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Architecture Of Down Syndrome Araceli Narvรกez 2016 Thesis


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ARCHITECTURE OF DOWN SYNDROME

A Thesis Presented to the Undergraduate Faculty of The Newschool of Architecture & Design

In Partial Fulillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Architecture

by Araceli Narvaez June 2016 San Diego, CA

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Thesis Abstract

Public Schools don’t offer students with Down syndrome the time and dedication they need to further develop their senses. A specialized school that caters to their disability through natural lighting, comfort, and sensory spaces will help these students in their development and allow them to interact with society more successfully. The main focus of the school is to provide students with Down syndrome and their families the opportunity to have the free public education without the restriction of not having specialized classes. It’s important to provide people with disabilities the same chances and education that is provided to people without disabilities.

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ARCHITECTURE OF DOWN SYNDROME

A Thesis Presented to the Undergraduate Faculty of The Newschool of Architecture & Design

by Araceli Narvaez

Approved by:

Undergraduate Chair:

Leonard Zegarski

Date

Studio Instructor:

Dan Manlongat

Date

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© 2016 Araceli Narvaez ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

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To all the people with Down Syndrome and their families. You deserve more opportunities than are given to you. To my cousin Martincito, and my aunt Hortencia, who went through a real struggle and came out the other side as warriors.

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AR 503

Process

Thesis Statement

Feedback/ Evaluations

2 Statement of Learning

Rational for Study

Scope of the Study

Summary of Study

Review of Literature

List of Charts

3

Visual

Critical Position

Appendices

Conclusion

Thesis

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Problem Statement

Research

TABLE OF CONTENTS

List of Illustrations

AR 501

List of Tables


Other Materials

Contextual Analysis

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Design

Programming

AR 502

Process

Feedback/ Evaluations

Statement of Learning

Vita

Case Studies

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10000: south perspective sketch ig


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THESIS


Introduction

Down Syndrome is a genetic disorder that happens when a person’s 21st chromosome has a copy. Down Syndrome occurs in 1 in every 691 babies born in the U.S. making it one of the most common genetic disorders. There are three types of Down Syndrome: Trisomy 21 which affects 95% of cases, Mosaicism that only affects 1% of cases, and Translocation which affects 4% of cases. Down syndrome is a chromosomal condition that affects around 400,000 Americans. While Down syndrome is considered to be a disability it doesn’t mean that people with the disorder can’t interact with society and take part in educational, social, and recreational activities. They are more than able to have a job and close relationships. (“What Is Down Syndrome”)

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ig 001: chromosome diagram


Problem Statement

The problem with many public schools that have programs for children with special needs is that they don’t offer the time and dedication that the students need. While these programs allow the students to be part of society, they don’t have enough resources to help students develop themselves the way they would in a specialized school. The time in those programs is very limited since students only get a few hours a day and are left without any more help after the age of 18. The special needs programs in public schools also don’t offer the resources to special needs students that specialized schools offer in order to help the students develop their senses more rapidly and with more success. Another issue with the current programs for kids with special needs in public schools is that parents don’t interact with their children during the program. It would be helpful for students to have their parents or family members interact with them during class. This interaction will help the students with their behavior, learning progress, and development amongst other things.

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Critical Position

A specialized school affects students with special needs and their families. The students will beneit from this because they will have more dedication from their teachers and more time to develop the social and motor skills they need to interact with society. Students will be able to advance in their development early on in their lives, making their transition into society and independency more successful. Parents will also be allowed to be present while their children go through the program, showing the support that the students need in their development.

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Thesis Statement

Public Schools don’t offer students with Down syndrome the time and dedication they need to further develop their senses. A specialized school that caters to their disability through natural lighting, comfort, and sensory spaces will help these students in their development and allow them to interact with society more successfully.

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ig 16 002: gymnasium sketch


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Research


Rationale

When proposing a thesis study of a special needs school for Down syndrome it is important to explore the programmatic needs for the school and the passive systems that will beneit the students. The site chosen for this project needs to provide the students with: a connection to the community, an adjacency to an existing k-8 school to provide interaction with the general education setting, and a park in close proximity.

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Long Beach Estimated Down Syndrome Cases Year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Total

Long Beach Birth Rate

Down Syndrome Rate (1 in)

7,913 8,030 7,884 7,954 7,873 7,600 7,597 7,141 6,915 6,600

889 872.5 856 839.5 823 806.5 790 773.5 757 740

Down Syndrome Cases 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 88

ig 003: estimated down syndrome cases

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Scope of Study

The research that needs to be done for this thesis proposal needs to go in depth in regards to the education and needs of the students for the school. Research needs to be done on the effects that Down syndrome has on the cognitive development of the students. This leads to the research and laws regarding special needs public education and how to keep the Down syndrome students separate while also allowing them to be interact with other students. Another important thing to reserarch is the program that is needed and would beneit the students the best.

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Summary of Study

The research conducted for this thesis is very important because many parents struggle with the idea of their special needs children being in a general education setting and not being able to keep up with the pace of the classroom. This allowed for the selection of a site that it into a special critera that will beneit the students.

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ig 22 004: third loor view


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VISUAL


Sensory Spaces Facts A sensory room is designed to help a person develop their senses. They contain special lighting, music and objects. There are three types of sensory rooms: sensory modulation which is used mostly to prevent a crisis from escalating, sensory integration which is mostly used by occupational therapists and contains speciic equipment, and snoezelem rooms which are used for relaxation activities that will offer stimulation. (“Sensory Room: An Umbrella Term,� 2008)

Review Sensory rooms create a safe space for children with disabilities. They also provide a therapeutic relief and help prevent a crisis. They are also used for social interaction. Is it possible that not all students will react positively to the sensory spaces?

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img 001: sensory room

img 000: sensory room types


Sensory spaces offer students with disabilities the relaxation and therapy they need. They also allow social interactions and help prevent crisis in the students.

