Southall Gas Works:
Area Sustainability Appraisal Baseline Study APLN704 Sustainable Cities Group G: Saksham Jian Anna Smith Jonathan Tarbatt Niltay Tosun Erdem Grace Wildsmith
1.1 Location 1.2 Population 1.3 Population Density 1.4 Ethnic Diversity 1.5 Housing & Deprivation 1.6 Employment 1.7 Household Income 1.8 Policy Context 1,9 Social Characteristics
3.1 Block Typologies 3.2 Building Typologies 3.3 Urban Armature 3.4 Permeability 3.5 Movement
5.1 Summary 5.2 TĂźbingen-Sudstadt, Germany 5.3 Hammarby SjĂśstad, Stockholm 5.4 Sanderstead Road, Croydon 5.5 Greenwich Millennium Village, London 5.6 Vauban, Freiburg, Germany 5.7 References
2.1 Land Use 2.2 Regional Facilities & Transport Infrastructure 2.3 Public Transport Facilities 2.4 Accessibility to Local Facilities 2.5 Educational Facilities
4.1 Green & Blue Infrastructure 4.2 Ecology 4.3 Ground Conditions 4.4 Water Quality 4.5 Air Quality 4.6 Noise 4.7 Microclimate
Introduction & Local Context
Local Facilities & Transport Infrastructure
Urban Form & Urban Design Analysis
Environment & Ecology
Summary & Case Studies
Introduction & Local Context Location Population Population Density Ethnic Diversity Housing & Deprivation Employment Household Income Policy Context Social Characteristics
1. Introduction & Local Context 1.1 Location Figure 1.1 shows the location of Southall in relation to the city of London. Southall is in west London in the borough of Ealing, and close to the borough boundary with neighbouring Hillingdon.
Figure 1.1: Regional Location of Southall
1.2 Population In January 2009 the total population of the borough of Ealing was 305,300(Ealing Borough Council, 2009). The graph demonstrates the significant rate of population growth in Ealing compared to London as a whole between 1801 and 2001. Whilst the population of the city of London has declined, Ealingâ€™s population has grown exponentially. Figure 1.2: Population Growth Comparison
www.johomaps.com. Accessed 15/10/2011
1. Introduction & Local Context 1.3 Population Density
1.4 Ethnic Diversity
In 2009 there were 55 residents per hectare in Ealing; 7 people more per hectare than the London average. The town of Southall is split into two wards – Southall Broadway and Southall Green. Each of these has just over 13,000 residents and represent 4.6% and 4.7% of Ealing’s population respectively.
Ethnic Diversity of Ealing
The 2009 bar graph shows that in that year Southall Green and Southall Broadway were both in the top 6 highest density wards in Ealing, both showing significantly higher density at around 80 people per hectare that the Ealing average of approximately 53 people per hectare (Ealing Borough Council, 2009). Figure 1.3: Population Density: persons per hectare
% population (2001): GLA Ethnic Projections (207 round) from Ealing Borough Council, 2009 % population (2026 projections)2008, ONS: 2006 Mid Year Ethnic estimate IN Ealing Borough Council 2009
Ealing has a very diverse and mobile population. In 2001 2% of the borough’s residents were living outside the UK in 2000, and 40% were born outside the UK. The Office for National Statistics (ONS) now believe that the number of migrants has increased by 50% since 2001 (2008 ONS: 2007 Mid Year Estimate).
The charts show the proportion of population in Ealing made up of each ethnic group. The 2001 figures are taken from the ONS census, whilst the future projections were calculated by the GLA in 2007. These figures show the changing make up in Ealing’s population over time.
Clearly the ethnic diversity in the borough is very high; in fact it has the 4th most ethnically diverse population of the 354 local authority areas in the country (2005: GLA: Diversity indices (based on 2001 Census data).
In 2001 almost 59% of Ealing’s population were white; this includes British, Irish and white other. However we see that projections for 2026 see a 10% fall in the white population, and a greater proportion of all other ethnicities. The most significant growth is expected to be amongst the ‘other’ ethnic grouping.
The map to the right illustrates the extent of the diversity across the ward, and it is clear that the two Southall wards have the lowest proportion of white British residents in the Ealing borough. www.ealing.gov.uk Accessed 15/10/2011
As stated above, Southall has the highest proportion of BME groups in Ealing (Ealing Borough Council, 2009).
1. Introduction & Local Context HOUSING TENURE AND DEPRIVATION
1.5 Housing Tenure and Deprivation
Figure 1.5: Proportion of Households Overcrowded in Ealing Borough, (2001 Census)
Figure on the left suggests that Ealing may be a more affluent borough than others in London because of the high proportion of owner occupation compared to social or private rented accommodation.HOUSING TENURE AND DEPRIVATION However the demand for social housing is significantly above supply, and there are also issues with social access and the quality of the existing housing stock (Ealing Borough Council, 2008).
The map (top left) illustrates the extent of the need for additional housing, showing that in the two Southall wards 25% or more of households are judged as being overcrowded. In fact these wards are two of the most overcrowded in Ealing.
Proportion of households overcrowded: 25% or more
The other map (top right) shows barriers to housing and services deprivation, and indicates that parts of Southall are in the 10% most deprived wards nationally. This would suggest that the graph on the left is more an indication of what housing tenures exist, which in reality tends to hide the needs of the people of Ealing which examination of the maps above shows is not being HOUSING TENURE AND DEPRIVATION met in a large proportion of situations.
20-25% 10-20% 0-10% Ealing Borough Council, 2009
Figure 1.6: Barriers to Housing and Services Deprivation in Ealing Borough, (Communities and Local Government 2007) Ealing Borough Council, 2009
Ealing Borough Council, 2009
The figure on the left suggests that Ealing may be a more affluent borough than others in London because of the high proportion of owner occupation compared to social or private rented accommodation. However the demand for social housing is significantly above supply, and there are also issues with social access and the quality of the existing housing stock (Ealing Borough Council, 2008).
Figure 1.4: Types of Tenure by %
The map (top left) illustrates the extent of the need for additional housing, showing that in the two Southall wards 25% or more of households are judged as being overcrowded. In fact these wards are two of the most overcrowded in Ealing. The other map (top right) shows barriers to housing and services deprivation, and indicates that parts of Southall are in the 10% most deprived wards nationally. This would suggest that the graph on the left is more an indication of what housing tenures exist, which in reality tends to hide the needs of the people of Ealing which examination of the maps above shows is not being met in a large proportion of Ealing Borough Council, 2009 situations.
Ealing Borough Council, 2009
Ealing Borough Council, 2009
Ealing Borough Council, 2009
Ealing Borough Council, 2
Ealing Borough Council, 2009
Ealing Borough Council, 2009
Ealing Borough Council, 2009
The figure on the left suggests that Ealing may be a more affluent borough than others in London because of the high proportion of owner occupation compared to social or private rented accommodation. However the demand for social housing is significantly above supply, and there are also issues with social access and the
The figure on the left suggests that Ealing may be others in London because of the high proportion o social or private rented accommodation. However significantly above supply, and there are also issue quality of the existing housing stock (Ealing Borou
The map (top left) illustrates the extent of the nee that in the two Southall wards 25% or more of hou overcrowded. In fact these wards are two of the m
The other map (top right) shows barriers to housin indicates that parts of Southall are in the 10% mos would suggest that the graph on the left is more a 5% most tenures exist, which in reality tends to hide the ne deprived nationally 10% mostexamination of the maps above shows is not being deprived nationally situations. 20% most deprived nationally 50% most deprived nationally 50% least deprived nationally
Over a third of the borough’s working age population are not working, either because they are unemployed or economically inactive Although more recent figures are hard to find, it is assumed that the situation over recent years has worsened due to the 2008 recession and the general unemployment crisis across the country.
