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News Bites NTU NTU TO INVEST IN SOLAR PANEL NTU will invest about $15.5 million to install a solar panel system by 2016. The installation is the largest ever planned for a single site in Singapore, and will cover some 50,000 square metres. It will provide enough energy for more than 1,000 HDB households annually.

NTU COLLISION LANDS CAR IN CANAL Three NTU students escaped unharmed after their car took a nosedive into a canal on October 31, following a car collision. Strong currents dragged the car for more than 50m after it crashed through the railings. The accident took place at the junction of Nanyang Crescent and Nanyang Avenue shortly after noon Two students were unhurt while one had slight injuries.

NTU TO CO - HOST WORLD ENTREPRENEURSHIP FORUM 2013 NTU, together with the Action Community for Entrepreneurship (ACE) , will jointly host the sixth edition of the World Entrepreneurship Forum (WEF) in Singapore next year. The WEF aims to be a meaningful platform for entrepreneurs, policy makers, and experts from different parts of the world to promote sustainable entrepreneurship.



Clean water advocate Dr Adrian Yeo and award-winning photojournalist Sam Kang Li were two of 26 alumni recognised by NTU in the Nanyang Alumni Awards on October 13. These awards are presented to alumni who have attained exemplary achievements in their field of specialisation, or have contributed significantly to the betterment of NTU or society. Other notable recipients include new MP Sim Ann and former TV news presenter Serene Loo.

NTU will construct a new Learning Hub and boost the number of residential places under its Campus Master Plan. The Learning Hub, which will be ready by 2014, consists of tutorial rooms stacked into towers. Open for 24 hours, the seven-storey building is designed to promote togetherness in learning. The number of residential places will also be increased by 5,000 places by July 2015. Works for the first two halls at Nanyang Drive have already begun.



Heavy downpours causing flash floods in various parts of Singapore are expected to continue over the next few weeks. Singapore will receive more rainfall during the north-east monsoon season which is expected to last from December to March. But PUB said despite the sudden heavy rainfall that hit, water levels dropped quickly and traffic was not severely affected.

Job growth in Singapore is expected to slow to 2 per cent. This is due to a structural policy shift to boost competitiveness and productivity and reduce overcrowding, according to labour chief Lim Swee Say. Mr Lim, who is also the Minister in the Prime Minister’s Office, said a workforce growth of 4 per cent a year is no longer sustainable from both an economic and social angle.



Two more platforms will be built at Choa Chu Kang (CCK) LRT station to ease crowding on the existing platform. Currently, commuters board and alight from the trains at a single platform which sees high human traffic during peak hours. The new platforms will free up the existing platform for boarding passengers. They will connect to the link bridge leading to CCK MRT station.

More than 100 Singaporeans dressed up in their zombie best for Singapore’s first ever Zombie walk over the Halloween weekend. Two different zombie walks took place, one along Penang road near Park Mall, and a larger zombie walk took place along at Clarke Quay on October 27. Organiser Gillian Ang, 27, said she was inspired to organise the event here after seeing it at the San Diego’s comic convention.



Hurricane Sandy has resulted in 146 deaths as of November 1. It is the largest Atlantic hurricane on record, with a diameter spanning 1,800 km. It swept the Caribbeans, the Mid-Atlantics and Northeastern United States in late October. In the United States, it hit 24 states. Total damages in all affected countries totalled USD$55.4 billion in estimates.

Disney has bought the Star Wars franchise from Lucasfilm for $4.05 billion. Disney plans to make the seventh episode of Star Wars movie in 2015, and will pay about half in cash and half in stock, issuing 40 million Disney shares in the transaction. George Lucas, the founder of Lucasfilm, will continue as a creative consultant for the franchise. The last Star Wars movie was ‘Revenge of the Sith’, released in 2005.

GREEK JOURNALIST TRIED OVER SWISS BANK LIST A Greek journalist has been charged with breaking private data rules after he published the names of more than 2,000 wealthy Greeks believed to be holding Swiss bank accounts. Costas Vaxanavis, the editor of “Hot Doc” weekly, published “Lagarde List”, the list containing the 2,000 people, allegedly originated from Christine Lagarde, who sent it to the authorities of several European Union (EU) countries.

CYCLONE NILAM KILLS EIGHT PEOPLE IN SOUTHERN INDIA At least eight people have been killed and thousands displaced after powerful Cyclone Nilam swept off India’s southern coast. 8,000 people in the low-lying area of Tamil Nadu state have been moved to temporary shelters. Nilam crossed the southern coast at around 4.30 pm, according to the India Meteorological Department.


Books galore in NTU – Page 6

Halloween horrors in NTU .$5(11* IM AGIN E N T U with tentacles hanging from walls, gruesome body parts served as food and scary zombies haunting the hallways of the university campus. That was how students and faculty celebrated Halloween the past three weeks — dressed up as ghoulish characters and scaring others out of their wits — just for the fun of it. Organised by Epiphany, NTU’s Eng l i sh a nd Dr a ma Societ y, ‘Fiendish Fiesta’ was housed in the School of Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS). T he r e , s t ude nt s f r om a l l faculties gathered in creepylooking costumes, shared horror stories and read poetry. Sarah Daud, 20, Epiphany’s Vice-President of Publications, said the best part of Halloween is being able to dress up and take on a different role. She said, “Everyone comes to school every day wearing the same old things all the time. At least during Halloween, you get to be someone else.” Be side s H SS’s H a l lowe e n party, students from the Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information (WKWSCI) also celebrated Halloween. Students came d ressed as d if ferent

PHOTO | RAPHAEL LIM SPOOKY: Children went trick-or-treating dressed in their ghoulish best.

characters such as Pac-man, Super Mario and the Addams Family. As part of the event, the school’s Communication and Information Club organised haunted trails which, according to the club’s Social Secretary, Shahrin Izhar, 21, scared

even the ‘ghosts’ themselves. “There was a first-year student dressed as Wednesday Addams who looked pale and scary herself but she was still so scared during the haunted trail,” he said. Schools were not the only

places where students celebrated Halloween. In Hall of Residence 11, the Junior Common Room Committee organised musical performances, a ‘best dressed’ costume fashion show and a spooky treasure hunt for thrill-seeking residents. According to resident Koh Hui Lin, 19, decorations were put up around the block a week before the event to build up the Halloween mood. “I felt excited during the event as I saw a lot of people dressed up,” said the first-year psychology student who attended the event dressed as a ghostly bride. “The event was a joint effort from a lot of people, like the cultural performance groups and the organisers who prepared the decorations and the food.” The NTU faculty joined in the festivities as well. Halloween-inspired games included ‘creepy Hangman’, where balloons filled with talcum powder were popped on faculty members. Ms Caroline Essame, 49, hosted a Halloween party for residents and their children staying in staff houses. The party was held at the ‘Gory Garden’, the scarily decorated backyard of Ms Essame’s house at Nanyang View, which was the main attraction. A s par t of the festiv ities,

Halloween games like biting donuts hung on a string and wrapping a friend up with toilet roll to create your own mummy were played too. After a round of games, the children left for trick-or-treating around staff houses, dressed as witches, sword-wielding ninjas and other ghoulish characters. For Ms Essame, festivals like Halloween mark the passing of time in Singapore, where there are no distinct seasons. “Being British, I’m used to having time marked by seasons, and you don’t have seasons living in the tropics,” she said. “And I found, having lived here for so long now, that it’s the festivals that mark the passing of time, whether it’s Chinese New Year, Deepavali or Christmas. And I think Halloween is just part of this cycle of time.” Ms Essame, who specialises in creativity and child development, added t hat Ha l lowe en he lps c h i ld r en de ve lop socia l a nd emotional skills by managing fear. “Halloween is about exploring fear, being scared, and going out in the dark and yet getting something good from going in the dark,” she said. “I think playing with the rituals of Halloween help children learn about fear and risk, and if you go into the darkness once, you will not be so scared of it the second time.”

NTU teams embark on first OCIP collaboration 0,5$1'$<(2 IN an unprecedented school-wide collaboration, six teams across NTU will work together this year to supply a Laotian village with clean water. They aim to furnish the village with water dams, pipes and water collection points. T h rough t h is large-sca le collaboration, the teams hope to make a lasting change that benefits the local community. “This project will culminate in a tangible end product, so together we can form a stronger purpose when planning a project that will truly impact and improve the lives of our beneficiaries,” said Hall 5 expedition director, Justin Loh. “There’s a limit to how much help one team can render as they usually come and go without continuity,” he added. The project will be carried out by teams from the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEE), School of Physical and Mathematical Science and residents from Halls of Residence 2, 3, 5 and 11. Each team will contribute 25

members to the project, with a total of 150 people involved. From May to June 2013, during the semester break, the six teams will take turns to visit Na Phong village, each handling different stages of the construction process.

“Students can come together and work with people from other faculties and halls.” Ms Wendy Gwee Senior assistant director Student Affairs Office

The process will only be finalised after the CEE team returns from a reconnaissance trip, which will take place from 7 to 12 December. The CEE team will also design the blueprint for the dam, which will be built at the top of a mountain, and pipes connecting the water supply to the village.

Aside from construction, the teams also plan to teach basic English to primary school children in the village school. The idea for a big project was conceived as there was a great interest in Laos amongst the OCIP teams in 2011 and 2012, said Ms Wendy Gwee, the senior assistant director at the Student Affairs Office. While overseeing the OCIP teams in Laos this year, the overallin-charge of the Overseas Exposure Programme (OEP), met up with Mr Peter Tan, a Singaporean who has lived in Laos since 1995. Mr Tan happened to be the point of contact for a number of projects being carried out last year. The guesthouse owner, who has facilitated more than 30 OCIP collaborations with Singaporean or ga n i s at ion s s uc h a s Nge e Ann Polytechnic and Singapore Buddhist Lodge, took Ms Gwee to Na Phong village to explore future project opportunities. Ms Gwee said t he idea to supply the remote village with water came from the villagers themselves, who have to trek long

PHOTO | COURTESY OF JUSTIN LOH BEHIND THE EFFORTS: Tan Wa, 8 and Amanda Tang, 21, the Hall 5 Twenty One Young Hearts Committee Vice-Chairperson in Laos Pong Song Village.

distances across mountainous areas to access clean water. At the Laos Night 2012, OCIP groups that previously went to Laos came together to share their experiences. During the event, Ms Gwee noticed a “shared common interest among those groups to return to

Laos to ensure continuity.” She subsequently opened up the project to the floor at the OEP briefing this year. “Students can come together and work with people from other faculties and halls, for a sustainable cause they feel passionate about,” she said.

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Memoirs of 20th century's Research goes hand in hand with teaching: influential Chinese -$60,1(7$< SHOE designer Jimmy Choo, Minister Mentor Lee Kuan Yew, and City Harvest founding pastor Kong Hee all have something in common – they are featured in the Chinese Heritage Centre’s (CHC) latest book on prominent Southeast Asian (SEA) people of Chinese ancestry who have impacted the world in the 20th century. Titled Southeast Asian Personalities of Chinese Descent: A Biographical Dictionary, the book was released last month in the National Library Building. The book is the first authoritative study of its kind in the English language and the most comprehensive biographical dictionary on people of Chinese descent over 10 SEA countries, according to Professor Wang Gungwu, Chairman of the East Asian Institute. Other prominent individuals featured include ex-Thai Prime Minister, Thaksin Shinawatra, Indonesian contemporary artist FX Harsono, and Singaporean singer Stefanie Sun. The book is a collaborative effort by more than 170 authors and contains more than 600 biographical entries. Professor Leo Suryadinata, chief editor of the dictionary and director of CHC said: “The dictionary was created for scholars as well as for those who wish to know more about the Chinese and for Chinese people who want to know more about their roots.”

One of the challenges faced in writing the book was to decide on which individuals to feature.“ "The board was supportive but warned that this was a difficult project because there are millions of Chinese in SEA,” said Professor Tommy Koh, former chairman of CHC and former ambassador to the United Nations.

“75% of Chinese people reside in Southeast Asia, and to ignore their history would mean ignoring a large part of history in Southeast Asia.” Professor Leo Suryadinata Director of Chinese Heritage Centre

“How do you define who to put in inside the book? Some may be pleased to be added in and others would feel offended if they are not,” added Professor Koh. It took six years of intense research before the book finally made it to print. Professor Suryadinata encountered difficulties in proving the Chinese ancestry of some of the influential people he wanted to feature. “I wanted to interview several prominent and influential peo-

ple who supposedly had Chinese backgrounds, but my fellow colleagues were denied permission to interview and we lost out on what could have been valuable,” he said. “We also have to exclude several others who had no proof that they were of Chinese descent. It was difficult but we needed to maintain the academic value of the work.” “I almost gave up half way through the project because it was extremely difficult to meet the requirements,” he said. “We needed to maintain the academic value of the work.” Explaining the reason for his book, Professor Suryadinata said it is very important to take include people of Chinese descent in history. “75% of Chinese people reside in SEA - a huge number - and to ignore their history would mean ignoring a large part of history in SEA,” he said. Professor Suryadinata hopes to reflect the success of Chinese descendants as well as discrimmination against them in indegenious countries. The book was also created in an effort to preserve and promote understanding towards the Chinese culture. “Rapid modernisation has caused many cultures to be washed away,” Professor Suryadinata said. “We hope that this book will open the eyes of readers and perhaps, discover something about themselves after reading it.”

LABOUR OF LOVE: Chief editor of the dictionary Professor Leo Suryadinata presents a copy to NTU President Emeritus Dr Su Guaning during its official launch. PHOTO | KENJI KWOK

NTU President

HEART TO HEART: Professor Andersson reassures students that good researchers make good teachers. PHOTO | REDZWAN KAMARUDDIN

5('=:$1.$0$58'',1 WE are not cutting back on teaching quality. That was the message sent out by NTU President Bertil Andersson, in light of recent concerns that the school may compromise teaching in a bid to become more research intensive. This was a response to NTU Students' Union President Christian Wihananto, who questioned NTU’s priority on research over teaching during the student leaders’ sharing session last month. The sharing session was conducted in the School of Biological Sciences on October 19. It allowed student leaders to express their concerns over issues they face in NTU. Said Wihananto: “As a student, observing how NTU positions itself, and how the media made it out to be, I can't help but enquire if NTU is emphasising research, and may compromise teaching in that pursuit.” Wihananto expressed concerns that researchers may not be the best lecturers or teachers, and questioned whether NTU judges someone’s value as a researcher or a lecturer. But Professor Andersson replied: “NTU’s 47th position takes into consideration both studentcentric measures as well as research measures." "From experience, good researchers are also good teachers. There is no sort of controversy between research and teaching," he added. He also reminded that both QS and Times Higher Education World University Ranking take into consideration teaching quality in its indicators, and that the quality of research goes hand in hand with teaching. Professor Andersson addressing the issue of rising cost of living in NTU during the two-anda-half hours sharing session. He attributed the rise in cost

of living in NTU to the rising cost of living in Singapore in general. “The campus is not shielded from the rising cost of living in Singapore,” he said. He also stated that the university is trying to make the rise a gradual increase instead of a sudden one in order to reflect the general increase of prices around Singapore. With regards to the university’s plan to upgrade its current facilities and construct new buildings such as the new mini-city, Professor Andersson said it serves “to make better investments”.

“Good researchers are also good teachers. There is no sort of controversy between research and teaching." Professor Bertil Andersson President Nanyang Technological University

In a post-meeting interview, Professor Bertil Andersson commented on how productive the meeting went, and that it was the first step to improving communications between the university management and its students. He said: “The policy that we need to have is consultation and then communication. And I think in some instances this has not been as good as I would like it to be.” But at the end of the day, the university has to make hard decisions when it needs to, added Prof Andersson. “The management of the university must take unpopular decisions, but at least we listen to everyone and try to accommodate as much as possible,” he said.

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Hall 1 duo spreads the love with music 0$77+(:1* THE next time you walk past Hall of Residence 1, do not be surprised by two guitar-wielding figures serenading you. Block 16 roommates Nicholas Chow Jiehong and Dalton Lim Junjie, both 22, lined Christmas lights along their window and play music for passers-by to spread their love for music. T he y a r e bot h f i r s t-yea r st udent s f rom t he Sc hool of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. “We wanted to make the place livelier and share our music with others. And what better way to do this than catching people’s attention with Christmas lights and music,” Chow said. Most weekdays, the duo would stand by their window from 9pm to sing popular hits like ‘Collide’ by Howie Day. When not playing, they would broadcast music from radio stations like 98.7FM and Class 95 FM on the amplifier. Lim said they were inspired by to make new friends through sharing their passion for music. “We try to promote a more open culture by saying hi to everyone and sharing our music,” he said.

“We’ve been playing in a band ever since our polytechnic days and we thought — why not?” It appears their music has struck a chord with passers-by. Julien Masson, who stays directly below their unit, said he likes their taste in music. “There is a good mix of classics, chillout and acoustic songs,” the 21-year-old French exchange student said. “They sing really well too.” Koh Wan Yi, 19, a first-year student from the Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information, also had praise for them. The Hall 10 resident was on her way to Canteen 1 one Monday night when she heard the duo singing Ronan Keating’s ‘When You Say Nothing At All’ by the window. She said, “They shouted out to me and waved at me. They even played me a song!” the 19-yearold said. “I thought they were really fascinating.” However, other residents like Sarah Jane Fernandez, 19, felt they should tone down the volume of their music in the later hours of the night. “I feel they play at the wrong time,” said the first-year student from the School of Humanities and

FEEL-GOOD MUSIC: Nicholas Chow (left) and Dalton Lim play songs to passers-by from their brightly decorated room.

Social Sciences, who stays above the duo. “They typically start playing at 9pm, which coincidentally is the time I start studying and it can be quite distracting.” A check with the Hall 1 security guard, Mr Alphonsoes, showed that all musical activities,

be it within or outside the rooms, should cease by 10pm. However, should residents wish to continue playing, they are strongly encouraged to lower their volume so as not to disturb others. When asked if complaints made against them would make them stop playing, Chow said, “We


will try to stop before 10pm or lower our volume. But, sometimes people just need some getting used to. "We did receive a complaint from our neighbour about the volume but we toned it down and he’s fine with us playing music by the window now.”

School spirit at space race GPS to reduce

wait for buses $05$'+,.$

RACE FOR SPACE: The virtual race showed school spirit, with over 13,000 staff and students vying for 25GB of space.

/81$+3+$0 25GB of storage space was all it took to get NTU into the same league as Harvard University. NTU made it to fourth place in the Global Leaderboard in the Great Space Race campaign launched three weeks ago by Dropbox, a cloud storage service. More than 13,000 staff and students flooded their Facebook

pages with Dropbox missile pictures and tweeted updates. NTU met the point threshold for 25 GB just 20 hours after the race started on October 16. Steven Toon, 23, was placed 20th on the Dropbox’s NTU top students list based on the most number of schoolmates referred by a user. But the third-year student at School of Materials Science and Engineering did not care much about NTU’s ranking.


Instead, he only referred his friends through Gmail contacts so he could benefit from the space. However, others were keen on proving the NTU school spirit amid the competition. Joshua Sim, a second-year student from Nanyang Business School spread the word about the race because of his school pride. “I didn’t want our school to lose. Not to NUS at least,” said the 23-year-old.

PASSENGERS of NTU’s internal shuttle bus services can now expect shorter delays in bus arrivals as Tong Tar Transport finished installing Global Positioning Systems (GPS) in all of its buses last month. Mr Philip Lee, the operations-in-charge for NTU-Tong Tar shuttle buses, said the management decided to take up this project to “omit discrepancies in bus routes”. The GPS system tracks the location of NTU shuttle buses in real time. It allows Tong Tar Transport to supervise bus drivers who take detours or idle off during operation hours. The planned routes for some buses were not being followed and there were some delays in sending out more buses when detours, diversions or fault y machinery are detected. With this new system, cases of drivers taking “too long a break” can now be traced. “Although such cases do not happen frequently, we still want to remove them completely,” said Mr Lee. Installation of the new GPS system began in September and is now in place for most shuttle buses in NTU. In addition to real-time route

tracking, Tong Tar can monitor which engines are switched on, off or are idle (when the engine is running but the vehicle is not moving) and the data will also be logged. Replacement buses can be quickly arranged and sent out should any faults such as low fuel or engine and brake malfunctions be detected. With the GPS, Tong Tar hopes to rectify such problems quickly and easily, especially at night. Currently, the average waiting time for shuttle buses ranges from 8 to 15 minutes. B u t s om e s t u d e n t s , l i k e Sivaranjani Singaravelu, have experienced longer waits during non-peak hours. “Around 3.30 to 4 pm, the waits for the shuttle buses can be as long as 45 minutes sometimes,” said the first-year student from the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Others have expressed doubts over the effectiveness of the GPS in shortening bus waiting time. Lee Yilin Amelia, 19, a firstyear student from the School of Material Science Engineering said: “The current NTU shuttle bus app estimates waiting time by showing us where the buses’ locations are, but it is unreliable and not updated in real time. “I doubt the new system will improve the buses’ efficiency.”



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Old is gold for Student entrepreneurs: book lovers Prepare for failure $0$1'$3+221

ENGROSSED: A wide variety of books were available at the recent book fair. PHOTO | STEFFI KOH

+,/$5,(/,0 ONE man’s trash is indeed another man’s treasure, especially for bookworms when the second-hand book fair comes rolling in. The area beside LT 1A becomes a temporar y home to a variety of publications, from past issues of National Geographic magazines to even copies of the Bible. These book bazaars are run by Evernew Book Store. The most recent one, though, was held in conjunction with the N T U Students’ Union. The fairs take place in NTU about eight times a year. With the book fairs being held right at the heart of the campus, book enthusiasts can capitalise on the convenience and get their book fix. Klaryssa Marie Augustine, 19, an avid reader who visits secondhand bookstores, says: “It’s good that NTU holds used book fairs frequently, and since these fairs are often held in school, people are more likely to buy.” The first-year English student enjoys scavenging through the troves of books and picking out a few to feed her “obsession”. But the greatest draw, besides the convenience, is exactly what secondhand books are all about – the low prices. “Since the books are incredibly cheap, I can buy as many as six books for the price of a brand new one,” she said. Another freshman, Kaede Lim, 19, a sociology student, shares similar sentiments. “I think new books are worth every cent but I wish they cost less,” she said. “So I turn to second-hand books. They’re a wonderful and cheap alternative.” But it is more than just a sale. For Gareth Seah, 23, the book fairs motivated him to read more.

Said the third-year psychology student: “I’ve actually been reading more the past few months because of the book fairs at Canteen A. “At first I bought a few for fun because they were so cheap, but since they were lying around, I just read them,” he says. While most of the benefits of the book fair are tangible, some readers have taken a step further to use the books as a vantage point to understand their previous owners.

“I can buy as many as six books for the price of a brand new one.”

FAILURE is something that Zhang Yaoxian, 23, is familiar with. T he st ress f rom jugg li ng schoolwork, hall commitments and a sideline business may have been too much to handle and his business died off in his first year in university. Now a third-year student at the School of Biological Sciences (SBS), Zhang is the co-owner of TuitionKing, a tuition agency that matches parents to prospective tutors for students ranging from primary school to junior college. A revamp of his business model in March has freed up time for him and his partner to focus their energy on school. One of many student entrepreneurs in NTU, Zhang thinks that failure is something that is constantly encountered while pursuing entrepreneurship. “The important thing is that you have to keep going,” he said. “Most people only see the successes of others, but I can confirm with you that all entrepreneurs have humble beginnings. You just have to keep these people in mind as inspiration.”

However, fear of failure is an oft-cited reason why students hesitate to start their own business. P r of e s s o r F o o S a y We i , deput y d i r ec tor of Na nya ng Entrepreneurship Centre, thinks that Singaporeans will always want to ensure that their choices will inevitably lead to success, and that the Asian culture is also averse to failure.

“All entrepreneurs have humble beginnings. You just have to keep these people in mind as inspiration.” Zhang Yaoxian Third year student School of Biological Sciences

For many students, grades remain their priority. Max Lee, 21, the owner of InstaMax, an online business selling gadgets, thinks that the amount of time required for

starting a business is a significant deterrent. “Many students do not have the extra push to try out their own business and will rather focus their time on their studies,” said the first-year student from the Nanyang Business School. Professor Foo agrees. He said: “Students want to get a good degree first. So they do not want to start a real business while studying. I would also not encourage students to start a real business unless they have a fantastic idea that has time value.” The entrepreneurs interviewed exhibited a never-say-die attitude and enthusiasm when discussing their businesses. Calvin Foo, 23, thinks that youths now are much smarter, and will work hard to get what they want. The third-year student from SBS is the co-owner of Katalyst Group Pte Ltd, a T-shirt printing company. “If I am working, I would put in 100% of my effort. If I am running a business, I would also put in a 100%,” said Foo. “But if I work, that results may not belong to me but if I have my own business, be it a failure or success, it belongs to me.”

Robot helps detect autism early in young children (':$5'7(2

Klaryssa Marie Augustine First year student School of Humanities and Social Sciences

“Quite often, I open the books and find annotations, ticket stubs and even Polaroids that the previous owner used as a bookmark," said first-year maritime studies student Melisa Yeo. “I think personal items left within the pages of the book are like trivia about the faceless strangers who have read the very same book that you were attracted to,” said the 19-year-old. While second-hand books hold a certain history behind the pages and its owner, not many readers are thrilled at old books filling their shelves. Damien Augustine, 22, a second-year Business student says: “Buying a book is not just about reading it. It is also about ownership. I love reading and I don’t want to own something that I know someone else has already used.”

FINE-TUNING MINOR GLITCHES: Sun Chun Yang, 22 a final year student at School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (MAE), monitors 'Frank' attentively as she programmes its movement. The robot is a project managed by MAE, combining the field of Robotics with Psychology in a move to diagnose autism in children between the ages of 9 and 16. The team behind the project, including PhD student Lili Liu and research associate Alex Gravier, consider Frank to be a new approach to autism diagnosis and treatment, as psychologists are "inconsistent and unpredictable". The project, which is supported by NTU and the National Health Group, is waiting to undergo clinical trials in mid-November, which will be held at Singapore General Hospital.

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From radio DJ to storyteller 6(2:%(,<, WHILE being on the air is what makes radio DJ Vernetta Lopez most at home, she felt strongly enough about sharing her story that she put her thoughts to paper for her new book, Memoirs of a DJ. Speaking at the NTU Page Turner’s Society on October 15, Vernetta shared her experiences as a writer and anecdotes from her book. The book starts with her recounting her days as a Mass Communication student at Ngee Ann Polytechnic (NP). Her experience with radio began with hosting shows on Radio Heatwave, NP’s campus radio station. As a student, making mistakes and gaining hands-on experience helped in moulding her career. She also emphasised the importance of making the most out of the practice she got in school. “Don’t make it playtime; it’s not something where you can just go in there, shuffle about and leave again,” she said. Just as every word counts on radio, Vernetta shaped her writing and thought process for the book in the same way. She was careful to avoid phrases that she found overused in conversations, like

STORY OF A DJ: Vernetta Lopez shared her life experience with NTU audiences in a book talk on October 15.

‘two peas in a pod’. “I’d rather say, ‘two peas in a durian shell’,” she said in jest. Besides t he wr iting st yle, Vernetta kept true to the purpose of her memoir and did not discount readers on details of her life.

The account that generated the most buzz was her divorce with radio DJ Mark Richmond. It was the first time she had gone public about the details, dedicating two chapters to her marriage. “I’ve done my best to be re-


spectful,” she said. “You can’t write an autobiography without touching stuff like that.” She found that narrating the account and looking back at those difficult moments has helped her learn more about herself.

Even though she expected criticism from some readers, Vernetta was more concerned with telling her stories as a means to reach out to others who may find themselves in similar situations. “I wanted the book to maybe help somebody along the way, somehow,” she said. “You think the whole world is looking down on you and persecuting you forever. But actually, it’s never the end of the world.” She recalls how a reader approached her at one of her book signings, and told her that her book had come at the right time and had resonated with her. For Vernetta, such unique instances are the intangible benefits of being an author. “I think if you want to become a writer,” she said. “It’s really about taking a step back, every so often, to explore and feel, see, smell and remember all the little moments that bring to life any story that you want to bring back to the present moment.” Writing the memoir has opened up a new chapter in the 39 years of her life, and also a new phase in her career. It is the first book she has written and “hopefully the first of many to come”.