Impact The information provided on sensory rooms will help with the programming needs of the school This gives me a better understanding on how I can use architecture as a tool in order to create successful specialized classrooms and a better environment for the students.

img 002: sensory garden

Case Studies

Opinion

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Ernest P. Willenberg Education Center Facts Ernest P. Willenberg is a k-12 special needs school located in San Pedro, CA. The school is split into three buildings, each building hast its own level for the students. Level one is for the students that need more medical attention. Level two is for the students who need more supervision and are still having some develomental and cognitive delays. Level three is for the students who are getting vocational training and are ready to ind jobs outside of the school. The school has enough classrooms for the students but they lack a lot of storage space. The school uses their empty classrooms as storage and even then they still lack space.

img 003: relaxation space

Review Ernest P. Willenberg has the program in it’s school laid out so that the students are separated by levels. The school offers vocational training for the students that are ready to have a job and be able to support themselves without much help from their families. The layout of the school is not very helpful for the faculty since the buildings are olaid out in a straight line. The school also lacks storage space for all the equipment that they need.

img 004: indoor gymnasium

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Opinion Ernest P. Willenberg is providing great education and support to the students and their families. In terms of architecture, the school needs more storage space for all the equipment that is needed. Administration is located at the very front of the school with Level 3 building, making it hard for faculty to reach all levels in case of any medical emergency. In many occasions, facult has had to run to level 1 during an emergency, which is located at the other end of the school. img 005: garden

Impact The information provided by this case study helps my design by giving an example of what program is needed in a special needs school. The school in San Pedro shows what program should also be included and is necessary, such as storage, not just for the students but for the faculty as well.

img 006: classroom (storage)

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Sedenhuse|Arkitektirma A/S Hune & Elkjær Facts Sedenhuse, located in Odense, Denmark, is a residence for children with Down Syndrome. The color facade was designed to create a welcoming environment for current and incoming residents. The curving facade was possible by using steel as the material and painting it to give the house a livelier look. The interior of the house is just as colorful as the exterior, the colors speciically chosen so the children can enjoy the atmosphere. (“Vibrant Building,” 2014)

img 007: sedenhuse facade

Review The Sedenhuse in Odense, Denmark, provides a welcoming atmosphere for the incoming children with Down Syndrome. The colors were speciically chosen for the children making this a very unique house. (“Vibrant Building,” 2014)

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img 008: interior


Opinion Even though the Sedenhuse was colorfully designed for the children with Down Syndrome, I don’t think using steel as the material helps with the “welcoming environment”. I think better material could’ve been chosen.

img 009: interior 2

Impact This case study helps my thesis by providing information on the materiality used and the effects on the users. By using this information I will be able to improve my design and create a more welcoming environment for the children.

img 010: exterior

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The Pilot School|Purple Cherry Architects Facts The Pilot School is a new 80,000 sf k-8 private school for children with disabilities located in Wilmington, Delaware. Purple Cherry Architects is working with the administrators, board of directors, staff and parents in order to include the school’s needs in the design. Programming will include: optimal classrooms, multipurpose rooms, gym, indoor pool, library, computer lab, science and language lab, outdoor classroom, nurse’s station recreation and leaisure rooms, meeting and conference rooms, and adminisrative headquarters. (“The Pilot School”)

img 011: classroom

Review The Pilot School offers a good amount of classrooms for the students as well as education. The program seems to it with the needs of the school and the students. A public school would beneit the community and the students with disabilities.

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img 012: elevations


Opinion The Pilot has enough classrooms for the students that will be attending. I believe some more programming is needed such as storage, therapy rooms, either musical or physical.

img 013: interior perspectives

Impact The information on the Pilot School will beneit my design by providing an example of the program needed in a special needs school.

img 014: loor plan

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Hartvigsen Special Needs School| Purple Cherry Architects Facts Purple Cherry Architects is working staff in order to reach design goals for the Hartvigsen Special Needs School located in Salt Lake City, Utah. The school will be a k-12 public school for children with special needs. The program of the school will include: Classrooms, multipurpose rooms, a library, computer labs, science labs, outdoor classroom spaces, nurse’s station, indoor pool, music therapy room, meeting and conference rooms, recreation and leisure rooms and administrative headquarters. (“Hartvigsen Special Needs School”)

img 015: site

Review The new school will provide students with disabilities the spaces they need to improve their develpmental state. Storage should also be a big part of the program seeing as there is a lot of equipment that could be needed or stored.

img 016: elevation 1

img 017: elevation 2

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Opinion The Hartvigsen school has the program required to create a good learning environment for the students attending. One thing that is missing is storage, which should be required for the equipment. Being a public school will help the families with special needs children in the community.

img 018: hartvigsen interior perspective

Impact The information that has been provided on the Hartvigsen Special Needs School gives me an example of what program is needed and best for a special needs school. It has allowed me to add on to the current program of the school.

img 019: hartvigsen mock apartment

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Opportunity Builders Inc. Facts Opportunity Builders Inc. is a special needs facility located in Anne Arundel County, Maryland. The current facility provides vocational training, recreational activities, employment opportunities, and support services. An extension of the facility was designed by Purple Cherry Architects to allow the expansion of OBI. The original facility has a blue metal spine that identiies the interior circulation that links the lobby with the programs. That circulation spine follows through to the extension and is lit with natural lighting by a skylight. (“Opportunity Builders Inc.�) img 020: blue metal spine

Review The expansion of OBI is a positive improvement that will beneit people with disabilities in the community. Architectural elements are being used as a tool to improve the learning experience of the students.

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img 021: skylight


Opinion OBI has been serving people with disabilities and the expansion will help their community even more. The program and architectural elements make a good learning environment and will help decrease the developmental delays on students.

img 022: exterior/ interior views

Impact The information provided on OBI offers an example on what a special needs school should be providing to the students. It also shows the way architecture can be used to create a good learning environment for students with disabilities.

img 023: hallway

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1. An inability to walk is not a characteristic of Down syndrome. However, getting early physical therapy to ensure proper walking is important and builds the foundation for sports aptitude. Global provides sports opportunities through the “Dare to Play” camps. Individuals with Down syndrome have a variety of athletic abilities and levels of agility, in the same way that typical people do. All over the world, there are sports teams that include people with Down syndrome including through Special Olympics. 2. The majority of children with Down syndrome can learn to read and write. Research shows that teaching reading to children with disabilities, including those with Down syndrome, is most effective when teachers are well trained, have high expectations of their students, and students’ progress is formally evaluated. More research is needed to determine how to most effectively teach children with Down syndrome to read and write. 3. It is not only advisable that children with Down syndrome attend their public schools, in the U.S. it is required by law that public schools accept and provide an appropriate education to them. This requirement is outlined in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). IDEA stipulates that all children with disabilities must have available to them a free, appropriate public education that meets their unique needs and prepares them for further education, employment, and independent living. 4. An increasing number of adults with Down syndrome in the U.S. are living independently with limited assistance from family members or the state. A small percentage are able to live entirely independently. In the U.S. some students who have Down syndrome graduate from high school, and some go on to attend post-secondary education. “Down Syndrome Misconceptions vs. Reality.” Down Syndrome Misconceptions vs. Reality. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2015.

