Building solutions for improving energy efficiency
Pilot Project in Athens Kessariani Arch. Dionysia Triantafyllou, Region of Attica Province of Athens
2nd Junior HIGH SCHOOL of Kessariani The 2nd Junior HIGH SCHOOL of Kessariani, located at the North-East of the centre of Athens and next to the mountain of Imittos, as a part of a school complex next to a highly dense urban area in the Greek capital, has been chosen mainly because of its energy consumption measured, but also because of the difficulties and - or possibilities for retrofitting and improving its energy efficiency. Being a small size public school building, built and managed by the Greek School Building Organisation, and having a typical organisation of two wings of classrooms, with a central corridor in the middle, the building has completely different problems from the 1st TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOL (EPAL) of Kessariani examined as the 1st pilot project. Therefore, we find that it can give many directions in how to manage with different problems concerning the energy consumption and buildings’ retrofitting, being also an interesting pilot project. The school is located in a typical middle to low incomes urban area of Athens, rather dense, with 6-7 storeys residential buildings. The climate is typical in Athens and the greater Attica region, and it is characterised by mild winters and hot dry summers. Throughout the year, temperatures average at: • summer 32º Celsius • autumn 23º Celsius • winter 12º Celsius and • spring 20º Celsius The particular school is also privileged by the advantage of the neighbouring Kessariani park, which provides good ventilation and fresh air to the entire neighbourhood, keeping temperatures almost 2 degrees lower during the hot summer days. Rainfall is mainly during the winter and
annual rainfall levels are not high. The main energy consumption problems identified at the school were focused on the building’s envelope. Major problems causing energy consumption had to do with heat losses through badly or non-insulated surfaces. External walls and reinforced concrete elements, roof, doors and windows need revision in terms of thermal losses and U values. The wing of classrooms oriented towards the North-west is totally different in terms of solar gains and losses from the one oriented South-east, and this affects definitely the indoor comfort. Energy consumption on lighting is very high. Natural light in most classrooms is either causing glare or is insufficient for covering the depth of the classrooms. There should be a completely different policy in terms of managing openings and shadowing. The building has a good potential for natural ventilation, but the flap widows at the corridors are not used at all for that purpose. The main measures proposed were costevaluated, as low, medium and high cost, and their effectiveness according to the relative cost. In order to be realistic, and taking under consideration the fact of the economic crisis that the country is going through, the measures proposed to be taken are rather the ones that fall under the low or medium cost categories. In the particular school, the measures proposed are the following: a. Insulation of external walls, inclined roofs, flat roof b. Creation of new openings, towards the South, were this is feasible, in order to assure better cross ventilation to as many classrooms as possible. Redesigning of the
-South oriented- big skylight. c. Creation of green roof surfaces. d. Installation of light-shelves at the Northwest façade in order to improve lighting conditions – visual comfort on the inside. e. Installation of shading devices at the windows of the South-east façade, will not only provide shadow during the summer and prevent classrooms from overheating, but also better distribution of natural lighting (and consequently visual comfort) inside the classroom. f. Installation of PV panels at the South-west façade of the building g. Construction of a pergola with deciduous plants, to the South East façade which will provide shadow during the summer months, preventing classrooms from overheating during the summer, allowing at the same time penetration of air and sun in a filtered way. During the winter and rainy days, the students will have the possibility to go outside for their breaks (staying inside is not good because of CO2 concentration and bad ventilation). h. Installation of ceiling fans i. Redesigning the “heated areas” map of the building, by reducing the thermal load as possible. j. Replacement of existing heating system with an autonomous system by wing and by floor, fitted with thermostats k. Integrated management and control l. Possibilities regarding the future of this school building are highly appreciated, given the fact that energy consumption and indoor comfort will be radically improved. Certainly, the best part of this work is the knowledge gained in designing ecological buildings in the future and retrofitting the existing ones.