1. Introduction & Local Context 1.6 Employment Figures from the ONS Annual Population Survey 2005/6 reveal that:
- 25% of all West London’s workless live in Ealing
- Ealing has the highest rate of worklessness of any borough in Households West London
- 26% (54,000 residents) of the working age population are No Quals economically inactive NVQ Level 1
NVQ Level 2 - Over a third of the borough’s working age population are not working, either because they are unemployed orNVQ Level 3 economically inactive NVQ Level 4/5 Other
Econ Activity - 10% (16,000 residents) of economically active people are Unemployed unemployed
(Job Centre Plus) shows that Southall Broadway The figures fromThis map from 2007 the Southall Opportunity Area Profile (GVA and Southall Green had more than 20% of working age residents Grimley, Urban Graphics and the London Development Agency 2009) as seen in claiming benefits in that year. Figure 1.8 show some more area specific socioeconomic statistics. It is clear from these figures that economic However, this should not be taken as a representation of These figures from the Southall Opportunity Area Profile (GVA Grimley, Urban Graphics and the activity is slightlyunemployment or economic inactivity as research by Job Centre Plus lower in Southall than in London on average, and that unemployment is slightly higher. The proportion of the (March 2007) showed that less than half of those who were workless in London Development Agency 2009) show some more area specific socio‐economic statistics. population with no qualification is significantly higher in Southall, Ealing were claiming benefits. It is clear from these figures that economic activity is slightly lower in Southall than in London on and this will have knock on effects on the unemployment level Their research goes on to say that for Ealing borough as a whole the in general. average, and that unemployment is slightly higher. The proportion of the population with no
Figure 1.7: Benefit Claim Rate in Ealing Borough
benefit claim rate is 17.3% but that there are significant variations
qualification is significantly higher in Southall, and this will have knock on effects on the across wards. It is also suggested that this low level of education may have 28 50 unemployment level in general. had drastic impacts more recently, and led to a higher rate of job Unemployment and economic activity is particularly concentrated in 31.7% 23.7% loss in the area due to the 2008 recession and following years Southall, Northolt and Acton (State of Ealing 2008; Economy and It is also suggested that this low level of education may have had drastic impacts more recently, and 16.4% 13.0% of economic downturn. The figures in Figure 1.9 from the same Enterprise, London Borough of Ealing Council.) led to a higher rate of job loss in the area due to the 2008 recession and following years of economic 15.9% 17.1% document show the proportion of Southall population employed downturn. 9.4% 9.8% in various sectors. All sectors account for a higher proportion of Southall workforce than they do in London on average, apart 21.3% 31.0% Job Centre Plus, Proportion of working age residents claiming benefits: Job Centre Plus, March 2007. from banking and finance and manufacturing. March 2007. 5.2% 5.4%
less than 10% more than 20% Although more recent figures are hard to find, it is assumed GVA Grimley, Urban Graphics and the London Development Agency, 2009 that the situation over recent years has worsened due to the more than 10% more than 25% 2008 recession and the general unemployment crisis across the country. Figure 1.8: Socio-Economic Statistics Figure 1.7 from 2007 (Job Centre Plus) shows that Southall Broadway and Southall Green had more than 20% of working SOUTHALL age residents claiming benefits in that year.
Households 3,596 However, this should not be taken as a representation of unemployment or economic inactivity as research by Job Centre In Employment 3,686 These figures from the same document show the proportion of Southall population Plus (March 2007) showed that less than half of those who were Econ Activity 60.4% 67.6% workless in Ealing were claiming benefits. employed in various sectors. All sectors account for a higher proportion of Southall Unemployed 5.4% 4.4% workforce than they do in London on average, apart from banking and finance and IMD Rank 28 50 Their research goes on to say that for Ealing manufacturing. borough as a whole No Quals 31.7% 23.7% the benefit claim rate is 17.3% but that there are significant This is to be expected; being a largely residential area there is not much manufacturing NVQ Level 1 16.4% 13.0% variations across wards. employment nearby, whilst being so far from the city of London means jobs in banking NVQ Level 2 15.9% 17.1% Unemployment and economic activity is particularly concentrated and finance will be hard to find in the immediate area. NVQ Level 3 9.4% 9.8% in Southall, Northolt and Acton (State of Ealing 2008; Economy NVQ Level 4/5 21.3% 31.0% The significant problems with access in the area also mean that travelling into the city and Enterprise, London Borough of Ealing Council.) Other 5.2% 5.4% to do such jobs is less of a viable option on Southall than it might be elsewhere in GVA Grimley, Urban Graphics and the London Development Agency, 2009 GVA Grimley, Urban Graphics and the London Development Agency, 2009
This is to be expected; being a largely residential area there is not much manufacturing employment nearby, whilst being so far from the city of London means jobs in banking and finance will be hard to find in the immediate area. The significant problems with access in the area also mean that travelling into the city to do such jobs is less of a viable option on Southall than it might be elsewhere in London. These figures from the Southall Opportunity Area Profile (GVA Grimley, Urban G London Development Agency 2009) show some more area specific socio‐econom Figure 1.9: Employment Sectors in Southall
It is clear from these figures that economic activity is slightly lower in Southall th SOUTHALL LONDON average, and that unemployment is slightly higher. The proportion of the popula Manufacturing 0.0% 4.3% qualification is significantly higher in Southall, and this will have knock on effects Construction 7.3% 2.9% unemployment level in general. Retail and Hospitality
It is also suggested that this low level of education may have had drastic impact Transport and Comms 19.5% 7.4% led to a higher rate of job loss in the area due to the 2008 recession and followin Banking and Finance 15.4% 34.7% downturn.
GVA Grimley, Urban Graphics and the London Development Agency, 2009 GVA Grimley, Urban Graphics and the London Development Agency, 2009
Broadway where the average household earns less than £27,500 per year. This starkly contrasts with other wars on the boro where average income exceeds £40,000 per year.
1. Introduction &
When household size is taken into consideration the two Southall wards rank 6th and 7th poorest of the 633 wards on London Local Context CACI).
1.7 Houshold Income The average household income for Ealing is £33,100 compared to the London average of £33,000 (State of Ealing 2008; Economy and Enterprise, London Borough of Ealing Council.) This varies substantially across wards as shown by the map below. The lowest incomes are found in Southall Green and Southall Broadway where the average household earns less than £27,500 per year. This starkly contrasts with other wars on the borough such as Ealing Broadway where average income exceeds £40,000 per year. When household size is taken into consideration the two Southall wards rank 6th and 7th poorest of the 633 wards on London (2007, Household Income, CACI).
Median Household Income: £25,000 - £30,000 £30,000 - £35.000 £35,000 - £40,000 £40,000 - £45,000
Figure 1.10: Unequivalised Median Household Income in Ealing Borough
1. Introduction & Local Context POLICY CONTEXT
1.8 Policy Context Ealing’s Core Strategy (September 2010) indicates that Southall is in one of the West London Growth Corridors. Southall town centre is specifically designated as an opportunity area. The town centre is next to a strategic rail link which is an extension of the Jubilee Line, and is served by 2 strategic road links; the M4 and the A312.
Figure 1.11: West London Growth Corridors
Although there are identified strategic employment locations nearby, Southall itself is not indicated as an area for strategic employment growth. Southall is however marked as a significant location for the increased provision of housing for the borough of Ealing. The pie chart shows that Southall is expected to deliver 36% of the borough’s new residential development in the period up to 2026. This translates as 4300 additional units. Southall is also expected to provide 24,000 – 32,000 additional retail floorspace up to 2026 (Ealing Core Strategy, Sept 2010).
Elsewhere in policy (Ealing Borough Council, Town Centres Ealing’s Core Strategy (September 2010) indicates that Southall is in one of SPG), Ealing Council and the Southall Regeneration Partnership the West London Growth Corridors. Southall town centre is specifically (SRP) want: designated as an opportunity area. The town centre is next to a strategic
rail link which is an extension of the Jubilee Line, and is served by 2
- To deepen Southall’s speciality instrategic road links; the M4 and the A312. food manufacturing, media and arts, fashion, clothing manufacture and specialist Asian Although there are identified strategic employment locations nearby, shops and services
Southall itself is not indicated as an area for strategic employment growth.
- An ‘international gateway for excellence in multiculturalism’ (Ealing Borough Council, 2004. Pg 38). Southall is however marked as a significant location for the increased provision of
- Increase the attractiveness of Southall as a sub-regional housing for the borough of Ealing. The pie shopping centre chart shows that Southall is expected to - Connect and integrate Southall into the West London economy
deliver 36% of the borough’s new residential development in the period up - A 5-year streetscape improvement program to 2026. This translates as 4300 additional units.
- Mixed use development on sites within and around the town centre Southall is also expected to provide 24,000
gh Council. 2010
– 32,000 additional retail floorspace up to 2026 (Ealing Core Strategy, Sept 2010).