Lost in Singapore, found in Boston '(%%,(/(( DR LEONG KAIWEN might have been expelled from four junior colleges for calling his teachers “insane”, but he still realised his dream of getting a PhD from a US university. With the help of a relief teacher, he stayed home and spent the time leading up to his National Service enlistment preparing for two SAT tests and the ‘A’ Level examinations as a private candidate. “All I needed to know, I taught myself,” he recounted. He passed the SAT and all his ‘A’ Level subjects, and was accepted by Boston University while in National Service. The 30-year-old assistant professor in economics shared his experiences at a book talk in NTU on October 17, to promote his new book, Singapore’s Lost Son: How I Made It from Dropout to Millionaire Princeton PhD. Co-authored with two current Princeton University students, the book describes Dr Leong’s life journey and the lessons he had learnt. He graduated from Boston University with bachelor’s and master's degrees in the fields of economics and mathematics, and went on to Princeton University to obtain both a master's degree and PhD in economics in 2011. “My learning curve is concave,” he said. “I learn slower, but ultimately catch up. Even if you

don’t succeed, but still try your best, you will see results as long as you don’t give up,” he said. In his book, he said he earned his first million after graduating from Boston University by investing in Shanghai real estate. Explaining the reason for his book’s title, Dr Leong said he was lost in “every sense of the word, both emotionally and mentally.” “I felt lost in Singapore and was overwhelmed by the environment. “But I found myself in Boston, and came back stronger and better,” he said. One of his main points in the talk was for NTU students to know that it is possible to overcome any difficulties they may face in their studies as long as they have the right mindset. “People who have overcome the same challenges [that] you are going through are no more special than you and me,” he added. “They don’t have additional resources, and neither are they more brilliant or courageous. Rather, it is because of their attitude.” Dr Leong was straightforward about his past experiences during the talk, revealing how he was sexually assaulted by his martial arts coach at age 10. The episode left him traumatised and unable to concentrate on his studies for years. “I shielded myself in my own little world,” he said. “People thought I was autistic.” W he n a sked why he wa s

willing to share his traumatic experiences publicly, Dr Leong said he wanted to be a guide for those who have undergone similar setbacks. “When I was going through this, I didn’t have someone like myself to motivate me,” he said. “I wish to share what works for me and let people know my suggestions for them are viable options they can try.” However, he said motiva-

tional talks are not the be-all and end-all for those looking for a shortcut to success. “A lot of people say motivational talks are important, but my motivation is about fighting for what’s important to me,” he said. He said that such talks would not work if people were unsure of what they truly wanted to do. “If I say I want to go to Point X, that’s unclear,” he added. “But if I say I want to go to Jurong, that’s clearer.

I know where I’m headed.” That in turn relates to his secret of getting into the Masters’ and PhD programme in a top university in the US — a topic broached by many attendees. “You will need track record grades and professors who believe in you,” he said. “But most of all, you will need the insane belief in yourself that you can do it, because everything else falls into place after that.”

A HEARTWARMING MOMENT: Economics Professor Leong Kaiwen signs a book for an audience member.


Lifestyle mugshot


o i n c i d e n t a l l y a f te r The Huckleberry Friends gat hered some fame and recognition, Andy Williamsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the singer of â&#x20AC;&#x153;Moon River", the song that popularised the term â&#x20AC;&#x153;huckleberry friendsâ&#x20AC;?â&#x20AC;&#x201D;passed away. â&#x20AC;&#x153;We owe him our name, and a whole lot more. RIP, Andy.â&#x20AC;? A post on The Huckleberry Friends' Facebook page reads. T he Huc k leb e r r y Fr ie nd s definitely owe much to Andy Williams: their rendition of â&#x20AC;&#x153;Moon River" launched them to stardom. The trio, made up of Jonathan Chan, 22, Tok Xue Yi, 21, and Marcus Tan, 22, were invited to perform at the Singapore Press Hold i ng sâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; 20 t h a n n ive r sa r y celebration, various dinner and dances at NTU and charity events, where they proved to be a hit. The three formed the group simply because of a love for music. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Something just clicked,â&#x20AC;? said Xue Yi, a third-year Digital Animation student at the School of the Art, Design and Media (ADM). â&#x20AC;&#x153;We meet up almost daily to practiceâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve no complaints though, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s always fun to hang out with them. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m very thankful.â&#x20AC;? Marcus, a second-year English Literature student, added, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Even if we werenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t a band, Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m just glad to have met them.â&#x20AC;? Often taking on songs that are energetic, catchy and fun, The Huckleberry Friends agree that their roles can be â&#x20AC;&#x153;pretty ďŹ&#x201A;uidâ&#x20AC;?, as all three can carry tunes well and play the guitar. Xue Yi usually sings, while Jonathan supports with backup vocals and Marcus plays the guitar. Other times, Marcus and Jonathan take turns to lead the vocals or play the guitar, while Xue Yi steps back to become a supporting vocalist. â&#x20AC;&#x153;We donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t want to stereotype ourselves into certain roles. We usually throw around ideas for music arrangements, and see what works,â&#x20AC;? said Jonathan, a second year Visual Communications student of ADM. Unconventional instruments like the blow organ and the xylophone will occasionally be brought in to jazz up their music. â&#x20AC;&#x153;I love the different sounds, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s so boring to have just a guitar at times,â&#x20AC;? said Jonathan, who revers the band Mumford & Sons, which Jonathan calls â&#x20AC;&#x153;folk/ indie/ rockâ&#x20AC;?. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s what I want to go into, actually. I think Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d love to do folk, but there are not enough people in Singapore interested in folk. There are lots of weird instruments like double bass, banjos, mandolinsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; with 10 people on stage for the big bands. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d like to say itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s my native style, but I havenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t done it before,â&#x20AC;? Jonathan added. The best thing was they were not prepared to win anything. Five months ago, the three were mere acquaintances. Today, The Huckleberry Friends has already made their mark on the local




FRIENDS MAKING A SCENE: Five months ago, Marcus Tan, Tok Xue Yi and Jonathan Chan (from left to right) would not have imagined that just three months down the road, they would be making it onto the newspaper for their music.

music scene, where they competed in the Britmania edition of The New Paperâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s LOUD Cover Contest in August. They emerged as the ďŹ rst runners-up, after their cover of â&#x20AC;&#x153;Valerie" by British singer Amy Winehouse impressed judges. Jonathan was previously the winner of the contestâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Jason Mraz edition held in June with his cover of â&#x20AC;&#x153;A Beautiful Mess". The acoustic band had prerecorded â&#x20AC;&#x153;Valerie" without prior

knowledge of the contest, while Jonathan forgot about the contestâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s deadline till the night before when he scrambled to ďŹ lm it with his sister's help The trioâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s musical resumes are also built differently. Xue Yi, the most proliďŹ c of the three, had produced three original tracks as her ďŹ nal-year project at the School of Music and The Arts, where she did a part-time diploma. Xue Yi was talent-spotted and

brought under the mentorship of Noise Singapore, an initiative by the National Arts Council, during which she wrote and performed a song at its annual â&#x20AC;&#x153;Make Some Noiseâ&#x20AC;? concert in March. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Singing came quite naturallyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; my fatherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s side of the family loved it. I guess that got to me,â&#x20AC;? said Xue Yi, laughing at how she used to sing â&#x20AC;&#x153;Lemon Tree" while jumping on the sofa as a child. Jonathan played the piano since

Primary 2, and attained Grade Eight CertiďŹ cate by 15. â&#x20AC;&#x153;It was an Asian kid thing,â&#x20AC;? he said. â&#x20AC;&#x153;I picked up the guitar in Junior College as lots of people played it in my church, and started singing in army because I was quite bored then.â&#x20AC;? Marcus was the only one to have discovered his f lair later, after picking up the guitar at 16. Two years later, his band clinched second place in Rockafella, an annual rock band competition organised by Catholic Junior College, which spurred him on to further his music. â&#x20AC;&#x153;We were pretty well-received then, but in retrospect, it was really bad,â&#x20AC;? Marcus said, musing that it took about 50 tries for him to â&#x20AC;&#x153;get used to being looked atâ&#x20AC;?. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The nerves never really go away, but itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s much better than when I started,â&#x20AC;? he said, reminiscing about his days at Catholic High School where he also performed. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Singing for a crowd in secondary school was the most terrifying thing ever. My heart was pounding so fast.â&#x20AC;? Jonathan similarly described what he felt was the bandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ďŹ rst ofďŹ cial gig at Timbre@Substation as â&#x20AC;&#x153;a rea lly scar y, but good experienceâ&#x20AC;?. Moving past the jitters, Jonathan and Marcus have been performing weekly at The Beaverâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Pub and Grill since late last year. They only stopped recently as their school commitments got heavier. Inspired by momentuous events, emotions, or simply a need to create something, all three have penned songs. Xue Yi uses her phone to record melodies that randomly spring to her mind, even if it means singing to her phone on the train. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d lose the idea otherwise,â&#x20AC;? she said. The three plan to write new songs next semester after Xue Yi returns from an exchange programme in Germany. Hoping to see the local music scene grow, Jonathan said: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Just put yourself out there. Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be afraid of criticismâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;enter competitions, get advice from friends. Try and if the musicâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s good, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll stick.â&#x20AC;? Juxtaposing music with his other passionâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;design, he said that music gave him more freedom as he â&#x20AC;&#x153;isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t beholden to other peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s acceptanceâ&#x20AC;?. â&#x20AC;&#x153;In design, you have to liaise with clients, and you have briefs that you have to cater to, you know?â&#x20AC;? he said. â&#x20AC;&#x153;A career is typical like that. But with music I guess I didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t want that to happen.â&#x20AC;?

SUBSCRIBE to â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Huckleberry Friendsâ&#x20AC;? on their YouTube channel at youtube. com/user/huckleberrysongs to listen to their music. You can also ďŹ nd out more about them on their Facebook page at

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Cha Cha were thin and bite-sized, making them easy to eat. Dusted with white sugar and complemented with thick vanilla ice-cream, it was the perfect ending to the savoury main courses. I ďŹ nd no fault with this charming Mexican cafĂŠ. Fr iendly staff, catchy R&B music, a boisterous atmosphere and delectable food â&#x20AC;&#x201C; if you wish to get an authentic Mexican dining experience, Cha Cha Cha Restaurant is a great choice.

AMERICAN-BORN Hispanic Jose Cerda gives us his two cents worth on Mexican food. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s all about the aroma and taste. It has to be smelt before it is even seen,â&#x20AC;? said the 27-year-old Mexican salsa teacher. He added: â&#x20AC;&#x153;When I eat Mexican food I want to be instantly transported back to my mumâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s kitchen.â&#x20AC;? A Mexican meal typically consists of a meat, usually a beef or chicken, orange Mexican rice and a vegetable, usually beans. Flour or corn tortillas are considered staples and are the equivalent of bread. Mexican food is a balancing act between spicy and juicy. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The spiciness can either make you more engaged, or turn you off altogether,â&#x20AC;? he said. â&#x20AC;&#x153;If vegetables are fresh and crisp, it helps bring out the ďŹ&#x201A;avour of the meat. "If the cream is too sour, it helps to lighten the taste of tortilla. A right amount of lime always helps.â&#x20AC;? Most of the Mexican food found in Singapore can be considered good at most but not authentic. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The food here can never compare to the food back home,â&#x20AC;? he said. â&#x20AC;&#x153;My mumâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cooking had the distinct smell of a spice called Adobo and nobody here really captures that exact smell.â&#x20AC;?

Do give the crab enchilada ($24) a try. Perfect for seafood lovers, this chef â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s recommendation is a corn tortilla stuffed with soft, succulent crab meat and smothered in tomatillo (a slightly sweet fruit commonly used in Latin American sauces) gravy and a sweet and tangy chilli-pepper sauce. The enchilada is then topped with melted cheese and sour cream. The accompanying

basmati rice and salad added much heartiness to the plate. Refried beans whisked into a bean puree added a wet, pulpy texture to this otherwise dry dish. In all, Viva Mexico provides a cosy ambience, much complemented by the absence of long queues and large crowds. This place is ideal for people who want a vibrant al fresco dining experience.


Price: Around $30 per person

CHA Cha Cha is a Mexican cafĂŠ straight out of the movies. Located in the heart of Holland Village, the signboardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s bright neon lights and red-and-green checkered tables are hard to miss. Cha Cha Cha is owned by the Morales family who have been running the family restaurant for more than 30 years. Begin your meal with the nachos ($13.50). Topped with shredded chicken and coated with a generous amount of melted cheese and jalapeno slices, it makes for a great starter. Strongly recommended is the langostino ($26), a platter of king prawns garnished with f inely chopped parsley and fried garlic, it is served with green salsa, sour cream, rice and a juicy grilled tomato on the side. T he praw ns are light ly

MUSIC FOR THE MOUTH: The prawns in the langostino are sweet and lightly charred to perfection.

charred and have a great texture to them, their natural sweetness complemented by the herbal taste of the marinade. The DIY prawn and chicken fajitas ($26) is a must-try. A sizzling hotplate of peeled prawns and barbequed chunks of chicken is served alongside four sheets of thin flour wraps, complete with sautĂŠed onions and green and red capsicums. Custom ise you r w rap w it h chicken, raw capsicum and lettuce

shreds, and top them off with green salsa and sour cream. It was a messy experience trying to eat the wrap with â&#x20AC;&#x153;classâ&#x20AC;?, but having the sauce dribble down my fingers while savouring my self-made fajita made for an authentic Mexican dining experience. Top off your meal with Cha Cha Chaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s specialty dessert â&#x20AC;&#x201C; churros with vanilla ice-cream ($6.50). Churros are deep fried crispy pastry strips popular in Mexico and Spain. The ones served at Cha



Price: Around $40 per person

ST ROLLING down the v ibrant walkway of Cuppage Terrace, it would be impossible to miss the brightly coloured Viva Mexico. Huddled amongst an array of al fresco restaurants and bars and framed by colonial-style houses, this quaint restaurant serves authentic Mexican cuisine, prepared by a Mexican chef. To beat the heat, begin with a cool glass of pina colada ($15) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a cocktail mixed with a delicious blend of rum, pineapple juice, and coconut cream. Garnished with a pineapple wedge, the pina colada was easy on the palate with a mild rum taste and a light froth.

VIVA LA MEXICO: The chicken quesadilla (above) is tasty but slightly dry, and the pina colada (right) is a refreshing drink with very subtle hints of rum.

For appetizers, opt for the the chicken quesadilla ($19). The 12inch tortilla filled with chicken and melted cheese is served with guacamole, sour cream and a salsa dip. Although the dry chicken did little to whet my appetite, the accompanying sour cream and guacamole added a creamy, tasty touch. The salsa dip complemented the dish with its tanginess, but is not

ďŹ ery enough to satisfy spice-lovers. A trip to a Mexican restaurant is not complete without trying the burritos. Viva Mexicoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s beef burrito is a large wheat tortilla stuffed with beef and Mexican rice drenched in mustard, olive oil and vinegar. The shredded beef ďŹ lling was tender and juicy, and the sauce brought a tasty and zesty punch to the dish.



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SWEET OASIS: Tuckshop is ideal for seeking respite from bustling crowds.


GE Y L A NG is no st r a nger to people who love tucking into beef kway teow, frog leg porridge and Hokkien mee. But here is a healthier reason to visit Geylang.

Yes Natural F&B, located just behind Aljunied MRT station, sets itself apart from the usual caloriďŹ c fare. But this is not just any ordinary baker y. The breads and cakes here do not contain eggs and preservatives. They use natural ingredients instead. The bakery has a variety of pastries including mixed nuts scones, bamboo charcoal loaves, and tangerine walnut buns. T he Cinnamon Raisin bun ($0.70), for instance, is a small bread with a soft centre that is topped with a generous amount of raisins. The sweet combination


of cinnamon and raisins and its light, ďŹ&#x201A;uffy texture makes it an ideal teatime snack. Other f lavours include Char Siew, Purple Sweet Potato and Soya Walnut, which you can mixand-match at three for $2. The Green Tea Sliced Cake ($2) was a pleasant surprise. The dashes of green tea powder did not overwhelm the taste of the vanilla sponge cake, making it light and refreshing. W h i le t he ba ker y look s ordinary, the pastries are fresh a nd spor t u nu sua l f lavou r s. Variety, check. Organic option, check.


BARGAIN POWER: It is rumoured that most blogshops get their clothes wholesale here.

THERE is more to City Plaza than meets the eye. On the outside, it looks old and forgotten. But inside, it is where most blogshops have been rumoured to get their clothes wholesale. T he shops t hat of fer contemporary fashion are mostly on the third ďŹ&#x201A;oor, with around 10 shops bunched together in a small lane. It pretty much resembles the air-conditioned level of Bugis

AN industrial precinct is not a place you would expect to ďŹ nd a boutique cafĂŠ like Tuckshop. A m e r e 10 - m i n u t e b u s ride away from Cit y Plaza at Geylang, Tuckshop has a quiet and comfortable ambience. An array of furniture such as chairs, paintings, cushions and artiďŹ cial plants line the entrance. They are also for sale. The German Pork Schnitzel ($13.50 ) is a mu st-t r y, as it matches up to its counterparts of fered i n Ger ma n ba r s a nd restaurants which usually cost at least $25.

The pork collar layered with an egg batter and deep fried with bread crumbs is the perfect main course.The tender meat goes well with the mushroom sauces and is served with fries and a salad on the side. Tuckshop also offers gourmet coffee such as the Cubano ($4.50), a brew more bitter than your average coffee. But its thinness prevents its bitter quality from overwhelming your tastebuds. This Boston specialty may be deemed too diluted for seasoned coffee drinkers however. Apart from the usual Western fare, they also offer Asian dishes such as the Ribeye Yakiniku Beef and the Sweet and Sour Pork with Rice which tastes like Hainanese Pork Chop rice. The service is also prompt and the staff are friendly and patient. The cafĂŠ is a perfect hideaway to catch up with friends over quality food.

ORGANIC BAKERY: None of the breads and cakes do not contain eggs and preservatives.

Street, but without the crowds and with cheaper price tags. Surprisingly, few shoppers have made the trip themselves given the popularity of online shopping. â&#x20AC;&#x153;It is easier to do my shopping online and have the blogshops mail the clothes to my house,â&#x20AC;? said Michelle Lim, a second-year student at the School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences. The shopkeepers sell their items both as individual pieces and wholesale. Ferris, on the third ďŹ&#x201A;oor, is one of the shops worth a visit. A vintage printed top or a pair of dip-dyed denim shorts, which is all the rage now, are going for $10 each. It offers wholesale prices

when shoppers purchase six pieces or more. Pink Squirrel is a small shop on the second level which offers sweet-looking dresses you often ďŹ nd on blogshops. The items are usually priced at $28 each. But with a purchase of more than three pieces, the price can be reduced to $20 per piece. The trick for getting more bang for your buck is to take your time to scour the mall thoroughly and venture into the nooks and crannies. Bargaining skills also come in handy when negotiating prices with retailers. Do gather a group of friends when visiting the mall to gain bargaining power by purchasing in bulk.

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k now t he t i me ha s c ome w he n I pu s h open the door of the lecture theatre and feel a nostalgic pull in me, knowing that this will be one of the last couple of months I am doing it. It is the same feeling I get when I now take shortcuts around school, and inwardly chuckle over how I took way longer to get my bearings right when I was a clueless freshman. Rather than taking an arduous walk round school from Lee Wee Nam Library to the Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS) Building, I now take a shorter route by going up a ďŹ&#x201A;ight of stairs on its left till I see Learning Vision, the daycare center for staffâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s children. I then turn right and go down a long staircase till I reach HSS building. I remember being constant ly su r pr ised by helpful students who even bothered to bring me right to the doorstep of my classes, when I asked them for directions. It feels surreal that I now help people with directions instead of asking for directions myself. When I see my seniors posing for jumpshots on the day of their convocation at Nanyang Auditoriumâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; ecstatic graduates captured eternally in photos, I tell myself that this will be me in a couple of monthsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; time. Now that I am in my ďŹ nal year as an English Literature undergraduate in NT U, I look back and muse how I survived these years. I remember a wise piece of advice from my friendly seniors who emphasized the importance of planningâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; planning your timetable,

always be mindful of your degree requirements. Fi nd out how ma ny academic units (AUs) you need to clear in total and then plan accordingly. Find out the nitty gritty bits. It may some simple, but this bit of advice certainly proved to be very wise. Fastest ďŹ ngers ďŹ rst. This catchy alliterative piece of advice on how to emerge triumphant in the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;warâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, has been drilled into me since I entered the university.

Extend planning to all aspects of your academic life. Plan your timetable wellâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; that includes your exam timetable as well (yes, that small box in the lower right hand corner of STAR Planner that many a student neglects to pay attention to until the dreaded dates loom). Avoid having exams in the same day with only a short break in between, or even worse, practically backto-back exams. It is really nerve-wracking to rush from one exam hall to another, especially if they are far from each other. I remember the frenzy when I had to dash from where I had an exam at Sp or t s a nd Re c r e at ion Centre, to my next paper at Nanyang Business School. What you need after an exam is a break. You would not want to start your next exam with hands sore from writing furiously, feeling like you just had your brain fried. The ďŹ rst challenge I faced as an NTU undergraduate was the feared day of course registration. And I am not alone.


I once overheard a group of students gesticulating w i ld l y ov e r h a l f- e ate n noodles, talking in agitated tones about f ighting the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;STAR warsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Surely only N T U students will get what they are lamenting aboutâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;that dreaded day when we have to sit in front of our computers and â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;fightâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; with everyone else in the same course and year as us, for modules that we want. Fastest ďŹ ngers ďŹ rst. This catchy alliterative piece of advice on how to emerge triumphant in the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;warâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, has been drilled into me since I entered the university. The school consists of students f rom so many d if ferent faculties, but these acronyms and phrases truly resonate with any NTU student. What happens when you do not get a module you desperately need? Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t panic. Sometimes I wonder if NTU students have some energy stored up for emergency situations. I have seen many a student trudge slowly to the library, and when a rare vacant seat is spotted, dash up and plonk down on that seat.

Regina Moh, 21, ďŹ nal-year Business undergraduate, says, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Write to the school and beg to be added to the module. Tell your friends to inform you if they drop the module, and email the administrator with your request to be added to the class!â&#x20AC;? With determination like hers, no war is too tough to ďŹ ght. For those who do not stay in hall, we share the same pred ica mentâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;long t r a i n rides. I usually overcome the dull drudgery of these train rides by reading my textbooks on the train. It makes time seem to pass really fast and I also get to unwind when I reach home without feeling guilty. W hen it comes to studying, many of us head to the libraries in school for t hei r conven ience a nd conduciveness. But it is ver y difficult to get a seat, especially during the assignments and exam period. Sometimes I wonder if NTU students have some energ y stored up for emergency situations. I have seen many a student trudge slowly to the library, and when a rare vacant seat is spotted, dash up and plonk down on that seat. Perhaps from knowing that the chances of getting a seat in the library are as slim as the chances of getting onto the 179 bus in NTU during peak hours. Izzat bin Abdul Raman, 2 4 , f i n a l-y e a r E n g l i s h Literature undergraduate,

laughs as he shares how he usually resorts to getting seats. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Stare at people till they give up their seats!â&#x20AC;? If you lack the guts to tr y that, go to the more unpopulated places, the S4 Reading Rooms at Nanyang Bu s i ne s s S c ho ol ( N BS ) and the spacious librar y at Nat iona l I n st it ute of Education (NIE), just to name a few. During the exam period, t h e s c h o ol a l s o o p e n s seminar rooms in NBS and the School of Humanities and Socia l Sciences for students to study at. NTU leaves me with a warm and fuzzy feelingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;it is so many things to me; an old friend, a book with its last chapter still unwritten, a journey on a choppy sea but always knowing there is an anchor.

TIPS Breathing Spots Have a picnic on the hill of the School of Art, Design and Media (ADM). Enjoy the spectacular view of NTU from the top if you want a escape from the canteen crowd. The second ďŹ&#x201A;oor of HSS Building also has a breezy outdoors space overlooking Yunnan Garden.

Book Smart If you need to borrow a reserve book from the library for a project or assignment, and ďŹ nd the strict 2 hours loan period insufďŹ cient to photocopy or read the book, borrow it on a Saturday. Reserve books loaned on Saturdays after 10am can be returned on Mondays before 11am.

Brain Pool Form discussion groups with friends in the same modules as you. When preparing for a difďŹ cult exam, my friends and I each made mind-maps for a few chapters, and we shared them with each other. This was a much more efďŹ cient way of studying which saved a lot of time.

Handling Electives When you can choose which modules to take, try to get inter-related modules. Some modules have overlapping course materials. That means you get to study less and save time. If you are taking an elective on ďŹ lm, such as Fictional Film: From Hollywood to Bollywood, it would be wise to also take another elective in ďŹ lm to complement it. Examples include Asian Horror Film, and Survey of Experimental Film, which can be found under GERPEs for Art, Humanities and Social Sciences.

Make your mark If you cannot ďŹ nd a CCA that ďŹ ts you, you can start your own. Gather others who are interested in what you have in mind, and submit a proposal to the Student Affairs OfďŹ ce to register your own club.

12 LIFESTYLE framed

ACRYLIC TO WATERCOLOUR: (Top) â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Foreshortenedâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; was a full-canvas acrylic painting Jedidah Tan, 20, did for her Ordinary Level art examinations, inspired by her late pet dog. (Bottom) Moving on from acrylic painting, Jedidah does more PHOTOS | ANTHEA SOH, COURTESY OF JEDIDAH TAN watercolor paintings nowâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;many of which can be found on her website.

Dogged painter SHOU LD Jedidah Tanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s studio catch on ďŹ re, she would save the painting which she completed four years ago. Titled â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Foreshortenedâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, the artwork was inspired by her own dog (who passed away a few months back). It portrayed the life as experienced through the eyes of pets. â&#x20AC;&#x153;I hold it very dear to me as I remember him each time I look at this painting,â&#x20AC;? Jedidah said with a hint of reminiscence. This intricate piece was the 20-year-oldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ďŹ rst painting done on a big-scale canvas. A big fan of exploring new concepts and ways of working, Jedidah has already experimented with a range of mediums, including drawing, painting, photography, silkscreening, sculpturing, and ďŹ lming, while being inďŹ&#x201A;uenced by her own experiences and views. Recently, she has ventured into digital design.

Why was your dog the inspiration behind â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Foreshortenedâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;? When you love someone a lot, youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d want to put yourself in his shoes because youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re concerned about his feelings, right? I was really attached to my dog and so I was really curious as to how he sees us as owners from his point of view.

Tell us a little more about â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Foreshortenedâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. In my work, the perspective always stems from a lower eye level, looking from the bottom up. The colours symbolise the mood of the dog. During playtime, it is more colourful as compared to the use of a blue palette when he gets neglected or scolded.


Jedidah Tan, 20 Visual Communications major

How would you describe your style of art? Expressive and illustrative. My purpose in pursuing art has always been because it acts as a form of escaping or just letting lose from all the stress that I have been going through throughout my education years. I love to be imaginative because it is important for us to be able to dream. Creativity is only limited by oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s imagination.

Who inďŹ&#x201A;uenced your art? I have many inďŹ&#x201A;uences depending on the phase I am going through. During the period when I was obsessed over doing realistic paintings, I surveyed Chuck Closeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work on â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;photorealismâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. But when I think of being expressive, I look to Jackson Pollock. I am into illustration now, so I am heavily inďŹ&#x201A;uenced by Mattias Adolfsson. Apart from all these artists, I am a big fan of Disney Pixar because it never fails to amaze me.

Which is your favourite art form? Drawing and painting will always be my favourite. It is very important to go back to the fundamentals and I enjoy drawing the most because it has no restrictions.

What are your views on the art scene in Singapore? I think the art scene is slowly growing in Singapore as we can

ART FOR ARTâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S SAKE

see the government encouraging it publicly. But I think Singapore can afford to be a little more open to the art scene. I feel that there arenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t much opportunities for artists like me here at this point of time. Maybe in the future there will be, but Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m not too sure about that.

What are your plans upon graduation? I find the creative industries in Singapore too cor poratebased for me and I dream of migrating to somewhere else where I can grow as an artist and as a designer. My aspiration deep down inside me, is to set up my own little store down the street that sells cute stationaries, notebooks, cards, fabrics and other knick-knacks, and thus put a smile on every face.