Building solutions for improving energy efficiency
1st TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOL (EPAL) of Kessariani The 1st TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOL (EPAL) of Kessariani, located at the North-East of the centre of Athens and next to the mountain of Imittos, at a highly dense urban area in the Greek capital, has been chosen mainly because of its energy consumption measured, but also because of the difficulties and - or possibilities for retrofitting and improving its energy efficiency. Being a typical public school building, built and managed by the Greek School Building Organisation, we assume that many of the problems found at the particular school will be common for other schools as well, and therefore, many proposed solutions will be suitable to solve similar problems. Thus the particular school, in our opinion, will successfully be a pilot case. The school is located in a typical middle to low incomes urban area of Athens, rather dense, with 6-7 storeys residential buildings. The main difference and big advantage -or disadvantage- of the particular school, is that it is located at the foot of Imittos Mountain, next to an extremely valuable and highly visited and popular park – the park of Kessariani, which provides good ventilation and fresh air to the entire neighbourhood, keeping temperatures almost 2 degrees lower during the hot summer days. The climate is typical in Athens and the greater Attica region, and it is characterised by mild winters and hot dry summers. Throughout the year, temperatures average at: summer 32º Celsius autumn 23º Celsius winter 12º Celsius and spring 20º Celsius Rainfall is mainly during the winter and annual rainfall levels are not high. The main problems identified at the school were focused on the building’s envelope. High energy consumption and indoor
discomfort, occurred originally by the disadvantaged orientation of the building, position to the site and architectural arrangement of the classrooms, which are mainly facing towards the North, having almost no openings towards the South, and therefore no solar heat gains, no cross ventilation and bad lighting conditions (at the biggest part of the building). The proposed solutions considered especially these aspects, and focused on a better arrangement and management of classrooms’ and public spaces’ openings. Other problems identified at the school had to do with the “heated areas” map of the building, found that open air spaces were heated while obviously this was not at all needed. Finally, major problems causing energy consumption had to do with heat losses through badly or non-insulated surfaces. The main measures proposed were costevaluated, as low, medium and high cost, and their effectiveness according to the relative cost. In order to be realistic, and taking under consideration the fact of the economic crisis that the country is going through, the measures proposed to be taken are rather the ones that fall under the low or medium cost categories. In the particular school, the measures proposed are the following: a. Insulation of external walls b. Creation of new openings, towards the South, were this is feasible, in order to assure better cross ventilation to as many
c. d. e. f. g. h.
classrooms as possible. Redesigning of the -South oriented- big skylight. Replacement of glass-blocks with flap opening windows Creation of green roof surfaces Installation of curtains or blinds at certain windows facing East or West Focusing on natural ventilation and preventing from the greenhouse effect Installation of ceiling fans Redesigning the “heated areas” map of the building, by reducing the thermal load as possible. Replacement of existing heating system with an autonomous system by wing and by floor, fitted with thermostats Integrated management and control Possibilities regarding the future of this school building are highly appreciated, given the fact that energy consumption and indoor comfort will be radically improved. Certainly, the best part of this work is the knowledge gained in designing ecological buildings in the future and retrofitting the existing ones.
Building solutions for improving energy efficiency
Pilot Project in Katerini Ing. Niki Gaitani, IASA
The school is located in Central Macedonia (Northern Greece), in the town of Katerini (C Climatic Zone), which is the capital of Pieria Prefecture. It lies on the Pierian plain, between Mt. Olympus and the Thermaikos Gulf, at an altitude of 14 m. The town, which is one of the newest in Greece, has a population of 56,576 (according to the 2001 census). It is near the city of Thessaloniki, Greece’s second largest city, which has been beneficial for Katerini’s development over recent years. The climate in Katerini is typical of the Mediterranean climate: mild and rainy winters, relatively warm and dry summers and, generally, extended periods of sunshine throughout most of the year. In climatologically terms, the year can be broadly subdivided into two main seasons: The cold and rainy period lasting from mid-October until the end of March, and the warm and dry season lasting from April until September. In Greece, education is compulsory for a period of 9 years, usually starting at the age of 6 years. More specifically, following 6 years of primary school, at approximately 12 years of age starts the secondary education. Secondary education comprises two stages: Gymnasio (variously translated as Middle or Junior High School), a compulsory threeyear school, after which students can attend Lykeio (an academically-oriented High School). No entrance examinations are required. The school year is from September through June. The school day runs from 8:30 to 14:00. The student body contains students mainly
Kleisouras 48, 60100
with Greek nationality. All schools, regardless of level, are overseen by the Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs. The Ministry exercises centralised control over state schools, by prescribing the curriculum, appointing staff and controlling funding. At a regional level, the supervisory role of the Ministry is exercised through Regional Directorates of Primary and Secondary Education, and Directorates of Primary and Secondary Education operate in every Prefecture. Tertiary institutions are nominally autonomous, but the Ministry is responsible for their funding and the distribution of students to undergraduate courses. State-run schools do not charge tuition fees and textbooks are provided free to all students. The school has the typical typology and structural characteristics of school units in Greece: a linear alignment of classes with close corridor, developed in two floors. The corridor is located at the north part of the building whereas along the corridor are located the classes exposed to south. It has a southeast
orientation with an inclination of 30° towards east. 2nd High School of Katerini - Athens CAMPUS Workshop Group: Arch. Viviana Di Simone Ing. Michalis Michael Ing. Maria Polyviou Ing. Alexandros Pantazaras Arch. Panagiotis Korellas Arch. Antonis Gavalas (tutor)
4. BUILDING-UP ENERGY SAVING AWARNESS
Fig 1. The direct involvement of the pupils in Teenergy Schools: working on the End User Feedback Questionnaire.
Building-up energy saving awarness
4.1 Didactical approach and active participation to energy efficiency
an experience of active participation of end-users, aimed to a sensibilization towards a more efficient running of the school building. Dr. Monica Lazzaroni, Province of Lucca
The scientific analysis and results illustrated so far show that energy saving in school buildings cannot be reached only with architectural solutions and a good knowledge on low energy consumption materials. Even if the project has focused on cheap technical solution considering the economic trend which European countries are facing with, nevertheless it appears that an active participation of end users is essential to fulfil the goal, especially related to indoor comfort.
energy saving can be easily generalised all over Europe.