Ealing Core Strategy, Ealing Borough Council. 2010
Council, Town Centres SPG), Ealing Council and the Southall Regeneration Partnership (SRP) want:
Ealing Core Strategy, Ealing Borough Council. 2010
1. Introduction & Local Context
This map from the Ealing UDP shows that the main policies affecting the Southall area are: 1. Major Employment Location. Appropriate land supply is to be retained for industrial and warehousing units. Industry is the preferred use 2. Special Opportunity Site. A mix of uses will be permitted where the proposal is consistent with sustainable development principles. Schemes should provide site and community infrastructure and be integrated functionally and visually with the adjoining neighbourhood 3. Preferred Industrial Location. Loss of land to uses other than industrial is to be opposed 4. Town Centre. The Council will encourage appropriate development on key sites within Southall Town Centre. All significant new development of shopping and other town centre uses should take place in existing centres. Any loss of shopping floorspace will not normally be permitted. 5. Major Open Areas and Green Corridors. Schemes should seek to improve footpaths and cycling networks and meet the need for open air sport, leisure and recreation. Any development should be small scale, not damage the landscape and provide environmental improvements. (Ealing Borough Council, Unitary Development Plan. October 2007)
Figure 1.12. Strategic Land Use Plan
1. Introduction & Local Context 1.9 Social Characteristics
1.92 Religious Division
Southall is significantly occupied by Asian culture group. According to the “Racial Equality Commission” Southall is also known as “Little India” of the London region as more than half of the population of this area is Asian, including both Inadian and Pakistani nationalities.
At the end of the 18th century, the first Asian group arrived in Southall. Due to new employment opportunities such as Heathrow airport development, the Asian population increased in this region rapidly. The first Sikh temple in Southall was built in 1964, there are currently ten Sikh temples, two large Hindu temples, ten Christian churches and three mosques, which reflects the impact of Asian culture over the region.
For a balanced culture and community, age group plays a vital role. They are the base for political and social change, to create and add up new technologies. The requirement and lifestyle of every age group should be considered and fulfilled by society developers.
1.91 Housing Provision According to National Statistics, the majority of households are interested in private houses this can been seen as they do not prefer to live in shared dwelling units, similarly terrace houses, apartment and flat schemes are also acceptable by the community.
Cultural centres at Southall are well developed and maintained by community. The diagram below shows that more than half of the population belongs to the Sikh, Muslim and Hindu religions and much higher ratio of Asian in relation to other part of London.
Comparing with the London region, pattern of age group division in Southall is almost same, with majority of working people aging between 20-40 years.
Figure 1.15 Ageing Division of Southall Age - Workplace Population (UV75)
Less than 20 years old
20 to 29 years old 30 to 39 years old 40 to 49 years old
Figure 1.13 Housing Types in Southall, 2004
Figure 1.14 Religion in Southall
50 to 59 years old 30%
Shared Dwelling units
Residential spaces in Commercial Building
Figure 1.16 Ageing Division of London
Converted or Shared House
Flat, Maisonette or Apartment
House Terraced (including end-terrace)
House or Bungalow floorwise
Less than 20 years old 20 to 29 years old
30 to 39 years old
40 to 49 years old 50 to 59 years old
Any other religion
More than 59 years old
Religion not stated 679
More than 59 years old
Local Facilities & Transport Infrastructure Land Use Regional Facilities & Transport Infrastructure Public Transport Facilities Accessibility to Local Facilities Educational Facilities
2. Local Facilities & Transport Infrastructure 2.1 Land Use The land use plan of Southall and its surrounding area shows a number of interesting patterns. The railway line running east west is lined with numerous business and industrial parks, utilising land less desirable for residential use due to noise pollution. Areas consisting of a diverse range of uses include theT- junction of The Broadway and South Road, where a variety of shops, restaurants and community facilities are located. As diagrams further on in this chapter show, this area is well served by bus routes and is well connected to surrounding residential areas, creating a lively town centre. A similar instance occurs along Kings Street and serves residential areas to the south of the railway line. There is poor connectivity between the areas north and south of the railway line due to the provision of only one bridge crossing, therefore facilities are doubled up on the two sides of the town.
The green areas are located on the periphery of the town, including the green wedge allocated as greenbelt to the west, as described in Chapter 1.
Uxbridge Road Retail Park
Blair Peach Primary School
Purple Parking at Southall Gas Works Site
The Broadway and South Road junction
Jubilee Gardens Health Centre and Library
2. Local Facilities & Transport Infrastructure Figure 2.1: Land Use Plan
1 4 5 2 Residential
Business / Industry Sport and Recreation (including allotments) Education Open Space Retail Parking Mixed Use (e.g. shops with residential above) Community Buildings Hospitality NORTH
Water Body Road Network Railway Line
2. Local Facilities & Transport Infrastructure 2.2 Regional Facilities & Transport Infrastructure The adjacent diagram, Figure 2.2, shows there are several key destinations on the periphery of London for activities such as shopping and leisure. According to â€˜A Framework for Southallâ€™ the existing retail facilities consist of mainly independent retailers and shops specifically for black and ethnic minority consumers (TUS, 2008, p11). For more mainstream shopping, Southall residents can reach major retail outlets such as Westfields and Brent Cross in under an hour by car or by public transit.
Wembley Figure 2.2: Regional Destinations and Travel Distances
South-west of Southall are the M25/M4 intersection and Heathrow Airport, connecting Southall with the rest of the UK and overseas. Southall is 6 minutes by train away from the tube network via Ealing Broadway station, along the First Great Western Network.
Brent Cross Shopping Centre
a s, ,C in ns m i m 78 ns 62 s: mi s: u u 4 B B s, : 6 in/ a in be r T m u 2 s/T : 2 Bu r / Ca ain Tr
mins, Car: 25 mins
s in m s 5 n i :3 m ain : 16 r T ar C
Bus : 67 ar:
Kingston Upon Thames
Westfields Shopping Centre
2. Local Facilities & Transport Infrastructure Figure 2.3: Regional Transport Infrastructure
Southall Gas Works Site Hillingdon
Southall Gas Works Site Southall Gas Works Site Road network Roundabout
Railway track Railway station Underground station The Central Line
The Picadilly Line The District Line
The River Thames 0m
2. Local Facilities & Transport Infrastructure 2.3 Public Transport Facilities Southall is centred around the railway station which connects to London Paddington in the East and Slough in the west along the First Great Western Network. The Heathrow Connect also passes through Southall from London Paddington. The following destinations can be reached by rail in the respective times:
Figure 2.4: Walking distances from Southall Railway Station
- Heathrow: 16 minutes - Ealing Broadway: 6-14 minutes (connecting to tube network) - Slough: 15-20 minutes - London Paddington: 16-26 minutes As can be seen from Figure 2.4, a large proportion of Southall is within 1 mile walking distance to the station, located at the centre of Southall. Some areas to the south are restricted by the Grand Union Canal and lack of bridges connecting the residential areas either side of the waterway.
1600 m walking distance
800 m walking distance Southall Railway Station 0m
2. Local Facilities & Transport Infrastructure 2.3 Public Transport Facilities There is an established bus network connecting Southall to nearby towns and to The City. The main routes travel along The Broadway and Uxbridge Road, and South Road to the station and further south.
Figure 2.5: Walking distances from bus stops serving Southall and surrounding area
According to TFL, the following routes pass through the town: 105 (NB): Perivale – Greenford – Southall – Cranford – Heathrow 120: Northolt – Southall – Heston – Hounslow 195: Hillingdon – Hays – Southall – Brentford 482: Southall – Heathrow E5: Perivale – Greenford – Southall – Southall Green H32: Southall – Southall Green – Hounslow 207: Hayes – Southall – Ealing – Acton – West Kensington (Westfields) N207 starts Uxbridge – Hillingdon –Hayes continues through Kensington – Paddington – Soho – High Holborn 427: Uxbridge – Hillingdon – Hayes - Southall –Ealing –Acton 607: Uxbridge – Hillingdon – Hayes - Southall –Ealing –Acton – West Kensington (Westfields) It can be seen from the adjacent Figure 2.5 that areas such as streets connecting to Beaconsfield Road on the northern boundary of the site are not so well served by the bus network. As with the previous diagram, Figure 2.4, the canal restricts access to bus stops due to the lack of bridges in the south. NORTH 400 m walking distance Bus stops serving Southall and surrounding area 0m
2. Local Facilities & Transport Infrastructure 2.4 Accessibility to Local Facilities In order to understand the existing provision of local facilities, the distances to amenities such as health centres, superstores and local parks has been measured for No. 205, Beaconsfield Road, on the northern boundary of the Gas Works Site.