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img 024: down syndrome by mothers age

“Data and Statistics.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 21 Oct. 2014. Web. 17 Oct. 2015. 7. In almost every community of the United States there are parent support groups and other community organizations directly involved in providing services to families of individuals with Down syndrome. You can ind a list of groups at http://www.ndss.org/Resources/Local-Support. 8. Students with Down syndrome are included in typical academic classrooms in schools across the country. The current trend in education is for full inclusion in social and educational settings. Sometimes students with Down syndrome are included in speciic courses, while in other situations students are fully included in the typical classroom for all subjects. Increasingly, individuals with Down syndrome graduate from high school with diplomas, and participate in postsecondary academic and college programs. 9. People with Down syndrome are active participants in educational, social and recreational activities. They are included in the typical education system and take part in sports, music, art programs and any other activities in the community. People with Down syndrome are valued members of their families and communities, and make meaningful contributions to society. 10. Adults with Down syndrome are not children, and should not be considered children. They enjoy activities and companionship with other adults, and have similar needs and feelings as their typical peers. 11. Businesses employ adults with Down syndrome for a variety of positions – in banks, corporations, hotels, hospitals, nursing homes, ofices and restaurants. They work in the music and entertainment industry, in clerical positions, childcare, the sports ield and the computer industry, to name a few. Like anybody else, people with Down syndrome want to have a job where their work will be valued. “Myths & Truths.” - National Down Syndrome Society. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2015.

Facts

5. Older mothers are more likely to have a baby affected by Down syndrome than younger mothers. In other words, the prevalence of Down syndrome increases as the mother’s age increases. Prevalence is an estimate of how often a condition occurs among a certain group of people. To estimate the prevalence of Down syndrome, the number of pregnancies affected by Down syndrome is compared to the total number of live births. 6. Over 40% of families of children with Down syndrome had a family member who stopped working because of the child’s condition.

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William Pulgarin U.S. History Teacher and Assistant Principal of Instruction How long have you been a teacher?

14 years

What grades have you taught?

6th, 7th, 8th, 10th, 11th, 12th.

What do you wish was different about your classroom?

I wish I had more access to technology. Right now, we have to share technology with other teachers, and it is dificult to plan long-term technology project.

How often do you have special needs students?

I have students with special needs in all my classes. I have had them throughout my entire teaching career.

How many of those students had Down Syndrome?

I have never had a student with Down Syndorme

Are they able to keep up with the pace of the classroom?

It really depends on their speciic “special needs.” I have had students that are visually impaired that really struggle to keep up with the pace of the class. I have also had students with autism that struggle with organization and focus. However, it varies depending on the severity of their disability.

Are the parents of these students often comfortable with their children being in a general education setting?

Most parents advocate for their children to be put into mainstream classes. Most parents don’t want their students to “be different” so they push the school to give students with special needs general education class.

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Donna Potter

How long have you been a teacher?

30+ years

What grades have you taught?

K through 4th

What do you wish was different about your classroom?

More physical support i.e. Personnel in the classroom, more at home support so that students could be more successful, more resources-books, technology, fewer unnecessary meetings, fewer interruptions when teaching.

How often do you have special needs students?

Every year for the last few years. Previously- none.

How many of those students had Down Syndrome?

0

Are they able to keep up with the pace of the classroom?

Most of them are, but they are pulled out and miss out on several things. They struggle a little more, but do try.

Are the parents of these students often comfortable with their children being in a general education setting?

Yes. All of them were.

Surveys

Bilingual/ Classroom Teacher

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Patricia Dargan How long have you been a teacher?

32 years

What grades have you taught?

K-3

What do you wish was different about your classroom?

I wish that I could see my students no matter where I am in my classroom. They added a storage unit, which I appreciate, but it prevents me from seeing all my students from any location. It would be nice to have a more open space. Then I could arrange my furniture differently. I liked it when we had class –size reduction. I had fewer students and fewer tables in my room. It made my room seem bigger. I know I will probably think of more things later, however, overall I know I am very fortunate to be in a huge classroom with two bathrooms. I came from a tiny bungalow that was two-thirds the size of a regular bungalow.

How often do you have special needs students?

I have special needs students every year. Some are full inclusion and others are mainstreamed throughout the day.

How many of those students had Down Syndrome?

One

Are they able to keep up with the pace of the classroom?

They are able to keep up in some areas because according to their I.E.P. (Individualized Education Plan) they get extra help from a resource teacher or aide. It also depends on the severity of their disability.

Are the parents of these students often comfortable with their children being in a general education setting? 40

Yes. The parents want them in general ed. as much as possible.


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img 025: concept model

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DESIGN


Parks K-8 Schools 2ND

Special Needs Center

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ig 005: long beach parks and schools

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Site

Less Crime

More Crime

ig 006: long beach crime demographics

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Jackie Robinson Academy Site Criteria: -Adjacency to existing K-8 school -Close proximity to a park

Because of the laws involving special needs education, the only way to design a public school specialized for Down syndrome would be to make it adjacent to a current public school. The chosen site would be located in Long Beach, CA at the intersection of Long Beach Blvd. and Willow St. The site is adjacent to the Jackie Robinson Academy, a K-8 public school which does not have a special needs program. It is also near the Veteran’s Memorial Park which provides an open green space which is important for Down Syndrome students. Across the street is also the Long Beach Memorial Hospital and the Miller Children’s Hospital.