Ha i l i ng f rom a f i ne a r t s background, Jedidah said that being in ADM has taught her that there is a world of difference between art and design. She observes that designers need to fulďŹ ll a brief or design in the corporate world, according to the clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wants which will greatly limit personal expression. â&#x20AC;&#x153;I believe that the art scene in Singapore can prosper even more, if we are able to ďŹ nd a balance between design and the ďŹ ne arts,â&#x20AC;? she said.


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YOU would not normally expect military regimentation and contemporary art to share a common heritage. But the Gillman Barracks made the intersection possible. Nestled in the serene atmosphere of Alexandra, the barracks â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a former British military camp â&#x20AC;&#x201D; houses 13 galleries featuring a variety of artists and medium, and is the National Arts Councilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s (NAC) latest bid to groom Singapore to become Asiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s arts hub. Other than being a spot for art enthusiasts, the colonial-style building has also been transformed into a chill-out spot, with eater ies li ke Timbre and f ine-dining restaurant Masons in the vicinity. The NAC also aims to groom young local talent. Come 2013, students of the School of the Arts, Design and Media can display their works in the gallery space allocated to them. As part of the National Arts Outreach Program, the NAC also conducts free walking tours of the barracks.

And We Dreamt We Were Birds

0HGLXP,QVWDOODWLRQ This surreal installation featuring 12 ďŹ&#x201A;oating military beds by Singapore-based artist Donna Ong looks like a scene right out of the 2011 blockbuster hit Inception. The haunting, yet whimsical piece highlights Singaporeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s colonial rootsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;with the bunk beds signifying the British soldiers who used to occupy the Barracks capturing the history of the Gillman Barracks in a poetic manner. Interaction with the exhibit is encouraged, blurring the lines between the art piece and the audience.

Blended by Desire

0HGLXP,QVWDOODWLRQ9LGHR*UDIĂ&#x20AC;WL Ardent fans of grafďŹ ti street artist Banksy and sk0l (the sticker lady) should not miss this exhibit. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Blended by Desireâ&#x20AC;? features

the work of four Jakarta-based street artists in the form of installations, wall paintings and videos. This piece plays up the artistsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; desires to express themselves amidst the noise and clutter that characterise the modern world. The installation includes a grafďŹ ti piece with tongue-in-cheek wordplay â&#x20AC;&#x201D; â&#x20AC;&#x153;Stop following meâ&#x20AC;? in reference to the social media twitter.


0HGLXP6FXOSWXUH3DLQWLQJ This psychedelic installation by Japanese avant-garde artist Yaoyo Kusama features sculptures and paintings with colorful repetitive patterns. Plagued by psychiatric problems since young, Kusama ďŹ nds creating repetitive patterns cathartic. This internationally acclaimed artist has works that have been featured in MoMa (Museum of Modern Art) in New York and collaborated with luxury brand Louis Vuitton. Metallic reďŹ&#x201A;ects her evolving style, as she explores different colours and shapes.

Vertical Submarine

0HGLXP,QVWDOODWLRQ Rebellious, thought-provoking, and done with a stroke of satire, art collective Vertical Submarine are three individuals who call themselves â&#x20AC;&#x153;part-time pranksters with fulltime jobsâ&#x20AC;?. In fact, one of their tongue-in-cheek initiatives, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Flirting Pointâ&#x20AC;?, was a light installation, displayed outside the Singapore Art Museum in 2010. With a few benches and a sign that read â&#x20AC;&#x153;ďŹ&#x201A;irting pointâ&#x20AC;?, the team created a designated area for the forbidden act of ďŹ&#x201A;irting, mocking the restricted society we live in. Vertical Submarine has also ventured beyond doing art installations, releasing their ďŹ rst theatre production Dust in 2011.

BR I NGI NG in new blood, Pulse is an independent exhibition that aims to keep the heart of the art scene thumping in Singapore, featuring works from 10 young artists who are students, fresh graduates and amateur artists. It all began with three ambitious girls who wanted to support local artists by giving them an opportunity to showcase their work in a professional gallery. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The momentum has always been there, I only think that a lot of the independently initiated events do not receive a wide exposure and are isolated to certain groups, so you see the same people attending the same type of events,â&#x20AC;? said Ms Izziyana Suhaimi, a fresh graduate from the School of the Arts, Design and Media. Facing the cold realities of student debts fresh out of art school, Pulse recognizes that the world of a young artist is fraught with a compendium of contradictions, highs and lows, encouraging and discouraging factors that could make or break the young artist. As such, the exhibition exudes a keen spirit of hope, passion and ďŹ erce determination among these young artists, bringing their works from the periphery to centre stage. â&#x20AC;&#x153;What is really important to us is to showcase the artistsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; processes and journey in making their art, and not only the ďŹ nal

artwork,â&#x20AC;? says Ms Suhaimi. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Hence we have requested the artists to keep sending us photos of their processes. We will also be exhibiting some of their sketchbooks, which sometimes can be more interesting and revealing than the artworks.â&#x20AC;? In addition, the organising team also documented the artists at work on videoâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; mostly from homeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and interviewed them to seek out how they deal with the lack of support in terms of space, time, and funding. Pulse opens this Friday. Join local artists in an artsy celebration from 7 to 9pm with Mr Iskandar Jalil, a Cultural Medallion recipient for Visual Arts, as the Guest of Honour for the opening night in the heart of Kampung Glam.


THE Space Program, a concept created by Foreign Policy Design Groupâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a local design company, aims to use design to redeďŹ ne ordinary places in Singapore. By amalgamating principles of design, intellect and contemporar y culture, The Space Program creates an experience that is part museum, part store and part installation. Their ďŹ rst exhibition, launched at the lobby of New Majestic Hotel, encourages the audience to reconsider the importance of heritage in contemporary Singapore. The highlight of the installationâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a 2-meter washboard, represents the hard work and pain the founding fathers of Singapore had to go through. The collective hopes to eventually bring this concept of challenging the notion of space to cities all over the world.


ART HIGH & ART LOW: (Left) In Metallic, Colourful and psychiadelic marks the work of Japanese avant-garde Yaoyo Kusama. (Above right) Military beds at the And We Dreamt We Were Birds exhibition invites its audience to ďŹ&#x201A;oat along with its poetic narratives. (Above) Blended by Desire was able to blend hard issues with a high element of fun.

14 LIFESTYLE travelogue



SPELLBINDING: Parts of Exeter like Gandy Street, were said to have inďŹ&#x201A;uenced scenes in her Harry Potter series.



had just arrived in the small cit y in t he sout hwest of England. My stomach had nothing but airplane food, and I was shivering from the harsh winter wind. It was January in Exeter and I was scrambling to get basic necessities before the shops closed. Despite the severe cold, I was distracted by antique beaut y e v e r y w h e r e : r u i n s r i g ht i n the middle of High Street and menacing gargoyles guarding the entrances of banks. These architectural designs i n s t a nt l y r e m i nde d me of a magical quality, something out of Harry Potter perhaps. Over the next few months, I was surprised to discover many places in Exeter which bore striking r e sembla nce s to t he va r iou s

locations featured in the Harry Potter series. It all started when I stumbled onto a street that seemed right out of the books. Strolling away from the Exeter City Centre, I found myself in a narrow, cobbled alley. I was in Gandy Street, lined with quirky shops on each side. Most of the shops featured shop w i ndows c hoc k-f u l l of odd s a nd end s st r u ng toget her a s decorations, from bottle corks to friendship bands. I felt as though I had been transported to Rowlingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ďŹ ctional Diagon Alley, a cobble-stoned alley where Hogwarts students buy their wizarding supplies. And like when Harry who ďŹ rst stepped onto the street, I too wished for â&#x20AC;&#x153;eight more eyesâ&#x20AC;? to look at all the shops and windows stacked with extraordinary things. Brimming with excitement, I entered some of the dimly lit shops. To my immense delight, I discovered that many of their wares seemed to come right off the Hogwarts supply list. A love potion boasting the abilities to â&#x20AC;&#x153;charm the boy you fancy off his feetâ&#x20AC;?, a lip balm made of â&#x20AC;&#x153;beeswax to give you bee stung lipsâ&#x20AC;?, and sets of old

parchment and quills were some of my favourite items in the store. Some of the shops sell more convent iona l good s, suc h a s jewelry and furniture, but even

A love potion boasting the abilities to â&#x20AC;&#x153;charm the boy you fancy off his feetâ&#x20AC;?, a lip balm made of â&#x20AC;&#x153;beeswax to give you bee stung lipsâ&#x20AC;?, and sets of old parchment and quills were some of my favourite items in the store.

then, they differentiate themselves from other mainstream brands. The furniture shop, for example, sells mainly curios and African wood-carvings. As I left the shop and wandered back to the main street, I was greeted with familiar retail outlets

like H&M, Zara and Topshop. It was as though the quirky street I stumbled upon was just a dream. My next Potter encounter came in the form of a pub, popular among students of the University of Exeter where I did my exchange â&#x20AC;&#x201D; The Old Firehouse. From t he out side, t he Old Firehouse resembles any old shop house. I had initially walked past it without noticing it there. Harry Potter fans would have guessed that this façade inspired The Leaky Cauldron â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a popular watering hole among magic folk, whose shabby, broken-down shop front was meant to keep out the Muggles, or non-magic people. Inside the pub, I noticed peeling paint on the crumbling walls, which looked as though they were car ved from stone. The whole interior was very realistic. T he at mos phe r e i s one of warmth and camaraderie shared between old and young alike. I remembered a familiar scene in Harry Potter where Tom, the landlord of the Leaky Cauldron, greeted Hagrid heartily like an old friend. I smiled as I soaked in the busy and loud atmosphere all around me. It was only much later that I

discovered that J. K. Rowling, had spent her undergraduate years at the University of Exeter, which bears resemblance to Hogwarts in the movie. T he bu i ld i ng s a r ou nd t he Streatham campus boasts gothic a r c h ite c t u r e ; comple te w it h tower s and gra nd ha l ls w it h sinister-looking granite sculptures hanging on the walls. T he she e r beaut y of it s buildings and student halls made me look forward to school, even during bleak winter days when temperatures could go below -5 degrees. H o w e v e r, I t h o u g h t t h e University of Exeter was the most beautiful on rainy days. Dark clouds cast a shadow on the school, wh ic h augmented t he got h ic structure of the buildings. A nd li ke Hog war ts, t he Un i ve r sit y of E xe te r s t a nd s impenetrable, with the pointed tips of its buildings and that of the Exeter Cathedral in the background, glistening with rain and thunderstorms. My stay in Exeter turned out to be nothing I had anticipated.Little did I know that I would ďŹ nd myself in a different time and place, without so much as a Time-Turner.


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CHRONICLE 05 ing the environment via the process of tree planting. They obtain the tree seedlings from the nurseries and plant them in the jungle on an island, in a bid to ensure the survival of the rich wildlife there.



rees, trees and more treesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;that was my ďŹ rst impression upon arriving at Sabah as part of my schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Short Overseas Journalism Practicum (SOJOURN), which involved three different home-stays. Usually tucked away in the midst of kampungs, the culture of home-stays in Sabah is a community initiative to allow tourists to experience the Sabah culture in its entirety. From only a few selected districts 14 years ago, homestays in Sabah have expanded to nearly all districts, with each one offering its own charm and attractions.

Penampang Village Homestay Homestay Operator: Ms Evelyn Masudal, 63. Fee: RM300/pax for 3D2N

Miso Walai Homestay Homestay Operator: Ms Salasiah Ahmad, 26. Fee: RM75/pax per night THIS is the very ďŹ rst home-stay to originate in Sabah, the Miso Walai Homestay, which is also within the Kinabantagan district. Despite it being the oldest home-stay in Sabah, proper amenities such as electricity and WiFi are provided here â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a plus point for many tourists who cannot get away from their electronic devices. Here, tourists will get a chance to try the Kulintang, an instrument made up of a few gongs, and learn the indigenous traditional dances â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Titikas, Menoumpas and Mengli Sungai â&#x20AC;&#x201C; which are performed during festive occasions in the villages. If instruments and dances are not your thing, try the traditional games that they offer â&#x20AC;&#x201C; such as Kayutiga and Lemparkaki. Home-stayers also get to visit the Agop Batu Tulug, a steep limestone formation containing more than a hundred carved wooden cofďŹ ns watched over by bats and swallows. The cofďŹ ns are said to resemble different animals associated to the beliefs of the Orang Sungais.

SIMPLE PLEASURES: The rustic charm of the home stays in Sabah allows visitors to get away from the hustle and bustle of city life. PHOTO | CLARA LOCK

Bilit Homestay Kinabatangan Homestay Operators: Ms Melati Binte Jangai, 49, and Mr Hamka Itin, 52. Fee: RM360/pax to RM390/pax for 3D2N THIS homestay is located in the Kinabatangan District. Because of its location next to the Kinabatangan River, tourists get to participate in different outdoor activities such as night trekking and tree planting â&#x20AC;&#x201C; all in an hourâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cruise away to an island surrounded by an oxbow lake, Bringing visitors away from the hustle and bustle of city life. According to Ms Jangai, tourists play a part in conserv-

IN the Penampang District, home-stay visitors get a chance to help in the preparation of the Drunken Chicken, a traditional dish combining chicken with Lihing (traditional Sabah rice wine). Visitors can participate in the entire process from catching the chicken, to preparing and cooking it. They can also immerse themselves in other activities in the home-stayâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;such as visiting Ms Masudalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s homegrown herbal garden, where they can ďŹ nd traditional Sabah herbs with strong medicinal properties. Other than food and herbs, take a chance to don on the costumes of one of Sabahâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s indigenous groups, the Kadazandusuns. Out of the home-stay, visitors get to visit the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Tagalâ&#x20AC;? (meaning â&#x20AC;&#x153;no ďŹ shingâ&#x20AC;?) system at Kampung Babagon to learn about the way locals conserve ďŹ shes in the Babagon River ecosystem, in a collective move to maintain its population in the river. In the same kampung, they can involve themselves in pineapple planting in the kampung as well. Compared to other home-stays such as couchsurďŹ ng, witnessing how Sabah has seamlessly incorporated its cultural activities has brought the practice of home-stays to a whole new level. Gone are the days where home-stays only involved one staying at their hostâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s house. Instead, one is now highly encouraged to assimilate into the community, making it their second home.




WREXHAMâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S WARMTH: Their hospitability, coupled with the cosy atmosphere of the restaurants makes Wrexham unforgettable.


ulling up in front of Wyn Hall Terrace after almost seven years in May last year, a sense of familiarity engulfed me. Yet, Wrexham is the most unlikely place anybody would visit in Wales. While Cardiff is equivalent to our Orchard Road, being the most popular visitor destination in Wales, Wrexham would be akin to Tiong Bahruâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;situated in a quiet and quaint estate where people look to ďŹ nd something different, away from the city. As I stepped out of the car, I was given a warm embrace by Mr and Mrs Beattie, a couple in their mid 70s and longtime friends of my father. Despite being almost ten thousand kilometres away, I still felt at home in Wrexham as I spent time with the Beattie and the Jones families. Their house looked exactly how it was when I ďŹ rst visitedâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the black metal gate and red brick path that led to the house, the walls and mantle adorned with pictures from the present and the past, and a family portrait that hung above the ďŹ replace. Sitting by their lit ďŹ replace and cupping warm mugs of

tea in my hands, I relished spending time and rekindling relationships with the Beatties. The warmth and hospitality was not limited to the Beattieâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s as Mr and Mrs Jones, a working middle-aged couple and my auntâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s business parents, offered to take us out for dinner on our ďŹ rst day in Wrexham. They brought us to Pant Yr-Ochain (pronounced as pant a rockinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;) for dinner later that evening. This gastro pub has history seeping through its walls, dating back to the 19th century. Pant Yr-Ochainâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s traditional log ďŹ replace and the aged-teak furniture makes one feel at home. For those who want a picturesque view, the back of the restaurant overlooks a lake, bringing you closer to nature. Over a meal of the quintessential British ďŹ sh and chips and also one of Pant Yr-Ochainâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s signature dishes, I got to know their 15-year-old son, Elliot Jones. After dinner, they invited us over to their house, and showed us around. The Jonesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; house was big, yet the eclectic mix of old and refurbished rooms brought together a comforting appeal that made mr feel right at home. Housing a drum set, a piano, a guitar and a pool table in one of the rooms, the Jonesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; home was a haven for their children, allowing them to nurture their musical talent and create a relaxing space with friends after school. The walls of the room were occupied with photos of Elliot, Samantha and Alex growing up together. Another place of interest were the slate caverns in Llechwedd (pronounced as LLEC-weth), where we descended nearly 150 metres underground in Europeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s steepest mining cable railway to experience the life of a miner. Despite travelling for almost an hour to the slate mine, our efforts were rewarded when we saw how magniďŹ cent it was. The last night in Wrexham was spent with the Beatties over dinner at The Golden Lion, another restaurant rich in heritage. Renowned for its ghost stories as it is for its food, The Golden Lion has its own famous legend, a ghost named Old Jeffery who is rumored to visit the restaurant, moving bottles from behind the bars and leaving glasses and chairs

THE BEATTIES : Margaret and Larrie Beattie who have lived in Wrexham all their lives, ďŹ nd The Golden Lion one of the best restuarants in the area. PHOTOS | BERNICE KOH

upturned from time to time. I thought it was going to be a simple affair with just the ďŹ ve of us. But to my surprise, Mr Larrie Beattie rallied his whole family to have dinner with us. The hospitality of the Welsh was undeniable as we were entertained throughout the evening reminiscing the good old days over authentic British and Welsh food such as, black puddingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a type of sausage made from pigâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s blood and oats. It is chewy like a sausage, but stodgier with a slight coppery tang that adds to the tasteâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a heavy delicacy best balanced by tea. Wrexham, a town situated in North Wales and a pioneer for the Industrial Revolution, has a rich Welsh heritage. However, amid the numerous historic sites and buildings, I found myself drawn to the ďŹ ner details of Wrexham itself: the families and their houses. The Welsh deďŹ nitely take pride in their homes, making it a source of refuge in the cold and a chance to gather everyone in the summer with barbecues in the garden. After all, its number of historical sites or buildings do not matterâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;its people deďŹ ne Wrexham.





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dapper: your essential style guide





dapper: your essential style guide



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CHRONICLE18 05 7+(1$1<$1*




EXPERT GUIDANCE: (From left) Music producer Jason Tan teaches FFF participants Rachel Lee, Amanda Lee and Syaheedah Iskandar how to create music on computer software Reason. (Right) SPIN IT: Amanda Lee entertains at the FFF Girls DJ Bootcamp graduation bash with her own set of music mixes. PHOTOS | EDWARD TEO

DOES Singapore need an all-female DJ boot camp? The ladies behind FFF deďŹ nitely think so. FFF Girl DJ Bootcamp, in its ďŹ fth year running, was spearheaded by local female DJs Cherry Chan, Debbie Chia, Natalie Tan and Pamm Hong in 2008. The bootcamp aims to educate and empower women through music and DJing, particularly in a friendly and fun environment. Awa r de d t w ice by J U IC E Singapore as â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Best Contribution To The Sceneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; in 2010 and 2011, FFF Girl DJ Bootcamp is not just any workshop for amateurs and DJ-wannabes. Out of more than 80 applicants this year, only eight girls were chosen to participate in the workshop, which was held on four consecutive Saturdays in September and October at Zouk Wine Bar. Leaving the participants (or kittens, as they are affectionately called) in the hands of local producer Jason Tan, the FFF organisers took a break and relaxed outside the Wine Bar. They are a bunch of self-declared cat lovers who have plastered the ofďŹ cial FFF website with pictures of the feline creature. Natalie was quick to mention, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t ask us what is â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;FFFâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, because we donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know ourselves.â&#x20AC;? So mystery solved â&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;FFFâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; is purely aesthetic.

What spurred on the idea for FFF? Debbie: We all have different reasons. Personally, I was given a lot of opportunities and I had such a great time deejaying that I wanted to share it with other girls to let them experience it too. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a way

of giving back â&#x20AC;&#x201C; you take some and you give some.

Other than gender, can we get some insight into the selection process for FFF? Debbie: Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a panel, so all of us look through the applications. For me, I look out for taste. I feel that you can teach skills but not taste. You have to listen to a lot of music and you need experience for that. So I tend to notice girls with good taste. And as a DJ, part of your role is to live music and also educate listeners through a good selection of music. Natalie: We also ask other questions, like their level of commitment and what they think a DJâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s job is. To us, it is quite important for them to be relatively practical and grounded in reality. Their reason for participating in FFF should not be related to their ego.

Guys and girls are very different in the way they think and learn. Is that a reason why you guys decided to organise an all-female bootcamp? Natalie: DeďŹ nitely. Girls tend to be more social than guys, and they need a softer approach. Cherry: Guys tend to be like, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Okay Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m here and I already know what I want to learn. Teach me speciďŹ cally this.â&#x20AC;?

fact, thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s how guys learn. Natalie: We also have to make sure that there is no competition, because girls tend to get competitive on a certain level. We try to manage that. Cherry: Weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re creating a nurturing environment to learn. Especially with music gear and technology, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s all quite geeky. Guys wouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t mind sitting for 15 hours with a machine, but itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not very natural for girls to do so. Of course there are girls who take to the geeky stuff naturally but most girls will be like, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Oh my gosh there are so many knobs and buttons!â&#x20AC;?

Are there any celebrated differences between female DJs and male DJs?

Cherry: But they cannot dress up as much. All they can do is probably put lights on their head. They donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have make up to play with, although some have started putting on like theatrical stuff.

Any thoughts on the local female DJ scene? Debbie: The state of the industry is very bad right now. Because of the Paris Hilton wannabes, thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a lot of false image of female DJs right now, which we are trying to reverse.

Cherry: Or putting your headphones on your breasts. Why put your headphones on your breasts, not your ears? We are trying to ďŹ ght against that. People should be focused on your music and not how hot you look or how little clothes you wear. That belongs to the entertainment industry, which is not what we do. I think we have to differentiate between the entertainment industry and the music industry.

Last question: why cats? Cherry: Why not cats?

Cherry: When you say â&#x20AC;&#x153;female DJâ&#x20AC;?, very often the entertainment industry comes into mind, which includes model DJs. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m gonna look shiny and hot!â&#x20AC;? Natalie: Or, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m gonna take photos with my breasts hanging out!â&#x20AC;?

Natalie: We all like cats. Cherry: Debbie used to like dogs, but weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve all gotten her to switch. Natalie: We like fuzzy things, and cats are the common denominator.

Cherry: In terms of performance aspects, good female DJs are sometimes more visual, like Scarlet Etienne. Natalie: Sheâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a personality. She wears couture to perform and she also sings. After she sings she might take off a portion of her outďŹ t to reveal something else. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a drama, but at the same time, she can mix. Unlike Paris Hilton, who needs someone else to mix for her. Cherry: I think it still depends on individual personality. There are girls who mix just like guys. Natalie: Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hard to generalise.

Debbie: Yeah. And you have to criticize girls in a gentle way, like cushioning them. Towards guys you can just make fun of them. In

Debbie: There are guys who are feminine too.

FERVENT FELINES: (From left) This yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s organisers comprise Jean Reiki, Natalie â&#x20AC;&#x153;Pixiedubâ&#x20AC;? Tan, Debbie Chia, Cherry Chan and Eileen Chan, who hope to empower women through DJing.

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05 CHRONICLE reviews

MUSIC RED Taylor Swift (Pop)

 WHEN Taylor Swift released her radio-friendly single â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;We Are Never Ever Getting Back Togetherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; two months ago, many wondered if she was ditching her country roots to be a full-ďŹ&#x201A;edged pop princess. On the contrary, Swiftâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fourth album Red features darker adu lt-pop songs, w it h l i v e l ie r- s ou nd i n g tracks positioned awkwardly between them. Perhaps inf luenced by current music trends, Red displays Swiftâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s willingness to experiment with electronic music. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;I Knew You Were Troubleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; features a dubstepinspired arrangement, and in an MTV interview Swift justiďŹ es this as an effort to portray chaos in the song. The heavily bass-driven â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;22â&#x20AC;&#x2122; is a toned-down version of Pinkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Raise Your Glassâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; â&#x20AC;&#x201D; an anthem for singles to rock out to. These songs are undeniably catchy and Swiftâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s auto-tuned vocals are a ďŹ t. Away from predictive pop, Red reaches out to the other end of the music spectrum. Intimate songwriting and darker arrangements that lean towards the alternative genre can be heard on songs like â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;State of Graceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;All

BURNING RED: Since the release of her new album, Taylor Swift has only one preferred colour for her lips.

Too Wellâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a shift from the usually bright guitar tones in Swiftâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s previous albums. The drums in â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;State of Graceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; initially sound like somet hing f rom a pun k rock band like Fall Out Boy. The song gives a nod to alternative-pop â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a musical path Swift might soon take â&#x20AC;&#x201D; but the generic tune fails to make an impression. Nevertheless, the 22-yearold deliver s a touch ing

performance in â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;All Too Wellâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, painting an unforgettable roma nce w it h hea r t fe lt imagery in her distinctive storybook-songwriting style. The song is one of the best songwriting Swift has ever done, as she laments, â&#x20AC;&#x153;You called me up again just to break me like a promise/ So casually cruel in the name of being honestâ&#x20AC;?. The melancholic music accompaniment works too â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

depth for Red, Swift struggles to make it her own as her vocals are overshadowed by Lightbodyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s emotional and beautiful performance. The haunting arrangement showcases Snow Patrolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s signature sound, but makes no effort to integrate Swiftâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity as an artist. Luckily, the same mistake is not made in â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Everything Has Changedâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, featur ing British singer-songwriter


T h e o p e n i n g t r ac k , â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Shepherdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Bush Lullabyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, feels more like a prologue to the album. The a cappella style â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a genre Gibbard did not explore in the past â&#x20AC;&#x201D; is surprising as it marks a refreshing change from the signature heavily layered sound of Death Cab For Cutie. With lyrics like, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Under my umbrella/ I sing a cappella/ This melancholy whimsical tuneâ&#x20AC;?, the track resembles a modern day nursery rhyme. The album peaks at its fourth track, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Bigger Than Loveâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. It is a catchy duet with Aimee Mann about a couple struggling with their dreams in big cities like New York and Paris. The upbeat tune combined with Gibbardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s familiar tenor vocals will grow quickly on the listeners. Another notable track, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Duncan, Where Have You Gone?â&#x20AC;&#x2122;, is a soul-pop ballad with classical piano riffs in the background. It sounds rich and sentimental. Peppered with rhetorical questions, the lyrics are contemplative and at times melancholic, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Your biggest dream is just to be a stranger/ Passed on the streetâ&#x20AC;?.

Benjamin Gibbard (Alternative)

SOLO MISSTEPS: Benjamin Gibbardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s debut solo album is decent but fails to impress.



the use of clear to distorted guitar tones will evoke sympathy from listeners. After nine tracks that alternate between overly produced pop and honest songwriting, Red reaches its most confusing point at the collaborative â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;The Last Timeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Despite being the featured artist, Gary Lightbody of Snow Patrol takes control right from the start. While the song provides musical

BENJAMIN Gibbard, known for being the frontman of independent rock band Death Cab for Cutie, has many musical identities. The previous frontman of the American electronic band The Postal Service is also known for his side project All-Time Quarterback and his ďŹ rst band Pinwheel. Like his musical career, Gibbardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s debut solo album For mer Lives has many musical identities. Produced over 8 years, the album feels like a compilation of the outtakes of his musical career. Former Lives encompasses tracks from a range of musical genres including country folk and soul-pop. Unlike his other albums with Death Cab For Cutie, t here is no consistenc y t h roug hout t h is a lbu m. Instead it seems more like a mishmash of styles brought loosely together.


Ed Sheeran, an independent artist who recently broke into mainstream charts with his song â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;The A Teamâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. This time, the two vocalists complement each other with ease as the song grooves to the infectious drumbeats from sticks and brushes. Swiftâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s breathy vocals in â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Sad Beautiful Tragicâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; are reminiscent of her recent collaboration with folk band The Civil Wars for the Hunger Games soundtrack. The song hints of folk and country as a banjo is plucked in the background. However, Swiftâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s vocals are inexpressive and fail to f ully convey the sadness in the lyrics. A lt houg h Sw if t st i l l identiďŹ es herself as a country artist, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;I Almost Doâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; is the only other rare song on Red that belongs in the country genre. Country-style guitar riffs sound as Swift sings, â&#x20AC;&#x153;And I just want to tell you/ It takes everything in me not to call youâ&#x20AC;?. Other tracks with hints of country music include the title track and â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Treacherousâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, and this further demonstrates how Swift is slowly moving away from her roots. Red marks the beginning of Swift maturing in music style, as she stops picturing castles and fairytale love. Sadly, the album sounds too conf licted musically for a successful crossover. If it is any consolation, Redâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s bubblegum pop songs w i l l g ua r a ntee Sw i f t a position on the pop charts once again.