In other words, even if Teenergy Schools has tried to propose several structural interventions for reducing the energy consumption in Mediterranean schools, the reduction can be implemented only if students and teachers assume a responsible behaviour in the everyday utilisation of the schools spaces and equipments.
The meetings have been focusing on two main aspects:
The school is the first and most adequate place for the beginning of a general change of mindset and for learning how to put sustainability into practice, improving the awareness towards a more efficient running of the school building, for an effective change of mindset and energy consumption behavior. If technical solutions can change between north and south Europe (in the north the main problem is to heat up the school buildings, in the south is to find passive cooling solutions), a didactical approach for promoting a responsible behaviour towards
The didactical approach elaborated within â€œTeenergy Schoolâ€? project and applied by each partner according to its local target, foresees one or two meetings with different classrooms of the schools involved in the pilot projects. The meeting is directed by a technical referent of the project and a member of the most representative local environmental association.
a general overview on the world progressive consumption of traditional energy resources and the need to develop the use of alternative ones; the everyday consumption of energy in school starting from personal behaviour A questionnaire (Tab.1) was submitted to the classroom; the students were invited to describe the internal comfort of their classroom and their school in general, including the school energy performance. Once the focus was done, they were asked to propose some solutions to improve the energy efficiency and the internal comfort of their school through two exercises. The first, to be done alone, consisted in monitoring oneâ€™s home real energy consumption collecting all the bills and making some calculations in order to find out the value in kWh/m2/year. Each student
disposed of an excel table (Tab. 2) to be filled in. The second, needed to be discussed in the classroom; the students in fact were asked to list some prior interventions and consequent positive effects for improving the actual performance of the school; students were also asked to indicate approximately the cost of each suggested intervention. An adequate period of time was left to the students in order to discuss with their teacher the data collected at home and share observations and proposals with the other classmates. At the end each group of students was invited to present the result of its work during an official event organised by the local public administration, partner of the project. This approach permits to students, as final end users, to participate actively in improving the energy efficiency of their schools, apart from structural investments which can be realized by the public administration in charge of the maintenance of school buildings. Particularly the didactical approach proposed gives a double contribution to active participation: stimulates each student/teacher to assume a responsible behaviour on energy consumption; gives to students, as end users, the chance to intervene also with technical suggestions, in the decision-making process for the measures to be taken by the public administration which has the competence on school buildings maintenance.
Building-up energy saving awarness
4.2 Policy making: the Teenergy Schools Protocol of Understanding
Dr. Monica Lazzaroni, Province of Lucca
Active participation of end-users is very important for the political decision-making process. The school building maintenance is one of the most important engagement of all Public Administrations since it involves several aspects related to the risk connected with buildings vulnerability, the students internal comfort, the energy consumption. Every public body which has the responsibility of the maintenance of schools invests significant percentages of its revenues in security interventions to reduce school buildings vulnerability, to improve the internal quality of living and to find out technical solutions in order to reduce the costs related to energy consumption caused by heating or cooling systems and electrical equipments use. The several European directives and the National regulations on energy efficiency adopted in the last years have raised the attention of public administrators; nevertheless if concrete actions have been carried out in this direction it is as a result of emergency situations which have entailed the necessity of restoring or realizing a new school building, attracting at local level, extra revenues from regional or national governments in consideration of the urgency and the high costs of investment. But another aspect that has brought politicians to invest in energy efficiency solutions for school buildings is also the necessity to reduce the cost of energy consumption to face the reduction of the Public administrations revenues in last years. This new sensibility needs to be supported by adequate technical solutions according to the geographical area where the policy making process takes place and a
methodological approach thus to ensure the largest participation. For this reason “Teenergy schools”, among the quality indicators, has foreseen a large campaign of communication and participation at local, regional and national level in order to share with the largest number of public bodies the technical results and participation approach emerged in the project. All partners, through their administrations have promoted local communication activities addressed to local municipalities and their associations in order to promote the introduction of Teenergy Schools guidelines into any school building regulation. The General Protocol of Understanding comes out from this precise will in order
to integrate and improving policies at MED level. The document signed by the Councillors of each Administration partner of “Teenergy Schools” represents an official declaration of intent, where the Administrations engage themselves to a number of specific tasks regarding the acknowledgement and diffusion of energy efficiency recommendations for the Mediterranean area and a participatory and responsible approach; a change in the system of provision for increasing the use of ecosustainable materials, the promotion of an educational campaign on new construction techniques directed to schools for surveyors and/or technical and technologic institutes, the participation to European Programmes centred on the promotion and realization of Energy saving solutions.