Figure 2.6: Distances to Local Facilities from No. 205, Beaconsfield Road
The study has been based on the diagram ‘Illustrative Accessibility Criteria’ from ‘Shaping Neighbourhoods, for Local Health and Global Sustainability’. This diagram has been adapted and is shown on the adjacent page, Figure 2.7.
large leisure centre
It is possible to see from Figure 2.8 that the majority of facilities that are further than those recommended in Figure 2.7 are within the category of open space. There appear to be no informal play areas or local parks within the proximity of No. 205 Beaconsfield Road, the closest park is Southall Park, 1450 m walking distance away.
local centre town centre
There is potential to have high quality green open space within close proximity to No. 205 if there was a bridging across the Grand Union Canal, providing access to the greenbelt land to the west.
primary school major natural green space
Figure 2.6 shows strengthens the observation that Southall is a town of two halves, as all facilities are to the north of the railway line, even though, as the crow flies, facilities to the south are closer.
superstore leisure centre/ college
secondary school playground/ local park/ playing fields
No. 205 Beaconsfield Rd Borough Boundary Local Facility
major natural green space
Travel Route Travel Route to Alternative Local Facility 0m
2. Local Facilities & Transport Infrastructure
Figure 2.7: Illustrative Accessibility Criteria, adapted from â€˜Shaping Neighbourhoods, for Local Health and Global Sustainabilityâ€™
Figure 2.8: Illustrative Accessibility to Local Facilities in Southall from No. 205, Beaconsfield Road
eg o th
y er rg
600 400 300 200 100
t en tc ric
600 400 300 200 100
tram or rail st
major natural green space
tram or rail
major natural green space local ce
e ntr ce re su lei nd la ra ltu cu il, eta ma jor r
tre en ec ur eis dl an al cu ltu r
Urban District or Small Town City
ma jor r
k kic jor
100 200 300 400 600
l co hnica
tech orm /
100 200 300 400 600
2. Local Facilities & Transport Infrastructure 2.5 Educational Provision Southall is located in the southwest corner of the Borough of Ealing boundary, neighbouring the Boroughs of Hounslow and Hillingdon. According to Ealing Borough Councilâ€™s statistics, out of the 39 schools in the borough, 4 are independent schools and the remaining, council run schools.
Figure 2.9: Location of Schools in Southall and Surrounding Areas
There are several schools fairly evenly distributed across Southall, some of which are specialist schools such as Guru Nanak Academy School, a faith school promoting the values of Sikhism. The Ealing, Hammersmith and West London College has a campus located in Southall, adjacent to the Southall Sports Centre on Beaconsfield Road. The college offers a range of A Levels and vocational courses.
Primary Schools (Ealing Borough) Primary Schools (Hillingdon Borough) Primary Schools (Hounslow Borough) NORTH
Secondary Schools (Ealing Borough) Secondary Schools (Hillingdon Borough) Further Education Facilities 0m
2. Local Facilities & Transport Infrastructure 2.6 Educational Provision The high schools within the Borough of Ealing in Southall all include 6th forms for students and are again evenly distributed with Dormers Wells High School in the north, Villiers High School adjacent to Southall Park in the centre, and Featherstone High School in the south.
Figure 2.10: Walking distances from High Schools serving Southall and surrounding area
The Guru Nanak Academy is located in the Borough of Hillingdon on the edge of the green belt land to the west of Southall. The Academy provides education from primary to 6th form level. The vast majority of the residential areas of Southall are within 1500m walking distance of the secondary schools shown in Figure 2.10. There are some areas to the south which are less accessible to the existing schools and, as with the public transport accessibility, the canal reduces connectivity.
Borough Boundaries Secondary School & Sixth Form in Ealing Borough Secondary School & Sixth Form in Hillingdon Borough NORTH
1500 m walking distances from schools in Ealing Borough 1500 m walking distances from schools in Hillingdon Borough
2. Local Facilities & Transport Infrastructure 2.5 Educational Provision Primary schools in Southall are within 800m walking distance to the majority of residential areas in the town. It is important for families to have a choice of Primary Schools, and this applies particularly to Southall as the diverse range of ethnic groups in the area may require or prefer specific types of schools.
Figure 2.11: Walking distances from Primary Schools serving Southall and surrounding area
Borough Boundaries Primary Schools (Ealing Borough) Primary Schools (Hillingdon Borough) NORTH
Primary Schools (Hounslow Borough) 800 m walking distances from primary schools in Ealing Borough 0m
2. Local Facilities & Transport Infrastructure 2.5 Educational Provision Figure 2.12 shows the catchment areas allocated to primary schools in the Borough of Ealing (Source: ealing.gov.uk). The Gas Works Site at present is located within the catchment of Blair Peach Primary School at the end of Beaconsfield Road. If a considerable amount of residential development were to take place, another primary school would most probably be required.
pupils travel to school and how this can be improved; and to indicate what improvements to the built environment are required for children to have the ability to walk or cycle to school safely and easily (Ealing Borough Council, 2007).
The School’s Travel Plan provides the following statistics on modes of transport to school for pupils in March 2011:
By Car By Car Share
Figure 2.12: Catchment Areas for Primary Schools
By Bus Walk Park and Stride (parking a short distance from the school and walking)
The Blair Peach Primary School has completed a Travel Plan and their travel policy states:
As part of the Healthy Schools Initiative, set up by the Department of Health (DH) and Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF), schools are required to produce a Travel Plan. The intention of the School Travel Plan is to bring awareness to pupils and families of pupils about the benefits of walking and cycling to school; to understand the existing situation of how
‘... We are committed to sustainable travel to help the environment whenever it does not affect the safety of our children. We actively discourage using the car on the school run and are willing to help parents who would like to improve their travel habits through car sharing, parents walking bus or similar. We like to encourage healthy lifestyles, to help combat obesity, through whole school health weeks and fayres, physical activity in school and in our after school clubs including football and dance. Our newsletters regularly discourage the use of cars being bought up close to the school gates in order to keep children safe...’ p12 Blair Peach School Travel Plan
It is encouraging that over half the pupils walk to school according to the survey. There are over a quarter of the students travelling to school by car; this increases the congestion of traffic on roads such as South Road. The Travel Plan does indicate that a number of the students are not living in the catchment area and are therefore not within walking distance. If children are able to walk or cycle to school it encourages a healthy lifestyle, allows for social activity during journeys and eases congestion on roads.
Urban Form & Urban Design Analysis
Block Typologies Building Typologies Urban Armature Permeability Movement
3. Urban Form & Urban Design Analysis 3.1 Block typologies There are several parameters to analyse block typology of a neighborhood. This Thisstudy study classifies them according the classifies them according to thetoblock block sizes and the patterns of the built form and there are five sizes and the patterns of the built form. There are five different different block types identified study area. block types identified within thewithin studythe area.
Figure 1: Block Typologies 3.1: Block Typologies
In Southall different block types are not distributed evenly and are more grouped together creating zones within the area.
The residential areas on the south and the north of the Broadway are generally formed by densely built fine grain large, and generally generally long long and and regular perimeter blocks. There large and are smallnumber numberofoffine finegrain grain small small to to medium medium sized blocks is a asmall surrounding them. This arrangement limits the movement within the residential area excessively.
The other otherdominant dominant block type within thearea study area are block type within the study are the coarse the grain large cover a big part of the graincoarse large blocks whichblocks cover awhich big part of the neighborhood. neighborhood. They generally accommodate the industrial They generally accommodate the industrial buildings and buildings and business parks.create These blocksareas create isolated business parks. These blocks isolated which lack areas which lack and lead to difficulties in legibility. permeability and permeability lead to difficulties in legibility.
Orientation of the buildings is an important element in terms of energy savings. In this sense, north-south alignment maximises the solar access whereas east-west do not benefit from it as much. In Southall the residential blocks on the southern and northern side of the Broadway are oriented in the north-south alignment and benefit from the maximum solar access to the streets and into the dwellings. On the other hand, the residential blocks on the western side of the Parkway and the south of the railway do not benefit benefit as as much much from from solar the solar access due to access due to their their east-west alignment. east-west alignment. Fine grain small to medium Dense fine grain large Mixed grain large
Coarse grain small to medium Coarse grain large 0m 0m
3. Urban Form & Urban Design Analysis
3. Form Urban Form & Urban Design Analysis Urban Form & & Urban Urban Design Analysis .3.Urban Design Analysis
Dense fine grain large block
Mixed grain large block
3. Urban Form & Urban Design Analysis
Course grain large block
Mixed grain large block Mixed grain large blockblock Mixed grain large
Mixed grain large block
Dense fine grain large block Densesmall fine grain large block Coarse grain to medium block
Dense fine grain large block
Mixed grain large block
Coarse grain large block
Coarse grain large block
Coarse grain large block
Dense fine grain large block
Coarse grain small to medium block Coarse grain small to medium block
Coarse grain large block
Fine grain small block
Dense fine grain large block
small to medium block CoarseCoarse graingrain small to medium block
Coarse grain large block
Fine grain small block
Fine grain small block
Fine grain small block Fine grain small block
3. Urban Form & Urban Design Analysis 3.2 Building typologies This study aims to identify the typology of buildings which characterise the area.