Veteran’s Memorial Park Jackie Robinson Academy Site

ig 007: site context

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101,103

Legend Parks Residential Medical Centers Commercial Site Metro: Blue Line Bus Routes

102,104

182

51,52,60

ig 008: site zoning

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Conference Room 8 ppl (3sf x 8) = 24sf Conf table = 30 sf Side table = 20 sf Total = 74 sf BE = (.5) GSF = 74/.5 = 148 sf Ofice (10)

Workshop

Classroom (30)

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1 ppl = (3sf x 1) = 3sf Desk = 20 sf 3 chairs = (4sf x 3) = 12 sf Total = 35 sf BE = .5 GSF = 35/.5 = 70 sf 5 PPL = (3 SF X 5) = 15 SF 5 DESKS=(18 SF X 5)=90 SF 5 CHAIRS = (3.5 SF X 5)= 17.5 SF 5 storage units =(6 sf x 5)= 30 sf Total = 152.5 sf BE = .5 GSF= 152.5/.5 = 305 9PP = (3 SF X 9) = 27 SF 5 DESKS = (18 SF X 5)= 90 SF 9 CHAIRS = (3.5 SF X 9)= 31.5 sf 8 storage units =(6 sf x 8)= 48 sf Total = 196.5 sf BE = .25 GSF= 196.5/.25 = 786 sf

Physical Therapy

3PPL = (3SF X 3) = 9 SF Table 1 = 15 sf Table (2) =(16.25 sf x 2)= 32.5 sf Stairs = 5 sf Sports training = 16 sf Parallel bars = 1.25 sf Storage = (6.5 sf x 5) = 32.5 sf Total = 111.25 BE= .25 GSF= 111.25/.25= 445

Collab Spaces

15PPL = (3SF X 15) = 45 SF Table 5 = (15 sf x 5) = 75 sf 15 CHAIRS = 3.5 SF x15 = 52.5 sf Total= 172.5 sf BE= .25 GSF= 172.5/.25= 690 sf

Nurse

3 PPL = (3SF X 3) = 9 SF Table 1 = 15 sf 1 DESKS = 18 SF 3 CHAIRS = 3.5 SF x3 = 10.5 sf 3 storage units =(6 sf x 3)= 18 sf Total= 70.5 sf BE= .5 GSF= 70.5/.5= 141 sf


50 PPL = (3SF X 50) = 150 SF Table 25 = (15 sf x 25) = 375 SF 1 DESKS = 18 SF 50 CHAIRS = 3.5 SF x 50 = 175 sf Bkshlf (30)=(14.3 sf x 30)=429 sf Total= 1,147 sf BE= .5 GSF= 1,147/.5= 2,294 sf

Auditorium

150 ppl (3x 150) = 450 sf 150 seats (3.5 x 150) = 525 sf Stage (15 x 25) = 375 sf Total= 1,350 sf BE= .5 GSF= 1,350/.5= 2,700 sf

Storage

3 ppl (3sf x 3) = 9 sf Tables (16.25 sf x 2) = 32.5 sf Stairs (5sf x 2) = 10 sf Parallel Bars (1.25 sf x 2) = 2.5 sf Wheel Chairs (10 sf x 2) = 50 sf Total = 104 sf BE = .5 GSF = 104/ .5 = 208 sf

Vocational Classrooms ppl (3sf x 15) = 45 sf DESKS = (18 SF X 7) = 126 SF CHAIRS = (3.5 SF X 15) = 52.5 sf Bed = 27.75 sf Bathroom = 40 sf Total = 291.25 sf BE = .5 GSF = 291.25/ .5 = 582.5 sf Gymnasium

20 ppl (3x20) = 60 sf GSF = 3,600 sf

Cafeteria

100 ppl (3x100) =300 GSF=3,500/.25=14,000 sf

Teacher’s Workspace 10 ppl (3 x 10)= 30 sf and Lounge 10 seats (3.5 x 10)= 35 sf 10 desks (18 sf x 10)= 180 sf sofa Kitchennette Total= 965 sf BE= .5 GSF=965/.5=1,930 sf

Program

Library

Hearing & Speech 3 ppl (3sf x 3) = 9 sf Table (2) =16.25 sf = 32.5 sf DESKS = 18 SF CHAIRS = (3.5 SF X 3)= 10.5 sf storage units =(6 sf x 5)= 30 sf Total = 82.5 sf BE = .25 GSF = 82.5/ .25 =330 sf

49


Building Area NET Occupancy Designation (NSF)

Space Name Conference Room Workshop (3) Classroom (30) Collab Spaces (3) Nurse (3) Library Auditorium Hearing and Speech (3) Vocational Classrooms Storage Teachers workspace (4) Cafeteria Gymnasium TOTAL Gross Building Area ig 009: building area

50

8 1 5 8 3 15 3 50 150 3 15 3 10 100 20

Main Main Main Main Main Main Main Center Center Main Center Main Main Main Center

BE (NSF/GSF) GSF

74 SF 35 SF 152.5 SF 196.5 SF 111.25 SF 172.5 sf 70.5 SF 1,147 SF 1,350 SF 82.5 SF 291.25 sf

104 sf 241.25 sf 3,500 sf 900 sf

0.5 0.5 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.25 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.25 0.25

148 SF 70 x 10 610 X 3 786 x 30 445 X3 690 X 3 141 x 3 2,294 SF 2,700 Sf 330 x 3 582.5 x 5

208 x 12 482.5 x 4 3,500 sf 900 sf

Total 148 SF 700 SF 1,830 SF 23,580 SF 1,335 SF 2,070 SF 423 SF 2,294 SF 2,700 SF 990 sf 2,912.5 sf 2,496 sf 1930sf 14000 sf 3600 sf 61.008.5 sf