However, Former Lives simmers down near the end with predictable songs like the folksy â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Lady Adelaideâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Broken Yolk in Western Skyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. With his stroke of lyrical genius, Gibbard manages to save this otherwise mediocre album with his impeccable stor y telling abilit y. His graceful lyrics seem more like snippets of poetry and prose. The only downside to his carefully crafted lyrics is his vagueness and emotional distance. Known for writing lyrics that closely resembles his life, Gibbardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s trademark br utal honest y is sorely lacking in this album. This renders his writing beautiful but suppressed. In a Huff ington Post interview, Gibbard said he did not want to produce overly melancholic material just because of his divorce from Zooey Deschanel, â&#x20AC;&#x153;I think it kind of cheapens the purpose of writing in the ďŹ rst place.â&#x20AC;? Overall, there is nothing really exceptional about Former Lives. It is a pleasant listen, however, it seems more like a formulaic mixtape than a painstakingly produced album.



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CHRONICLE18 05 7+(1$1<$1*

reviews THE ORIGIN OF LOVE Mika (Pop)

 FIVE years after his debut album Life in Cartoon Motion, Mika returns with his third studio album. Unlike his previous albums, The Origin of Love is â&#x20AC;&#x153;not as layeredâ&#x20AC;? and features â&#x20AC;&#x153;simplistic pop musicâ&#x20AC;?, as described by Mika in interviews. Contrary to his statement, this album still sounds distinctly Mika. Keeping to his psychedelic-pop musical style, The Origin of Love is infused with catchy beats accompanied by his distinctive vocals. Daft Punk and Fleetwood Mac have been named by Mika as inďŹ&#x201A;uences on his musical style, which may go some way to explain the usage of electronic beats in most of the tracks in this album. Unfortunately, this experiment in musical style produces mixed results. For instance, the thumping electronic beat of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Overratedâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; overpowers Mikaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s underwhelming delivery. Furthermore, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Love You When Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m Drunkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; features an uninspiring beat that serves to distract listeners from Mikaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s strong vocals than complement them. Yet, the electronica element is triumphant in â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Emilyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, which is easily the standout track on this album. As a drum beat loops and synthesisers play in the background, Mika

playfully exhorts a lady named Emily to live her life to her fullest. Never falling out of step with Mikaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s vocals, the electronic-inspired instrumentation is used most effectively in this song. Despite the gooďŹ ness of the lyrics in â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Emilyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, The Origin of Love has lyrics that are otherwise a step up from previous Mika albums. Handling deeper themes such as war, bullying and romance, the lyrics are thoughtprovoking and belie the catchy music. In â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Kidsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, Mika makes his anti-war point with lyrics like, â&#x20AC;&#x153;There wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be a me and you/ If we keep on ďŹ ghting like we doâ&#x20AC;? and â&#x20AC;&#x153;Take your kid gloves on, this is love not war/ Give our peace a chance, make it worth ďŹ ghting forâ&#x20AC;?. Sobering lyrics like these recur throughout the album, giving it a depth that goes beyond what one may call shallow pop music. Bullying, which Mika was a victim of during his childhood, is also covered in â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Popular Songâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Unlike the earnestness of the other lyrics, the lyrics in this track mock the bullies of Mikaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s childhood, with sarcastic lines like â&#x20AC;&#x153;Standing on the ďŹ eld with your pretty pompons/ Now youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re working at the movie selling popular cornâ&#x20AC;?. Love and heartbreak is also a commonlyraised theme in The Origin of Love. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Lolaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, the second track on the album, explains how somebody may choose to reject the notion of romance through lyrics like, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the point in singing silly love songs/ Who do they think they are to tell us?â&#x20AC;? â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Stardustâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, the following track, contains emotional lyrics that almost contradict the energetic electronic beat, such as â&#x20AC;&#x153;Throw me

HIGH FIVE: Since the release of his debut album ďŹ ve years ago, Mika has won ďŹ ve music awards.


a lifeline and open my door/ And pick up my heart that you left on the ďŹ&#x201A;oorâ&#x20AC;?. Heavy-handed as some of the lyrics may seem, Mika still manages to deliver them convincingly in a sterling vocal performance. In numerous songs, he displays astonishing vocal control across a wide range of notes. This is best seen in â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Make You Happyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, where Mika croons the opening verses, but shifts to his falsetto with little effort during the ďŹ nal bridge. Mikaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s evident singing talent

is one of the highlights of this album, and with good reason. The Origin of Love is, in Mikaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s words, a more simplistic effort than his previous albums. However, he has still managed to show his growth as a songwriter and as a vocalist in this album. While the electronica-based instrumentation is largely disappointing, the album is another enjoyable effort from the ďŹ&#x201A;amboyant Brit.


his inďŹ&#x201A;uential position. Through these cases, Knight presents himself as one who honours justice and integrity. Despite the initial letdown upon realizing that The Prosecutor reads like a casebook, readers will soon realise that the court cases are as captivating as Knightâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life. From corruption to homicides, Knight makes it a point to describe each case vividly and in layman terms. He spares no details, even in the most gruesome murder cases, allowing readers to paint an elaborate picture of every case. He also tears apart the notion of an absolutely just and formidable legal system. In a chapter that recounts the collapse of Pan-Electric Industries in 1986, Knight reveals that Mr Tan Koon Swan, a prominent stakeholder found guilty of abetment in criminal breach of trust, was in fact innocent. â&#x20AC;&#x153;It was extremely painful for me to suddenly discover that the Singapore courts had got it so wrong,â&#x20AC;? wrote Knight. While the Attorney-Generalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Chambers claims that Knight got his facts wrong in that chapter, readers are nonetheless given both sides of the story to form their own opinions on the ďŹ nal verdict. That being said, Knightâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s failure to elaborate on his own trials is puzzling. In his book, Knight claims innocence. If that is true, readers cannot help but wonder why he spent so little pages backing up that claim. Perhaps the man still has something to hide, or perhaps, as he says, he would rather not â&#x20AC;&#x153;dwell on those dark daysâ&#x20AC;?. Whichever it is, one can only wonder. In short, The Prosecutor is more than a chronicle of a lawyerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life â&#x20AC;&#x201D; it is an insight to Singaporeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s legal sphere. It is not for readers who expect to have their heartstrings tugged by sorrowful cries of injustice, but more for those who wish to have an glimpse into the struggles of those who have the power to save lives and thwart deaths through the arms of the law.


BOOKS THIS IS LIFE (FICTION) Dan Rhodes $32.95 at Books Kinokuniya Published by Cannongate Books

IS throwing a pebble at strangers considered art? AurĂŠlie Renard thought so. She had it all planned out. Her pebble would hit someone fantastically interesting, and she would follow that person for a week, sketching the scenes of his or her interesting life. Her completed art project would gain the admiration and support of her peers and professors. Instead, she hits a baby in the face. AurĂŠlie is left with no choice but to yield to the motherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wishes, who decides to leave her baby, Herbert, in AurĂŠlieâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s care for one week as a punishment. From here, AurĂŠlieâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s week begins unfold dramatically. Set in Paris, This is Life is author Dan Rhodesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; ďŹ fth novel. The book chronicles the intertwining lives and situations of AurĂŠlie and the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s other residents. Rhodes keeps things light and interesting by introducing many unconventional characters. Le Machine is an artist who promotes his art piece, which consists of collecting every excretion from his body in giant

glass jars. Sylvie, AurĂŠlieâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s best friend, is so beautiful that two of her former lovers who have been obsessed with her killed themselves when she ended their respective relationships. Not forgetting Eric Rousset, the owner of the last surviving erotic cinema in the whole of Paris. The narratives of all these characters are intrinsically linked to one another, and Rhodesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; writing style is charming enough that the reader is willing to suspend all disbelief and accept these coincidences. But some parts are still too unbelievable. The mood of the entire novel is playful, and in line with the humourous plot. Rhodes repeatedly pokes fun at modern artists who take themselves too seriously. He caricaturizes them through the character of Sebastien, a snobbish and arrogant artist who always orders the most unpronounceable coffees. Sebastien is often shown making over-conďŹ dent claims of his deďŹ nite future glory and brilliant ability to â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;subvert the zeitgeistâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. However, because the novel brings in so many interesting characters, there is too little space left for plot development. Although This is Life spans over 400 pages long, most of it is spent on descriptions and internal monologues. As a result, the connections between the characters end up being quite predictable, and there is no real motivation that drives the story forward. In fact, the entire story is laid out within the ďŹ rst three-quarters of the book, and the happy ending of the book is dragged out over the last 100 pages. Although the book often veers off into the fantastical, Rhodes still manages to keep the reader hooked onto the book. His medley of unique characters and their antics is more than good enough to keep readers entertained. This is Life may not be the most groundbreaking or inďŹ&#x201A;uential, but it is still worth a look.


Glenn Knight $24.61 at Books Kinokuniya Published by Marshall Cavendish

TO call Glenn Knightâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s The Prosecutor an autobiography would be off the mark. While the book does touch on the personal life of the once powerful Deputy Public Prosecutor, it is mainly a recount of the cases Knight took when he served in the Singapore Legal Service. His distinguished career was marred by legal troubles. He served as the ďŹ rst Director of the Commercial Affairs Department and in 1980, received the Gold Public Administrator Medal. He was disbarred in 1991 after being convicted of corruption and was again convicted in 1998 for misappropriating money while in ofďŹ ce. In 2007, he was reinstated after garnering support from members of the Bar. Knightâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s trials garnered much public scrutiny and The Prosecutor is his way of standing up for himself. He presents his claim of innocence through a short chronicle of his early life before narrating the various court cases that deďŹ ned



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05 CHRONICLE reviews

FILMS SKYFALL ACTION Daniel Craig, Judi Dench, Javier Bardem 143min

 â&#x20AC;&#x153;YOU know the rules of the game. Youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve been playing it long enough,â&#x20AC;? MI6 chief M tells James Bond at the beginning of Skyfall. 007â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s been at it for 50 years, and the 23rd Bond ďŹ lm is deďŹ nitely one to remember. The movie celebrates the anniversary in style, bringing nos t a lg ia to aud ie nc e s familiar with the series, as well as reinventing the formula which may set the tone for future movies. Bondâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s last appearance on the big screen was four years ago in the disappointing Quantum of Solace. It was not a bad movie, but one that took itself a little too seriously with its convoluted environmental terrorism plot. With Skyfall, the writers have rebou nded w it h a stripped down and more coherent story that visits both Bondâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s and Mâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s past. T he f i lm begins in Turkey, with Bond working alongside new partner Eve Moneypenny (Naomie Harris) to retrieve a stolen hard drive containing a list of NATO agents working undercover in terrorist organisations.

BEST OF THE BEST: Daniel Craig (left) and Javier Bardem (right) deliver the most delightful performances the Bond franchise has seen.

Chasing t h rough t he city on car, motorbike and culminating in a ďŹ ght on top of a moving train, the entire sequence is exhilarating and indicative of Sam Mendesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; top-notch directing. But while action sequences tended to overwhelm the plot in previous Bond ďŹ lms and got carried away, Mendes skillfully uses the action in Skyfall as a vehicle to propel the emotional drama. Daniel Craig looks very comfor table in his third outing as the legendary 007,

PARANORMAL ACTIVITY 4 HORROR Katie Featherson, Kathryn Newton, Matt Shively 88min

 PARANORMAL ACTIVITY 4 is a watered-down and abysma l sequel w it hout much sur prises or explanations. Sadly, it does not replicate the success of its predecessors. Up to now, t he Paranor ma l Act iv it y ser ies has maintained a healthy level of horror in its theme of haunted homes. Unfortunately ideas seem to have been exhausted in the fourth installment. Once again, there are plent y scenes of bodies d r agged i nto room s by an unexplained force, or things in the house falling without reason. The movie also capitalises on its old ways of scaring its audience with sudden sounds and unexpected movements. It is also disconcerting that the scenes constantly

cut to darkness instead of following up with the events of the next shot. Besides that, nothing else is shocking or truly frightening. T he mov ie is f ur ther weakened by the evident lack of plot. A lt houg h t he mov ie begins with a promising link to the ďŹ rst and second movies â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Katie (Katie Featherson) killing her husband, sister and brother-in-law, and kidnapping their son, Hunter â&#x20AC;&#x201D; her story is not featured as the central plot. Instead the movie follows the lives of two teenagers, Alex (Kathryn Newton) and Ben (Matt Shively) as they notice unusual behavior in the house during their Skype calls to each other. Things get creepier when their neighbour, Katieâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s son Robbie (Brady Allen) stays

exuding sauveness and wit that were sorely missed in the previous ďŹ lm. It is hard to believe his casting as Bond was once doubted by critics, because the actor has now cemented his place among other legends who have ďŹ lled 007â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s shoes. Craig looks set to be the mainstay of the franchise for as long as he chooses. I nterest i ng ly, Bondâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s characteristic philandering ways are hardly existent this time, with the sexiest scene showing Bond getting

over with Wyat t (A iden Lovekamp), the familyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s youngest child. Allen manages to pull off the strangeness of Robbieâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s character. Unfortunately this is not well explored as this is mostly discovered through Alexâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s perspective. Furthermore, the main horror element involving the three characters is revealed mostly towards the end in an abrupt fashion. As the movie revolves around the young couple, the movie becomes more comedic than horriďŹ c. Perhaps this time, the directors were going for something different, as the interaction bet ween t he young couple, A lex and Ben, brings a couple of cheap laughs. Ben tries to diffuse the seriousness by dropping sexual innuendoes about the supernatural spirits. This may appeal to the younger crowd who may take to Benâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s â&#x20AC;&#x153;charmsâ&#x20AC;?. But for most aud iences, t he adolescent sexual humor u nde r m i ne s t he hor r or element in the movie. Also, in this installment, it seems that Ben is the male

an intimate shave from Eve. Instead, the main Bond girl is M herself, which Judi Dench delivers with great tenacity. In previous ďŹ lms, Denchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s c ha r ac te r of te n took a backseat to 007â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s globetrotting adventures. Skyfall sees the MI6 chiefâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s relationship with Bond develop beyond that of an agent-handler, exposing the iron ladyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s vulnerabilities. She also becomes more of a surrogate mother to her trusted agent, whose orphaned past first hinted at in 2006â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Casino Royale


is explored in greater detail this time. Academy Award winner Javier Bardem plays the main antagonist Raoul Silva, and his eerily charming performance makes him the best villain in the Bond series so far. Half-persuasive and halflunatic, Silva has a dark history and is not the typical one-dimensional villain bent on world domination. He has a personal vendetta against M and his carefully conceived plan is never fully revealed,


allowing him to always stay one step ahead of Bond and keep the audience guessing. Iconic gadget master Q makes his return to the series after a three-movie absence, with Ben Whishaw bringing a fresh face and delightful geeky drag. Ra lph Fien nes a lso delivers a classy performance as Chairman of the National Intelligence Council Gareth Mallory, a largely ambiguous character whose intentions are unknown as he exudes a sense of authority while keeping a close eye on MI6. Skyfall may be grim, but cinematographer Roger Deakins ensures that it is delivered in the prettiest fashion. ReďŹ&#x201A;ections, colours and wide-angle shots are a staple, and no other Bond ďŹ lm comes close to this level of stylish presentation. T he da zz l i ng neon lights of Shanghai provide a spectacular backdrop for a nighttime assassination, while the ďŹ nal confrontation between Bond and Silva in Scotland is a deadly game of cat and mouse played in shadows and silhouettes. The Bond franchise may be 50 years old now, but Sam Mendes has shown that it is still possible to teach an old dog new tricks. Skyfall continues the modern evolution of the series, injecting intelligence in the plot while keeping the ďŹ lm just as fun as it is cool. With masterful directing and cinematography, this is quite simply the best Bond movie yet.


CHEAP SCARE: Without innovation, the Paranormal Activity series has become increasingly stale. PHOTO | INTERNET

lead who takes charge of the supernatural problem as seen in the other ďŹ lms. However, he appears equally bewildered and does not take charge of ascertaining t he ser iousness of t heir dangerous plight.

Unlike previous Paranormal Activity movies, the cause of the supernatural activity is not investigated, leading to a lack of focus. T he haunting is also underwhelming as it is not rooted in any historical past.

I n a l l , Paran or m al Activity 4 is definitely a letdown. The movie is a rehash of what has been done and the lack of creativity in the horror elements is disappointing.



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CHRONICLE18 05 7+(1$1<$1*

reviews ARGO Historical Thriller Ben AfďŹ&#x201A;eck, Bryan Cranston, Alan Arkin, John Goodman 120min

 WHEN ďŹ lming a movie based on a historical event, it is a challenge for directors to preserve historical accuracy without sacriďŹ cing dramatic license. Loosely based on the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Canadian Caperâ&#x20AC;? that took place during the Iran hostage crisis of 1979, director Ben AfďŹ&#x201A;eckâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Argo has accomplished this to a certain extent. While it manages to portray the rescue of six American diplomats from Iranian revolutionary forces with decent accuracy and gripping drama, it is biased towards the American side of the story. Set in a chaotic Iran undergoing the rise of Islamic fundamentalism, Argo details how CIA agent Tony Mendez (Ben AfďŹ&#x201A;eck) carries out his unorthodox rescue mission. Mendez â&#x20AC;&#x201D; an expert in disguise and exďŹ ltration â&#x20AC;&#x201D; decides to ďŹ lm an exotic science-fantasy movie called â&#x20AC;&#x153;Argoâ&#x20AC;? as a cover for the operation. Under the pretext of filming â&#x20AC;&#x153;Argoâ&#x20AC;?, Mendez is granted access to Iran. This enables him to contact the six beleaguered diplomats who have escaped the overrun American embassy and sought refuge at the house of Canadian ambassador Ken Taylor.

TROUBLE WITH THE CURVE Drama Clint Eastwood, Amy Adams, Justin Timberlake


As the Iranian revolutionaries slowly uncover the identities of the six unaccounted American embassy personnel, Mendez faces the immense pressure of having to extricate them in a timely and unsuspicious manner. Although Ben AfďŹ&#x201A;eckâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s decision to cast himself as a Latino-American may be controversial, AfďŹ&#x201A;eckâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s portrayal of Mendez is ďŹ ttingly serious and broody throughout. The side story of Mendez trying to fulďŹ ll his duty as a father by occasionally calling his son to check on his progress, however, feels like a weak attempt at soliciting sympathy. Except for the ďŹ rst call, during which his son gives him the inspiration to initiate his rescue mission, the side story serves no other purpose to the plot. As AfďŹ&#x201A;eckâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s portrayal focuses on the CIAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s role in the operation, the bulk of Argo shows the CIAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cooperation with Hollywood for the rescue mission. Factor in AfďŹ&#x201A;eckâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s penchant for suspense and one gets plenty of heart-thumping scenes. The climax comprises a series of exciting scenes. For instance, a call to the phoney â&#x20AC;&#x153;Studio Sixâ&#x20AC;? in Hollywood to conďŹ rm the legitimacy of the Argo filmâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s existence nearly goes unanswered and threatens to blow their cover. While such scenes makes Argo a gripping watch, the movie is not without any problems. There is a noticeable downplay of the Canadian governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s involvement. Historically, Ambassador Taylor had a prominent part to play in the Canadian Caper. Apart from securing fake Canadian passports for the American diplomats, he

also provided intelligence on the hostage crisis to both American and Canadian intelligence agencies. But Ambassador Taylor is depicted as only a sedentary observer. It is only revealed in conversations with Mendez that Taylor had a part to play, but he is never seen in action. Regardless, it is clear AfďŹ&#x201A;eck meant for Argo to focus more on the CIAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s role in the

Canadian Caper. Viewers who are not picky about historical details could overlook this minor ďŹ&#x201A;aw. As a standalone ďŹ lm not subjected to the scrutiny of historians and Canadians, Argo is an excellent American thriller that perfectly captures the unpredictable and dangerous atmosphere of rescue missions.

IT has been 19 years since moviegoers last saw Clint Eastwood star in a movie he did not direct (1993â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s In the Line of Fire). This year Eastwood returns to that in Trouble With The Curve, an enjoyable father-daughter reconciliation story set in the minor league baseball of the southern United States. Eastwood plays Gus Lobel, a veteran scout for the Atlanta Braves, a baseball team. Gusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; eyesight is failing him and his

job is threatened by a younger hotshot Phillip Sanderson (Matthew Lillard), whose approach to baseball is more modern (computers and statistics), whereas Gus prefers using his instincts and gut feeling. In essence, Gus represents the old golden age of baseball and Phillip the more forwardlooking side of baseball. The plot focuses on the relationship between Gus and his daughter Mickey Lobel

(Amy Adams). Mickey is a high-f lying corporate lawyer who is one case away from becoming a partner at her ďŹ rm. She bitterly resents her father for keeping her with her relatives so he could continue working in baseball when her mother passed away. This resentment is also channelled to other men. The last thing she wants is to be around Gus. But his old friend, Pete Klein (John Goodman) talks her into a chance to patch things up with her father. Things turn sour, as every encounter between Gus and Mickey turns into an argument and ends with her storming off. However, Mickey decides to stay because of her love interest Johnny Flanagan (Justin Timberlake), a former protĂŠgĂŠ of Gus. Both end up helping Gus to evaluate the seasonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s top prospect Bo Gentry (Joe Massingill), who hits home runs almost every time. In just his third acting role in a decade, Eastwood delivers yet another powerful performance that will remind viewers of his role in Gran Torino (2008) with his constant crankiness and bluntness. Despite his tough exterior, Eastwood shows a softer side when he reconciles with Mickey. However, the movie is a little draggy. Randy Brownâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s script creates further problems by getting too serious at times, throwing in inappropriate family drama late in the movie and working overtime to answer numerous plot inconsistencies. Luckily, the acting talent is strong enough to make up for it. The movie shows a rarely seen side of the Southern American working class heartlands: cheap motels, pool halls and decrepit sport facilities. It pays homage to experience, gut instinct and character, which ultimately triumphs over technology.

TAKING THE LEAD: Ben AfďŹ&#x201A;eck proves his directing prowess once again while playing the lead role in Argo.

FINAL SWANSONG?: This is the ďŹ rst time in 19 years that Eastwood (right) has starred in a movie he did not direct, and it may be his last ďŹ lm too.




Ӯᒹ࿨ૉ฿‫ن‬Ҋ߽ üüृ၁


ᄐԬհྺ౷ᅀࡍ࿗ഺ൥ൺᇠಭಜ ଩ఴƗହսٖҜთ ३࡞ࣰೞ֬ಭ‫਼֥؂‬ਛ /*֬૮‫ٵ‬३࡞è ೉Օ࠙ࠥ֬འ႒٘႟ ਛҍ‫ٺ‬࿗ഺ‫ئ۾ؚ‬૮‫ܒٵ‬ ཡ३࡞֬൓ࡄྺ౷è দሸࠖ྇თლ‫܄ݻ‬ Ӹ࿗ᄄƓ5)-Ɣ֬੅व ਌ƗƗѝ൜෷၎ধ჆ ,ZWXJW`দԬհ‫ٺދ‬ཡ෷ ቚ֬‫܄‬Ӹᇌ๴Ɨ‫ؾ‬३࡞ࣰ ೞఴ,ZWXJW` ฻‫֬܉‬/* ૮‫ٵ‬३࡞҉‫ܛ‬Ⴏè õᄤᆊ۸ࠊ‫׵‬ᆴఴƗ ໨,ZWXJW`֬३࡞࠲޳൥ Ⴏຢਛ֬èࣣӏ߽ྺးಇ ౩ԩཊႼ֬३࡞ғ୆ഏԵ ྔ֬‫ױ‬།èö ਽ບƗᄤ๾ࡰ‫ށ‬Ⴝ֬ ࠙‫ٺ‬஍ଇᇖЃഏႼଇ֬ஓ ႎ੊ƓƗ‫ࠖ׏‬თ‫׏‬ሷ‫܄‬ ະકհԬ֬ᄤན႒Ⴏ,ZWXJW`Ɨሸൌᄌᇖ࿞‫ن‬ఖ‫ࡄݚ‬ս࿗३࡞ࣰೞƗହսൄഺൺ֥ Ӹ࿗ᄄƔ၀ѝ൜௣൏҉ܼ ਛࠩ฿಻ც֬‫ے‬ᆁƗ࠙ࠥߴ႒è ‫ܙ‬๴dᅼѩ ൥࿗༤ߕ൥ॢບࠊ‫߽؂׵‬ Ⴏ֥,ZWXJW`è ෷නƥõϣ௣൏ࣣӏ लƗடԢ๊๯Ɨಥ෷૓‫ ߕ ۾‬൥ ൺ ֥ ࠩ ฿ ಻ ც ֬ ‫ے‬ ᇢ൉ឌ И֨ ৈၰӵເఊԵࢤ൝è ᆁƗ಍ཱུൄഺ࠙ࠥའ႒Ɨ Ⴏ ֬ ໚ ࡸ ‫ ؂‬٩ ᄤ ৡ ૲ Ɨ ະ ક հ Ԭ ֬ ᄤ ན ႒ Ⴏ ൗ֫ହսᄤ‫ࡄݚ‬ս࿗஍ଇ ‫ౖؾ‬ᄣ၀҉Ⴏ֋ྖ=ஔ୲ ؑհԬ+TW]L [\WZ ,ZWXJW`Ɨሸൌᄌᇖ࿞‫֬ ن‬ቒ‫ށ‬ӵࠢເׂ೟ଇè‫װ ޱ‬ƗᇁးႼະકƗᄤମ‫؂‬ IOM֬ྺ౷თಷङ ఖ‫ࡄݚ‬ս࿗३࡞ࣰೞèହ দЫ਽၉۸6<= ‫ݚ‬৲ข ढ़ၢᆷࢫႯ෵ྺ໚ࡸ٫ӏ ᅀƗᆊॽս֘ۤᆥЫ‫ ئ۾‬ս࿗ഺᄤ૲ᜄְૉࣁഏõ ຝս࿗Ɠ6I\QWVIT <IQ_IV ١ѓèö ֬ఙ၃෵‫ٺܯ‬è,ZWXJW` Ь ቃ པ ۨ ö Ɨ ҉ ઉ ൥ Ԣ =VQ^MZ[Q\aƔӘᄇƗཊ໑उ ఊ൓Ɨ࿗ཱུ၀ເ࿗ഺ ಱሠ࿗ഺቛເഏະ֬ᇽ৶ ჆õ‫ئ‬ি‫֫ئ‬ö֬ඹ৭Ɨ ׂවè ฻‫܉‬ਛ৒ෂ჆,ZWXJW`