Figure 1: Block Typologies 3.2: Block Typologies
The large part of the Broadway and the South Road are formed by mixed use buildings. They vary between two to four stories with several types of cladding and rendering. These buildings usually accommodate shops on the ground floor and residential or office uses on the upper floors. There are several large retail buildings on the South Road, Beaconsfield Road and the Broadway. The residential areas, which are right behind the Broadway, are shaped by two story terraced houses. These houses are fronted by a privacy strip which is bordered with low walls. They also have generous gardens provided at the back.
ay Park w
The residential on the of the railway again dominated residentialarea area on south the south of theisrailway is again by terracedby houses andhouses companied by some semi detached dominated terraced and companied by some semi housing blocks. detached housing blocks.
Mixed use high street buildings
Semi detached houses
The residential area on the west of the Parkway is dominated by semi detached houses. There are also a very small number of apartment buildings and residential towers scattered in this area.
3. Urban Form & Urban Design Analysis
The overall residential areas within the neighbourhood do not provide different range of housing types. There is a very limited provision of flats. The lack of diversity of building typology limits the area to be diverse also in population. The existing housing generally provides single type of accommodation which is suitable for families and leaves out other types of occupiers such as single parents, young professionals and couples, and elderly people.
Semi detached Houses
The homogenous building typology also creates uninteresting built environment and decreases the level of legibility. Density is an important parameter which affect on the level of sustainability of a settlement and it is in a direct relationship with the urban structure. The amount of the population is important to increase the viability and efficiency of facilities and services provided. In this sense, Southall accommodates a sufficient number of people increasing the efficiency of the facilities and services provided.
Derelict Residential Tower
Large Retail Building
Industrial / Commercial Building
The density within the residential areas differ in relation with the building typology. The terraced housing areas accommodate 53 dph whereas the semi detached housing areas accommodate 38dph. The average number of house hold of Southall is indicated as 3.28 by the Ealing Council which is 1.4 times more than the national average. This brings the average number of people per ha up to approximately 170 within the neighbourhood.
3. Urban Form & Urban Design Analysis 3.3 Urban Armature Cities are complex visual structures and they need elements like nodes, landmarks, and edges to help their users to read and memorise their surrounding and respond to it. Creating welcoming gateways, articulation points, nodes, landmarks, mixed use corners and attractive frontages are important to walkable, and, and make a neighbourhood more attractive, vibrant, walkable eventually more eventually, more sustainable. sustainable.
3.3: Urban Armature Figure 1: Urban Armature
The urban form of Southall lacks coherence due to interruptions created by the dual carriageway on the west, railway on the south and the canal in the middle. The area including the residential areas on the south and north of the Broadway forms a district which is bounded by the boundary of the car park on the south and the canal on the west.
There are two gateways serving the area. The gateway on the western end of the Broadway do not provide a positive sense of arrival. On the other hand, the gateway on South Road is articulated with the bridge and the railway station.
Active high street frontages Rigid edges Physical edges Neighbourhood edges
Views Landmarks Nodes
Gateways Key routes
3. Urban Form & Urban Design Analysis
Southall do not have many landmarks. The strongest and the most visible landmark is the gas tower. The railway bridge and the station building on the bridge are important landmarks and create a positive arrival sense to the area. The Cinema building on South Road is also a local landmark because of it unique frontage.
1. Residential Towers
2. Derelict Residential Tower
3. Gas Tower
4. Former Water Tower
5. Himalaya Cinema
6. Southall Train Station
7. Derelict Residential Tower
8. Sunrise House
9. Gurdwara Sri Guru Singh Sabha
The study area is formed by a very linear structure which creates long distance linear view through especially residential streets. The views to the streets on the south of the Broadway are lined up with roof lines or street trees and finish up with the view of the gas tower.
3. Urban Form & Urban Design Analysis 3.4 Permeability The level of permeability of a neighbourhood is an important impact to identify how sustainable the neighbourhood is. The way that the streets and the blocks are arranged affects the quality of the built environment excessively.
3.4: Permeability Figure 1: Permeability
In this sense, Southall is not very much permeable because of its urban structure which is formed by long and uninterrupted residential blocks and large industrial islands. The pattern of routes is extremely limited and do not provide enough alternatives. The example drawn on the plan aims to test how an impermeable structure increases the distance between two destinations. The dashed red line represents the route of a person who lives in the house marked with red dot to the train station. As it is shown with the dashed circle, this house is located within the 800m circle of the train station. However, the route is measured as 1,135m which is approximately 1.5 times more then what the walkband illustrates. This structure also lowers the quality of the walking experience because of the uninterrupted monotonous frontages.
3. Urban Form & Urban Design Analysis 3.5 Movement connected because of several barriers such Southall isisnot notevenly evenly connected because of several barriers as the as dualthe carriageway, railway and the canal. and such dual carriageway, railway and The theParkway canal. The South Road the south-north Parkway Parkway andprovide South Road provide theconnection. south-northThe connection. is a dual carriageway and is connected to is theconnected Broadway to with The Parkway is a dual carriageway and thea large roundabout. Broadway with a large roundabout.
Figure 3.5: 1: Movement Movement
The Broadway is the primary distributor of Southall and aligns on the east-west direction. Due to the linear structure of the area, almost all the local residential distributors are directly connected to the Broadway increasing its importance as a primary connector. The B
Dual carriage way Primary route
Local distributor Cul-de-sac 0m
Environment & Ecology
Green & Blue Infrastructure Ecology Ground Conditions Water Quality Air Quality Noise Microclimate
Environment& & Ecology 5.4.Environment Ecology 5. Environment & Ecology 4.1 Green and Blue Infrastructure 5.1 Green and blue infrastructure 5.1 Green and blue infrastructure
4.3 Ground Conditions 5.3 Ground conditions 5.3 Ground conditions
The former industrial use of the gasworks site for gas storage and The former industrial use of the gasworks site for gas storage The former industrial use of the for and gasgroundwater storage and chemical manufacture presents angasworks onging risksite to soil and chemical manufacture presents an ongoing risk to chemical manufacture presents an onging risk to soil and groundwater quality. The level of contamination is commensurate with other soil and groundwater quality. The level of contamination is quality. The level of contamination is commensurate with other former gasworks, and extensive remediation will be required. This is commensurate with other former gasworks, and extensive former gasworks, and extensive remediation will be on required. This is likely to involve controlled excavation for treatment site together remediation will be required. This is likely to involve controlled likely to involve controlled for 126 treatment on site together with removal ofaverage any heavily contaminated materials. dailyexcavation departures excavation for treatment on site together with removal of any with removal ofaverage any heavily contaminated materials. daily departures 126 percentage of all departures 19% heavily contaminated materials.
Importantlinear linear elements local infrastructure network Important elements in in thethe local infrastructure network are:are: Important linear elements in the local infrastructure network are: • - The The Yeading Yeading brook brookcorridor; corridor; • The Yeading brook corridor; UnionCanal Canalcorridor; corridor; and • - The The Grand Grand Union and • - The The Grand Union Canal corridor; and to Cardiff Railway line. • The Paddington Paddington to Cardiff Railway line. • The Paddington to Cardiff Railway line. The Yeading brook is located in c. in 36c. ha36 of ha open as the The Yeading brook is located of space open known space known The brook isThis located in c.This 36level ha open known the Minet Country Park. isPark. a district in space thelevel borough’s open asYeading the Minet Country is ofapark district park as in the Minet Country Park. This is a district level park in the borough’s open space hierarchy. Both the hierarchy. canal and Both the brook / park function as borough’s open space the canal and the brook space hierarchy. Both the canal and the brook / park function as important local amenities as well as corridors for movement of flora / park function as important local amenities as well as corridors important local asiswell for movement flora and The amenities railway notasa corridors public amenity also for fauna. movement of floraline and fauna. The railway linehowever is not aofitpublic and fauna. The railway line is not a public amenity however it also functions as an important wildlife corridor. amenity however it also functions as an important wildlife functions as an important wildlife corridor. corridor. Other significant pockets of public open space located within Othersignificant significant pocketsofof public open space located within Other open space located approximately onepockets kilometer ofpublic Southall town centre includewithin local approximately one kilometer of Southall town centre include approximately one kilometer of Southall town centre include local parks such as Southall Park, Glade Lane, Cranleigh Park and Mount localsuch parks such as Park, Southall Park, Glade Lane,Park Cranleigh Park parks as Southall Glade Lane, Cranleigh and Mount Pleasant Gardens. and Mount Pleasant Gardens. Pleasant Gardens. Accessibility to to public open spaces is mixed. ThereThere is generally good Accessibility public open spaces is mixed. is generally Accessibility to public open isthe mixed. There iseast generally good access provision the spaces north east of Southall town centre goodand access and to provision to and north and of Southall access and provision to the north and east of Southall town centre but access to but the access south and west is restricted byrestricted the canalbyand town centre to the south and west is the but access to the south and west is restricted by the canal and rail line, which both sever the gasworks and adjoining canal and rail line, which both sever the gasworks andresidential adjoining rail line, which both gasworks adjoining neighbourhood from sever Minetthe Country Park. and residential neighbourhood from Minet Country Park. residential neighbourhood from Minet Country Park.
