm competitors competitors itineraries itineraries feedbacks feedbacks

my clients my clients history history numbers numbers of visits of visits

calendar calendar

about about me me keywords keywords my balance my balance discounts discounts

UserUser _________ _________ Copyright Copyright 2013 2013

76

LOG OUT LOG OUT


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI

www.smartmap.showmi.com

Ristorante Erba Brusca

MY PROFILE about me keywords my balance discounts

info@erbabrusca.it Alzaia Naviglio Pavese 286 Milano 20142 Tel. 02 87380711

Orario: da mercoledì a domenica aperti pranzo e cena

edit data

SHOW MI PLATFORM

Analytics

USERS PROFILE

My CALENDAR

MY PROFILE

version 1.1

my firm competitors itineraries feedbacks

my clients history numbers of visits

calendar

about me keywords my balance discounts

User _________ Copyright 2013

LOG OUT

www.smartmap.showmi.com

MY PROFILE

Discounts

about me keywords my balance discounts

Dinner for 2

68 €

55 €

Traveller menù

25 €

20 €

Menu “Carte Blanche” compreso dessert à la carte 4 portate

Lunch Box Carpaccio di manzo scottato...

Original price

SHOW Mi discount

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SHOW MI PLATFORM

Analytics

USERS PROFILE

My CALENDAR

MY PROFILE

version 1.1

my firm competitors itineraries feedbacks

my clients history numbers of visits

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about me keywords my balance discounts

User _________ Copyright 2013

Figure 8.2.5-1/2/3/4: S.H.O.W. Mi platform for businesses and public administrations

LOG OUT

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9. Results and conclusions The initial aims of giving users a social, tailored and interactive experience of urban and cultural environment of Milan, encouraging and enhancing the direct interaction between the individuals and the town asset, have been pursued in all the choices taken during the application’s design process, for instance, implementing a gamifying approach to the exploration of urban environment, making the fruition of public means of transport easier and with a dynamic and appealing interface and encouraging social experiences during the metropolitan visit, in order to enhance the perceived comfortable feeling and, then, the overall perceived quality of the trip itself. What we first imagined to obtain through a high tech innovative device, with stunning graphic effects and high-end IT architecture, turned instead to be something reachable with a completely different approach, relying more on the human need to live social than on producing an iconic must-have. Due to our really tight timing schedule and the different changes occurred to the project during its early lifetime, at the time this report is being written we could gather no sensible data and feedbacks about the actual user experience, being the first working prototype finally developed in these very days. What we can state for sure is that we came along with our aim to work out a real prototype to successfully present to our stakeholders’ board, managing to fulfill and satisfy all the tasks and external constraints met during first conceptual brainstormings and all along the project’s periodic reviews. Here following, a short resume of successful solutions worked out in order to answer the main challenges we faced and accepted, carrying this way the project to an actual feasibility beyond the theoretical concept.

9.1 Connection with EXPO2015 We do not link our project to the this year’s theme of EXPO 2015. We link it to the universal concept of EXPO. The one that didn’t change from the first exhibition in London in 1815. Each and every EXPO had a mission to: - diffuse knowledge; - improve human living conditions; - facilitate meeting between people; - help cooperation between states. S.H.O.W.Mi’s mission is to: - diffuse knowledge about the history and contemporary life of Milan with citizens and guests of the city; - improve the conditions of cohabitation for citizens and public authorities in charge of cultural heritage - facilitate meeting between citizens and guests with similar interests or aims - help small local businesses to establish local and international contacts We not EXPO 2015 oriented. We are EXPO inspired.

9.2 Sustainability and profitability Winding this back to the beginning, our economical aim was to allow show.MI to economically sustain itself and, only as a second coming target, to generate a side profit to be reinvested in making the system furtherly grow up, along with a reasonable revenue for any involved stakeholders. 78


Smart Map, S.H.O.W. MI First of all, we need to clearly define the very meaning for profitability in a project like this; it is important to notice that our first aim was to create a new way for citizens to get involved in their town and getting to better know it, therefore giving them a new consciousness of the role they are asked to play in defining a new and all-inclusive meaning for environmental, social and cultural sustainability. Focusing our attention only to economical sides, id est not taking into account all the earnings due, for example, to a better exploitation of public transport or consequent to a reduction in polluting emissions, we need to verify if the system we designed will be able to survive in the future without needing a steady funding line, also keeping clearly in mind the predicted milanese scenarios for incoming future. We have then worked out different scenarios, trying to understand the break-even number of users needed to reach a substantial sustainability and to guarantee a business-planned growth for the application in forthcoming years. Furthermore, we split our business in three part, as partly suggested in the previous section. One part, maybe the most important, regards our core activity and business, that is to provide a connection between users and businesses and events in order to reach discounts using the app while visiting new and inspiring places. The second part consists in what we called “cultural activity”, meaning the service we provide to new places in order to get more attractive to tourists - and citizens as well - including them in a network involving all major must-see cultural places which could bring sort of natural light on barely known onew. This activity also involves a structured technological research, needing to create a proper interface to exploit the chances of newcome augmented reality and to make the gamification processes fluid and enjoyable, in order to attract as much users as possible without annoying them with bothering delays in loadings and procedures. Linking these two well distinguished spheres of action, our business model consists to create and mantain this service under the level of profitability, meaning that the stakeholders will spend more than they earn in this special field. This because of a very simple equation on which we chose to bet: the more custom places we add and manage, the more people are likely to get in touch with the application, the more the business is likely to expand. This is one of the hooks to guarantee higher profitability in the first section presented dealing with the overall business plan. Last but not least is the platform for businesses, that we provided with the possibility to check many sensible informations about the run of their businesses and about their competitors’ due to the complex system of interactions between users’ preferences and businesses’ offers, coming to meet in special promotions and discounted marketing. Anyway, both for the actual economical importance and for the primary aim of developing our product, this is to be considered only as a side business, with no special point in being promoted and developed as a primary business itself.