֬ᄐؑհԬ࠶ඓƗ೉ML ^M6<=ZMഏ֬ö5a .QTM +IJQVM\öၢࠪႵ࿗ཱུ1< ‫ڢ‬༇ᇖྖƓ+1<;Ɣ‫ڼ‬ᄺ ֬õ5a[Q\Möè

ओƗ֓ओࡁᆇ‫ࡀܠ‬ѰેႼ ฅ‫ئ‬࿗ഺਛࢺࠎൗႯ.QTM +IJQVM\‫ދ‬5a[Q\Mè ѰౖƗႼ࿗ഺ٘႟Ɨ ࿗ཱུ֬ᄐؑ‫ܒ‬ཡ֬чؑᄤ ჆Ɨп၃ᆴ‫ޱ‬ः҉୆ൗ õ Ⴏ , Z W X J W ` ֬ ႯƗ‫ౖؾ‬ો՘ൗႯ֬֯੪ ಭиࢧ‫ئ‬Ɨ‫ؚ‬჆‫ ܒ‬Ӹ࿄Ⴜ‫ڶ׋‬ᄝè‫ؾ‬,ZWX JW`ढ़ၢᆷࢫ༶ᄢ֥‫׏‬ା ཡ֬೏ࡸদනƗ‫ ܆‬ሤ૲ࠎᆇ൴ࠖഏƗ၉ট၉ ୆‫۾֫߯ن‬սè֓ ‫װ‬Ɨः୆౥ළഏԵ໚֝è ਽ບƗ‫ࠖ׏‬თ‫׏‬ሷ‫܄‬ ൥ Ɨ 5 a [ Q \ M ે Ⴜ Ӹ࿗ᄄ֬ᆩ૚႔Ɨ෦Ɨ ฅ‫ئ‬ಭႯƗः҉١ ѝ൜õႯ,ZWXJW`֬ಭи ࢧ‫ئ‬Ɨ‫ؚ‬჆‫ܒ‬ཡ֬೏ࡸদ ѓ‫ܒ‬ཡèö නƗ‫܆‬୆‫۾֫߯ن‬սè֓ ൥5a[Q\MેႼฅ‫ئ‬ಭႯƗ ᆩ૚႔ ः҉١ѓ‫ܒ‬ཡèö ‫ࠖ׏‬თ‫׏‬ሷ‫܄‬Ӹ࿗ᄄ ࡀ ෟ ࠖ ‫ ܄‬Ӹ ࿗ ᄄ ֬ཨཱིঐሀয়ࢤ൸ᆾ ҚࢴྰƗƓ+MV\ZM NWZ ԢƗ,ZWXJW`ᆊဩ֬൮Ӎ ႖཮൴ؔᇁ൥ເਛռा൮ -`KMTTMVKM QV 4MIZVQVO IVL <MIKPQVO ۡ࠰ሀয় ӍƗõ਍୔‫ޱ‬Ⴜढ़୆߽൳ නƥõ.QTM +IJQVM\‫ۺ‬࿗ లƗ‫ڕ‬ᄼःϣ‫ش‬ບ֬३࡞ ഺ໚ࡸ‫ܒ‬ཡ൏฻‫܉‬ਛ‫ئ‬၉ ൳ߴಇèö ҉‫ݝ‬Ɨཨࢤ൸၀པྗ ར࿑ᄻè࿗ཱུ๤൏၀‫ܤ‬৪ ࿗ഺൗႯ৒ෂཥ,ZWXJW` ᄐؑ‫ܒ‬ཡࢃ߽ӵເ໊দ‫׏‬ ᆊဩ֬ᄐؑ‫ܒ‬ཡ႒Ⴏদհ ାႯ߃Ԭհࠪ‫ܒ‬ཡ໚ࡸ֬ Ԭç‫ٺ‬ཡ۸ಭࠪ࿗༤Ⴜܸ ᇽੇèັ‫ޱ‬Ɨࢃ߽Ⴜᄇদ ᄇ‫֬ئ‬ಭ૓߽ϣ‫׏‬ାৡԬ ֬໚ࡸèö ଩ఴ࿗ཱུ໴ٌ฻‫܉‬5a հ֬‫ױ‬།ሎၔ֥ᄐؑ‫ܒ‬ཡ .QTM +IJQVM\ൗႯ੸֬ඛ ᇖಇè


Ⴐଖाࢊਹ‫ے‬ჾ჆஻Ⴝ ॖᙢ໚ĶИ֨

౔֬ླྀಿ‫ދ‬яӖяࢤ֬ ١൛ಥ಍Ӎൄഺाྖ҉ ၟèቛເହսᇖ໚༩ࡠರ‫ࢤڳ‬ ൸֬ਊ໚‫ڥ‬၎ࣿၢఊ؆า֬۸ ಭᷧ৶ᆟ‫֥ڢ‬Ӎ֬ો၉۸ಭè Ⴕਊ‫ࢤڳ‬൸ᇽࢊ֬û۪Ք྆ ቛᇖმఞࣣ֬႖ü֬໚࿗ࢊቝ ჆ᄌ!ಷᄤହսಭ໚თധ߽ ग़࿗࿗ᄄࢊฝएྡྷè ႼѠ჆ఊ෷ӭ૒֬໚࿗ࢊ ቝƗਊ‫ࢤڳ‬൸֬ࢊቝླྀഹ҉ ؕè෷ᄤࢊࢺმఞ෵ւদ֬ႜ འ൏Ɨ҉൏฻֥‫ـ‬ඊ୆ཞ۪֬

౾೉ûິ౭ඪüƗႴఊ൥‫۪ڳ‬ ׂ֬၉चƥõγð‫ۺ‬໨၉Нິ ౭ඪöƗ‫۾‬൥ಥൄഺ߽ྖ‫ླྀ׀‬ ाਛߏè ၉ཻࣣ‫۪׌‬౾೉ûᄌ਑քѝ ໨֬ྖü‫ދ‬ଔ໚໋֬û෷҉π ໨ü၀Ыਊ‫ࢤڳ‬൸๎࿑ເяӖ яဍࢊ۪֬౾ƗಥᇽԂಭၐೖ ‫ࢤڳٶ‬൸Ӳ෷ເõӖቛङࡋö ֬ಭ༅è ֙ಝƗᆊ۸ဍࢊ֬ۡӝ҉ ບ൥ਊ‫ࢤڳ‬൸෵‫ٺ‬ཡ֬õཱི‫ܪ‬ ൠö‫ދ‬õϝኑöè෷၀‫ދ‬սࡌ ‫ٺ‬ཡਛ෷෵่Ք֬೟൵۪౾è ఊᇖ၉൵൥Ⴕᆩᇖࠕ෵ဍӖ֬ ûࢼ౭ಭüƗᆊ൵۪֬ਹ‫࣯ے‬

ಝ൥দሸ჆ഭя஻Ⴝ֬‫ے‬౭‫ܪ‬ ൠè਽ບƗû‫୍ۺ‬၉ཻ҉‫ۺ‬၉ ཻü๤ဩ၀൥٘႟ਛ஻Ⴝᄤഺ ࠊഏ෵૲਩֬धᄻè ਊ‫ࢤڳ‬ѝ൜Ɨ෷྆Ք֬ਹ‫ے‬ ս‫ئ‬দሸ჆ഭя֬ಭൠƗᇁး ਹ‫ے‬၉দѓ୆ᄤ‫֬ؒޚ‬൏࡞ୄ ϣՔ౾‫ށ่ۺ‬ਛè ֙Ы๤࿗໠֥ମ൵۪൥ਊ‫ڳ‬ ࢤ൸֬ቒπƗ෷֬ߴպಥ಍Ӎ ٫ӏᄨ๤è ෷නƥõ೉‫ݛ‬ો۸ቛ௝‫؂‬ ൥୍֬‫ݠ‬ሷƗ෷૓‫߽؂‬Ⴜ҉๤ ֬ྦ۳ƦႼཻ‫ݠ‬ሷढ़୆‫ޚ‬Ⴜӵ ःƗႼཻ۪‫ئޚ‬ಭᆰ֨ƦႼཻ ‫ݠ‬ሷಖ൥ଖଖ‫۽‬ᄏƗࠎ൥҉ເ

ûࢼ౭ಭü֬ਹ‫ے‬দሸ჆ഭя஻Ⴝ֬‫ے‬౭‫ܪ‬ൠèണႜdອೖნ ಭ෵ᆰƗ֓Ѱ҉քѝࡌӐ‫ؚ‬෷ ֬‫ے‬౭ः߽ങ၉‫׋‬èö ܼࣗ೉ՕƗਊ‫ࢤڳ‬൸ႍཧമ ॠ۪֬౾൥෷ቛՔቛ౾֬ûਅ

ᆴ᨟üè଱൥ႀເᆊ൵۪ᅂࣣ ໑჆‫׏‬ข۪֬౾஍ྡྷЃЃ൵Ɨ ѰౖԾ༶๛Ѓۡչ!ᇢ֬Ⴑၺ ӵࠢè

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ྔ۸ಭሮਟГ߀ٌ ി൏Ⴢി৶


໸ࡈၕĶИ֨ ᇖ໚ѐࠧ

๠‫֬ݝ‬۸ಭሮਟГ߀ٌಥ཯ ‫ٵ‬ᆇཡႼ‫۾‬ս֬ႌඹಊƗಭ ૓၀҉ྺᄣঽ‫ٵ‬ሸ࠴ၢࠪഌࡌ֬ ൏࡞è ᆊརٌਾᄤЫ๠‫ޱݝ‬Ɨႋఖਛ ྿‫ࡍྔئ‬௨ಭܸ֬ሆèᄤଃ୔ഺ ཹ‫ޱ‬Ɨ‫܋‬ᇠѓ୆‫ܛ‬࿑ᄻõྍमö ഌࡌ֬‫཮ྡྷߌ׏‬èᇁးᄤ֯ࡁ԰ ֯ࡁሸ࠴֬‫ރߌ׏‬ઙƗᆊ୆ൗ‫܋‬ ᇠ֬‫ރߌ׏‬ઙൺ֥Г߀Ɨ҉ᄣЫ ઠઢçੇԵၢࠪশႯè Ⴜ྿‫ٵ཯ئ‬ᆇ‫؂‬ѝ൜ࢫ֥ᆊཻ ҉ଃদ‫׏‬൥၉ࡸਾಭٗᄴთ໴ସ ֬ൠè ЮИࡁᆇҗ٧࿗ഺ൏Ɨः‫ن‬ཊ

ఊ൓Ⴜ҉ങ࿗ഺ‫؂‬Ⴜ൳֥‫֬཮ྡྷߌ׏‬ ࣣမè࿗ഺ٘႟྿‫ئ‬൏ްഌࡌ‫؂‬ᄤ෷ ૓ഏॢ֬൏ްռ‫ۺߌ׏‬෷૓Ɨ߽ႜའ ֥෷૓ഏॢ൏֬ሆၰ৶è ‫ࠖ׏‬თ‫׏‬ሷ‫܄‬Ӹ೟୔࠰֬ৠሮൂ නƥõᆊཻഌࡌ๠ӏ‫؂‬ᄤ໨ഏॢ֬൏ ࡞ռ‫ۺ‬໨Ɨߌ၀න҉౩ԪƗঽ‫ٵ‬ਛ໨ ֬൏࡞èö ᆊཻ࿗ഺ‫؂‬ѝ൜ߒ႙ᆊརྔٌ֬ ਾƗ၀߽࠙ࠥ‫ࡁ֯׀‬ሸ࠴֬‫ރ‬ઙƗ࡯ ങࢫ֥ᆊཻଔଇఊૺ֬দ‫׏‬è ๤൏Ɨߋ࿗თഺ༅။࿗‫܄‬Ӹ၉୔ ࠰֬ෑᇄখ၀๤ၰᆊརٌਾ֬൓േè ෷ಱເ၉ཻ‫ߌ׏‬၀߽߭Ӳ෷ᇖࢉਛƗ ৒ෂᅑ௓ࠩ๽Ɨಥ෷‫҉֥ے‬τè ֙‫཮ྡྷߌ׏ݝ‬჻֬๤࿗૓၀ѝ൜ ‫܋‬ᇠᄤࢫ֥‫ߌ׏‬൏Ɨ၉ϵฆ؎‫؂‬཈֫ иࢧ҉ଷٗèᆊಥ෷૓ᄤ‫܄‬ቛ൏ࣣӏ း૲‫ٵ཯ؚ‬ᆇ҉ৣા֬ߴ႒Ɨൗ෷૓

པ֙ເ଻è ๹ନთߓࣩ‫܄‬Ӹ‫֬࠰୔ل‬၄ ऴၕ၀฻֥Ɨõ‫཮ྡྷߌ׏‬჻֬‫܄‬ ቛ൏࡞‫ދ‬սࡌ၉ဩƗႀՕ֙໨ ռ‫ߌ׏‬൏Ɨ๠ӏ‫؂‬൥཯‫ٵ‬ᆇᄤഏ ϲࠎഏ࿗֬൏࡞Ɨ෵ၢ෷૓߽཈ ֫‫҉۾‬ଷٗƗ‫ۻ‬ЮેႼ൏࡞๗໨ නèö ‫ؚ‬ՕƗ࿗ഺ૓սᇈഏ၀ಱເᆊ ဩ֬ྡྷ཮١൛Ѱ҉Ⴜཹè၉ཻ‫܋‬ ᇠߕેႼᆎᆥয়ࢺመঊѓ߽ϣ‫׏‬ ߌܲؕƗߕႼ၉ཻᇁ൥८๯ഏՉ լ֬պ႒୍֬း౷Ɨ֓൥ቒ‫ޱ‬൥ ‫ڕ‬൓ࡳः҉၉‫׮‬ਛè ᇖ໚༩‫֬࠰୔ل‬ধৰ ۨෛ ࡁᆇƥõ၉ϵಭ‫҉؂‬ᄂ୺Ԣ၉‫׋‬ ൏࡞দთଚഺಭ࢓ฒƗቀफ֫෷ ಭၰ๴҉‫ࠎ݌‬ཟ௓ಭઠ๾཮༅௝ ࠎГཉᆴ৒֬èöᅂࣣ֙‫ߌ׏ݝ‬ ሮਟ‫ן‬ҷ჻֬෹ࣣ‫ݝ‬౛ഭ฿မƗ ҇Ԑ֨ƥõᄂၰ๗ຢ၉चሸ໨ࣁ ജ֬ಭ‫؂‬ങᆴჂങƗ‫ތ۾‬ঊ൥း ๗၉۸๾཮჻ษษ҉म֬ࣁജӈ ௝èၢ໨ࣣ֬မদैƗ߽ࢫൺ‫׏‬ ߌ‫ן‬ҷ֬ಭၟࣣ҉‫ئ‬Ɨ߽๗๗‫׏‬ ߌྡྷ཮֬ಭ‫۾‬൥ಀᆾढ़ඛèö ֓൥Ɨߕ൥Ⴜ၉ཻ࿗ഺѝ൜҉ ߽࿑ᄻ֯ࡁሸ࠴֬‫ރߌ׏‬ઙè෷ ૓फ֫၉ཻ‫཮ྡྷߌ׏‬୆‫ܛ‬๠ᆰ෷ ૓գ཮֬࿦༖Ɨᆊ൥෷૓෵ܸሆ თ‫ྜྷے‬ಆ֬Ɨ෵ၢ෷૓҉༗ຳຢ ຢ಍಍๛ᆿࢫ֥ྡྷ཮‫ߌ׏‬è ഌ࿗ᄄ‫ߢ֬࠰୔ل‬৤ឤනƥõ ႀເ࠮ൗ໨൳֥ᆊཻদ‫׏‬Ɨ໨၀ ढ़ၢᆷࢫѰႼৣા‫׀‬ऒम଱ଇ‫׏‬ ߌྡྷ཮჻è֓൥೉‫ࡁ֯ݛ‬ਛ‫ރ‬ ઙƗ໨फ߽֫൅ಇ၉ཻႼ৭჆໨ ֬գ཮ሮ࿦Ɨ෵ၢ໨႒‫߽҉ۅ‬࿑ ᄻ֯ࡁ໨֬‫ރ‬ઙèö ߢࣈ߰Եѳთྗ༖࿗ᄄ֬ৠव ߆‫ࢤڳ‬൸ၢࠪຬѮ߆‫ڳ‬ᄄӐᆓ‫ؚ‬ Օྔ۸ಭሮਟГ߀ٌਾ၀‫ن‬ѝਛ ෷૓֬ैٌè ຬ‫ڳ‬ᄄӐනƥõᆊ۸ྔٌਾ ߕႼ҉ങ߮೫‫׀‬ւè‫܋‬ᇠ֫౩Ԫ ᆰ֨ሸ࠴֬ಊၴèഌࡌᄼ֫ଃϩ ሸ࠴֬ᄺರƗ൐ી൥୆‫ܛ‬Ыࢫൺ ֬Ɨ൐ી҉୆‫ܛ‬èö ৠ‫ࢤڳ‬൸၀ѝ൜ƗᇁႼಥ‫܋‬ᇠ ౩Ԫਛࢺ֥ᆊརٌਾƗғ୆‫ܛ‬ಥ ෷૓ᆎᆥࠍၴè

ହ ࢂපĶИ֨ ս ‫܄‬ ‫܄‬ ग़ ୶ ഺ и ৯ ᇶ ୔ ഏ ᅯ

Ӹሌ၃၉ᆷЫಱເ൥଺ഺഃӐ֬ ሌ၃Ɨ֓‫ۻ‬ओቒྔܹ֬١ඛओƗ ࣔ࠲୔‫܄‬ग़୶ഺപ౯и৯ᇶ୔ഏᅯƗ၉ ཻ‫܄‬ग़ᄄ༩೉ഺ༅‫܄‬Ӹç‫ݡ‬ൠ‫܄‬Ӹၢࠪ ྗ༖‫܄‬Ӹთૉ฿࿗ग़Ԣཊ୶ഺ‫ئ‬჆଺ഺ ֬ཊཧƗ୶ྦᅤਛսᄆ è ହս֬‫܄‬ग़࿗ഺ‫ܒ‬ႼଇƗఊᇖ ୶ྦ࿗ഺःᅤਛଇƗો೟໑࿗ഺ ᇖƗ߽ःႼ၉໑൥୶ഺè‫܄‬ग़୶ഺᅤቀ ‫܄‬ग़ಭඛ֬и৯ᄆເ è ହս‫܄‬Ӹ࿗ᄄᄄӐƗ2IVQM .W]SMࢤ൸ ѝ൜ƥõହս֬‫܄‬ӸϾ‫܋‬൰ቚਛ‫ئޚ‬գ ࣐࿗ഺИॐ‫܄‬ग़֬୴৶Ɨ৯೉Ɨᄤԡᇖ ‫ۡދ‬ᇖ࣐ྡྷ‫ྗ֬ئ۾‬༖࿍Եࠊ‫׵‬èࣔ࠲ ୔ƗИॐ‫܄‬ग़ၢࠪЫ੪ಃ֬୶ഺ‫؂‬Ⴜഏ ᅯƗࠎ྿თᆊཻ୴৶Ⴜܸèö ֓൥Ɨ‫܄‬ग़୶ഺ֬ः၃໠฼၎ಝ൥Ш ൺܸሆ֬ॢ฼Ɨ‫ئޚ‬ಭಱເ‫܄‬ग़଺ഺࢧ ୶ഺ‫۾‬ႼႱ൤Ɨ၀‫۾‬ಿၥཻè দሸྗ༖‫܄‬Ӹთૉ฿೟୔࠰֬ৠ೒࿙ නƥõ‫୶ދ‬ഺиఖদ଺ഺս‫ۇ‬иࢧႼഺ য়Ⴑ൤ϛè൏࡞࣡৶ഏ‫؂‬и୶ഺး‫ئ‬Ɨ ଺ഺཔ‫ؚ‬দන၀‫܄ؚ‬ग़иࢧႼྜྷಆƗധ ߽၀иࢧಱढ़଺ഺ࿗‫܄‬ग़Ɨ෵ၢႱ൤൥ Ⴜ֬è֓൥୶ഺ၀Ⴜ༬ྖçଷྖçࠕЮ ‫ְ֬܆‬Ⴑ൤èö ൺ٧൏Ɨ2IVQM .W]SMࢤ൸‫ؚ‬ЮИ๰ ੤Ɨõ໨၀ሌ૑ເ‫܄‬ग़୶ഺਏഭ‫׮‬ቚ‫܄‬ ग़୶ഺ֬ः၃‫ٺ‬༌ࠊ‫׵‬Ɨ၀Ⴜ‫ٺ‬஬ࢤ൸ ֤ࠪൄ࣐ྡྷᆶ၃݆ߊር࿟Ɨ༗ຳ୆Ёሀ ‫܄ئ۾‬ग़୶ഺः၃èö ЮИࡁᆇ၀җ٧ਛ‫܄‬ग़଺ྦ‫ྦ୶ؚ‬๤ ࿗Ⴜ෵ᅀࡍ֬ၰࡵƗদሸഌ༇თࡀෟࠖ ‫܄‬Ӹ‫ݻބק֬࠰୔ل‬නƥõેफ֫୶ഺ ଃ཈є‫ئ‬Ɨः࿗༤Юഭ‫ؾ‬ငƗ଺୶ᆴ࡞ ҼၺѰ҉ଃ཈Ɨ໨ഭяःႼ҉ങ୶ഺ࿗ ࣐Ⴑྵ࿗ഺଇ֍ਛ֬è֓൥ः၃‫ؾ‬င֬ ߌƗ໨ಖ൥‫ޚ‬ങैࡵ୶ഺັ‫܄‬Ӹൄᆊ۸ ١སቃƗп࣯֙‫܄‬Ӹൄᆝ֬ల҉‫ߕئ‬า Ѡྒྷॴèö ओҗ٧თ࣐၉ҋ֬‫ן‬ҷƗࡁᆇ‫ن‬ཊ‫܄‬ ग़୶ഺᄤ࿑ᄻ൓༤‫܋‬ය൏Ɨ၀҉၉‫߽׮‬ ࿑‫܄‬ग़਼პƗ‫؂ئޚ‬൥‫ۻ‬ओྜྷಆເਛࢃ দп၃౷ᆶቚሠШè ྗ༖‫܄‬Ӹთૉ฿‫֬࠰୔ل‬ৠၥ‫ݫ‬ නƥõ໨߽࿑ᄻ‫ྜྷۼ‬ಆႼ਼ܸ֬პ൓ ༤Ɨ֓൥೉‫ેݛ‬Ⴜ‫ލ‬൨߽֬ࠖƗᄤ‫܄‬ग़ ਼პ൓༤၀ढ़ၢèö

པഹລ߽‫ۑ‬ӝੇ಍Ӹ߁‫ৼৼށࢨ׵‬ ‫ݩ‬୨ࢗĶИ֨

ഹລ߽ߕ໊ᆥ൛ा ൚ƗܻᇠःЫ‫ۻ‬ओ ൏༶ੇྡྷ۪౾ûࢅହ‫ڋ‬ ۳ü෵‫ۆ‬ѐ֬ाӍ۪໾‫؀‬ ֫஽‫ڻ‬սླྀè Ⴕହဣয়‫܄‬ս࿗ᇖ໚ ࿗߽པഹധ֬ധӐਦဎ࣪ ւ๯ԢဍƗࢃ಍Ӎܻᇠ֬ ౭࿉છഏ‫׵ן‬ఖদè ֙ๆລ߽෠Ӑչ೟۸ ‫ཱིئ‬൏Ɨ֓ขഏဍ჻თข ༶ܻᇠ֬߁‫׵‬ಖ՝໊๛ ᆿƗᆣӍລ߽ఞ‫ٹ‬ಪୀƗ ۡӝৼৼƗ࣡Ҙ‫ٻ‬Ӷè ाӍ൱௛ᇖƗဍ჻଍ ٦ᇖ‫ࣉ֙ݚ‬ቒࠌ֬ვৈࢲ ଩ûᇖ‫ށݚ‬ഹႂüƗ్ૺ

‫ؾ‬ሸಝ‫ࣁ׀‬ജਛЮӍລ߽ ֬ᄨሀഌè ᄤࢫ༶দ֬û࿗ੋ ࿶üçûّවТüְཔഹ ѝဍᇖƗ֙ขՔԢཊõ୍ ྤ‫ڥ‬ઞöçõ࿗Ӑᇁ୆Ё ୍֥ᆊ‫ؿ‬öְະકੇྡྷმ च൏Ɨ‫߽؂‬ႋদܻᇠླྀഹ ৼৼƗ஌൴ࢨ‫ށ‬è ᄌ!ಷྙఀ໻ລ ഏƗཔഹሌӍລ߽ᄤৠ݂ ఴࢊฝएྡྷèԩਛûࢅହ ‫ڋ‬۳üƗລ߽ഏ֬ఊ෷ར ଩၀಼್ਛ֙༶ੇྡྷ֬ჴ ුƗਾܻᇠৼഹӲ‫ށ‬è  ᆣӍລ߽‫ܒ‬ѝဍਛఅ ۸པഹƗ֓໴ઉ൥ဍ჻ߕ ൥ྠ൛‫ؕ҉؂‬єߋƗಥܻ ᇠГԂሩྔ༾‫ے‬èࡂႼಜ ८པഹûମᔇୀ‫ݡ‬üְƗ

ჂႼჷԾ֬֍८པഹûૌ ‫ށ‬൏݂üè Ⴜཻဍ჻ഭԳԵ๫֬ ӐணսܳƗ၀Ⴜཻ৭Ⴏ࡬ ֍֬ಷӏഺࠊႯ௝֙ቛ֨ कƗࢃѝဍ಼್པഹᇖè ‫ؾ‬པഹധྔྵւদ֬ѝဍ ûඥຖຖüְ‫ે۾‬ಥܻᇠ ൅ຳè ລ߽֬࣡Ҙঢ়҉ाဍ ჻‫ݝ‬႞֬࠶ඓƗ၀ങ҉ਛ ᇽϾ١֬༬ྖሠШè ᇁྺ਍ჴ֬ௗࡕƗܻ ᇠ҉࣎ढ़ၢཡൺ֥೟۸‫ئ‬ ཱི൏֬ঀৈƗોಭ၀୆ࠍ ֫၉‫ځ‬õৣЎöƗৡ૲ԩ ਛሔႼࢲ଩֍ְƗവᇇߕ Ⴜ၉௥ඪၢཱིࠪਲ਼൑Ɨಥ ಭЦ‫ے‬໘Ꮵè ՕບƗລ߽ന৲֬ԕ

ࢉߓࢲ၀ಥܻᇠԐનਛఀ ևèࢉ௝՝ߓ౶ႜӳ֬૑ ௗç/*ၔ‫׵‬႞ஔç֥ ྮ઴սພ஄çྔQ8ILƗો ၉՘ԕࢉ‫؂‬୆ႋদ၉ᆛჂ ၉ᆛۡӝè Ю՘ລ߽҉࣎ါ౯ਛ ྔࡍ௨ྔ‫ڋ‬པഹ࿗߽࣐ྡྷ ࢓ੇთᆾ֤Ʀ‫۾‬൥ါ౯ਛ ᇖ‫ࡌݚݚ‬၉࠰པഹဍ჻‫ڏ‬ ܎ׄሷ‫܂‬ృ༼ഺ֥ཊӍ ܻैè ओਛࢺƗᆊ՘֬པഹ ሌӍລ߽ၟࣣ൥ହսᇖ໚ ࿗߽ӵ‫܆‬एϾׂ֬అӍཔ ഹሌӍƗ၀൥ᇖ໚࿗߽ए Ͼ‫֬ݝ‬çࠍ֫٘འቒ‫֬ށ‬ ࠊ‫׵‬ᆴ၉è ෸֬ሾᇂ൥࿍Եᇖ‫ݚ‬ Ե๫໚ߋƗಥսࡌᄤਛࢺ

֬๤൏Ɨ၀୆գ࣐‫ئ‬໚ߋ ᆴ࡞֬য়ࢺთ࢓ੇè ׂఅࣄହսཔഹሌӍ

ລ߽‫ܻۺ‬ᇠւদਛ྿‫ߒئ‬ ৈƗఀև༶၉ࣄ֬པഹሌ Ӎ୆Ⴜ‫࣡۾‬Ҙ֬Ӷཊè

ລ಼್߽ਛ֙༶֬ӝੇჴුƗ໴ઉ൥ဍ჻ߕ൥ྠ൛‫҉؂‬ ؕєߋƗಥܻᇠГԂሩྔ༾‫ے‬è ണႜdອೖნ






໸ࡈၕ ᇖ໚ѐࠧ

ཉั‫܋‬යࣔಷ֬‫ן‬ ҷ཈൜ྔࡍ௨֬୔ ౥ಭᄤׂ၉՘ྦ࢓൏Ɨࢧ ങൗႯГཉัèཔ‫ؚ‬჆ఊ

෷֬‫࣯ࡌݚ‬ಝങਛࢃࣔ ЦƗ೉Օ࣠ಭ֬ඛओಥк ᆇߏၗྔࡍ௨ཊႼ֬ྦࢤ ჩᇌ؎൥‫ڕ‬ԐቇႼཹè ߴཟఖཱི࿗൏෵ൺ‫ݝ‬ ֬ྦࢤჩƗкᆇफ֫Ⴜܸ ჆τ಍ྦྡྷເ֬ࢤჩሮਟ Ⴜևࡍృè