5.4 Water quality daily range of all departures 0 -19% 199 percentage 5.4 Water quality days range with no departures 9% daily 0 - 199 4.4 isWater Quality There a majordays aquifer under the site, between days with with no <10departures departures 9% the chalk and London 9%
276 average 27L/R daily BPKarrivals 276 average daily arrivals 45% percentage of all arrivals 27L/R BPK 0 -45% 618 daily range of all arrivals percentage average daily departures 120 9% days range with no arrivals average 0 618 daily daily departures 120 percentage of all departures 19% 10% days with with no <10arrivals arrivalspercentage 9% of all departures 0 -19% days daily range 165 10% days with <10 arrivalsdaily days range with no departures 8% 0 - 165 days with with no <10departures departures days days with <10 departures
Ealing a poor track record in thethe objectives the Air Quality Regulations in respect of meeting Particulates (PM10) andofnitrogen Ealinghas has a poor track record in meeting objectives of the Quality Regulations in respect of Particulates (PM10) and nitrogen Air Quality in respect of Particulates (PM10) and dioxide (NO2)Regulations in several parts of the borough. dioxide (NO2) in several parts of the borough. nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in several parts of the in borough. There are eight air quality monitoring stations the Borough of There areeight eightairairquality quality monitoring stations Borough There monitoring in in thethe Borough of Ealing.are Six of these are ‘roadside sites’ andstations two are ‘urban background of Ealing. Six of these are ‘roadside sites’ and two are ‘urban Ealing. Six of theseair arequality ‘roadside sites’ and two are ‘urban sites’. The closest monitoring station to the background subject site background sites’. The closest air quality monitoring station to average daily departures 58 sites’ . The closest air quality monitoring station to the subject is located at Blair Peach school. This is an urban background site the subject site isPeach located Peach This is an urban average daily departures 58at Blair percentage ofatall departures 9% is located school. This is of anschool. urban background site (designated asBlair Ealing 7). This site met all the air quality objectives background site (designated as Ealing 7). This site met all of the daily range of all departures 0 - 110 percentage 9% (designated Ealing 7). This met all ofinthe air quality objectives in 2007, andas was expected tosite do so again 2010. days quality with no departures 8% daily range 0 in- 110 2007, wasin expected inair 2007, andobjectives was expected to do and so again 2010. to do so again days with no <10departures departures 10% days with 8% in 2010. 5.6 Noise days with <10 departures
0 0 0 0 0 0
27L/R SAM 27L/R SAM 29 average daily departures 29 average daily departures 4% percentage of all departures 76 daily range of all departures 0 -4% percentage 9% days with no departures 0 76 daily range 11% days with with no <10departures departures 9% days
9% 8% 9%
The operation of the railway is arailway significant noise generator. 2 area 4CPT 6 8150m 10 Kilometres within to 350mline of the line falls within Noise 27L/R The operation of the railway line is a significant noise generator. 2 4 6 8 10 Miles The area within 150m 350mthe of the lineNoise falls within NoiseC 27L/R CPT Exposure Category B to during dayrailway time and Category The 2areaCategory within 150m to 350m of10 the railway lineNoise falls within Noise 4 6 8 Miles Exposure B during the day time and Category C during2 the night time.6 This means that Nautical noiseMiles levels exceed the 4 8the day10time Exposure Category B during and Noise Category during the night time.6 This that noiseprovided levels exceed recommended guidelines formeans residential uses in PPGthe 25 2 8 means 10 that Nautical Miles levels C during the4guidelines night time. This noise exceed recommended for residential uses provided in PPG 25 (Planning and Noise). The frequency of rail services is expected to the recommended guidelines for residential uses provided to in (Planning and Noise). frequency rail services is expected approximately double The when Crossrail of comes into operation. PPG 25 (Planning and Noise). The frequency of rail services is approximately double when Crossrail comes into operation. Despite its proximity to Heathrow airport, Southall is not currently expected to approximately double when Crossrail comes into Despite its proximity to Heathrow airport, Southall is not currently affected by the flightpaths of either arriving or departing aircraft. operation. Despite its proximity to Heathrow airport, Southall affected by the flightpaths arriving or departing is not currently affected of byeither the flight paths of either aircraft. arriving or departing aircraft.
5.5 Air quality 5.5 quality 4.5Air Air Ealing has Quality a poor track record in meeting the objectives of the Air
5.6 Noise The of railway line is a significant noise generator. 2 operation 4 6 8 the 10 Kilometres 4.6 Noise
Heathrow on Wes Heathrow on Wes
There is a major days aquifer under the site, between thefrom chalknegligible and London clay. Groundwater contamination levels range to with <10 departures 9% 27L/Rthe WOB There is a major aquifer under the site, between chalk and clay. Groundwater contamination levels range from negligible to substantial. London clay. Groundwater contamination 27L/R levels WOB range from substantial. negligible substantial. The Yeadingto brook is at risk of localised flooding. The gasworks site is The Yeading brook is of localised flooding. The gasworks site is TheatYeading isrisk at risk of localised flooding. The gasworks not risk, duebrook to its at higher elevation. not to itsdue higher elevation. siteatisrisk, notdue at risk, to its higher elevation.
5.2 Ecology 5.2 Ecology 4.2 are Ecology There no European (Natura) designated habitats in the area.
There areare nono European (Natura) designated habitats in theinarea. There European (Natura) designated habitats area. The gasworks site is predominantly hard-standing and as the a result The gasworks is predominantly as The site isecological predominantly andtrees asand aon result has agasworks relatively lowsite value. hard-standing Therehard-standing are mature thea result has a low relatively low ecological Theretrees are on mature has a relatively value. Therevalue. are mature the periphery of the site,ecological however. trees onof the of the site, however. periphery theperiphery site, however. Minet Country Park is of local significance, with a mosaic of natural Minet Country Park is of local significance, with a mosaic of Minet Country Park unimproved is of local significance, mosaic natural habitats, including grassland.with The acanal andofYeading natural habitats, including unimproved grassland. The canal habitats, includingare unimproved grassland. The canal and Yeading brook meadows of metropolitan and Yeading brook meadows are of significance. metropolitan The significance. brook ismeadows are of metropolitan significance. The Yeading a habitat for water voles, grass snakes and breeding birds. The Yeading brook is a habitat for water voles, grass snakes brook is a habitat for water voles, grass snakes and breeding birds. There also invasive Japanese knotweed.The and are breeding birds. spaecies, There areincluding also invasive species, including There areanalso invasiveforaging spaecies,and including Japanese knotweed.The canal is important commuting route for bats. Japanese knotweed. The canal is an important foraging The and canal is an important and commuting routePark for bats. The Southall railsides arefor offoraging Borough Southall of local commuting route bats. Theimportance. Southall railsides are ofisBorough Southall railsides are of Borough importance. Southall Park is of local importance only. importance. Southall Park is of local importance only. importance only.
average daily arrivals 253 average daily arrivals 253 percentage of all arrivals 41% daily range of all arrivals 0 -41% 393 percentage days range with no arrivals daily 0 - 11% 393 Aircraft departing from days with with no <10arrivals arrivals 11% days 11% Aircraft departing from days with <10 arrivals 11% Site
Radar data level (ams Radar aircraftdata mov level (ams summer da aircraft mov September. summer da © Crown C September. © Crown C
Figure 4.1 Flight 5.1 paths in and out of Heathrow airport Figure Figure 5.1 Heathrow Noise Action) (Source: Flight paths in and out of Heathrow airport Flight paths in and out of Heathrow airport (Source: Heathrow Noise Action) 27L/R DVR (Source: Heathrow Noise Action) 27L/R DVR
average daily depa average daily depa percentage of all de daily range of all de percentage days range with no depar daily days with with no <10depart depa days days with <10 depa
4. Environment & Ecology Figure 4.2: Summary of Environmental and Ecological Conditions
Contaminated land Local park Accessibility Flood warning area Noise exposure B-C NORTH
4. Environment and Ecology 4.7 Microclimate Microclimatic conditions measured at Heathrow airport are typical for the south of England. Prevailing winds are from the south-east. Temperature variations are moderate and sunshine levels are relatively high compared to national averages.