Level 1 Level 2 Level 3

Learning Center

es

Cafete ria

rs Lo unge Teac he

Ph ysi c al T Col labo hera p rati Nu on y rse Spa Hea ce ring and Spe ech Stor age

ms Cla ssr oo

m

na siu W m or ks ho ps

Community Center

riu m

Au di to

Li br a

ry

c en s na r e nf ice atio o C Of oc V

s as l lC

Gy

o eR

Administration

om

ig 010: program layout

51


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Conference Room Ofices Library Auditorium Classrooms (10) Physical Therapy Workshop Nurse Collaboration Space Ofices (2) Classrooms (10) Physical Therapy Workshop Nurse Collaboration Space C Ofices (2) Classrooms (10) Physical Therapy Workshop Nurse Collaboration Space Ofices (2)

ig 011: matrices

52

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Conference Room Ofices Library Auditorium Classrooms (10) Physical Therapy Workshop Nurse Collaboration Space Ofices (2) Classrooms (10) Physical Therapy Workshop Nurse Collaboration Space Ofices (2) Classrooms (10) Physical Therapy Workshop Nurse Collaboration Space Ofices (2)


Buildings 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Conference Room Ofices Library Auditorium Classrooms (10) Physical Therapy Workshop Nurse Collaboration Space Ofices (2) Classrooms (10) Physical Therapy Workshop Nurse Collaboration Space Ofices (2) Classrooms (10) Physical Therapy Workshop Nurse Collaboration Space Ofices (2)

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Auditorium Admin Library

Levels

Classrooms (10) Collab Space Workshop

Nurse

Immediate Adjacency

Important Adjacency ig 012: bubble diagrams

Reasonable

53


Level 1 Space Name

Total

O ce (1) Workshop (1) Classroom (10) Physical erapy (1) Collab Spaces (1) Nurse (1) Hearing and Speech (1) Storage (3)

70 SF 610 SF 7,860 SF 445 SF 690 SF 141 SF 330 sf 624 sf

NET (NSF) Building E ciency TOTAL Gross Building Area

10,770 SF 0.25 43,080 SF

Level 2 Space Name

Total

O ce (1) Workshop (1) Classroom (10) Physical erapy (1) Collab Spaces (1) Nurse (1) Hearing and Speech (1) Storage (3)

70 SF 610 SF 7,860 SF 445 SF 690 SF 141 SF 330 sf 624 sf

NET (NSF) Building E ciency TOTAL Gross Building Area

10,770 SF 0.25 43,080 SF

54

Level 3 Space Name

Total

O ce (1) Workshop (1) Classroom (10) Physical erapy (1) Collab Spaces (1) Nurse (1) Hearing and Speech (1) Storage (3)

70 SF 610 SF 7,860 SF 445 SF 690 SF 141 SF 330 sf 624 sf

NET (NSF) Building E ciency TOTAL Gross Building Area

10,770 SF 0.25 43,080 SF


Administration Space Name

Total

Conference Room (1) O ce (6) Storage (1)

148 SF 420 SF 208 sf

NET (NSF) Building E ciency TOTAL Gross Building Area

776 SF 0.3 2,586.7 SF

Learning Center Space Name

Total

Library (1) Auditorium (1) Storage (1) NET (NSF) Building E ciency TOTAL Gross Building Area

2, 294 SF 2,700 SF 208 SF 5,202 SF 0.3 17,340 SF

Community Center Space Name

Total

O ce (1) Vocational Classrooms (5) Storage (1)

70 SF 2, 912. 5 sf 208 sf

NET (NSF) Building E ciency TOTAL Gross Building Area

3,190.5 SF 0.3 10,635 SF

ig 013: separate building area

55


56

ig 014: site diagram


Form Development ig 015: concept sketches

57


Site Model of Long Beach, CA

img 026: long beach site model

Concept Model on Site

img 027: concept on site

58


img 028: master plan on site

Models

Master Plan on Site

Mass Model on Site

img 029: mass on site

59


img 030: AR502 inal presentation

60


Program 101,103

Thesis:

Long Beach Estimated Down Syndrome Cases

Public Schools don’t offer students with Down syndrome the time and dedication they need to further develop their senses. A specialized school that caters to their disability through natural lighting, comfort, and sensory spaces will help these students in their development and allow them to interact with society more successfully.

Year

Down syndrome is a chromosomal condition that affects around 400,000 Americans. While Down syndrome is considered to be a disability it doesn’t mean that people with D.S. can’t interact with society and take part in educational, social, and recreational activities. They are more than able to have a job and close relationships. The Martin Down Syndrome School is a public k-8 specialized school for students with Down syndrome located in Long Beach, CA.

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Total

The idea for my thesis is to design a specialized k-8 school for children with special needs such as Down syndrome. Program that’s meant to allow the students to interact with their family as they progress in their motor skills, language, and their interaction with society will also be added. The problem that I have is that many public schools have programs for children with special needs that don’t offer the time and dedication to the students that they need. While these programs allow the students to be part of society, I feel they don’t have enough to help students develop themselves the way they would in a specialized school. The time in those programs is very limited since students only get a few hours a day and are left without any more help after the age of 18. The special needs program in public schools also don’t offer the resources to special needs students that specialized schools offer in order to help the students develop their senses more rapidly and with more success. Another issue with the current programs for kids with special needs in public schools is that parents don’t interact with their children during the program. I worked with some special needs students at John Adams Elementary School and noticed that parents would merely drop off their kids and drive off. I think that it would be somewhat helpful for students to have their parents or family members interact with them during class. This kind of interaction could help the students with their behavior, learning progress, and development amongst other things. My thesis proposal affects students with special needs and their families. The students will benefit from a specialized school because it would help their senses develop a lot more than they would in a program at a public school. They would have more time to develop the social and motor skills because they won’t be limited with time. These specialized schools will have staff that will devote themselves to the well-being and progression of the students. Students will be able to advance in their development early on in their lives, making their transition into society and independency more successful. Parents will also be allowed to be present while their children go through the program, showing the support that the students need in their development. There are many things I still need to educate myself on in order to develop this thesis successfully. One thing in specific would be the program in a specialized school. The education that goes into these schools is also very different from the education given to students in public schools. Learning more about the education that is given to these students is something very important that I need to look into more. I would also need to look into how I can use architecture/design as a tool to improve the learning process for the students. Also, the types of lighting and design needs that would best help the students work harder and focus more. There’s and article that shows kids with Autism focus better in classrooms with natural lighting rather than artificial lighting. Would the same work for kids with Down syndrome?