Building-up energy saving awarness
4.3 Synergies with other INITIATIVES AND UE EXPERIENCES Dr. Monica Lazzaroni, Province of Lucca
COOL ROOFS : (financed by the Intelligent Energy Programme of the EU) The CoolRoofs Project, started in September 2008 and has reached its completion with February 2011. A lot of work has been carried out during the past 30 months to promote the concept and techniques of Cool Roofing in the EU. Passive cooling relies on the use of techniques for solar and heat control, heat amortisation and heat dissipation. Solar and heat protection techniques may involve: Thermal improvement by the use of outdoor and semi-outdoor spaces, layout and external finishing, solar control and shading of building surfaces, thermal insulation, control of internal gains, Increasing the reflectance and/or emission lowers a surface’s temperature, which in turn decreases the heat penetrating into the building, if it is a surface of the building envelope, or contributes to decrease the temperature of the ambient air as the heat convection intensity from a cooler surface is lower. The large-scale use of cool materials in an urban area leads also to indirect energy savings due to the increased solar reflectance that contributes to the reduction of the air temperature because of surface heat balance at the urban level. The indirect benefits arise from this ambient cooling of a city or neighborhood that will in turn decrease the need for air-conditioning. All technical solutions identified with “Cool roof” contribute to reduce the energy consumption in buildings due the need of cooling which is typical of the MED area buildings. Passive cooling is also one of the main solutions suggested in Teenergy Schools project in order to reduce the energy consumption in public schools and improve the indoor quality; a specific workshop was organised within Teenergy Schools on passive cooling in order to stimulate the
transfer of know-how from “Cool Roof”. This was facilitated by the fact that Province of Trapani was at the same time a partner of both projects. ( www.coolroofs-eu.eu)
“MARIE “ – Mediterranean Building Rethinking for Energy Efficiency Improvement (financed by the MED Programme as strategic project) The project covers 8 countries of the MED Space: Cyprus, France (PACA), Italy (Piedmont, Basilicata, Umbria, Liguria and Friuli Venetia Julia), Malta, Portugal (Alentejo), Spain (Generalitat de Catalunya and Junta de Andalusia). Marie main objective is to improve Med building energy efficiency and exploit the opportunities offered by the EU policy and directives on EE in Buildings and taking into consideration the distinct characteristics of the MED area. The project presents some interesting connections with Teenergy Schools: • there is a common start: improving the energy performance of buildings even if Teenergy Schools is centred on school buildings; • there is a common consideration: the MED area presents different circumstances from Central and north Europe as for climatic, social and economic conditions; more over most of the energy consumption in used for cooling . Consequently the project tries to promote new regulations and institutional tools in response to the European Energy standards, new financial mechanisms to improve the buildings energy efficiency especially on the existing buildings which will continue to represent more than 90% of the energy demand of buildings in 2020. Interactions between MARIE and Teenergy Schools will be possible in different fields: a) the Teenergy Schools Protocol of Intent
undersigned by partners local authorities can implement the policy dialogue which Marie will promote in order to facilitate the engagement and agreement of main policy actors (at national, regional and local level) in producing a new regulatory framework promoting EE in buildings; b) Teenergy Schools reveals that one of the main factors for improving energy efficiency in schools as in any other building, is to raise the quality and the innovation of materials, techniques, processes and services. One of MARIE’s challenges is to stimulate SME in providing innovative services and products for energy refurbishment of buildings. This specific aspect has not been treated in Teenergy Schools, but the project Guidelines and the energy audit give important indications to MARIE project.
REE-TROFIT The REE-TROFIT consortium intends to participate to the Programme. The project idea targets the SAVE scheme, regarding the rational use of energy in EnergyEfficient Buildings. The partners involved are: Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Lucca, ABITA Interuniversity Research Centre, Lucense Consortium, The Bács-Kiskun County, Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Drome, Technological Educational Institute of Crete – Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Engineering College of Aarhus, Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, European Labour Institute of Bulgaria. The theme tackled by the project focus on the difficulties encountered by member states in the application of the energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). Despite efforts so far and the huge potential of retrofitting for energy savings in housing, the construction market still features substantial barriers hindering the application of the Directive
Building-up energy saving awarness
mostly due to lack of qualified experts. First of all building professionals, primarily building constructors and building technicians (engineers and architects) from SMEs, are still insufficiently aware of available low-energy techniques and solutions for retrofitting . Furthermore, such building professionals are insufficiently trained to apply available techniques in the process of retrofitting, as such establishing a major bottleneck for increasing energy performance of existing buildings as foreseen in the Directive. In order to face these difficulties, the REE_TROFIT will link to available training courses and build upon their resources in order to use existing know-how and to adapt existing material to train building professionals on 3 vocational training programmes. The following 3 training programs, addressing building professionals, aim to qualify the building workforce with skills and know-how on how to propose a suitable dimensioned energy efficient solution for retrofitting of existing building sustainable and energy efficient plant housing retrofitters: • Training Program for Thermo-Hydraulic Installers • Training Program Training for Electrical Installers on Advanced Solutions for Energy Efficiency • Training Program for Construction Professionals for Improving Energy Efficiency of Residential Buildings The training programme promoted with REE-TROFIT represents an important complementary action to Teenergy Schools objectives, by contributing to enrich existing professional skills that can potentially be involved in the future, at local level, also in schools retrofitting.