Figure 4.3: Indicative Sunpath and Wind Conditions
The exposed nature of the site at present, however, means that it is relatively exposed to colder northerly winds, and also to localised wind impacts caused by the gas holders.
4. Environment & Ecology
Figure 4.4 Local climatalogical conditions (Source: MET)
Summary & Case Studies Summary TĂźbingen-Sudstadt, Germany Hammarby SjĂśstad, Stockholm Sanderstead Road, Croydon Greenwich Millennium Village, London Vauban, Freiburg, Germany References
5. Summary & Case Studies 5.1 Summary Ealing Demographics: Ealing is a borough in the West of London with a population of 305, 300; a population which has grown significantly over the last century whilst the population of London as a whole has declined. The population density in Ealing is higher than the London average and is the 4th most ethnically diverse population of all the local authority areas in the UK. Demand for social housing in Ealing is significantly above supply. In addition Ealing has the highest proportion of worklessness of any West London borough with more than 20% of residents claiming benefits in 2007. Southall Demographics: 25% of Southall’s residents are living in overcrowded conditions, with current housing stock failing to meet needs and being of poor quality generally. Southall is also in the 20% most deprived wards nationally. Unemployment is higher than the London average and skill levels are lower, leading to a high level of worklessness in Southall. Southall has some of the lowest household incomes in London with an average of less than £27,500 a year and as a result the two wards which make up Southall are the 6th and 7th poorest in London. Policy Context: Southall is identified as one of West London’s growth areas with the town centre as an opportunity area for strategic economic growth. There is an adjacent major open area and green corridor where footpaths and cycling networks are encouraged and any development should complement the existing landscape and ecology. Urban Form: The Western Gateway does not provide a very positive arrival experience into Southall. The existing urban form in Southall suffers from a lack of permeability and legibility, with a very homogeneous block and urban typology. The residential areas and public realm have a monotonous quality and there is a strong sense of enclosure within the area. Strong edges constrain the connectivity to surrounding areas for example the
Grand Union Canal and the railway line. Transport and Local Facilities: The transport infrastructure in Southall indicates that the town is fairly well connected by bus and rail to key destinations such as Heathrow and to other regions such as London. It is possible to see however, that there is a considerable amount of traffic congestion in Southall which in turn affects the efficiency of bus services and suggests that people are choosing to travel by car rather than public transport. The local facilities are very much directed at the ethnic groups found in Southall such as Asian communities. If development were to occur, a great deal of consideration into how more mainstream facilities, particularly retail, could integrate into the existing situation in order to maintain a diverse community rather than a divided one. Environment and Ecology: The gasworks site is considered to be of low ecological value. There are significant ecological assets in the vicinity and adjacent to the site however. Two of these, the Yeading Brook meadows and the Grand Union Canal corridors are of metropolitan significance and also function as important local amenities. Other publicly accessible green spaces include local parks that are of local importance only. In general terms access to these amenities from Southall is poor, due to severance caused by the Canal and rail line, as well as by the gasworks site. This severance has been a common theme arising in all areas of analysis of this study. The principle threat to the local environment is the gasworks site itself, which is heavily contaminated as a result of its former uses. This poses a risk to groundwater quality that will need to be remediated before any development can take place. The main environmental concern from the point of view of the site’s future development potential, however, arises from its proximity to the Paddington to Cardiff rail line. Although the railway sidings function as a significant element of green infrastructure, noise from passing trains will make it difficult to meet accepted standards for residential amenity.
5. Summary & Case Studies 5.2 Case Study: Tübingen-Sudstadt, Germany Context: Regeneration of former French military base. Target population: 6,500 residents, 2,000 jobs. Description: A masterplan was developed on foot of a competition winning proposal by Büro LEHEN drei in 1993. The project is being realised as a Städtebauliche Entwicklungsmaßnahme, which means that the city buys the site, undertakes the masterplanning, and then sells the plots to private builders. The project is co-ordinated by the Stadtsanierungsamt (municipal office for revitalisation), with support from private consultants (including Büro LEHEN drei) and other contractors. The Stadtsanierungsamt identifies the following six elements as being key to the success of the project: Small-parcelled mixed use: The desegregation of living and working is identified as rendering the organisation of daily life easier, facilitating contacts and minimising distances. The objective to create a small-parcelled, vertical mixture (as of 2004 around 160 businesses with about 900 employees have decided to settle there) Provision of social and cultural infrastructure: Within the framework of the masterplan, a wide variety of public social and cultural facilities have been created to serve the Südstadt, as well as the wider area. The city invests about 15 million Euro, generated by the sale of plots, into kindergardens, day-care facilities, schools and other community facilities. Density and the re-use of existing buildings: Building density is exceptionally high in the Südstadt. In addition to general sustainability considerations, this has also allowed the development to be kept affordable to a broad cross section of people from different socio-economic backgrounds. Building co-operatives and parcelling-out: The majority of the Südstadt home-owners are private builders who have joined together in baugruppen (private building co-operatives). This has fostered the creation of a multitude of very different, highly individual projects, most of them with lower costs than those generated by conventional builders. This is made possible by consistently selling the parcels to private bidders, by determining
Individual street buildings fronting new public space
size and shape of each parcel in accordance with the buyer´s needs and by a supportive city administration. Social mixing: The Südstadt has been settled by a diverse cross-section of the population, including senior citizens, nonnationals, disabled people and students. The municipality attributes this to the involvement of building co-operatives. Public space, traffic and civic participation: The Südstadt´s public realm has given priority to walking and cycling over vehicular traffic. Cars are not prohibited, however the vehicles of employees, inhabitants and visitors are parked in shared neighbourhood-garages. The use of the public realm is facilitated
Extract from masterplan showing plot subdivisions
New public realm and negotiated on an ongoing basis through participatory processes. Relevancy for Southall: Model for close grain development of mixed use perimeter blocks and social inclusion in a regeneration context. Reference: Tübingen Municipal Office for Revitalisation, 2005. Tübingen: Südstadt Development Städtebaulicher Entwicklungsbereich “Stuttgarter Straße / Französisches Viertel”, Tübingen/Germany (unpublished).
5. Summary & Case Studies 5.3 Case Study: Hammarby Sjöstad - Stockholm, Sweden Context: A new city district. Target population: 20,000 residents, 10,000 jobs. Description: At the beginning of 1990’s the City of Stockholm planned a concept for a new district expanding the inner city towards water. The idea also aimed to transform the former port and industrial land into a city district. The area was primarily designated as the Olympic Village for the Olympic bid in 2004 with a strong concept which based on ecology and environmental sustainability. Although the bid was not successful, the concept was already established which triggered the change for the area.
Hammarby Sjöstad is a publicly led project and at the present time approximately half of the area has been developed and planned to be completed by 2015. The key elements of Hammarby Sjöstad as follows: Urban design principles: Although Hammarby Sjöstad was located at the outside of the traditional inner city boundary ,it is designed to be an urban settlement with the similar use of design principles such as 18m street width, 70x100m blocks, dense semi-open block grid structure and mixed land uses. Transport nodes: Public transport was one of the most important elements which are emphasized in Hammarby Sjöstad. The area has a very accessible network structure for an efficient public transport. A tram infrastructure is also developed in the centre of the area providing a connection to the underground network. There is also a ferry link provided serving across Hammarby Sjöstad. A 20-25 capacity car pool also is available for the residents. Community provision: There are sufficient amount of community services provided within the area such as two secondary schools, one private school, one pre-school and nursery, one GP, a library, a sport centre, playing fields, a ski-
Hammarby Sjöstad Environmental Map
Bridge Over Sickla Channel
slope, parks, green spaces and walkways. Environmental programme and the Glass House: The biggest challenge to implement the masterplan was the decontamination of the land. The environmental programme stick to its targets and promoted the use of brownfield, provision of public transport, and recycling of water and waste. The target of the environmental programme for Hammarby Sjöstad was established as developing a settlement twice environmentally effective than normal build projects in View across the water
5. Summary & Case Studies
Stockholm. The environmental programme includes; • Cleaning the sewage water at a large sewage plant and recycling the waste into gas to be used in the neighbourhood • Recycling the heat produced through the purification • Recycling nutrients from sewage for agricultural use • Cleaning the surface water • Provision of recycling facilities for each residential unit • Composting the biodegradable waste Storm Water Channel
The Glass House environmental education centre is the best community feature within the development. The centre educates and encourages the residents to make full use of the environmental facilities within the area. Design codes: In order to establish a good level of quality the City planning and design team prepared a design code which has to be agreed by the developer. The design code aims to guide the layout, form and the structure in order to ensure the aspirations of the masterplan was implemented and avoided to be prescriptive about material use, number of stories etc.