Long Beach Birth Rate

Down Syndrome Down Syndrome Cases Rate (1 in )

7,913 8,030 7,884 7,954 7,873 7,600 7,597 7,141 6,915 6,600

889 872.5 856 839.5 823 806.5 790 773.5 757 740

Bubble Diagrams

8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 88

Buildings Form Development

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Auditorium Admin Library 1 2

Legend

3

The main focus of the school is to provide students with Down syndrome and their families the opportunity to have the free public education without the restriction of not having specialized classes. It’s important to provide people with disabilities the same chances and education that is provided to people without disabilities. The Martin Down Syndrome School will be located next to the Jackie Robinson Academy, a k-8 school, located in Long Beach, CA. This school has no special needs program but will offer the social interaction that is required as well as the general education setting that is also required by law in a public school.

Classrooms (10) Collab Space

182

17 18

Offices (2)

19

Emmediate Adjacent

70TH

LONG

FWY ARTESIA

RAMONA

BEACH

DOWNEY

PARAMOUNT

CHERRY

ATLANTIC

ORANGE

EET

STRY TH KWA SOU PAR

SOUTH

ED 'POPS' DAVENPORT

JACKSON DOG STREET PARK ATLANTIC PLAZA

Less Crime

CHERRY

RANCHO LOS CERRITOS

NIO ANTO

SAN

PAN AMERICAN

LAKEWOOD

BIXBY DR ORANGE KNOLLS

CLARK

W HOLLO Y T SCHERER SLEEP STREE UPTOWN DOG PARK

CARSON

CARSON

LAKEWOOD IFIC ELE

HT-O

LB SENIOR CENTER

MIRACLE ON 4TH STREET

F-W AY

4TH CARROLL

BIXBY

BROADWAY TROLLEY

DR

COLORADO ALAMITOS LAGOON HEIGHTS MARINA VISTA

WILL ROGERS

LIVINGSTON DRIVE

BELMONT POOL COMPLEX

SIMS POND

N LOY

ES

DR

JACK DUNSTER MARINE RESERVE DAVIES LAUNCH RAMP

MARINE PARK (MOTHER'S BEACH)

LA BELLA FONTANA DI NAPOLI

THE COLONNADE

D

OCE AN

BLVD

GROVE FWY

2ND

Y

TREASURE ISLAND LEEWAY SAILING CENTER

WAY

BAYSHORE PLAYGROUND

GARDEN

HW

ROSIE'S DOG BEACH

JACK NICHOL

M

2ND BELMONT R AND PLAZA

DIU

TON LIVINGS

BLUFF

7TH

RECREATION 9 HOLE GOLF COURSE

STA

LB MUSEUM OF ART

XIMENO

ARTS

HARRY BRIDGES MEMORIAL PARK AT THE QUEEN MARY

EN IC

COLLEGE ESTATES

RECREATION

RIG

CHANNEL VIEW

IC

IAN APP

SC

RANCHO LOS ALAMITOS

DOG PARK

CTR

7TH

BELLFLOWER

ROSE

COA ST

NIETO

10TH

CRAFTSMAN VILLAGE PARK

E

DOWNTOWN MARINA MOLE

OR

NORWALK

L ONA DIAG

WOODRUFF

CLARK

IFIC

TEMPLE

HARVEY MILK EAST PROMENADE VILLAGE

SHORELINE AQUATIC

RB

Y

LOS ALTOS PLAZA

PAC RECREATION PARK GOLF COURSE

PAC

REDONDO

CHAVEZ WETLANDS

FW WHALEY

BOUTON CREEK

ANAHEIM

DOWNTOWN DOG PARK

HA

DIE GO

ATHERTON

PLAZA ZAFERIA

4TH

BROADWAY

SOUTH SHORE LAUNCH RAMP

N

COAST

ORIZABA

ROBERT GUMBINER

PROMENADE LINCOLN SQUARE OCEAN VICTORY S TERRACE VICTORY RAINB HO THEATER GOLDEN SHORE RV R OW E L GOLDEN SHORE IN HARB E RAINBOW LAGOON MARINE RESERVE OR AQUARIUM OF ESPL THE PACIFIC ANAD MARINA GREEN

OCEA

STEARNS

SA

PACIFIC ROTARY CENTENNIAL

MACARTHUR

INE

BLVD

7TH CESAR E. CHAVEZ

Conference Room Office (10) Workshop (3) Classroom (30) Physical Therapy (3) Collab Spaces (3) Nurse (3) Library Auditorium Hearing and Speech (3) Vocational Classrooms Storage TOTAL Gross Building Area

GOLF COURSE

LOS ALTOS

LOS CHITTICK FIELD

Nurse Collab Space Offices (2)

Community Center

Space Name

Total

Space Name

Office (1) Workshop (1) Classroom (10) Physical Therapy (1) Collab Spaces (1) Nurse (1) Hearing and Speech (1) Storage (3)

70 SF 610 SF 7,860 SF 445 SF 690 SF 141 SF 330 sf 624 sf

Office (1) Vocational Classrooms (5) Storage (1)

70 SF 2,912.5 sf 208 sf

NET (NSF) Building Efficiency TOTAL Gross Building Area

3,190.5 SF 0.3 10,635 SF

NET (NSF) Building Efficiency TOTAL Gross Building Area

10,770 SF 0.25 43,080 SF

Total

Building Area Space Name

EL DORADO NATURE CENTER & COMMUNITY GARDENS

EL DORADO PARK WEST

S OTE COY

STEARNS CHAMPIONS

RA PARK

ROSA PARKS

MAR

N

KING JR

ATLANTIC

K-9 CORNER DOG PARK

DRAKE

L

COAST

CHERRY

R

M

10TH

TE

JENN MEM I RIVE ORIA MARTIN LUTHER KING JR.