ABITARE MEDITERRANEO financed by
POR CReO 2007-2013, the regional fund of Tuscany Region. The Tuscany region with the scientific coordination of the university of florence is promoting an initiative to create a new mediterranean labelling for high quality, climate adapted buidlingdesign in collaboratio with a consortium of local 12 enterprises and producers of building materials and
componesnt. The idea is to promote a differientiated approach on the necessary qualities for a mediterranean living standard regarding the specific climate conditions, without copiying simply the northern europe energy standards. Mediterranean high quality living means taking into account: thermal mass for passive cooling, solar gains in terms of nerrgy ssaving for heating and electricity and natural ventilation throughout day and night cooling mecanism. The following /Key issues are being analysed and implemented: •
Changes on building standards dues to social and economical evolution • Urban refurbishment and environmental quality • Sustainable architecture and adaptive comfort in building • Integration of different competencies with holistic design approach • “Mediterranean” design • New Mediterranean evaluation of building performances • Innovation in building technology and materials to improve comfort and reduce energy consumption (www.abitaremediterraneo.eu)
ENERCITIES Project Enercities offers a serious gaming learning platform for young people (typical target group: 15-20 years) to experience energy-related implications. The goal is to create and expand virtual cities dealing with pollution, energy shortages, renewable energy etc. The development of the serious game is based on state of the art technologies and insights. The game is fully web-based, 3D perspective (via Unity3D plug-in) and is suitable to play on low-budget computers. The game offers a semi-realistic simulation with game-like visual styles (cartoony) and low entry barriers (easy to understand; multiple levels in order to bring-in more complexity). All these approaches enable a wide distribution of the Enercities serious game across Europe. (www.enercities.eu)
U4ENERGY U4energy is the only real pan-European competition on energy education. You will be
able to compete with schools from all over Europe and share your results beyond your national boundaries. The gallery of entries will feature unrivalled examples of excellent practice, all of which you can contribute to! Three competition categories follow the whole life-cycle of energy education: Share pedagogical ideas and plans to improve energy education in schoolDisplay your actual energy efficiency measures and compare their value in a European contextShow European colleagues how you managed to promote these actions and make them successful in your local community. Awards will take place at two levels: at national level, you will compete with local colleagues, followed by a regional selection with neighbour countries. At European level, you will gain international visibility at a highly distinguished Award Ceremony in Brussels, the heart of Europe. (www.u4energy.eu)
SOLNET Marie Curie EC programme Solnet is a EU-wide network of students and biannual courses on PhD-level (www.solar.unikassel.de/solnet) , it is coordinated by Kassel university www.solar.uni-kassel.de. It has an advisory 3 member committee of which one is D.Serghides. The task of the Advisory committee is to supervise the forthcoming of the project, i.e. to join meetings, give advice for a smoother and more effective networking and organisation of training and research activities. Moreover, in case of conflicts within the network, the committee shall serve as advisor. DS also lecturing on the PhD course of “Advanced Solar Heating and Cooling for Buildings (SolNet)”.
“Low Energy Hotels in Southern Europe”
EC funded, 6th Framework Programme Description: The project provides a novel approach to demonstrate a new generation of energy conscious, efficient and sustainable hotel facilities. It includes development, monitoring and dissemination activities, demonstration projects at three hotels, one in Cyprus and two in Greece which serve as benchmarks for good practice hotels. The scientific coordinator is ISES-Cyprus. www.lowehotels.eu
Building-up energy saving awarness
4.4 ECOLABEL: SUSTAINABILITY CRITERIA FOR BUILDINGS Arch. Carola Arrivas Bajardi, ARPA Sicily
The European Commission considers the life cycle approach as an essential instrument for the environmental assessment of product and services (Green Paper on IPP COM(2001)68). There are numerous methods for assessing the environmental impact of buildings developed under the life cycle approach. Schematically it is possible to articulate them in two main categories: • Methods that apply the LCA (Life Cycle Assessment, ISO14040 standard) methodology by drawing a strict budget of all environmental effects of the life cycle of the building, such as the Dutch ECO QUANTUM, the German ECO-PRO, the French EQUER and the Swedish LCATool. • Methods “in scores”, generally structured in checklist, using the life cycle approach to provide qualitative assessments of the environmental performance of buildings, such as the British BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method), the US LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), and the GBC (Green Building Challenge), that comes from studies carried out by a worldwide network of institutes and research organizations from 24 different countries and was adopted in Italy by the ITACA Protocol. All these initiatives show the growing interest in environmental sustainability of buildings, however, at European level there is a need to harmonize the different approaches in a recognizable brand applicable throughout Europe. Within this scenario, the European
Commission has entrusted the Italian Committee for Ecolabel and Ecoaudit the task of developing the ecological criteria for the award of the EU Ecolabel for buildings. The EU Ecolabel (Reg. (CE) 66/2010) is a type 1 of environmental labelling (ISO 14024:1999) based on the life cycle approach, that is granted to the best products and services from an environmental perspective. The objective of the new Ecolabel for buildings would be to assign the trade mark only to those buildings where the environmental impacts associated with the main stages of the life cycle (design, construction, operation and maintenance, restructuring, end of life), are below certain thresholds. According to the draft, the product group definition for “buildings” shall comprise: “buildings considered in their entirety, as well as small houses, new or existing, public or private, used for residential purpose and for use as offices”. The ecological criteria should be referred to new and existing buildings and also divided into mandatory and optional. The aims of the draft criteria are: • limit energy and water consumption, • limit waste production and enhance recycling, • favour the use of materials with high environmental performances; • favour the use of renewable resources and of substances which are less hazardous to the environment, • favour indoor well-being, • promote information and education on the correct management of the building. The energy aspects of the 3rd draft Ecolabel Criteria for Buildings are referred to the
parameters included in Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD), also one of the mandatory criteria is to implement the EPBD. In fact for the assessment and verification of the energy efficiency the applicant shall provide the energy efficency certification showing the annual energy use per area for heating expressed as kWh/m2year. However there are some aspects related to energy efficiency that, in the light of experience gained from the TeenergySchools Project, should be modified. In particular the mandatory criteria on energy efficiency includes only the heating, while cooling and ventilation, two criteria that are particularly related to climatic conditions typical of Mediterranean, are considered only as optional. On the other hand there is no explicit reference on summer passive cooling also in LEED and BREAM methods. Therefore, the aim of Teenergy-Schools Project is to contribute on covering this lack whit the diffusion of technological solutions for the indoor comfort in the schools of the Mediterranean area such as summer passive cooling.