֙ಝཱི࿗൏ఀःಥ࿗ ഺࢫԯྦ࢓֬ߌ฼଻૮߽ Ⴜཻ྿҉ຏ֙è֓൥ཊࣉ ധཱི߽֬஻Ⴝ૓ఊ൓‫؂‬པ ֙ᄱඊè кᆇफ֫თఊ‫ةة‬Ҧ ҦƗಥսಭཱི‫؂ݠ‬ᓀᒿƗ ֡҉೉սս١١‫ࢤ׀‬ჩཱི ஻ႽèᆊဩƗ࿗ഺ૓՝ཱི ः୆‫ܛ‬ၰൔ֥τ಍ྦྡྷເ ֬ᇞးྦƗ҉߽ႀ‫ށ‬ఌྖ ֬ႋჁᄶӵ෷૓՝҉ᆥ֙ ܼ֬֨࿗༤ྦᆰൔè ᇖ࿗ࢯؔ֬ྦࢤჩॢ Ӹ҉‫ئ‬Ɨԩਛࢤჩҍ݆‫׮‬ ֬‫૽܋‬თ֪֨ࢤჩॢӸၢ ࠪഺ༅ॢЮഏ֬ୄಿƗս ‫ئ‬࿗ഺ‫ؚ‬჆ྦߕ൥ᚉᚉ‫״‬ ‫֬״‬è ঊౖ౤ങ୔԰჆иࢧ ଀‫୔֬ے‬਴ұƗս‫ئ‬ಭѓ ၢឳୀ֬١൛ैևྦ࢓֬ ໠฼èкᆇಱເೖ࿗ഺ૓ ႀເ๤ወ࿩৶෵ၢЗႼ೉ Օฆ؎Ɨ҉ᄂၰಱᆎ‫׀‬ਛ ࢺ࿗༤ƗুൄЁ࿗ഺഏᄣ ‫ॢ֬ئ‬Ӹ၀൥๵ি໴‫܆‬è ࡂಝ౤ങ୔໴ٌᆎᆥ ֬՝࿗ཱུ༒ಃྦᆰൔƗႀ ՕкᆇࢀၷࡌӐ٩ाྪ ߏƗၢ௣ӏྖთ୔౥ಭะ ઉྦ࢓֬ߌ฼èႼਛࡌ๝ ֬൨֙ႋ֤Ɨ౤ങ୔ѓढ़ ၢᆥ૲֬ྖฆ૲‫ߌے଀ؚ‬ ฼ƗѰౖࢫൺ࿗ཱུৡ෵ഏ ֬৒ෂॢӸƗ๤൏၀ढ़ၢ Ⴜཹ‫׀‬༒൳τ಍ᆰൔè

ԩՕᆴບƗкᆇ၀फ ֫ྦࢤჩॢӸ၀႒‫ۅ‬ᄤԡ ࠰࿗ᄄ‫ދ‬য়‫܄‬࿗ᄄୄࡆ࿊ ฻‫܉‬èᆊ۸ࢯؔ֬࿗ഺ၀ иࢧӵඊƗཔ‫۾ؚ‬୆‫ܛ‬য় ࢺτ಍ྦ࢓֬ၰၳèཱི൏ ްഏ‫ࢤྦ֬ݝ‬ჩॢӸढ़୆ ે൐ીႍཧƗႀՕಿၥЫ ޴ંິࡁèᄤᆊ۸൏ްᄣ ՘฻ྣ౤ങ୔τ಍ྦ࢓֬ ᇞးྦƗः୆‫ܛ‬ಥ෷૓‫۾‬ ਛࢺᆊཻॢӸ෵းԵչ֬ ሮ࿦è ྦࢤჩॢӸӏӏ฻ྣ ࿗ഺሸ࠴෠ಝેႼশ࢓Ɨ Ѱ҉քѝ‫ؚ‬١ϻੰ၀ે ႼƗႀՕٖൠ֫ቚቇτ಍ յേƗཱིྖເૺèढ़൥௑ ௑୔౥ಭᅴሩሸ࠴֬୔਴ ಱເߘഏྦѯ֬ࠖ੸҉ սƗເਛ၉൏֬ԑ‫ં޴׵‬ ਛõГཉ໠฼öƗै֫Ԣ ᆊᇜྦࢤჩ଍൛၉‫׋‬၀҉ ܼႯè кᆇࢀၷढ़ၢ๠‫ࡓݝ‬ ಭ଍ྟçࢤჩ‫߉׵‬çϊ৯ ࡇ੪௒ְ١൛দࢤჩ࿗ ഺƗၢᆊᇜ߁‫֬ۡ۾׵‬١ ൛দᅀࡍ୔౥ಭ‫ؚ‬ᆊ۸ߌ ฼֬ྜྷಆƗ‫ށ‬ӈഺ‫ܒ‬ଅè ฒõྦö҉႒‫ۅ‬ᄣᆂ ᆂညညƗᆊར‫ן‬ҷ٘႟ਛ ྔࡍ௨ಭ႒‫ۅ‬းሆၰ֬ཊ ཧƗѰౖ‫ؚ‬ᆨ༶့Ɨಥ୔ ౥ಭ๠‫ݝ‬൨֙֬ࢤჩƗ๰ ӥ‫׀‬ਛࢺτ಍ྦྡྷເ֬ᇞ းྦè

ۡ࿩६ᇌ఍൱ငઉ٫Ӑࣹᆴҭ ੅๜๚





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πૌƓၹႂƥ)Ua +PMWVOƔ ഏ۸ᄌᄤ૲Ҍഏ‫ن‬ѝᇜ቉఍ ൱֬ငઉ෢ሩ෹Ыࢺ‫ޱܭ‬ᇛ჆ۨਛ ၉ؔ઒èढ़൥ᆻ֫ࡆ࿊ทะ֬ѓ൥ ເ‫ࡍྔތ‬௨ಭଃᆰ֨Ю‫׀‬Ⴜ࿿৩֬ û೿‫ٌ׵‬ਾüƓ;MLQ\QWV )K\ƔƗ֓ Ⴜཻಭಖಶಝ޴൱ᆊ๏ٌਾƗ၎ࣿ ເ෵ყငƗᄶӵႼढ़୆ຶ྄ྔࡍ௨ ᇜ቉‫ދ‬྅֬ငઉ҉࡯٘ᅀè ࣔ୔দèᄇদᄇ‫ئ‬ಭᄤະഏ‫ن‬ѝ Ⴜܸᇜ቉఍൱֬ငઉƗ୔ᄌ ߕႼఴྡྷ‫֛׵‬౤୔๽ӵ჻ਊࡐ೭න ཱུӡഏ֬છদཱི஻Ⴝ‫؂‬൥໊দ֬୔ ౥४Ҏ‫ٺ‬ሷൺ࿥ᆇè ᆊཻϊ৯ұԢ҉౲Ɨ۹۸‫ࠥ؂‬ढ़ ୆ູ‫ݤ‬໨‫֬ݚ‬τ‫׮‬ധ߽Ɨ֓൥кᆇ फ֫೉‫ݛ‬Ӑఀၢۡ࿩൴ؔ६ᇌ‫ݚ‬ಭ ‫ؚ‬჆ᇜ቉Ҽၺ֬ငฒƗᇁ൥۸ᇔњ ҉ᇔЮ֬Ͼٌè֬ಙƗ৭Ⴏٌ੷๶ ࣬ໂԂЮ‫׀‬ᇜ቉‫ދ‬྅വ൥ႼཹƗढ़ ൥ᆊᇁ൥ဟบᆿ‫ٴ‬Ɨಝ‫ؾ‬໨૓းቚ

֥֬൥‫ֿڬ‬ԕྏè кᆇफ֫ྔࡍ௨ᆦ‫֬ڰ‬ᇂၰ‫ܬ‬ಝ ਌‫ށ‬Ɨ֓൥ᇁ֍֍ࢺब଱ཻᄤະ੥ ഏԢཊ֬ငઉѰ҉քѝᇁႼᆊ၉ཱི ҍ‫ݚ֬ٺ‬ಭ҉ਛࢺఊ෷๤Ѝè кᆇӏӏ໛๗஻Ⴝ֬఍൱ླྀߌࠎ ൥ু၉Тಭ֬఍൱ငმƗᆊཻငฒ ෠ಝેႼ‫ڣ‬ഏข૲ಥಭᇠ෵ᇢᆰƗ ֓Ѱ҉քѝ෷૓҉հᄤèႀՕთఊ ᇁ൥ࢺबõै֥֫ö֬໠฼Ɨкᆇ फ֫҉೉٘ఊ֨‫ྡྷؾ‬ƗಥЮ‫׀‬ಭᆷ ൱ᇜ቉֬Ҽၺè ೉‫ݚݛ‬ಭ୆‫ܛ‬ᆰ༘Ѱౖռाๆ Ժන਑ߌะઉᇜ቉ᆴ࡞֬҉๤Ɨк ᆇཔྗᆊࢃᅀ࣐սࡌཔ߁֬য়ࢺƗ ‫ౖؾ‬ғᆎ֬୆‫ܛ‬ಥྔࡍ௨ധ߽‫۾‬ӵ ඊè಍൞ࢿો۸‫؂ࡌݚ‬Ⴜሸ࠴ಭ૽ ᆴ࡞Ҽၺ֬໠฼း૲‫ؚ‬Ɨఊᇖ୺ຶ ᆦ‫ڰ‬ःҗಃਛाଃ֬൴ٌƗಥ‫૽ݚ‬ ‫ن‬ѝငઉƗᇁးනՔ҉းฅ‫ࠌݝ‬Ɨ ᇜ቉ᆴ࡞֬‫ٻ‬ᆡߕ൥࢓‫૽ۺ‬ᇠሸ࠴ ሥଏࢺबè кᆇಱເྔࡍ௨֬ധ߽ၟࣣչ֥ ਛ၉‫֬׮‬ӵඊ؎Ɨःଭᆊ՘ᅭπૌ

֬ൠࡸদනƗ֙෹‫ن‬ѝငઉ൏Ɨ છഏःႼະ૽஢‫ؚ٘ޢ‬෹֬ྡྷ ເƗै֫ԢЮ‫׀‬ಭᆰ֨ᇜ቉ೖ҉ ‫ދ‬྅֬࿿ᇞྦè ֓൥೉‫ࡍྔݛ‬௨ᆎ֬җಃᆊᇜ ಥսࡌ၉ఖҜთะઉ֬ቛٌƗ‫ݚ‬ ಭ၉‫׮‬းᆰ֨ा٩ငઉѰ҉քѝ սࡌढ़ၢӕ෵ყငƗ෢ѓ೿‫׵‬ᇜ ቉ᆴ࡞֬Ҽၺè‫ن‬ѝငઉ֬‫૽ݚ‬ းᆰ֨฻Ԣᇐၗᇁ൥ເਛ‫۾‬ਛࢺ ਽ບ၉۸ᇜ቉֬าྦƗቛԢߴ႒ ֬ಭ૓၀းᆰ֨սࡌш྽ၢõໂ Ԃധ߽‫ދ‬྅öເ଩њƗ๰‫ݝ‬ะઉ ҉൥ເਛಥ‫૽ݚ‬ᆴ࡞ආᄀƗ‫ؾ‬൥ ເਛᅀ࣐҉๤ሾ቉ᇞࢤᆴ࡞֬‫ے‬ ౭‫؎ے଀ދ‬èᆊᇜቛٌғᆎᆥ୆ ‫ܛ‬ᆷ൱ࢺबྔࡍ௨ሾࢤᇜ቉ᆴ࡞ ֬Ҽၺè кᆇᆎ౔༗ຳႼ၉ๆྔࡍ௨ಭ ୆‫҉ܛ‬ᄤᆦ‫ۡڰ‬࿩൴ؔ༶Ɨ၎ಝ ढ़ၢሸ੷‫׀‬฻Ԣ‫ن‬ѝ‫ؚ‬჆ሾ቉Ҽ ၺࢀനྦ֬ငઉƗ஖ྔࡍ௨ധ߽ ‫۾‬ӵඊƗϬຉ‫୔ئ‬দ֬ટҦఖদ ֬‫ۯ‬ջࠪ‫ٻ‬ᆡƗࡆ࿊ྒ಻‫ن‬ᅡè

ࣰ ᆡ ࣣ ‫ލ‬ য় ൨ ᆇ ഺ հ

ӏ߽Ⴜಭᇐၗࢤჩᇌ؎֬‫ލ‬য় ྦƗಱເ֙ࣉ࿗ഺ֬࿩৶‫ݝ‬սƗ ฻ၷ๠‫ݝ‬ಃ཯஍ଇᇌ؎ְၢ࡯౥࿗ഺ࿩ ৶è֓൥кᆇಱເቀ฿ैদࣰᆡ‫ؚ‬࿗ഺ ൥ш྽‫ؾ‬Ⴜ৭֬è ો۸࿗ഺႼሸ࠴֬۸ྦ‫ދ‬าӐƗ֓ ൥ഭ԰࿗ཱུᆊ۸๽฿ᇖƗःྺးႼ၉۸ ๫၉֬њሠಇ‫ޠ‬ਏ෷૓֬࿗༤መঊƗႀ Օॐ൲ӵਛቒ‫܋‬௣֬њሠè෢ሩ࿗ഺಭ ඛ֬҉ؕᅀࡍƗ‫ؚ‬࿗ഺ۹١૲๏ࡸ֬ԡ ҋ஘‫ދ׮‬೸࿑൥ો၉෵ཱུۡ҉ढ़ങ֬è кᆇ၀फ֫ॐ൲෵ւদࣰ֬ᆡƗఊ൓௦ ‫࣎҉֬ܠ‬൥࿗ഺ֬ᆰൔᅮ໫መঊƗ‫۾‬൥ ‫ؚ‬ఊྖฆç႒є୆৶ְ֬ॐҺ‫ؓދ‬ਆè ঊౖƗ࿗ཱུ֬ߓࣩཔ‫֍ؚ‬ՉƗთಷ ‫್࣐ޱ‬ധ߽૲‫ࣰؚ֬‬ᆡཔиƗढ़୆҉ᆻ ၉฻èೖ൥୆ᄤ࿗ཱུநဨõൂ҉࢖ƗϮ ҉ୃö֬࣡റ௝ᇐƗѓ߽ເࢃদ্࠙၉ кЖ‫֬ݓ‬Ҕ‫ڽ‬è ૲‫ؚ‬ॐ൲஍ଇְࣰᆡƗ෵Ⴜ࿗ഺ‫؂‬ ᅦᄤ๤၉๏ఖதནഏƗࠍ߽֫֬ࠖ൥௣ ְ‫܋‬ᆥ֬èႀՕкᆇ࡛ྗᄿဩ૲‫ؚ‬ॐ൲ ࠎ஍ଇւদࣰ֬ᆡ‫ދ‬࿩৶Ɨ൥ો၉۸࿗ ഺᄤӵӐ‫ݝ‬Ӹᇖ႒֙࿗߽֬è ๤൏Ɨкᆇ၀ಱເॐ൲஍ଇѰ҉߽ ညટ࿗ഺᆎ൓֬୆৶‫ދ‬าӐèೖ൥ᆎႼ ୆৶าӐ֬࿗ഺƗቀႼ၉ๆ߽ტ֥ྒ഍ ෷֬õѼৈöƗ‫ؾ‬ब҉߽Ы࿗༤ഏࣰ֬ ᆡ෵ࠓϮèఊ൓ཊᄤ֬‫֍ࠎཱུۡئޚ‬ ໑Ɨᄤ࿑Ϡಭғ൏Ɨ‫߽؂‬നᇉ૲൲‫ދ‬ғ ၣᅡ൜֬ߓࢲƗႀՕॐ൲ഏࣰ֬ᆡᇁ൥ ၉۸ເ࿗ഺ฻‫߽֬ࠖ܉‬૑ࡱè ቀ‫ؾ‬ငᆴƗࣰᆡ԰԰հᄤƗ໴ઉ൥ ഭ԰࿗ഺ൏քߕ൥ᄤധ߽ᇖƗõ༅ࣰๆ ᄻƗ൨ᆇഺհö൥҉є݆֬੷è

ࣰ ާឣ ᆡ ࣰ ٫ ຾ ၉ Ԣ ੥

ᆡ҉႒၉໌֬ᇁհᄤᄤॢ၃ӵࠢ ഏƗႀເ෸Ѱ҉൥ᆪଃࢤჩ൥‫ڕ‬ ӵ‫֬܆‬຾၉١൛è‫ݝ‬჆ሌሆ࿗၃ࢃ߽ւ দᇴ‫ئ‬໠฼Ɨ٘֡҉৭ࢤჩ֬‫ن‬ᅡè кᆇ‫ن‬ཊսࡌ‫؂‬ᇁሆᇞଇ՘ၢࠪ࿗ ၃ഏ֬ӵःƗಖ޴ંਛఊ෸١૲֬‫ن‬ ᅡƗ೉۸ಭྜྷಆçาӐְèࣹ‫ࣹؾ‬ᆴƗ ႡႼۡ࿗৬֬ಭииࢬ൥Ɨढ़൥ᄤఊ෸ ྺး۸ಭา඀࠶୆਼֬პᇖƗಭғಖ ᄇদᄇങèఊ൓ྡྷྡྷԢመჴƗᄤкᆇै দƗ၉۸ധ߽֬ሄӵ҉൥Ⴜսਏ֬ս࿗ п၃ഺç඲൝ഺçѷ൝ഺःቇ‫֬ܛ‬Ɨᆊ ٘‫ؾ‬ᄶӵಭ৶ሮჾ҉௣‫֬ޠ‬መฆƗఊ‫ن‬ ᅡ‫ؚ‬჆໊দᄼ൥٫ӏ҉৭֬è ഭເ၉ଇ࿗ഺƗкᆇമॠ฿ࣰ߽ᆡ ւদ֬औս࿩৶Ɨവᇇӏӏႀເ࿩৶‫ݝ‬ սƗୄྖࠫᄴƗ‫࣌ٺݝ‬ᅭƗ٘‫ؾ‬ᄶӵ࿗ ༤ཹ੸ࢍֵè֓кᆇഭя၀Ⴜ྿‫ئ‬Ӑ ఀ໴ٌय़‫ڢ‬࿩৶ࡉ෴֬๤࿗Ɨ෷૓֬ ӵࠢ҉֓ેႼ࣐ҋƗ٘‫ؾ‬ႀເ࿩৶ս‫ؾ‬ ൅૫Ɨഭ฿መঊ၀ൺ֥ႜའèࣰᆡւদ ֬࿩৶ཥ၉‫ܩ‬໴ྠ֬৶ਏƗ࿩ၤሩսࡌ ֬ୄྖƗ‫ؚ‬࿗ഺ֬ഭྖ‫ن‬ᅡႼ၉‫ູ֬׮‬ ‫ݤ‬Ɨ෠නࣰᆡ൥ເਛ࣐ҋƗ֓൥ೖ෬‫ݤ‬ ࡹॉƗମৡদ֫པ߁ࢧࣘγƪ ཊࣉധ߽ᇖັັհᄤ྿‫ࣰྦطئ‬ ᆡèࡌӐᆴ࡞֬‫ٺݝ‬иࢧç࿗ഺ‫ؚ‬჆۸ ಭႱᄇ‫֬ے‬ማ౷‫؂‬ढ़୆୬౾਌ྦࣰᆡ֬ ԡᇚèսࡌເਛൂ৭‫ؾ‬པ߁ࢧࣘƗവᇇ ҉༛җಃ၉ཻሢਣ֬൴ؔƗ‫ٺݝ‬ማ౷ࢹ ‫ݛ‬Ɨ޴ંਛ஍ଇ֬଩֬൥ເਛநဨ౷ᆰ ყ‫ދ‬ማ࡛‫֬׮‬ၰᇄƗൗࣰᆡ൅ಇਛჷЮ ֬ၰၳƗ෬‫ݤ‬ਛࢤჩ֬ᆥӏ‫ن‬ᅡè

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ྔႍཧ ᄤ୍ဋৡཱིႍ؎൥҉൥ᇁ൥໛བྷਟƗԀऻ৸֬‫׀‬١ƪఊ൓೉ࣉཱིႍ֬؎ߕЫ۹ᇜา೫ཱི֬‫ދג‬УЎੱ‫ג‬෵ԐԎሩè ӷ๸ိࢲƓ,MMXI^ITQƔ࠮ࢃ֥দƗ‫ۼ‬෢ᇖ໚ѐࠧᅼѩ၉ఖদ‫ن‬ཊ҉၉ဩཱིႍ֬؎ϛè

ᄤཱིႍ؎֬ࢮ֨ഏ಍ഭ֬‫ܹے‬༬ Ѝ‫߽؂‬ൺ֥Ֆࠞ‫ؾ‬ছᅭఖদè‫ـ‬ ‫ت‬๗֥֬൥ࢲቄృႍࣘ֬؎۪౾çႍ؎ ८ႂၢႍࠪ቉‫୶ۀ‬൴ഏൌ࠲۸ࣈඒ൴ᬜ ෵ేࠓԢ֬ᄍ‫ـ‬ഹའè зሷ໛֥֬ᄼ൥಼‫ލ‬ਛᒪབྷთႍ቉ ๤Ѝഭഏ๷଒֬଱‫ܩ‬୰୰်Ⴙ֬õႍ؎ ‫໌ڋ‬öè าѠ൥਩ࣔ๸ိࢲƗᆊᇜ‫ے‬फः‫۾‬ ເଃ཈ਛèཱིႍ؎֬սࢮཱིལᄱၟᅭ֮ ࢹҘƗ඘৲ఖဎ২ഁ਑֬޽ྠ‫ܐ‬૑Ɨᅡ ཊԢႍ቉୰ޯ֬ၣඓᄶၶƗѰ႖ᄶ໻Ҙ ᠌‫ࢲ֬ٻ‬ಷఞ‫ٹ‬è ٩ဋຳಇƗ҉֓೫Ҙϱ᧊Ɨවᇢߕ ढ़ၢै֥ྔ༾֬߄ߓçฯՓቚӵ֬Ⴙ ֮çႍ؎റཥ๴ϊ֬๸ိࢲ‫़ְְޖ‬è

,MMXI^ITQ;\ZMM\4QOP\=X Ɠ๸ိࢲ਑֮ၕ൛Ɣ ಷఀƥ၉ᆷ֥ᄌ ಷࢰᆿ ൏࡞ƥોๆXUा൚ ‫׋׀‬ƥཱིႍ؎ᇢя

,MMXI^ITQ.M[\Q^IT>QTTIOM Ɠ๸ိࢲ൮ࠩƔ ಷఀƥ֥ᄌಷࢰᆿ ൏࡞ƥIUXU ‫׋׀‬ƥ+IUXJMTT4IVM0I[\QVO[:WIL ᆊఀ࡞၀൥ཱིႍ؎֬۹ഌࡌ‫ٻٻ‬௚ ၃ࠢç‫ۥ‬൮ࠩ֬൏ްƗ҉٥݄၉݄൮ ࠩƗන҉‫߽׮‬Ⴜၰບ֬൳ࠍè ൮ࠩฉ֝ഏ֬ഌ௝໻߄ϝ૑çਥষ ન଩ƥ೉ఓ֣ሌႯ֬བྷ߄߄ߓçԵ๫Ⴙ ֮ç๴ϊ࣡ૌ֬Ե๫೴২‫ڢ‬Ɨၢ္ࠪဋ ਑২֬ಭᄶ൵൬ְè ֙ಝƗ೫Ҙဎ২ႍ֬؎‫ڢ‬൬çቚ‫܄‬ ࣡༬࿵ᇈ֬൏ሔ൵൬çԵ๫֬ၣඓ௝თ ‫܄‬ၣ௝Ɨ၀‫ٻٻ‬ӯ൤ഏࡖè

๸ိࢲ֬ሺ૲ၰම࠮ເõ஍֮öƗ ෸൥಍൞ࢿႍ؎ࢤ๵ቒເᇞးႍ֬؎ࢤ ࢲಷƗ၀ႼಭӲເ෸õ஍֮ࢲöè ၉ᆷ֥ᆊ۸ᄌֿƗཱིႍ؎ᇢя‫ࢃ؂‬ ᅭ֮ࢹҘè๤൏୍ढ़ၢ࿑ᄻӷቜටұܻ ݂սϟদ‫ے‬ൺࢲಷ֬าѠఞ‫ٹ‬èϟ൝དྷ ቜಭƗોಭ; èોลႺল൏࡞սᄆ ເf‫ٺ‬ᇙè

๾ࡰ൑༅ƥ5]\\WV 5I[ITI  <PZMILNQV ܽè‫ג‬ୄᇽး൥฻‫܉‬།қ‫ދ‬ႍ؎қèᆻ .Q[P+]ZZa ֫၉฻֬൥Ɨ‫ג‬ୄ฻‫࠲܉‬ൌᇜ֬ேࣼ‫܉‬ ๾ࡰႉ௝ƥ5IVOW4I[[Q1KM5I[ITI<MI ॡಭ࿑ᄻѰౖࡕ۳‫ލ‬য়è ๓નਛদሸУЎॡ੄༶֬۹‫ݚ‬లт 4IOVII൥၉࡞‫ڽ‬Ⴜಭ໚า೫ཱི֬ࣼ ‫ދ‬ଃྗ௒֬ୄుႴఊႋಭሆၰèᄤᆊৡ ܽƓқ๖Ɣèᇽ႖ಭ;IV\PQས໨૓ࣁ ୍၀ढ़ၢ࢓֥দሸ۹‫׀‬஻Ⴝè‫࣍ࡍ۾‬ഏ ജƗ‫ג‬ୄᇁ୆ಿଳᄆ໑֬ॡಭè ็߄֬ൠƗ‫ג‬ୄ҉൳ಃರ‫ڢތ‬༇‫ٵ‬è ෷૓༗ຳ୆‫ۺ‬ॡಭ႖ᄶ໘Ꮵ֬ࡌ๝ ‫ٹ‬ຽèᄤқ๖֬੓୍ྺးຉ‫ཾל‬ሷƗ ೉๤ಷЮಭ၉ဩஔ༙‫ؾ‬ቜè‫ؚ‬჆҉༤ܿ ఊ෷ૌ൑๾ࡰƥ ቜᄤ‫׀‬ഏ֬‫ܫ‬ॡƗߕ൥ढ़ၢ࿑ᄻᄤ၉੓ ֬ШႼሤၜ֬қ๖ःқè ‫ײ‬ဇบ;XQKa<PIQ<PIQ ᄤ‫ג‬ୄƗ୍߽Ыుഏ޸઀֬๷࿫෵ !2ITIV*M[IZ ༒ႋè;IV\PQѝ൜ᆊཻ‫؂‬൥õ௬ߑᆇö Ӡ‫;૲ࢀڥ‬MZIVOWWV:WIL Ⴏদѝչሸ࠴֬ཟٌ֬‫׀‬١è ҉֍֍൥‫ג‬ୄ֬ుഏƗःৼқ๖ບ ֬ᇿሷ၀߉નॡಭ૓੄༶দ֬๷࿫è೉ ?IVLMZT][\0W\MT ‫୍ݛ‬Ⴜ߽ࠖদᆊৡ֬ߌƗ၀Ѡິਛ੄༶ ሸ࠴֬ቇࠝè 4IOVII֬਽၉۸า೫ः൥õণöè ‫ג‬ୄ‫ۻ‬ओ҉๤֬བྷਟƗ฻‫܉‬ਛ֥࠰֬ ণ؎࿑ᄻè‫ؚ‬჆଱ཻ൦õণö೉ଈ֬ಭ ૓দනƗࢃ߽൥҉շ֬๎ᅥè

‫׋׀‬ƥ,QKS[WV:WIL;QVOIXWZM!! ະᆽƥ____IVLMZT][\PW\MTKWU Ⴚቃ჆ཱིႍ؎ୄƗ୍߽‫ن‬ཊ྿‫ئ‬У Ўੱ‫ދג‬า೫֬ࣼ‫ג‬èఊᇖ?IVLMZT][\ 0W\MTෟ൥࣡௝ࣼ‫ג‬ᇖ֬ዉዉᆇè ࣼ‫ג‬ୄ၉‫ܒ‬᜹!࡞ॡ٣è՝೫Ҙϱ ᧊֬ม‫ݛ‬೫ᇽ฼٣֥‫ڽ‬Ⴜၣඓఞ༖֬‫ޘ‬ ϩࠥ࡬നࡀƗເদ٧֬ॡಭ႙ᄶਛ၉۸ ۸‫ݠ‬๧ϵ઼֬ཉ૚ཟè ҉‫ݝ‬೉Օ࣡ྖ֬ࣼ‫ג‬ሸಝ၀ࡕ۳҉ ٪Ɨ၉۸ລഏ֬ህේ‫ۡٵ‬չྔтè

ఊ෷ࠊ‫׵‬ƥ ,MMXI^ITQ+W]V\LW_V+WVKMZ\ Ɠ๸ိࢲ֡ඛລ߽Ɣ ಷఀƥᄌ ಷ ൏࡞ƥ֙ಷ!XUा൚ ‫׋׀‬ƥ.IZZMZ8IZS.QMTL ཱིႍ؎೫བྷ໌ ᅽ௒d4IOVII฻‫܉‬