POLY HIGH GATEWAY

MARTIN LUTHER ALAMITO S

PEACE MICHAEL K. GREEN SKATE PARK

ORANGE

OFFICER DARYLE W. BLACK MEMORIAL PARK

ERNEST S. McBRIDE, SR. COMMUNITY CENTER

SEASIDE FOURTEENTH STREET

LOMA VISTA

EL DORADO PARK WEST

LILLY

WILLOW

PARK

PACIFIC

MAGNOLIA

BEACH

PACIFIC

LONG

SANTA FE

NAACP FREEDOM PARK

DAISY AVE

21ST TO HILL

CRESSA

IN

AL

IS L

AND

FWY

MARY MOLINA COMMUNITY GARDEN

GOLF COURSE GOOD NEIGHBOR

PALO

DIEGO

City of Signal Hill

FELLOWSHIP

LONG BEACH

HILL

DOG PARK

STUDEBAKER

FWY

SAN

WILLOW SPRINGS

Y

ANAHEIM

EL DORADO REGIONAL

SPRING

FW

ADMIRAL KIDD

EL DORADO REGIONAL

VERDE

WRIGLEY

PL

HUDSON

STUDEBAKER

WARDLOW

WILLOW

Jackie Robinson Academy

LA CO

WARDLOW

SKYLINKS

RIVER FWY

SKYLINKS

SPRING

VETERANS

SAN GABRIEL

BLVD

AVE PACIFIC

ATLANTIC

SANTA FE

BIRDCAGE

ROSIE THE RIVETER

WARDLOW

IC PACIF

Veteran’s Memorial Park

GOLF COURSE (CAMPFIRE)

HEARTWELL

BIXBY

ORANGE

FWY

WRIGLEY HEIGHTS DOG PARK

CHERRY

LOS CERRITOS

BAKER STREET

LONG BEACH

DI E G O

SILVERADO

SPRING

Overall Program

ST HEARTWELL

SOMERSET

SAN

BELLFLOWER

DEL AMO

ARBOR

Physical Therapy Workshop

21

Level 1

BLVD

HARDING

SOUTH

Collab Space Offices (2) Classrooms (10)

20

Reasonable

HOUGHTON

MARKET GRACE

TANAKA

Site

Important Adjacency

COOLIDGE

DE FOREST

Nurse

51,52,60

ARTESIA

DOG PARK

Physical Therapy Workshop

15 16

22

72ND

BURTON W. CHACE

Classrooms (10)

12

14

Workshop

Collab Space Offices (2)

11

13

Long Beach Parks and Schools

DE FOREST NATURE TRAIL

Nurse

9

Nurse

DEL AMO

Classrooms (10) Physical Therapy Workshop

6

10

102,104

Site Criteria: -Adjacency to existing k-8 school -near parks -on a busy street to expose school

7 8

5

Levels

Physical Therapy

Jackie Robinson Academy

Conference Room Offices (4) Library

4

Parks Residential Medical Centers Commercial Site Metro: Blue Line Bus Routes

LOOKOUT OVERLOOK MAURICE 'MOSSY' KENT

People 8 1 5 8 3 15 3 50 150 3 15 3

NET Designation (NSF) Main Main Main Main Main Main Main Main Main Main Main Main

BE (NSF/GSF) GSF

74 SF 35 SF 152.5 SF 196.5 SF 111.25 SF 172.5 sf 70.5 SF 1,147 SF 1,350 SF 82.5 SF 291.25 sf

104 sf

0.5 0.5 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.25 0.5 0.5

148 SF 70 x 10 610 X 3 786 x 30 445 X3 690 X 3 141 x 3 2,294 SF 2,700 Sf 330 x 3 582.5 x 5

208 x 12

R

Total

Level 2

148 SF 700 SF 1,830 SF 23,580 SF 1,335 SF 2,070 SF 423 SF 2,294 SF 2,700 SF 990 sf 2,912.5 sf 2,496 sf 41,478.5 SF

Space Name

Total

Space Name

Total

Office (1) Workshop (1) Classroom (10) Physical Therapy (1) Collab Spaces (1) Nurse (1) Hearing and Speech (1) Storage (3)

70 SF 610 SF 7,860 SF 445 SF 690 SF 141 SF 330 sf 624 sf

Library (1) Auditorium (1) Storage (1) NET (NSF) Building Efficiency TOTAL Gross Building Area

2,294 SF 2,700 SF 208 SF 5,202 SF 0.3 17,340 SF

NET (NSF) Building Efficiency TOTAL Gross Building Area

10,770 SF 0.25 43,080 SF

Learning Center

Level 3

ALAMITOS AT 72ND

More Crime

ig 016: AR502 inal presentation

Administration

Space Name

Total

Space Name

Office (1) Workshop (1) Classroom (10) Physical Therapy (1) Collab Spaces (1) Nurse (1) Hearing and Speech (1) Storage (3)

70 SF 610 SF 7,860 SF 445 SF 690 SF 141 SF 330 sf 624 sf

Conference Room (1) Office (6) Storage (1)

148 SF 420 SF 208 sf

NET (NSF) Building Efficiency TOTAL Gross Building Area

776 SF 0.3 2,586.7 SF

NET (NSF) Building Efficiency TOTAL Gross Building Area

10,770 SF 0.25 43,080 SF

Total

Final Presentation

Site Analysis

Martin Down Syndrome Learning Center

61


ig 62 017: exterior stair render


63

CONCLUSION


img 031: master plan sketch

64


Site ig 018: master plan

65


First Floor Main Building

First Floor Main Building 66

ig 019: level 1 loor plan


Floor Plans

First Floor Main Building

First Floor Main Building ig 020: level 2 loor plans

67


First Floor Main Building

68

ig 021: level 3 loor plan


69


South Elevation 70

ig 022: south elevation perspective


71

Elevations


North Elevation 72

ig 023: north elevation perspective


73


---

Main Building Section 1 74

ig 024: main building section 1


75

Sections


Main Building Sections 2 76

ig 025: main building section 2


77


Community Building Section ig 026: community building section

78


79


DOUBLE SKIN FACADE DETAIL REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN GYPSUM BOARD I NSULATION METAL STUD FRAMING