5. THE TEENERGY SCHOOLS GUIDELINES
The Teenergy schools guidelines
5.1 The 5 Thematic Brochures as communication tool of TEENERGY SCHOOLS Project Dr. Despina Serghides - Cyprus University of Technology
The publication of the five thematic brochures fall within the communication activities of the programme and their main objectives are: • Ensuring publicity to MED Programme and EU Commission • Allowing an impact on the policy making level • Rising the public opinion’s awareness concerning the use of innovative technologies in the field of energy and consequently the energy efficiency in public buildings, • Promoting the respect of International standards In this respect they act as a collector of the international conferences, workshops and the Campus, which were organised within the framework of the programme. Furthermore they are intended to diffuse and capitalize the project results in the form of guidelines on energy saving practices and standards stimulating decision makers, enterprises and citizens to use innovative techniques and standards concerning energy efficiency and – in medium long term– integrating and improving the policies at Mediterranean level. In this context they act as a tool to publicize and diffuse the Platform and its contents at transnational level. The brochures as a transnational action of communication are targeted towards national and regional institutions, EU, decision makers and enterprises. They will be mainly distributed to local public authorities directly or indirectly involved in energy saving issues, universities and other professional associations, technical bodies and networks, experts and architects,
students and schools, enterprises and their Associations. The brochures focus on the topics of the three thematic international conferences/ workshops which were realized in Limassol, Arpa/Trapani and Granada, the Campus in Athens and the concluded results. These topics are, Bioclimatic Architecture, Passive Cooling, Indoor Comfort, High Energy Efficient Architecture for School buildings in Mediterranean region – International Campus and Guidelines for Energy Efficient Schools. In the international conferences/ workshops, which had also a training purpose, eminent international experts in these topics were invited as keynote speakers and the synopses of their presentations are gathered
in the relevant brochure. The international conferences/workshops were opened to local stakeholders, public authorities, construction sector enterprises, experts, private operators, students for sharing the experiences done along the project phases. They entailed the organisation of a transnational communication campaign addressed to decision makers and enterprises and the involvement of MED national and regional bodies in order to increase the project impact on policy making. For giving a scientific contribution and a transnational added value an International Campus was held in Athens as architectural Design review and participatory process where decision makers, stakeholders,
The Teenergy schools guidelines
scientific experts, architects, designers, technicians, university students, experts, private operators exchanged their experiences and shared the solutions for the 12 Pilot Projects, at a transnational level. More specifically the five thematic brochures are as follows. Bioclimatic Architecture This brochure contains the synopses of the main presentations of the international conference/workshop which took place in November 21, 2009 at the Cyprus University of Technology, in Limassol, on “Bioclimatic Architecture in the Mediterranean”. In this workshop, the bioclimatic strategies, the new appropriate technologies and materials, were presented, through best practice examples of schools in the Mediterranean and with high energy efficiency. In this framework successful and effective realisations of bioclimatic applications from examples in Mediterranean were also presented. The new methodologies for energy audits in public schools and innovative energy audit and benchmarking systems that will be used for the TEENERGY schools aiming at the improvement of energy efficiency of schools in the Mediterranean, were also presented. Pilot projects with best practices and with special regards to EU policy strategies for public schools were illustrated and explained. Passive Cooling The Public Conference and the International Workshop on Passive Cooling were organized by the ARPA Sicily (Environmental Protection Agency of Sicily) and the Province of Trapani. The aim was to involve all the stakeholders (politicians, companies, students, teachers and school managers) on passive cooling techniques to improve the indoor comfort in the hot Mediterranean climate and the energy saving, for reducing costs and consumptions in the school buildings. Both the Public Conference and the International Workshop represented the first occasion for the Partners to compare
the results of the energy audits with the performance of each country. The Partners also compared the selected school buildings for the pilot projects, representing three typical climate conditions of the Mediterranean area: coastal, mountain and city. Indoor Comfort This brochure was based on the 3rd International Conference/ Workshop on “Indoor comfort and sustainable energy management in buildings” which was held on the 28th of May, in Granada. It was very successful due mainly to the high profile of the key Speakers and their interesting presentations. More than 200 participants attended the Conference with different professional expertise (architects, students, teachers, politicians, and energy sector professionals). High Energy Efficient Architecture for School Buildings– International Campus In this publication the results of the Campus are presented analytically as well as synopses of the presentations of the International conference that took place within its framework. The international Campus has gathered post graduate students from 4 partners’ countries during a three day Workshop. About 30 students collaborated in 5 international working groups on technical interventions on the PILOT SCHOOLS of the project, addressing theme focuses such as: energy saving techniques, employment of renewable
