First edition March, 2019
Does informed discourse bring you head first? You are not alone: for many students, this is a particularly difficult part of English grammar. The phrases in indirect style undergo many changes. Today we explain your keys one by one, but do not feel overwhelmed: with practice, you will integrate this structure and you can use it without realizing it.
Elements that change in indirect style ď‚ˇ
that book --- Elisa said she had read that book David: I had been there --- David said he had been there
The first thing you need to remember is that the verb takes a leap back in time: from simple present to simple past, from perfect present to perfect past ... If it can not go further in the past, it repeats itself. Examples: Elisa: I have read
Here you must take into account who the sender is and who is referring to those pronouns in order to be successful: in short, use your common sense! Normally pronouns change to third person singular or plural. For example:
"I am calling my nephew today", Francisco told me --- Francisco hold me he was calling his nephew that day.
• "I'm not going to school today," Edu said --- Edu said (that) I was not going to school that day.
Here we must bear in mind that we are talking about something that we were told at a time in the past (usually unspecified), so we must also adapt them. These are the most common:
Here we can distinguish two types: the open questions (with what, where, who ...) and the closed ones (that admit a yes or no answer).
Now --- then
Today --- that day Tonight --- that night Yesterday --- the day before or the previous day Tomorrow --- the next/following day Last week --- the week before Ago --- before Here --- there
• Open questions are usually structured with investment in direct style and
4) The demonstratives This one is easy to remember: this happens to that and these, to those. Examples according to the type of sentence Affirmations Here we can include or omit that
without investment in indirect style. "What is your name", Pam asked --Pam asked what her name was. • In closed questions we use if or if. "Is your name Marta", John asked -- John asked if if her name was Marta
Suggestions Here we have two different options: use a gerund or add that. Look at these two examples: • "Let's go to the cinema!" Mary said --- Mary suggested going to the cinema. • "Why do not we buy some ice cream?" he asked --- I suggested that we buy some ice cream. Orders Finally, we have the phrases in imperative, with verbs like order, warn, ask, forbid, advise ... For example: • "Brush your teeth now", I ordered my daughter --- I ordered my daughter to brush her teeth then. • "Do not swim at the deep end!", My father advised me --- My father advised me not to swim at the deep end.
How to use the reported speech Starting from a sentence in indirect style, we must follow the following steps to pass it to indirect style: 1. 2. 3. 4.
Define the type of prayer: Affirmation Question Suggestion / order Define in what tense the introductory sentence is: the introductory sentence is that it will become the main clause in the new sentence in indirect style. This may be either present or at some past time. If it is present, it will not be necessary to change the subordinate verb; if it is in a past time it will be necessary to change it so that it agrees.
For example Paul always says: “those were the best years of my life” > Paul always says those were the best years of his life. Paul said: “those were the best years of my life” > Paul said those had been the best years of his life.
verb tenses will have to be changed to agree. Here we leave you a chop, so that you know that tense replaces each one: Present simple > Past Simple Past Simple > Past Perfect Present perfect > Past Perfect
Define if the person should be changed (the personal pronoun): as with verbs, the person must also agree when we pass a sentence to an indirect style. This may involve, in some cases, a change in personal and possessive pronouns. For example:
Past perfect > Past Perfect Will (future) > Would If we look carefully, what these verbs do is to take a "step back in time". Keep this in mind and this will help you.
Andrew said: “it is all my fault” > Andrew sad it was all his fault Mary told me “you are my best friend” > Mary told me I was her best friend Robert said: “the guests are about to arrive” > Robert said the guests were about to arrive. Define if verbal tenses should be matched: as we said before, if the verb in the introductory sentence is not present, that means that the
Define if the expressions of time and place should be changed: as with verbs, these expressions must conform to the new time of the indirect style. In addition, not only time changes, also the place is likely to be different.
Although the change will not always be necessary, the decision must be made taking into account the agreement, for example: This afternoon > that afternoon Today > that day Now > then A week ago > a week before Next month > the following month Tomorrow > the following/next day Here > There
c) My aunt told me, "I am going to Barcelona tomorrow" My aunt told me she _______ to go to London _______. d) The English teacher told us: "You should be able to pass the Advanced at the end of the year" The English teacher told us that _______ to pass the Advanced _______. 2) Pass these phrases to indirect style a) "I am working the night shift", Peter said. b) Sarah asked: "had you ever been to Paris before?"
Reported speech: Exercises c) "I'm starving," Tom said. 1) Fill in the gaps with the appropriate word a) Mary said: "I'm fed up with my boyfriend" Mary said she _______ with _______ boyfriend. b) Peter said: "Titanic is the best movie I've ever seen" Peter said that Titanic _______ the best movie he _______.
d) "We have been waiting for you for thirty minutes", Mary complained. e) "You must drive slowly here" the police officer told me. f) "I need to text my Mum in one hour", she said.
Solutions The time has come to see how you have done it! Note: in the second exercise, words with parentheses are optional. In those that are separated with bars, both options are correct: Sarah asked me if I had been to Paris before or Sarah asked if I had been to Pais before. 1) a) was fed up / her b) was / had ever seen c) was going / the following day d) we should be able to / at the end of that year 2) a) Peter said (that) he was working the night shift. b) Sarah asked (me) if / if I had ever been to Paris before. c) Tom said (that) he was starving. d) Mary complained (that) they had been waiting for me for thirty minutes.
e) The police officer told me (that) I had to drive slowly there. f) She said (that) she needed to text her Mum one hour later.
Revista explicativa. lesson one English