The Hammarby Model
Development teams: A consortium of developers and architects were invited to start the development process. In order to achieve architectural diversity and a fine grain development each plot or building within the sub-district was allocated to a different developer. The failing point of Hammarby Sjöstad: Hammarby Sjöstad has highly succeeded and attracted many families into the area. However, it failed to create a diverse community due to high prices and absence of affordable housing provision. References: as listed in the References section 5.5
High Quality Architecture and Design
Outdoor Amenity Space
5. Summary & Case Studies 5.4 Case Study:Sanderstead Road, Croydon UK Context: Residential development on brownfield site with good access to local amenities and quality public transport. Description: This housing development is set on a brownfield site in the London Borough of Croydon. The site comprises just less than half a hectare of derelict land, and has been used for the development of a residential estate.
Croydon Town Centre
The built development consists of 42 units in all partly made up by a three storey block of 38 one and two bed flats with commercial premises beneath on the ground floor. In addition there are 2 three storey blocks of semi-detached four bedroom housing in a courtyard area to the rear of the development. This development was granted planning consent on the understanding that the build would achieve an Ecohomes Rating of Excellent. The finished development was given this due to the energy efficient and solar lighting incorporated into the site, the commitment to quality sound insulation and the careful consideration given to designing the development around the provision of daylight. Relevancy for Southall: This site in Croydon is similar to the study site in Southall in that it is within a London planning context and on a brownfield site made up of derelict land. The development of the site had to take into account the amenities of existing communities, as with the neighbouring residential areas around our target site and the Southall town centre. This development provided a mixed use development which would fit into the context of Southall; providing enough shops for the people who live there but not so many that they detract from the shopping function of the existing town centre. In addition the Sanderstead road build provided the family sized homes which are so in demand in Southall, as well as some smaller flats. It achieved a good level of environmental sustainability which any development in Southall should aim for if it is to be a sustainable development.
Aerial Image showing Deleopment Site Location
Images showing the housing within the development
References: BREEAM Residential Case Studies, www.breeam. org, Updated 2010. AHP Architects & Surveyors LTD, http://www.ahpltd.co.uk/ residential.html, 2008 www.maps.google.co.uk
5. Summary & Case Studies 5.5 Case Study:Greenwich Millennium Village Location: London Borough of Greenwich, London, UK
Conclusion: Many of the projects of community development try to achieve sustainability by planning and design, but the project Greenwich mix community development, achieved sustainability not only in terms of community design but also in terms of material and provision for future development. It is nearly impossible to fulfil all the factors of sustainability of a community development but it should design according local people priority level of living and working conditions.
Type: New development on a previously occupied area (gas works), mixed use residential development Project size: more than 13000 homes on 72 acres Public space at Greenwich Millennium Village goals: Exploring sustainable innovations in planning, design, and construction of a mixed-use residential neighbourhood on a brownfield sites. Site preparation before development: As attention was towards reventing the pollution of the Thames river, via installing a slurry wall adjustment to the river, Which prevent shallow contaminated water to migrate into the river. In addition a capping layer treatment was done across the entire site in order to consider future development. Master Plan and design: The vision for the Village was to create a new community for people ,where the pedestrian has priority over the cars. A part of the Master plan is a series of Engineering which include: - movement/security - landscape/ecology - waste, and surface water - topography - climate & energy - geology - remediation The levels of infrastructure include district heating, electrical distribution, foul water drainage, gas routes, and surface water. Also, noise pollution, good indoor environment, human satisfaction, air quality, thermal control, acoustic control, daylight and security were taken into account by the developers and form a sustainable development framework which are integrated together by the design team to improve the sustainability.
Masterplan for Greenwich Millennium Village High levels of adaptability are achieved by using pre-engineered steel framed structures with standardisation,grid layouts and arrangements that allow for later change; dry building techniques, services distributed so that they can be easily adjusted to the new needs. Materials: The buildings are being built from environmental friendly materials that are sustainable. Recycled and locally available. Greenwich construction adopt a particular specification of material which is according to sus tenable development.
Example of the Mixed Community Residential Development
5. Summary & Case Studies 5.6 Case Study:Vauban, Freiburg, Germany Context: Regeneration of former French barracks site.
creating a sustainable and flourishing neighbourhood.
Target population: 5,000 residents, 600 jobs.
Urban form and character: The masterplan prohibited detached houses and buildings over four storeys in height. This has created efficient building forms and relatively compact urban structure, as well as a human scale.
Description: Planning for the district started in 1993 . According to CABE (now Design Council CABE) the main goal of the project was to create a city district in a co-operative and participatory way, meeting ecological, social, economic and cultural objectives. The City of Freiburg is responsible for the planning and development of the site. This has been influenced by ‘Learning while Planning’ principles, which are intended to allow flexibility in reacting to development proposals and extended public participation. According to CABE (now Design Council CABE) the greatest strengths of the Vauban project are the ideas, creativity and commitment of the people involved and their common goal in
Plots were allocated preferentially to low volume private builders and co-operative building groups. This is evident from the numerous individually designed façades which give variety and visual interest. Preferential treatment was also granted to self-builders and housing cooperatives (baugruppen) who committed to exceeding normal building codes in respect of sustainable construction methods and renewables. Take up of mixed-use plots by building cooperatives was low, however. This has resulted in mixed uses being incoprorated with more conventional apartment blocks that line the main spine boulevard.
Access and movement: Dependance on private transport has been reduced by extending the city’s tram line into the district. Car traffic and parking have also been limited to peripheral areas and shared parking garages. According to CABE nearly 50% of Vauban’s households are ‘car free’. Further incentives are also granted by the City, including one years free access to public transport being granted to people join car sharing clubs. Relevance to Southall: The extensive public participation process coupled with institutional committment to sustainable principles has created a vibrant and flourishing neighbourhood. This has been enabled in large part by public ownership of the land and the abilty of the city to invest upfront in land and community and social infrastructure. Unfortunately both of these conditions is lacking in the London context. Reference: CABE. Available at: http://www.cabe.org.uk/casestudies/vauban
Left to right: tram stop with bicycle parking; ‘solar housing’; close grain plots; shared parking garage.
Extract from masterplan showing block layout and public transport spine
5. Summary & Case Studies 5.7 References Barton, H. et al. (2010) ‘Shaping Neighbourhoods for Local Health and Global Sustainability’ 2nd Edition, USA: Routledge
Blair Peach Primary School Travel Plan, 2011, Southall
Heathrow Noise Action (available at: http://www. heathrowairport.com/portal/site/heathrow/menuitem. f03e69d4cefdf3c524ba4a109328c1a0)
London Borough of Ealing Air Quality Progress Report, 2008 Review of Sites of Importance for nature Conservation in Ealing, 2008 Moser, G., Pol, E., Bernard, Y. Bonnes, M., Corraliza, J.A., Guiliani, M.V. (2003) People. Places and Sustainability Hogrefe & Huber Publishers, Germany Moughtin, C., Shirley, P. (2005) Urban Design Green Dimensions Architectural Press, Oxford Met Office (available at http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate/uk/ so/print.html) Planning Policy Guidance 24: Planning and Noise, 1994 (available at: http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/ planningandbuilding/pdf/156558.pdf) Ritchie, A., Thomas, R. (2009) Sustainable Urban Design An Environmental Approach Taylor & Francis, Oxon Southall Opportunity Area Profile (undated) TUS: Tribal Urban Studio (2008) ‘A framework for Southall’ London Borough of Ealing West Southall Masterplan Environmental Statement: Nontechnical summary, 2008