energies, integration of innovative materials, improvement of heating systems, strategies for natural ventilation, solar architecture and climate-adapted energy efficient envelopes. International experts have intervened with specific lectures during the Workshop. The TEENERGY Steering Committee meeting & Workshop venue was situated at the Physics Department in the University Campus (NKUA). The main theme of the Conference was “Bioclimatic Schools in the Mediterranean Region” and was held in the Metropolitan hotel in Athens on the 3rd of December. The attendance of the Conference was about 150 persons. Sustainable design Architecture case studies have been presented as well as the results of the Workshop. Guidelines With the evaluation of proposed solutions concluded at the Campus it was then be feasible to create a common Action Plan_ Energy strategy for the improvement of energy efficiency in school buildings in the Mediterranean region. From this, Guidelines and Executive Plans for the Mediterranean schools and educational buildings are formulated. These are very useful as they include examples of potential strategies to reduce energy demand and suggest how to achieve energy saving, exploring financial issues, implementing the use of renewable technology elements and optimising comfort, daylighting design and air quality and ultimately achieving energy efficiency in public schools.
The Teenergy schools guidelines
5.2 Teenergy Schools Guidelines : The Decalogue for local administrators
Prof. Arch. Marco Sala ABITA, Arch. Antonella Trombadore ABITA , Arch. Rainer Toshikazu Winter Province of Lucca
The added value of Teenergy Schools lays within its implementation of the process and the constant exchange of the common results - from the definition of the quality indicators to the elaboration of an adequate Energy Audit for the Partnership, the evaluation of the data mapping and benchmarking towards the elaboration of 12 innovative Pilot Projects. In fact, the project aims at providing the local administrators with useful decision support instrument to suggest a Best Path to follow in the retrofitting action and revitalization of existing school building, or what design criteria should be considered when a new school building is to be planned, targeting low energy consumption approach and sustainability awareness. There is a need for effective tools helping to decide by combining scientific, normative and quantitative aspects such as energy efficiency, with human perception and subjective, qualitative aspects such as indoor comfort and psycho-physical wellness as already mentioned. Above all, the Mediterranean context represents the reference point for a new interpretation of a climate-adapted standard for sustainable building. Teenergy Schools has developed a Decalogue to meet the needs for the providing a Common Method of decisional support involving stakeholders to fulfill the challenge of improving the school environment of education for the next generation of pupils, by starting today. The Teenergy Schools Decalogue aims at giving the basic indications for the implementation of existing schools retrofitting action as a process. It is targeted
to all the actors, but particularly to the public authorities—who must set themselves up as promoters of the process—and the scientific experts in charge with the coordination and the management of its application. The Decalogue aims to illustrate the Best Path towards an appropriate energy efficient retrofitting action of school buildings, going beyond the usual isolated interventions and taking into account new aspects such as bioclimatic technologies: solar architecture, passive cooling, intelligent windows for natural ventilation, cool or green roofs and the use of materials from natural local resources with positive LCA evaluation.
Teenergy Schools Decalogue for the Mediterranean Area 1.Setting the targets: definition of the Quality objectives to be reached in the retrofitting of existing schools and for the construction of new school buildings aiming at energy efficiency and good indoor climate in all seasons: • High Energy efficiency for heating and cooling • Integration of natural and efficient artificial lighting • High standard of natural ventilation in classrooms guaranteeing low CO2 rate during the lessons ensuring good study
The Teenergy schools guidelines
conditions • Use of sustainable building material based on critical LCA analysis • Bioclimatic Strategies for energetic efficiency and good indoor climate in all seasons using Passive cooling (Ground Cooling/Night Cooling) Sun shading and Natural Ventilation systems against Summer overheating • Correct Use and management of renewable resources: use of appropriate, cost- and energy-efficient technology • Acoustic quality inside the building for good audio comfort in the classrooms • High Outdoor Environmental Quality ( outside microclimate) • Good visibility and media communication to guarantee wide spreading of results • Didactical aspect of the intervention as added value of retrofitting / new construction for the active involvement of pupils ( change of mindset/behavior)
2. Energy Audit: Checking the State of Art of the building and the energy performance of the envelope and energy consumption on HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning ) systems throughout data collection including bills, measurements and software simulations: • energetic behavior of the building taking into account the real consumption, the simulations ( expressed in kwh/a/m3) • thermographic anaylis for the detection of heat losses for efficient problem solving • analysis of the functionality, occupancy (pupils/m2), use and costs for the running of the building (euro/pupil/ year) • Evaluation of the Security norms • Evaluation of Level of maintenance • Structural characteristics, anti-seismic aspects • Sanitary equipment
3. End user feed back questionnaire: Involvement of the students and end user to improve their awareness
Evaluation of indoor quality Analysis of the feedback of pupils and teachers throughout a specific (anonymous) Questionnaire in order to define the psycho-physical aspects regarding the actual perception of indoor comfort by the end users • Comparison between assessed performances of the e school building, the monitored use and occupancy and the satisfaction of the end users of the building in order to obtain a critical view of the actual situation.