ఊ൓ᄤཱིႍ؎ԩਛ฿မԵ๫ႍ؎໚ ߋບƗ୍ߕ୆Ⴜ྿‫ئ‬ၰບ֬‫ن‬ཊèᇁး <PM+W]V\Za[QLM+INM ୍Ⴜྖဈሩ൓੊ۜ੥Ɠ;MZIVOWWV :WIL ᇢຽཱི֬੥෢ྦ‫݄݄׀‬Ɨः୆‫ن‬ཊ྿‫ ئ‬႖၃൏࡞ƥྙఀ‫ྙ֥ل‬ఀಷ ᄱഏ‫֥׋‬ລഏ‫׋‬ า೫ཱི‫ג‬ःႌ૤ᄤఊᇖè ‫׋׀‬ƥ,]VTWX;\ZMM\;QVOIXWZM ๾ࡰ൑༅ƥ5I[ITI NZQM[ KZQ[Xa NQ[P IVL 4IOVII KPQX[ ႖၃൏࡞""IU"XU ᆊ൥၉࡞໑჆ཱིႍ؎ᇖྖ֬ऻ٬ཱིࣼ ‫׋׀‬ƥ6W=XXMZ,QKS[WV:WIL




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πྖࣗཊಪྖ໴ࢆࢿ ୍֙૓ै֥೟ଇ‫ڢ૽ݚ‬ၩಭ჻ᄤսზᇖЁሀቜᄤ઄ၜഏ֬୔Ӑᆇᅽ௒൏Ɨ୍൥‫ڕ‬Ⴜ๛༶দཟཟ ఊᇖ֬‫ܪ‬ൠୂƪᆊఀಥࡁᆇᅭࡹव‫ދ‬ৠི৤ւ୍၉ท࣯ࣵè

Ꮵ֬ᅽ௒ഏԵ֥ധ߽ ఙ ၃ õ Ԥ ቔ ö  , Q O V Q \ a 3Q\KPMV ૲ҌƓ.IKMJWWSƔഏ ֬੉ཱི൏ୄƗ֥֫ਛӘ‫ݝ‬ ۸ᄨ‫ދ‬۸ሎᄢè҉ങະ૽੄ ငᄨ྿ᅽ௒ᇖ೟ଇ‫ڢ૽ݚ‬ၩಭ ჻֬ए‫׵‬ƗѰӲᄨ෷૓ເõྔ ࡍ௨ಭ֬࢖ϓöè ໑჆ࡍࠕ໺ࠤࣦ 3ISQ *]SQ\ >QM_ཱུ֬ჺሸ୔ाϾၢদ ࠥ৶‫׀‬Ёሀ೗൤ಜ฿‫ދ‬Ҟࠬಭ ൝ࢫൺԤၣந࿥Ɨ‫ށ‬ಥ෷૓ಷ ‫ޱ‬୆‫ܛ‬Ⴜ၉࠶ᆴӐሸ৲ሸృè ჷЮ‫؂‬ᇁ॓ሩധ࢓ૉ฿ࣣ႖ᆰ ଇ؎֬õԤቔöƗႀເ଱၉ᅭ ᅽ௒‫ؾ‬๳ಝШൺԵૉܸሆè ฻ࠪᆊᅭᅽ௒ᄤധ࢓ૉ฿ഏ ෵ႋఖ֬ಪਢߴའƗ೉Օ࿨෕ ֬၉ԵൌçൌԵϫƗõԤቔö ֬သ࿃ࠤࣣয়ѝ൜၉౔‫؂‬൥൚ ਟ໊ࠪè෷නƥõ֙൏ै֥෷ ૓ၱಝബԢჸ൴֬൏ްƗಙ൓ ಥ໨‫֥ے‬Ⴜ‫׋‬ၰບè჆൥໨ब ເЁሀۗࢹඖõԤቔႆ‫ن‬቉࿂қࡀߊö֬୔ӐᆇഏӡƗ೟ଇ‫ڢ૽ݚ‬ ‫׮‬ϣᅽ௒ഏԵ֥૲Ҍѝဟ෷૓ ၩಭ჻ᄤսზᇖࣖൈਛ಍ഭՕए֥֫ۡ؎ᄨဟè ᅽ௒dԤቔNIKMJWWS ৈ჆ሀಭ֬ૌ֪èö ധ࢓ૉ฿௻ࠪധ߽ఙ၃ྔ࿍Ե ཊᄤധಜະᅦᄇদᄇ௻ࠪ ߋƗവᇇႼ֬൏ްӵເಭ૓҉ ढ़ࠎಓ֬ྗ༖দჾƗႀՕ྿‫ئ‬ ധ߽ఙ၃ѓ‫ۆٻٻ‬єࣣ႖଍ ൛Ɨϣᆊധ࢓ૉ฿ਠ್࿍Եᇖ ҉ढ़ࠎಓ֬၉ҍ‫ٺ‬è ჾሸႎ‫֬ݚ‬ധ߽ఙ၃൥၉ᇜ ྔ֬ഌ၃‫ۇ‬୘Ɨཔࢧ଩ఴհᄤ ֬ඹႼఙ၃Ɨ෷૓ၢ‫܋‬ၴൠ၃ ເᇽƗ҉֍֍ᇁ౷ࠍ֫৭ೕƗ ༗ຳሐಃ֬൥õ਌ྖలöèႀ Օӏӏ߽ै֥෷૓Ёሀ೗൤ಜ

฿ः၃ࠎ൥ࢃሐಃ֬ࣈలߴও ‫ۺ‬ധ߽ᇖ֬҉ྤಭ൝èಝ‫ؾ‬ᆊ ᇜࣣ႖଍൛‫ؚ‬྿‫ࡍྔئ‬௨ಭಶ ಝ٫ӏଚഺƗႀՕ๠‫ݝ‬ധ࢓ૉ ฿֬႖ᄕࣣয়သ࿃ࠤಱເ๰‫ݝ‬ ധ࢓ૉ฿࿍Ե‫ؚ‬ռའ෷૓֬ᆰ ଇ؎൥པ֙ᇞး֬è

õധ߽ఙ၃Юদः ൥ၢ‫܋‬ၴྦൠ၃ເ ᇽƗ҉౷ႛ৭èႀ ເ໨૓֬ሮჾ٫ӏ ႼདྷƗ෵ၢ‫ٵ‬Ⴏ١ ૲൥໨૓‫ޚ‬ս֬ॐ ਏèö သ࿃ࠤ Ԥቔധ࢓ૉ฿֬႖ᄕࣣয়

ߘႼཱི‫ؿ‬ગфᆨ֬ߢ๠࣐Ɠ ෦Ɣ၉ᄱःদा֝ƗႼ྿‫ܫئ‬ॡ սুᄀ‫ࠕࡍ֥׀‬໺ࠤࣦ֬ग़࠶ࣦ ս༷Ɠ<MKP^QM_*]QTLQVOƔ௝ ӎ෷ሠШ֬֨‫๊׀‬௝è

਍୔ఴा൚႖၃൏ƗõԤ ቔö๽‫ؙ‬ѓ၉८ఞന৲ਛ૲Ҍ Ɠ.IKMJWWSƔç๾าƓ<_Q\ \MZƔç8W[\MZW][ၢࠪAW]<]JM ֬ᅲ߃ƗԐ‫ٺ‬৭Ⴏ۹۸҉๤֬ ധ࢓ૉ฿௣ข֬าᇐƗເԤቔ ֬πྖൠ၃ቚ‫ށ‬࿍Ե֬ࠕԫè ֓൥ႡႼᆊી‫ئ‬۸ᅲ‫ރ‬൥҉ ቇ‫֬ܛ‬ƗõԤቔöᆺྡྷ‫׳‬ൠ྿ ӼवƓ෦Ɣѝ൜ആႯധ࢓ૉ ฿ܸ֬ࡶԩਛ໴෵‫ྠأ‬ᆴບƗ ఊ൓ߕ֫ಙГ෸֬Ԃ࿊ྦè သ࿃ࠤѝ൜ധ࢓ૉ฿֬ቒս ‫ށ‬԰ԩਛढ़ቚ૮‫ٵ‬࿍ԵƗಶᄤ ჆෸֬࠮൏ྦḩḩ෢൏෢‫׀‬Ɨ ະ૽‫؂‬ढ़ၢࠍ֫õԤቔö֬ቒ

ྔ‫׵‬ฆè෷නƥõധ߽ఙ၃Ю দः൥ၢ‫܋‬ၴྦൠ၃ເᇽƗ҉ ౷ႛ৭èႀເ໨૓֬ሮჾ٫ӏ ႼདྷƗ෵ၢ‫ٵ‬Ⴏ١૲൥໨૓‫ޚ‬ ս֬ॐਏèö ો՘‫ྔ۾‬መฆः‫ށ‬ཥ‫ن‬ᅡ‫׏‬ ൱ৼ࿊झ֬༶၉ࠩƗ‫ؾ‬ቒІ֬ ൥ະႽ୆‫ܛ‬෢൏෢‫֫ࠍ׀‬෷૓ ֬ቒྔ‫׵‬ฆè ହսᇖ໚༩೟୔࠰ഺৠႝႛ Ɠ෦ƔႼࡍ್õԤቔö૲Ҍ ֬‫ٿ‬ර๽Ɨ൏ӏሆၰ෸֬ࠊ‫׵‬ ࣐ᅡè෹නƥõ໨ᆭԂԤቔൗ Ⴏധ࢓௣ขদ࿍Ե෷૓Ёሀ೗ ൤ಜ฿֬ࠊ‫׵‬Ɨᆊ୆‫ܛ‬ಥ‫ئ۾‬ ಭಱൔᆊ۸ധ߽ఙ၃èö ଩ఴõԤቔö֬૲Ҍ‫ٿ‬ර๽ ၟࣣႼӘ‫ݝ‬Ⴜࢃࣔ ۸ಭφ ᄨƗᆊಥ྿Ӽव‫ދ‬෷֬๽‫ےؙ‬ ֥པ֙‫ܤ‬໾è ᄤധ࢓ૉ฿֬Ёሀ༶ƗႡႼ ‫܄୔ئ‬ഌܼয়ࣣမ֬෷༗ຳढ़ ၢ‫۾‬Ⴜཹ‫׀‬ռའõധ߽ఙ၃ö ֬ᆰଇ؎è ହဣয়‫܄‬ս࿗Եѳ༩ሀয়ࢤ ൸ਞࡆಊൺ٧൏ѝ൜ಱເ‫܋‬ᇠ ၟ༤ܿᄤ҉๤௣ข༒൳ሮ࿦Ɨ ႀՕ୆ആႯധ࢓ૉ฿֬ఙ၃ш ‫׮‬Ⴜ෵Ⴑ൤è ෷ࢀၷƥõԤቔढ़ၢ൳ࠩ ‫܋‬ᇠᄤ૲Ҍ‫ދ‬๾า֬੄ငƗ໊ দԛং൏ࢃሮਟ‫ྡྷۺ࢓ׅ‬ᆦಭ ჻Ɨၢඛሺদᆪଃ‫܋‬ᇠ‫ؚ‬ఙ၃ ֬ᆭԂƗ೉Օ၉দ‫ྤ҉ئ۾‬ಭ ൝ѓढ़ၢࠍၴèö ധ߽ఙ၃৭Ⴏധಜະᅦ֬Ⴑ ൤࿍Եሸ࠴Ɨ༗ຳႋఖ‫ݚ‬ಭ‫ؚ‬ ೗൤ಜ฿ܸ֬ߏƗ೉Օ֬πྖ ᆴए‫ۺ‬ୄಿ໻߄ϝ૑֬ະ੥൞ ࢿւদ໘୷֬ఞ༖è

ûԤቔüཱི֝ϊ ୔!ᄌӵ৲Ɨሌ૑ந࿥Ҟࠬᆇ‫ދ‬೗൤ ᆇӵເཱིࣣٛ႖ᆇࠎЁ൴è õԤቔöთᇖཱིఙ၃‫ލ‬ቛƗોๆτ஍ᇄ ᄂ‫ڥ‬৭ቍᆵ֬࠲ൌଇ୔Ӑᆇഏ໽֥൮౼Ͻಷ ႺƗᇖ໽ᄤඊ൑ᇖྖԀ૮‫ٵ‬໽қè ଩ఴ֬ࡍࠕ໺ࠤқ๖നႼ۸ฉ໑Ɨఊ ᇖ ۸ฉ໑ढ़‫܉‬ந࿥èᆊཻฉ໑‫ٺ‬Ѡ൹ઢછ দٝç๊௝çු൑ç།қ‫ދ‬ᄐຄ૲ְè Ԥቔந࿥࿗ཱུ௞౯‫࠰׫‬ԤൄԵ൸࿗჻ள ᘨ࠶్Ɨ၀౯দ੷ൄ‫ދ‬ളࡀൄࢤ෷૓ܼয় ฉ໑Ɨൗ෷૓कШ၉࠶ᆴӐƗಷ‫ޱ‬ढ़ၢᄤ ധ߽ഏଛഺè Ҝთந࿥ࡀߊƗाന၉۸ႵาѠ‫ݠ‬๧ै ཱིܼ֬ྟᄝࠑ‫ג‬Ɨ৒ෂᄤ ቍ໳੓༶֬଱ᇜ ཱིഌ‫ג‬Ɨಥ೗൤ಜ฿ᄤཱིྟᄝࠑ‫ג‬ᇖ࿗༤ ೉‫ތ‬ሸ৶‫۾‬ഺè Ԥቔ଩ఴ෵௞Ⴏ֬ଇᆶ჻֙ᇖƗႼ ଇ൥Ҟࠬಭ൝è

ࢉརთѝᅫ Ӯ౰ဇቀ๫‫ދ‬Ԥቔᆺྡྷ‫׳‬ൠ྿Ӽवா૲ ਍՘ƗาѠᄨဟҞཱིࠬٛ࿗ཱུ฿ཊਛႮ჆ӎ ൲‫ދ‬Ⴌ҉ငϮ֬࣡റƗॣ‫׮‬ਛധ߽ఙ၃ࣣ႖ ᆇ‫ܑ֬ࡌݚؚ‬ཋè ୔ᄌƘᄤׂ‫ ࣄل‬õཿሀҞࠬಭः ၃‫ܭ‬ᇽࢉöഏƗԤቔࠍ֫õྔ‫ܭ‬ᇽࢉöè ୔ᄌƘԤቔ֥֫ᇖ౼ധয়߽ Ɠ+MV\ZIT+WUU]VQ\a,M^MTWXUMV\+W]VKQT Ɣ϶‫֬ن‬ႱၺࢉƗѝဟ෷૓‫ؚ‬೗൤ಜ฿֬ ܑཋè

࿗๵သ೒໚Ɠ!෦Ɣഏ۸ᄌ֥ۗᆊ۸֝८ЁલƗሸಱߖફ֬෷ᆥ ᄤඊ༘֝८֬ᄕྡྷè ണႜdᅭࡹव

92/ 12






ৈ௦ ႂৈ2]SMJW`



ሌࠧƥûࡇ୘ಷü ۪൴ƥဇ࿷ઈ ๾ࡰ۪౾ƥûЫິ ੪üçûࡇ୘ಷüç ûи࠿ଙ‫࠿۾‬ଙü  ‫٭‬઄‫ݡ‬Ԣ֥֨ ֍‫٭‬ᆴ‫ޱ‬Ɨဇ ࿷ઈ‫ྡྷن‬ਛ൵ᅭ۸ಭ ૠ୍ሌࠧû༶၉۸ဇ ࿷ઈüƗः৲ॠӵເ ୔߆მ൮ӍӖ཮ ྔಭອèࣉ୔౳ๆƗ ෷ӷ൤๾Ԣਛቒྔ۸ಭሌࠧƗᅡ੤ਛ෷֬‫૲ྦے‬ ાƗ෷ࢃ၉ཻ҉ཟິࡁ֬‫ܪ‬ൠƗႬᄀ੄հᄤᆊൌ൵ ౭‫څے‬மç‫׵ے‬ಭྖ֬Ⴑᇐ౭۪ᆴᇖè ൵ѳᇽռ۪ûढ़୆୍ߕπ໨ü൥‫ۆ‬ѐሸ།ဣု ‫ݖ‬ๆ‫ޱ‬8163ࣣ֬‫۪׌‬౾õ1,WV¶\*MTQM^MAW]öƗ ᇖ໚۪Քᄼ൥ဇ࿷ઈ౛ሸ่྆èᆊᅭሌࠧႼࢧ‫֬ئ‬ ု‫ݖ‬ඁ౭۪Ɨःཥ൥ûЫິ੪üၢࠪûи࠿ଙ‫࠿۾‬ ଙüè ׂ‫ل‬Ѷᇽռûࡇ୘ಷüाԾਛဇ࿷ઈ౭۪ྔ‫ڋ‬ ۳è.1:δౣ۰πཋԢຢૌ౾ቛƗಥဇ࿷ઈԐ‫ٺ‬ ‫׀‬ᅡཊ۪ഹᇖ֬༬ᇈන‫ܪ‬ൠ୆৶Ɨᄤ੪ႂ൰ৡಮህ ဋ৓ƗӖԢ۪Քৡᇽ࢟‫ݝॻޟ‬ಇçཊᄤç໊দ֬၉ ؔ‫ܪ‬ൠèƓ໚ƚϩဎឤƔ


ሌࠧƥûྔ‫ܪ‬൛ü ۪൴ƥෑྣ ๾ࡰ۪౾ƥû޴ಝᆴ ࡞üçû0MZWü ᄤૉ฿ࡁᆇ߽ഏƗӮᒹ࿨õ๮ෛöু௫ᄤࢮഏ݄ࢮઠၐ‫߽؂ڢ‬Ыࡁᆇ஌Ɨሸ࠴ઠਛສ֬ঠϚ‫ે؂‬Ⴜಭ஌Ɨ၀ ેႼಭܼè ᅽ௒d5IZQVI*Ia;IVL[>Q[]IT5MLQI฻‫܉‬



ྖีু௫ӏӏЫૉ ฿õ‫ࠓ܅‬öƗႰଖ ‫ڋ‬ಆ֬Ӯᒹ࿨නƥõᆊ൥ ෹֬ଈƗ෹༤ܿਛƌ໨݄ ࢮ‫ે؂‬Ⴜಭ஌ƌö ᄤྔࡍ௨ဍӖ߽֬ఴ ၉ๆƗӮᒹ࿨‫׀ूے‬ѝ൜ ু௫֬ྔ໛ࡕᆻиሸ࠴ ۡƗႀເૉ฿иࢧሌሆ჆ ฅฅ‫ݝئ‬჆෷è Ӯᒹ࿨õ๮ෛöু௫ ᄤࢮഏ݄ࢮઠၐ‫߽؂ڢ‬Ы ஌Ɨሸ࠴ઠਛສ֬ঠϚ ‫ે؂‬ಭ஌Ɨ၀ેಭܼè õ໨۪֬ૠ༦ߒ๗໨ ۪֬Ɨ֓‫۾‬༦ߒ؇໨ু௫

ઠྔ‫ױ‬།֬ྔ໛ƌö Ӯᒹ࿨ᆰ֨ু௫༦ߒ ݄ࢮƗ၀‫ؚ‬Օѝ൜ᆭԂƗ ҉फ֫Ⴜ൐ી໠฼è෷ߕ Ⴏႎმ‫ؚ‬ૉ฿ࢺ൫ƥõ1N aW]KIVINNWZLQ\IVL\PI\ UISM[ aW] PIXXa Q\ô[ NQVMöƓ೉‫୍ݛ‬୆‫֫֋ڼ‬ ఖƗ‫ؾ‬Ⴢ୆ਾ୍ाྖ֬ ߌƗ൥ે໠฼֬èƔ Ӯᒹ࿨֬,]WဍӖ߽՝ ୔ᄌःၟࣣाதè ဍӖ߽ᄤབྷ‫ܽު۝‬Ծ༶ৼ Ӗ Ӎ֬࣠ಭࡇ੪‫ޱ‬Ɨၢ ྔࡍ௨ເׂ၉۸‫ݡ‬ບᅦƗ ा൚ਛ‫ئ‬۸‫ࡌݚ‬࿢ဍࢃࣔ Ӎè ಍౶Ә‫ݝ‬ສಭྒ഍ ਛ෷࣡Ҙ֬ѝဍ‫ےދ‬ൺਛ

෷ృਢ֬໾ขᷧ৶è ᄤ,]Wࢹඖᆴ჌Ɨ3۪ ᆴອӮᒹ࿨Ⴢߴ֥ਛྔࡍ ௨ƗएϾਛ‫ئ‬਍Ӎ,=7  ဍӖ߽ߴও۪ૠèᆊ՘ᄣ ؎ߴদӮᒹ࿨ѝ൜෷‫ޚ‬ा ྖƗ၀߽ւদ‫ދ‬ᆴఴ҉၉ ဩ֬ѝဍè ҉๤჆਍୔ఴƗᆊ՘ ֬ဍӖ߽൥ᄤѥ‫ݡ‬ຝࣈೳ սࣼ‫֬ג‬൰ບ݃Ӎएྡྷè ‫ן‬ொ֬Ӯᒹ࿨છഏϣට൴ ‫ލ‬ఖƗఓ౷ဍӖ߽֙ๆ҉ း༶ზè ֓೉‫ݛ‬ๆ३ᆎ֬҉ቛ ૌƗӮᒹ࿨ս١‫׀‬නƥõ ఊ൓၀໴෵໓Ɨზඪ၀྿ ߽ࠞ‫֥ن‬ሸ࠴Ɨє‫۾‬ॎ ‫ڀ‬Ɨ‫۾‬Ⴜ࣡റè໨ᇁ༗ຳ

51+߽ેൠƌö ֙ಝƗϾਛ਍୔֬࿢ ߴဍӖ߽ƗӮᒹ࿨๰੤۪ ֍၀Ⴜ྿‫ۆئ‬єè෷ࡍ್ ਛᆊ਍୔ྔሌ۪ࠧ֬౾Ɨ ᄤဍӖ߽ഏш‫߽׮‬Ӗᆊཻ ۪౾è

õ໨۪֬ૠ༦ߒ๗໨֬ ۪Ɨ֓‫۾‬༦ߒ؇໨ু௫ ઠྔ‫ױ‬།֬ྔ໛èö Ӯᒹ࿨ བྷ‫۪۝‬൴

ၐ‫ڢ‬Ɨ໾ข‫؂ྟنދ‬ є֫‫ދ‬਍୔ఴ҉၉ဩƗ຿ ႼഭҒે‫ۆ‬єè෷ाພླྀ ֬නƥõఊ൓ఀ࡞ഭҒ‫ۆ‬ є‫ݝ‬Ɨ‫ن‬ஞਛƗ֓ཊᄤഭ ҒჂ߲‫ڶ‬ਛƌö ๆഺး౷ຢૌ֬Ӯᒹ ࿨၀ࢺ൫҉ࣹఴሸ࠴ഹւ Ԣਛ໠฼Ɨᇽး൥ႀເ ‫܄‬ቛਏฅսƗྡྷӸ஍֫ฅ નƗບࡍഏණ૫҉ቇè ෵ၢƗ෷ᇁ֫‫֬ށށ‬ ᄤབྷ‫ྯ۝‬༖Ɨᄤࡌै‫׏‬ ൱Ɨഹւ໠฼ःࡽࡽ‫ށ‬ ሎƗഹႂ၀҉߽ó࿶࿶ô ֬èõ֓࿶࿶֬ഹႂ၀‫ށ‬ ๗তƌö Ӯᒹ࿨၀ࢃ߽ᄤ༶ ۸ᄌᄣ՘দྔ࿍Ե෷ᄤ བྷ‫֬ྡྷنۗ۝‬ᄋმሌࠧ ဍӖ߽ᄤѥ‫ݡ‬ຝࣈೳսࣼ‫֬ג‬൰ບ݃ӍƓ5IZQVI*Ia;IVL[-^MV\8TIbIƔएྡྷè û55üè

൏೟୔Ɨෑྣ ‫ྡྷن‬ਛ෷ሸࡍ ್;WVa 5][QKսࡌ ๝‫֬ޱ‬۸ಭׂ೟ᅭሌ ࠧèෑྣ؆ሸ၉ಭЎ঱෵ႼՔ౾ԾቛƗႂৈ౾‫ڋ‬၎ ಝဃ࿊ෑྣ෵‫ܬ‬Ⴜ֬:*ࠪ018078೫‫ן‬è ෑ൛౭۪û޴ಝᆴ࡞üቒकา‫׋‬è෠൥౭۪ಖ ‫ڽ‬Ⴜࢲቄ‫ے‬Ɨ๤൏ჂकႼੇӕ֬ᄙ੷‫ے‬è û0MZWü൥၉൵‫֬ྟ׌‬:*۪౾èၢۘౝ֗ቄ ૌૺ֬ఴቄយយ֨দ۪Քᇖ࿂ඔ֬‫ے‬ಭ‫ܪ‬ൠƥ଺ᇽ ಭ‫܋‬՝ഋ๬ᇖӵӐເሸ࠴֬ႎྭèՕ౾ࢲቄ౥ঀƗ ࿏੷‫׵‬๗Ⴒဟè ෑྣႯ෷౩Ӧ֬ഹནເ๗ᇠւদԳ๰ྖਹ֬฿ မƗ൥൵ଷ๗۪֬౾èƓ໚ƚࢂපƔ

ሌࠧƥûๆ३ᆴඕü ۪൴ƥࢅೖਥ ๾ࡰ۪౾ƥûඪࠌ҉ ಿüçû‫׵ے‬ሸ࠴ü  ົৈญӘ‫ݝ‬਍ ୔֬བྷ‫۪۝‬൴ ࢅೖਥƗ๾Ԣቒྔ֬ ۸ಭᄋმሌࠧûๆ३ ᆴඕüè ᅽ௒ǧະક༶ᄢ ԩਛ൳੪ᇽռ۪û ඪࠌ҉ಿüְ‫۝‬൛౭۪ບƗࢅೖਥ‫۾‬൵؎ӎ൲Ք౾ ԾቛƗϣሸ࠴‫୔ئ‬দ֬ྖ੥৬Ӹ๫๫‫࣐྆؂‬û࿗߽ ঀৈü၉౾ৡè ਽ບƗࢅೖਥᄤྔሌࠧ֙ᇖ၀Ⴜ၉൵ቛ௝൥‫ۆ‬ ѐሸသቦਥ֬๤ଇ۪౾û໨૓‫؂‬೵üè֓Ⴕ჆ჷӖ ᄱၟࢀ৲ᆰଇ؎Ɨࢅೖਥ֬ϸЮ೉‫ݛ‬း๎ᅥᆊ൵õ മ್૽ྖö֬ჷ౾Ɨढ़୆ߕྺ‫୴ࡍئ‬৶è ሌࠧৡƗࢅೖਥ၀ّӖਛϝൌ୔ք৉τଲ֬û Ҙᄐ౾üƗເࣿ౾‫ڵ‬ეਛሸ࠴ྔ֬ਹࠆƗಥಭ‫ـ‬଩ ၉ྔèƓ໚ƚອೖნƔ

Opinions frankly, my dear



Our Golden Age? Local columnist Sumiko Tanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s commentar y on how Singapore was in her â&#x20AC;&#x153;golden ageâ&#x20AC;? drew much f lak from netizens after it was published. It ga r ne r e d r e s pon s e s pointing out how the income gap has widened, housing is a major headache for many, and the decreasing quality of life. Yet, was she that off the mark? According to the Oxford Dictionary, the Golden Age is â&#x20AC;&#x153;an idyllic, often imaginary past time of peace, prosperity, and happinessâ&#x20AC;?. As long as we remember that â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;goldenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; does not mean â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;perfectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, and try not to overlyromanticise, I think we will feel a little prouder of Singaporeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s achievements thus far. Sure, our housing prices are far from competitive. They are, in fact, painful to look at. This may have been exacerbated by the inďŹ&#x201A;ux of foreigners setting up homes here, but our land shortage is an age-old problem. And remember, Singapore is a safe country â&#x20AC;&#x201D; tourists and Singaporeans alike do not have to worry about snatch thefts, much less armed robbery and human trafďŹ cking syndicates. This is a lot more than we can say for most of the countries around the world. I, for one, do not mind living in a small and insanely expensive apartment. After all, it is set above a street I can walk

along with a peace of mind at three in the morning, after getting off a cab I boarded without the fear of being kidnapped. I actually prefer this to dr iv ing an affordable car through a seedy neighborhood to reach my double-storey bungalow with a sprawling yard â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the same yard my neighbor may have a kidnapped girl hidden in his secret basement. So before we compare land prices, let us think of the security we are paying for. Even in the most prosperous of countries, segregation exists. The Gupta Dynasty, Indiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s oft-talked about Golden Age, had the caste system set ďŹ rmly in place. No one praises the Great Leap Forward and its attempt at equality more than the Tang Dynasty, where standard of living across society differed greatly but produced much great art and other achievements. When a meritocratic count r y moves for wa rd , some groups are bound to lag behind. What we can hope for is a society that speaks out for the less fortunate. Judging by the very pieces spawned as a result of Sumikoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s article, we know Singapore is moving towards that. We may only be able to tell when Singaporeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Golden Age truly is in retrospect, but let us not discount where she is right now.




