EXHAUST FAN AIR INTAKE FAN PHOTOVOLTAIC PANEL FRESH AIR INTAKE EXTERIOR GLAZING

80


Details

STUCCO POLYMER GYPSUM BOARD CAST IN PLACE CONCRETE OPEN WEB STEEL JOIST ON LIGHT GAUGECHORDS

STUCCO POLYMER GYPSUM BOARD REBAR @ CONCRETE SLAB @ GRADE 1 ’ FOUNDATION WALL

DRAINAGE TILE IN GRAVEL @ FOOTING FORM BOARD @ DRAINAGE MAT OVER WATER PROOF MEMBRANE HORIZONTAL CONTINUOUS REBAR @ FOOTING

ig 027: details

81


ig 028: east perspective 82


83

Renders


84

ig 029: bridge perspective


85


ig 030: interior garden perspective

86


87


ig 031: interior perspective (sensory room) 88


89


img 032: AR503 inal presentation

90


Final Presentation

ig 032: AR503 inal presentation

91


92


93

Appendices


Citations

-What Is Down Syndrome? - National Down Syndrome Society. (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2016, from http://www.ndss.org/Down-Syndrome/What-Is-Down-Syndrome/ -Data and Statistics | Down Syndrome | Birth Defects ... (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/downsyndrome/data.html -Down Syndrome Misconceptions vs. Reality. (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2016, from http://www.globaldownsyndrome.org/about-down-syndrome/misconceptions-vs-reality/ -Education & Down Syndrome - National Down Syndrome Society. (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2016, from http://www.ndss.org/Resources/Education/Education--DownSyndrome/ -Myths & Truths - National Down Syndrome Society. (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2016, from http://www.ndss.org/Down-Syndrome/Myths-Truths/ -Hartvigsen Special Needs School - Purposeful Architecture. (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2016, from http://purposefularchitecture.com/case-studies/hartvigsen-special-needsschool/ -Sensory Rooms in Mental Health - OT-Innovations. (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2016, from http://www.ot-innovations.com/clinical-practice/sensory-modulation/sensory-roomsin-mental-health-3/ -The Pilot School — Wilmington, DE | Purposeful Architecture. (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2016, from http://purposefularchitecture.com/case-studies/the-pilot-schoolwilmington-de/ -Vibrant building is colourful happy home for youngsters. (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2016, from http://www.colorcoat-online.com/blog/index.php/2014/01/vibrant-buildingcolourful-happy-home-youngsters-thanks-to-tata-steel/ -What Colors Are Pleasing to Kids With Sensory Issues ... (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2016, from http://motherhood.modernmom.com/colors-pleasing-kids-sensory-issues-17568. html -Case Studies - Purposeful Architecture. (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2016, from http://purposefularchitecture.com/case-studies/opportunity/

94


List of Images

img 000: sensory room types/ot-innovations.com/clinical-practice/sensory-modulation/sensory-rooms-in-mental-health-3 img 001: sensory room/http://www.multisensoryenvironments.com/ img 002: sensory garden/http://www.abcdoes.com/abc-does-a-blog/2012/06/outdoor-play-inspiration/ img 003: relaxation space img 004: indoor gymnasium img 005: garden img 006: classroom (storage) img 007: sedenhuse facade/ http://www.colorcoat-online.com/blog/index.php/2014/01/vibrant-building-colourful-happy-home-youngsters-thanks-to-tata-steel/ img 008: interior/http://www.colorcoat-online.com/blog/index.php/2014/01/vibrant-building-colourful-happy-home-youngsters-thanks-to-tata-steel/ img 009: interior 2/http://www.colorcoat-online.com/blog/index.php/2014/01/vibrant-building-colourful-happy-home-youngsters-thanks-to-tata-steel/ img 010: exterior/http://www.colorcoat-online.com/blog/index.php/2014/01/vibrant-building-colourful-happy-home-youngsters-thanks-to-tata-steel/ img 011: classroom/http://purposefularchitecture.com/case-studies/the-pilot-school-wilmington-de/ img 012: elevations/http://purposefularchitecture.com/case-studies/the-pilot-school-wilmington-de/ img 013: interior perspectives/http://purposefularchitecture.com/case-studies/the-pilot-school-wilmington-de/ img 014: loor plan/http://purposefularchitecture.com/case-studies/the-pilot-school-wilmington-de/ img 015: site/http://purposefularchitecture.com/case-studies/hartvigsen-special-needs-school/ img 016: elevation 1/http://purposefularchitecture.com/case-studies/hartvigsen-special-needs-school/ img 017: elevation 2/http://purposefularchitecture.com/case-studies/hartvigsen-special-needs-school/ img 018: hartvigsen interior perspective/http://purposefularchitecture.com/case-studies/hartvigsen-special-needs-school/ img 019: hartvigsen mock apartment/http://purposefularchitecture.com/case-studies/hartvigsen-special-needs-school/ img 020: blue metal spine/http://purposefularchitecture.com/case-studies/opportunity/ img 021: skylight/http://purposefularchitecture.com/case-studies/opportunity/ img 022: exterior/interior views/http://purposefularchitecture.com/case-studies/opportunity/ img 023: hallway/http://purposefularchitecture.com/case-studies/opportunity/ img 024: down syndrome by mothers age/cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/downsyndrome/data.html img 025: concept model img 026: long beach site model img 027: concept on site img 028: master plan on site img 029: mass on site img 030: AR502 inal presentation img 031: master plan sketch img 032: AR503 inal presentation

95


List of Figures

ig 000: south perspective sketch ig 001: chromosome diagram ig 002: gymnasium sketch ig 003: estimated down syndrome cases ig 004: third loor view ig 005: long beach parks and schools ig 006: long beach crime demographics ig 007: site context ig 008: site zoning ig 009: building area ig 010: program layout ig 011: matrices ig 012: bubble diagrams ig 013: separate building area ig 014: site diagram ig 015: concept sketches ig 016: AR502 inal presentation ig 017: exterior stair render ig 018: master plan ig 019: level 1 loor plan ig 020: level 2 loor plans ig 021: level 3 loor plan ig 022: south elevation perspective ig 023: north elevation perspective ig 024: main building section 1 ig 025: main building section 2 ig 026: community building section ig 027: details ig 028: east perspective ig 029: bridge perspective ig 030: interior garden perspective ig 031: interior perspective (sensory room) ig 032: AR503 inal presentation

96


Acknowledgements

To my family, thank you for the constant support in the pursuit of my passions for Architecture.

97


98


99


100


Architecture of Down Syndrome  

This is a year's worth of research for an Architectural Thesis, in which Down syndrome education is the focus. This project raises awareness...

Architecture of Down Syndrome  

This is a year's worth of research for an Architectural Thesis, in which Down syndrome education is the focus. This project raises awareness...

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