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Scenario

Low

Middle

High

Breakeven

Normal Users Businesses Average daily expenditure Average total discount Average fee of discount taken from show.MI Average discount per day per user Average revenue per day per user show.MI

1000 20 € 2.00 20% 5% € 0.30 € 0.10

15000 100 € 2.00 20% 5% € 0.30 € 0.10

60000 1000 € 2.00 20% 5% € 0.30 € 0.10

4000 90 € 2.00 20% 5% € 0.30 € 0.10

Core Activities Average revenue per day show.MI Average cost per day Personnel (2 people full time) Structures costs (maintenance) per day Web services costs per day

€ 100.00 € 300.00 € 13.70 € 32.88

€ 1,500.00 € 300.00 € 13.70 € 32.88

€ 6,000.00 € 300.00 € 13.70 € 32.88

€ 400.00 € 300.00 € 13.70 € 32.88

(1) Core Activities profit per day

-€ 246.58

€ 1,153.42

€ 5,653.42

€ 53.42

Cultural Activities Cultural activities per year Average revenue per activity Average cost per activity (50 hours work)

5 € 700.00 € 1,500.00

15 € 700.00 € 1,500.00

50 € 700.00 € 1,500.00

30 € 700.00 € 1,500.00

(2) Average cultural activities loss per year

-€ 4,000.00

-€ 12,000.00

-€ 40,000.00

-€ 24,000.00

Platform for businesses activities Business with platform Revenue per platform per year Cost per year maintenance per platform

14 € 120.00 € 48.00

70 € 120.00 € 48.00

700 € 120.00 € 48.00

63 € 120.00 € 48.00

(3) Average profit platform per year

€ 1,008.00

€ 5,040.00

€ 50,400.00

€ 4,536.00

Final gross profit per year (1)*365 + (2) + (3)

-€ 92,992.00

€ 414,040.00

€ 2,073,900.00

€ 36.00

Table 9.2: Possible scenario

In upcoming table you could see what it is likely to happen in the future when our application will be fully done and operative, not considering, then, the final costs needed to bring our project to the starting grid - final IT review, massive testing, social advertising and so on. As we can see, we do not actually need a huge number of stable users in order to be profitable: 4.000 users and 90 businesses in the platform will be enough to make show.MI a self-feeding business. Of course, as every IT application, there are many tangible costs to consider which are not directly depending to the effective scale of usage - e.g. servers, broadcasting appliances, contents’ creators fee, etc. - therefore an increase in the number of users would be consequentially followed by an higher increase in the bare final revenue. In conclusion, we are definitely sure that the sustainability level is not far to be reached, thanks to our innovative business model and to the possibility to reach an high amount of users starting from the first year, thanks due to the massive presence brought up by Expo 2015 which must be seen as a chance definitely not to miss.

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9.3 Life after the Expo: scalability, replicability and other possible follow ups Coming to what is likely to occur when the exceptional event of the Expo is going to end up, there will be a clear need to have the project newly scaled to fit changing requests and target users. This way we defined two different layers of following scalability for the project, definable as a horizontal and a vertical one. First one is the easiest to understand, simply consisting in exporting the concept of show.MI in other places with completely different tangible situations, then enlarging the network of users and creating a new idea of citizens and users widely crossing the boundaries of Milan. This way, a concept first born to give added value to a physical space becomes a real brand, that we can only imagine the size it could reach. The second idea of scalability is vertical one, meaning the possibility to enlarge the range of users interested in our application, expanding the functionality of the platform and adding brand-new ones, such as, just as an instance, some potential interactions between users, tourist guides and public facilities for citizens, bringing therefore new possible sources of income and then consolidating the already proven overall sustainability.

Search for Hidden Opportunities and Wonders in MIlan

Search for Hidden Opportunities and Wonders in MIlan

Figure 9.3-1: vertical integration

Figure 9.3-2: horizontal integration

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10. Bibliography [1. ]

J. Abrams, Else/Where: mapping: new cartographies of networks and territories, Peter Hall editors, Minneapolis, 2006

[2. ]

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MULTIDISCIPLINARY PROJECT FINAL REPORT / cycle 8th SMART MAP Smart Sensitive City. New Mapping for XXI century citizens_Team A - S.H.O.W. Mi Kai Chen, Architecture for Sustainability Design, Politecnico di TO Luca Cioria, Computer Engineering, Politecnico di MI Giovanni Fassio, Industrial Engineering and Management, Politecnico di TO Filippo Pozzoli [Team Controller], Building Engineering/Architecture, Politecnico di MI Sonia Pravato - Interior Design, Politecnico di MI Anastasiia Stryzhevska - Architecture, Politecnico di MI Principal Academic Tutor: Antonella Contin, Architecture and Planning, Politecnico di MI Other Academic Tutors: Alberto De Marco, Management and Production Engineering, Politecnico di TO Luca Guerrini, Industrial Design, Arts, Communication and Fashion, Politecnico di MI Pier Luca Lanzi - Electronics and Information, Politecnico di MI External Tutors: Guido Arnone - EXPO 2015 - Settore Innovazione tecnologica Roberto Bottazzi - Royal College of London Bruno Cicciarello - Comau Robotics Alessandro Frigerio - UP! Design and Research Lab Gioia Gibelli - SIEP-IALE Ilaria Tosoni - Eth Zurich Institute for Spatial Development


S.H.O.W MI Final Report