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very man needs a hero, someone he can look up to and try to emulate. I have a few, but for the perfect example of being a man, no one beats John F. Kennedy (JFK), the 35th President of the United States. Whenever I express my unabashed love for JFK, I receive a reaction similar to the one comedian Bill Hicks got, as detailed in his stand-up routine: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Quit talking about Kennedy, man. That was a long time ago.â&#x20AC;? Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s true. JFK died in Dallas, Texas in 1963, some 25 years before I was born. Yet I still feel a strong connection to the man whom many Americans, and even more Singaporeans, know only as a name from the history books. In his brief reign at the top, he managed to achieve great things. He fought for civil rights for African Americans. He started the American space program. He even prevented the Cuban Missile crisis from breaking out into nuclear war, before being assassinated. His presidency lasted a thousand days. It seems like such a short time to change the world. But change it he did. He was a rock star â&#x20AC;&#x201D; millions attended his rallies and were inspired by his words, including future President Bill Clinton. His speeches, spoken so long ago, still ring true today. It seems that for every situation in which I need inspiration, JFK has a handy quote for me. Starting a new journey: â&#x20AC;&#x153;We stand today on the edge of a New Frontier.â&#x20AC;? Experiencing a crisis: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Do not pray for easy lives. Pray to be stronger men.â&#x20AC;? Performing a difďŹ cult task: â&#x20AC;&#x153;We choose to go to the moon not because it is easy but because it is hard.â&#x20AC;? The list goes on. As the Chief Editor of the Chronicle, I have encountered many problems, both personal and professional. People ďŹ nd inspiration in the strangest of places, and JFK comes to my mind whenever Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m feeling down or frustrated. I start thinking to myself, â&#x20AC;&#x153;What would JFK do in this situation? How can I solve the problem with


his trademark style and ďŹ&#x201A;air?â&#x20AC;? But other than as a source of inspiration, JFK represents everything that I want to be. He was a fashion icon, a great hit with the ladies, always poised and in control. In short, he was the exemplar of an alpha male â&#x20AC;&#x201D; guys wanted to be him and girls wanted to be with him. In a time when greed and hate dominate our headlines, the world needs someone like JFK to restore hope and challenge us to be better people. Since Singapore is sadly lacking in both talented and inspirational politicians, John F. Kennedy will, for now, remain as

the standard bearer of my choice. His story is that of the shooting star â&#x20AC;&#x201D; lighting up the sky for one brief, shining moment, and then going out with a bang. The Kennedys are no stranger to tragedy, with JFKâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s brother Bobby also assassinated and his son John Jr. dying in a plane crash. But the family endures. In the words of JFK, â&#x20AC;&#x153;A man may die, nations may rise and fall, but an idea lives on.â&#x20AC;? I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know what the future may hold, but I do know that no matter what happens, JFKâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ideals of courage and freedom will be a guide for the rest of my life. Ich bin ein Kennedy!

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Amy Cheong: a public trial ANDREW TOH


hen I first heard about the Amy Cheong debacle that took place a few weeks ago, rather than asking why on earth she said such a thing, I thought: “Are we perhaps over-reacting to one individual’s remark here?” To be clear, I am not in any way condoning Ms Cheong’s insensitive remarks. Such racist sentiments have no place in Singapore and anyone who attempts to damage the racial harmony we have should be taken to task. But as I watched the outpouring of vitriol from netizens against Ms Cheong, I wondered if they were perhaps exhibiting the same hate at someone who was singled out. I can understand if netizens wished to point out the error of her ways, but what many were doing seemed to be going way beyond that. Apart from calls for her resignation, there were also photos of her being distributed across social media networking sites just so that more netizens could ridicule and scorn her. Her family was not spared from the online vilification either. Were such actions really necessary? What she did was impulsive; simply a reaction in the spur of the moment that could have applied to any one of us.

She is only human after all. Who among us can proclaim to have never posted something online that we later regretted? Many of us are quick to chastise over social media as it gives us the benefit of avoiding a direct confrontation with the provocateur. Online abuse is like a hit-and-run; we say our piece and then we flee, never having to worry about how the other party whom we hurt feels. The human touch is compromised. Empathy is short-changed. So what should have been the right way to respond to such brash remarks then? I’m not saying that we should just “close one eye” and ignore such impudence. I am reminded of a passage from a book called The Brothers Karamazov by the Russian novelist Fyodor Dostoevsky that left a deep impression on me. In the passage, one of the characters in the story postulated that the best way to reform a criminal was not to excommunicate him or her from the state. Instead, their hatred should be met with graciousness, bigotry met with open-mindedness. Only by appealing directly to the heart will the criminal be inspired to change for the better. In the same way, I feel that we should not have met Ms Cheong’s remarks with intolerance and scorn. While we should point out to her the error of her judgement, it was not necessary to go to the


extent of mocking and abusing her online like that. Indeed, while disciplinary action should have been taken against her, demanding for Ms Cheong’s resignation might have been too much. Perhaps it would have been more appropriate to suspend her from work for a few weeks as punishment. And while she’s under suspension, make Ms Cheong undergo cultural classes. Immerse her

in the Muslim world and let her learn to appreciate the diversity and graciousness of their culture. If they are able to respond to her with kindness and graciousness, then I truly believe that only then will she feel guilt for what she has done and want to change for the better. By meeting Ms Cheong’s racist remarks with more hatred and abuse, we are not solving the issue at the root of the problem. What we are doing is merely

using the power of intimidation to prevent any of such further comments. But the racist sentiments will still be there, only buried beneath the fear of provoking an online firestorm. As Mohandas Gandhi said: “An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind”. Perhaps we should all harbour this thought in mind before we decide to counter hate with yet more hate, bigotry with yet more bigotry in the future.

Bullying: More than just sticks and stones SARA YAP


he spea k s no si ng le word in her YouTube video; holding up card after card, Amanda Todd tries to tell someone, anyone who cares to watch, about her nightmare of being bullied in school. Three years ago, in a moment of impulse, the Canadian teenager had flashed herself to a stranger over webcam. It left her with no friends, and a failed suicide attempt that only earned her more taunts from schoolmates. A few weeks ago, Todd killed herself. She may not have been physically hurt or tormented by her aggressors, but the social exclusion, rumours that kept swirling around, and the cyber-bullying drove her into an emotional abyss. Many v ictims of bu lly ing eventually find a way to deal with the situation, but I can imagine what Todd was going through, and I know all too well that it is a truly difficult journey fraught with fear,

self-loathing and insecurity. In secondary one, I was bullied by two friends. I knew something was wrong when they started to exclude me from their activities, and soon enough, they stopped talking to me altogether. When I was around, they would speak to each other in hushed whispers. They also left mean comments on my blog and insinuated that I was unattractive and not good enough to be their friend. Hence, most of the time, I went for recess alone. In secondary school especially, recess is the time when one can see most clearly how classroom politics plays out. For one, there is a vicious stigma attached to eating alone or attempting to join another clique’s table. Some days, I felt so lonely and self-conscious that I ate alone in a bathroom cubicle or at an obscure corner in the library. In that period of solitude, I came to identify with Cady Heron, the protagonist of cult classic Mean Girls, which was released that year.

My self-esteem had reached an all-time low and I cried almost every day at home. I kept wondering if there was something wrong with me. It took me several months to rebuild my self-confidence before I felt ready to find new friends.

I felt so lonely that I ate alone in a bathroom cubicle or at an obscure corner in the library. Be it physical or emotional, bullying leaves the victim helpless and fearful. In many cases, the victim ends up with no friends because others are too afraid to get involved and thus, risk becoming the bullies’ next target. Feeling alone and distressed, some victims try to find an outlet for their pain. Some even turn to self-harm and in Todd’s case, suicide.

My experience made me realise how potent even subtle bullying in the form of social exclusion and unkind words could be — I felt so worthless and insecure throughout the ordeal. A 2008 study conducted by the Singapore Children’s Society found that I was hardly alone; 1 in 4 secondary school students were victims of bullying. I feel that parents play a pivotal role in addressing this serious problem, as they have the greatest influence on a child’s values and mindset. By emphasising to youths the impor tance of respecting others, parents help to nurture a generation of compassionate and empathetic individuals. Na m e - c a l l i n g a n d n a s t y pranks cannot be simply dismissed as naughtiness or a “phase” that children go through; the impact that these can have on the victim can be crippling and painful. Take for instance the experience of a 13-year-old boy in Otsu, Japan who committed suicide after being constantly taunted

and beaten up by his schoolmates. Regrettably, his teachers were aware of his predicament — but had simply laughed it off. Teac he r s , too, need to be equipped with the knowledge and sensitivity on how to detect and handle bullying in schools. S i n g a p o r e ’s M i n i s t r y o f Education has developed a School Bullying Management K it for secondary school teachers, so that teachers know what to do when they are aware of bullying cases. Hopefully, this scheme will prove to be successful. Now at 21, I have long forgiven those former friends, but I still can’t bring myself to rebuild our friendship; I have since lost all contact with them. We cannot deny that more needs to be done to stop bullying. It is heartbreaking that children and teenagers all over the world are becoming depressed, withdrawn and even suicidal because they are being intimidated or harassed by other children who do not know better.



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No place for ticket hoarders CHRISTABEL REENA DAVID



louder than words

am a huge fan of Lady Gaga, so when I found out she was coming to Singapore last May, you can imagine my excitement. That joy, however, was short-lived. Within an hour of tickets going on sale, they were completely sold out. As if the situation could not get any more ridiculous, I found more than 20 of these tickets selling on eBay for twice the price that night. I was beyond frustrated. If you find yourself vehemently agreeing with me in light of the SMTOWN live tour concert on November 23, then you and I are both victims of ticket scalping. What is ticket scalping? Simply put, it is the act of buying a desirable commodity, such as tickets to a K-pop concert, and selling it at inflated prices once the demand exceeds the supply. I find this to be completely unfair and unethical. Many fans go to great lengths for a ticket. Some

rush from work, while others camp overnight or sneak out of class to make their purchase.

Within an hour of tickets going on sale, they completely sold out. I found more than 20 of these tickets selling on eBay for twice the price that night. To me, finding out that tickets were sold out in less than an hour is ridiculous. Ever y ticket these scalpers buy prevents K-pop fans from watching Super Junior or Girls’ Generation live. And for avid fans, the thought of this is enough to cause excruciating frustration. Even worse, finding them blatantly selling those tickets on eBay


for exorbitant prices is like a slap to a hardcore fan’s face. I do not deny that it makes perfect sense in our capitalist economy. You get the ticket first, you sell it for a profit, you win. Logically, there should be nothing wrong with this. But this is a cruel mockery of basic ethics.I remember reading an article against scalping by an author who had an ardent love for toy collecting. In the midst of his tirade of angry arguments, he rightly stated that toys were for playing with, and scalpers debased the meaning of a toy. In the same way, a ticket is more than just a piece of paper. It is an opportunity for music fans to experience the joy and magic of watching their idols perform live. Scalpers debase the ticket when they reduce it to a mere commodity and exploit fans, especially those willing to pay the inflated amount.

You get the ticket first, you sell it for a profit, you win. Logically, there should be nothing wrong with this. But this is a cruel mockery of basic ethics. In the event that scalpers are unable to sell their tickets, both fans and organisers will suffer. Firstly, tickets that could have gone to fans are wasted. Secondly, a supposedly “sellout” concert having empty seats will reflect badly on the organisers. Some 5,000 fans may have been expected to be in the mosh pit for the upcoming K-pop concert. But with ticket scalping going on, there will be less fans enjoying the fireworks, flying stunts and water features at the live extravaganza. More should be done to prevent ticket scalping, that is illegal in Singapore. A mere Facebook warning from SISTIC that “the resale of tickets is strictly prohibited is insufficient. If we want tangible change, SISTIC should take concrete steps, such as placing limits on the number of tickets that can be bought by individuals. It should also stagger the release of tickets so that customers are more inclined to wait for the next batch instead of buying them on eBay. If more steps are taken, we might be able to shut down these scalpers so future fans can catch their favourite stars. In the meantime, we can only hope our fingers are nimble enough to score us tickets straight off official ticketing websites.

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Free our scholars DARIUS ZHENG


hen NUS law scholar Alvin Tan and his girlfriend Vivian Lee made headlines with their joint sex blog, I couldn’t help but notice the emphasis on scholarly expectations in the ensuing media coverage. Many of the media outlets had never failed to mention Mr Tan being a law scholar in their reportage. There also seems to be an imbalanced coverage on Mr Tan compared to his girlfriend. What resulted was the huge number of netizens wanting his scholarship to be revoked, other than the possibility of legal action against him. My question is this: would society have viewed this differently if he is not a scholar? I was reminded of a similar case in 2009, when a 24-yearold female Singapore A*Star scholar stripped bare and walked around Holland Village with her male Swedish friend. She was, perhaps surprisingly, not stripped of her scholarship. However, this was the only case that was persecuted, out of many other cases of public nudity since 2008. It proves only one point – that the society at large does have a higher level of expectations for scholarship holders. As a scholar myself, I couldn’t help but empathise with Mr Tan and his current predicament — of how scholarships strip us of our personal choices, in ways spoken and unspoken. I took a flip through my scholarship deed signed more than three years ago. True enough, it proved my point right — some of the terms and conditions mentioned how scholarship holders should “refrain from participating in activities which are, or likely to be, inimical or otherwise harmful, damaging or detrimental to the interests, security and/or international standing of Singapore”. However, the ultimatum was on how a scholar should “conform to the provisions as set out in the scholarship which may be amended from time to time”. During the briefing conducted by my awarding organization after signing the contract, I also remember vividly how the abovementioned terms and conditions were tirelessly repeated. Some of you might disagree that accepting monetary aid by the sponsor organisation would quite naturally equate to a conformation to its rules and regulations. In fact, a scholar holds the prestige of representing the organisation and needs to act as its symbol of excellence. While I agree that some of the rules that scholars are bounded to are necessary, it should not go overboard. What saddens me is no matter what the reason for accepting a scholarship is,


The future will be better as our policy makers will help us to make more improvements.

Chloe Tan, 20, HSS Yr 1

We are past the Golden Age. It depends on the new generation of leadership to determine where we go. Low Tze Ren, 21, EEE Yr 1

Technologically yes but in terms of the arts scene and social responsibility, more can be done. GRAPHIC | JEROME NG

a scholarship holder is now defined by values set by an organisation, losing his entitlement to personal choice in the process. In this case, Mr Tan fell victim to that. Besides expectations set by the organisation, the extent of media coverage is a huge influence on the public’s expectations of scholars. Media has always shaped public perceptions and opinions – much of the value of information we get today such as beauty trends (what qualifies as beautiful?) and alternative lifestyles (what is the notion of a family?) have all been influenced by the media in its many forms. Media and our personal opinions are hence almost inseparable. With the huge sensationalising in the media today – there is definitely a need for us to discern how much information to take at face value. If Mr Tan was merely mentioned as an undergraduate, or even simply, as a student, don’t you think he might have gotten lesser backlash from the subsequent media reports? Another influence on society expectations lies in the difference of how each individual defines morality today. Just an example – if I posed a question on whether Britney Spears is considered slutty, I am sure I

will get views on both sides of the spectrum. Just like how Mr Tan and his girlfriend have maintained their stand in a video released to the public that they will not make a public apology for “breaching some moral code that you hold dearly to yourself”, people of different moral standards should not expect others to feel the same way. And who is to determine if one’s morals standards is right? There’s no way any one can accurately do so. And perhaps, educational qualifications or how high up the corporate ladder one has climbed does not necessitate someone to act in a certain way society deems fit. Perhaps what is more important in this whole saga is the expectations of Mr Tan’s loved ones. At least, those who born and bred him have more right to criticise his behaviour than the general public. Yet, what they gave him was their trust and support. So, if the ones closest to his life are supporting him, who are we as members of the society to expect a certain code of conduct from him? The truth is, no one can — so spare the rod and cut this guy some slack, for a scholar is also a human being like any one of us.

Zoolikhsan Abdul Rahman, 21, MAE Yr 2

We are still moving forward, and our foreign talents might help us with further developments. Farah Diyanah, 21, NIE Yr 1

Singapore’s financial sector may not be there yet, but I still remain optimistic for the future.

Cheng Xin, 21, SCE Yr 1




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bpl talk

Who’s ahead in the sack race? REDZWAN KAMARUDIN

it did under Ray Hodgson, though the fans continues to believe in Rodgers’ philosophy.

ALTHOUGH only less than a third of the Barclays Premier League games have been played, several managers already have their jobs on the line as the pressure intensifies ahead of the crucial winter period. Players may be feeling the heat as their teams languish at the bottom of the league table but their managers are the ones who pay the price. Here are the top five picks for the winner in the managerial sack race. 1) Mark Hughes (Queens Park Rangers) Hughes’ Queens Park Rangers reside in the bottom three of the league. With QPR’s owner Tony Fernandes heavily investing in the team in the summer, he is unlikely to put up with such performance much longer. Despite the arrival of 12 new faces, they have not been able to produce the results, scoring a mere seven goals and conceding 18. If the team’s poor results continue, manager Mark Hughes could very well win the sack race.

SACK: Mark Hughes is the prime choice to be shown the exit.

They will have to produce results soon to avoid a relegation struggle at the end of the season.

3) Paul Lambert (Aston Villa)

5) Chris Hughton (Norwich)

For a team that was once pushing for a top six finish, languishing near the relegation places will not make the fans happy. Following an impressive season with Norwich last year, Paul Lamber t has not been able to work his magic with the Aston Villa team, despite having some good players like Darren Bent and Gabriel Agbonlahor at his disposal. If results do not go their way soon, the Aston Villa board may not be as patient as they had been with Alex McLeish.

Last season, Norwich finished in an impressive 12th place under Paul Lambert. Even before taking the job, Chris Hughton knew he had big shoes to fill. While he did manage to hold on to key players like Grant Holt and John Ruddy, the opening day 5-0 drubbing away to Fulham clearly showed that the Irishman started off on the wrong foot. What initially looked like a promising appointment for the club may yet end in another tragedy. Unpredictable


4) Nigel Adkins (Southampton) 2) Brendan Rodgers (Liverpool) The most controversial pick of the bunch, Brendan Rodgers has yet to produce results for Liverpool. After allowing record-signing striker Andy Carroll to depart on loan without a proper replacement, Rodgers saw his team lose two of their three opening matches. E x pe c tat ion s a r e h ig h at

Merseyside and Luis Suarez cannot shoulder the goal-scoring burden alone. While he has been one of the Liverpool’s best players, erratic performances from the likes of goalkeeper Pepe Reina has undone his good work. New signing Fabio Borini has also yet to impress. With Liverpool in 12th place, the club is not faring better than

You cannot help but feel for the Saints and their manager. After their back-to-back promotions, their first taste of Premier League action this season came in the form of both Manchester clubs. There is no defending their leaky defense, which has let in almost 30 goals, the worst defensive record in the league so far.

Football is full of surprises - and so is the sack race. Jose Mourinho’s sudden departure from Chelsea in 2007 despite winning back-to-back league titles is proof of this. A small blip can spell the end of a manager’s reign, as Liverpool fans continue to regret Rafa Benitez’s sacking, after he led them to Champions League glory and a second place league finish.

sports talk

Breaking the human barrier

LEAP OF FAITH: Felix Baumgartner proceeding with his supersonic jump.

NICOLETTE SOH RECORDS are meant to be broken. Ever y one sur passed marks a greater triumph of man’s tenacity, skill and ingenuity. History was made on October 14 as the world watched Felix Baumgartner jump — and it was no ordinary jump. Fearless Felix, as he is known, became the first man to break the sound barrier in freefall with his supersonic jump from space as he attempted the highest sky-dive

ever recorded by Man. But Felix’s outrageous stunt does not stand in isolation. If anything, it brings to light some other physical feats that the best of us have to offer. Wang Weibao from China balanced himself on four fingers for 19.23 seconds in Beijing on last November, earning himself the record for the longest duration balancing on four fingers. One-handed push-ups are near impossible for most people — much less balancing on four fingers. Don’t try this at home though;

it would be quite unfortunate if anyone broke their fingers. Meanwhile, how much weight do you think your tongue can lift? Just ask United K ingdom’s Thoman Blackthorne, who set the record for the greatest weight lifted with a human tongue in Mexico City in 2008. Blackthorne lifted a 12.5 kg weight that was hooked through his tongue on the set of El Show Olímpico. With people all over the world breaking records so frequently, it makes one wonder how adventurous and quirky students can go. I have my own claim to fame as well — as one of 1,320 Republic Polytechnic students who broke the world record for the highest number of participants in a leapfrog event four years ago. With all the talk of breaking records and challenging human limits, maybe the NTU student body should also try to set records that we can truly call our own. With our student athletes leading the charge as they attempt to break national records, and hopefully world records in the future, we can also aspire for such greatness. We could start small: How about trying for the longest distance travelled on a pogo stick, or the greatest number of people doing jumping jacks together?

PHOTO | REDZWAN KAMARUDIN A SHOW OF TENACITY: Players stretching for the ball in a game of captain’s ball during the NTU Street Challenge. The event was affected by bad weather as the rain forced many sports to be moved into the Sports and Recreation Centre. Despite suffering delays and longer waiting times, the event still ended successfully as participants received their prizes at the end of the day.

92/ 12





Off the books, on the road

they said that?



Just because he is a famous footballer doesn t mean he has any money coming in.

BREATH-TAKING: The iconic Henderson Waves Bridge found along the Southern Ridges is an ideal place to rest and enjoy the scenery after a long run.

OďŹ&#x20AC; campus routes Southern Ridges THE AGGLOMERATION of five parks, namely Mount Faber Park, Telok Blangah Hill Park, HortPark, Kent Ridge Park and Labrador Nature Reserve, form the Southern Ridges. The ridges, covering a distance of 10km with relatively even terrains, serve as a perfect jogging track for beginners as well as shortdistance marathon runners. The serenity and tranquility derived from a stroll along the boardwalk will refresh and rejuvenate tired minds. Punggol Waterway St r ate g ic a l l y plac e d , t he Punggol Waterway is conveniently located in the heartlands. The park is creatively designed with four themes - Nature Cove, Heritage Zone, Recreation Zone and Green Gallery. While runners can enjoy the

sight of mature trees and vegetation situated along the Heritage Zone and Green Galler y, their children can enjoy water and sand play at the Recreation Zone. The Nature Cove also provides a scenic view of the Waterway and different leisure activities.

experience, there are even specially allotted mountain-biking trails. Gardens By The Bay Perfect for the time-starved professional to grab a quick run during lunch breaks, especially for

those planning an internship in the heart of Singapore. However, it is important to note that this is a popular tourist spot, making crowds rather common. Perhaps it would be wise to go for a run during the off-peak holiday periods.

MacRitchie Reservoir and Bukit Timah Hill These two spots are a favourite among joggers and nature lovers. Seasoned runners can choose to jog all the way from MacRitchie Reservoir to Bukit Timah Hill. The HSBC Treetop Walk at MacRitchie Reservoir is a great way to reward yourself after a run, located about 4.5km from the Macritchie Reservoir Park. You can catch a birdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s eye view of the wildlife that lives in the forest canopy from the bridge. Those who prefer a more challenging terrain could try out Bukit Timah Hill, where it can get pretty intense with its steep inclines. For those less inclined to jogging and seeking a more vigorous

We have a very, very small squad. A very thin squad. HEALTHY LIVING FOR ALL: The various routes available between MacRitchie Reservoir and Bukit Timah caters to both seasoned and amateur runners. PHOTO | NICOLETTE SOH

THIS popular 3.6-kilometre route will take you one round around the entire campus. The stretch between the Sports and Recreation Centre and the Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information provides runners with a steep uphill challenge. The proximity of this route to the activities happening on campus makes it one of the most appealing and vibrant of running routes on campus.

varying the start and end points. However the area around the halls tends to be rather secluded, so ladies may want to jog with a companion after it gets dark.

Round the Halls Route

NIGHT RUN: Joggers running behind the Sports & Recreation Centre.


During the second set I already felt that physically I m down, and I struggled every game. Tennis player Novak Djokovic admitting his fatigue after crashing out in the second round of the Paris Masters.

Bus A Route

Campus routes

Jesus Gallego Rol, Michael Ballackâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lawyer, on why the former Chelsea and Bayern Munich footballer could not pay his speeding ďŹ ne.

For those seeking a less strenuous workout, this route boasts gentle inclines and is less intense than the Bus A route. This route can be lengthened to the joggerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s preference simply by

Liverpool manager Brendan Rodgers bemoaning his squad after his sideâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 1-3 defeat to Swansea.

In many ways, we re role models for young people, undoubtedly more so than many politicians in the last decade. Felix Baumgartner on the usefulness of his recent skydriving record.

UPHILL: The jogging route beside Hall 8.


Best running routes in Singapore – Page 39

NTU hit by running fever

MAKING UP FOR LOST TIME: Participants eager to get the run started after the rain delayed the flag off time.

$0,5<862) THE participants of this year’s NTU X-Campus Run proved their mettle against a damp course and chilly weather brought about by a torrential downpour that started an hour before the race. The race's flag off at the Sports and Recreation Centre, which was supposed to start at 6.30pm, only began half an hour later. Held on October 17, the event which was open to the public boasted a 6.75km route for participants to run around campus. This included the infamous long slope beside the School of Biological Science that pits runners against a long uphill path. But the race went smoothly wit h f ina l-year School of Humanities and Social Sciences undergraduate Colin Tung clocking the fastest individual time of 23min 47sec. “The weather was cool and windy, and this certainly made conditions favourable for a quick pace,” said the 23-year-old. He won the Team Category with teammate Yvonne Lin.

Fang Jian Yong, an experienced runner of various races, felt that the course was good for novice long-distance runners. The 23-year-old Singapore Institute of Management undergraduate was the winner for the Men’s Individual Category. This year’s edition consists of three categories, Men's Individual, Women's Individual and the Team Event which sees each male and female pair adding up their times. “The hydration points along the way were useful, despite the relatively short distance. It allows less competitive runners to enjoy the experience,” Fang said.

“The weather was cool and windy, and this certainly made conditions favourable for a quick pace." Colin Tung Team Category Winner Humanities and Social Sciences

“Despite only being a campus run, the race was well organised and feels just as good as the runs organised at a national level.” The issue of safety was certainly a concern given that the race flagged off near sunset. This also coincided with the evening peak traffic. “I was initially worried given the narrow race routes and various crossing points,” said Assistant Professor Michael Patterson, one of the runners. “But the road marshalls kept the race smooth and the element of danger was greatly minimised,” he said. President of the NTU Runners Club, Benjamin Tan, 24, who led the planning of this event, said that the race is intended to spread the club’s love for running and to identify potential athletes for NTU’s track-and-field team. “The runners appear to really enjoy themselves and hopefully we have achieved our aim of instilling running into the sporting culture in NTU,” said the final year Electrical and Electronic Engineering undergraduate.


X-CAMPUS RUN RESULTS Team Category 1st Colin Tung / Yvonne Lin 52.48mins 2nd Chua You Boon / Tiffany Tan 56.19mins 3rd Ting Siong Chow / Ang Rui Mei 65.18mins

Men Individual Category 1st Fang Jian Yong 2nd Tiong Wei Jie 3rd Robert Alexanderson

23.51mins 24.51mins 25.16mins

Women Individual Category 1st Vanja Cnops 2nd Chua Kai Leng 3rd Tee Chin Yun

28.18mins 29.02mins 31.44mins

The Nanyang Chronicle Vol 19 Issue 05  
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