Interpretation and graphical visualization of the collected data from the Energy Audit and the End User Feedback • Evaluation of the gap between State of Art and Target, • Analysis of the critical point where the data of energy performances of the school buildings are below the average (Mapping and Positioning of the results in a larger context ( regional, national, European) taking into account specific 3 climatic sub areas: Coast, mountain and plain.
4. Mapping and Evaluation
5. Benchmarking in the context :
Analysis and mapping the results with the support of adequate tool for the homogenization of the data at an appropriated decision scale (Municipality context, Provincial/Regional/National/ International) and Analysis and graphical visualization of the collected data from the Energy Audit, the End User Feedback
Comparison of the monitored school buildings to obtain a performance-ranking for the definition of preferences: which school building need to be refurbished first? • Analysis throughout multi issue criteria: what are the main criteria? • Definition of thresholds of energy performance, indoor quality level,
The Teenergy schools guidelines
available budget • Definition of acceptable limits • The three main factors harmonizing with technical aspects factor will be given a critical weighting in order to elaborate a ranking of the interventions.
6. BEST PATH Methodology The Best Path Methodology aims at defining the most adapted solution in terms of economical technical and human aspects following the elaborated quality criteria as indicated above. On administrative and political level a critical weighting of the importance of each of the following four main objective must be considered: A. energy efficiency B. indoor comfort C. quality of communication of the project, D. technical aspects ( for instance obligatory issues such as anti-seismic norms, fire-security, sanitary aspects) Obviously each refurbishment or new construction of a school has an important mediatic value for the local administration, therefore the quality of the communication has to be considered an important issue. Building Sustainable Schools in the Mediterranean Area with bioclimatic principles in an energy efficient, socially and politically participated approach has a high value in terms of innovation. Each one of these aspects will have a weight expressed in % following the strategic decisions of each single administration.
7. Interdisciplinary involvement in the Participated Planning Process involving all the stakeholders of the school environment: pupils, parents and teachers, driven by the initiative of the administrational responsibles engaged in a transparent, participatory round table with the help of qualified technicians: • The project bases for new schools or the refurbishment strategies for existing schools has to be elaborated in an
interactive and interdisciplinary process involving all parts, taking into account the above mentioned ranking of priorities following the Best Path integrating previous analysis such as Energy Audit and the End User Satisfaction. • The continuous illustration and monitoring of the proceedings of the process with is of great importance to guarantee satisfaction of all interests.
8. Concept Design Implementation of Architectural Solutions /Retrofitting strategies The Concept Design Solutions will be based on sustainable, energy efficient building technologies taking into account bio-climatical aspects in order to respond adequately in each single micro-climate area. • High Indoor comfort is targeted by improving thermal, acoustic and visual comfort in the classrooms • At least three scenarios with low medium and high outputs proportioned to the dedicated investment will be elaborated
9. Cost benefit evaluation Critical choice of the most suitable solution in terms of energy efficiency, satisfaction of the end users, economic context and communicational aspects for the local administrators political targets
10. Diffusion and Communication of the results: towards Best Practice Constant monitoring of the feedback within the participated process • Promotion of the results within the context of a Pilot Project that has a didactical vocation • Networking of similar experiences in order to promote wide speading of the initiatives and guarantee efficient research results in collaboration with scientific institutions and exponents of the building industry.
The Teenergy schools guidelines
Concept Design Guidelines for the implementation of Sustainable Schools in the Mediterranean Area A project for sustainable new building or the retrofitting of existing schools in the Mediterranean Area must consider, as key element, the necessity of combining the research for a cost-effective insulation for the improvement of heating in the Winter period, with the Mediterranean climate –specific necessity of ensuring, during the Summer period passive cooling and a high ventilation rate to guarantee good indoor conditions. In fact, Secondary High schools are run until the end of June when temperatures have already risen substantially. Mediterranean buildings are traditionally built on a simple thermal mass concept, which helps to reduce the great temperature differences during day/night in the Summer time. Reintroduce thermal mass in the modern school building is to be reconsidered as a simple, but very effective, non energyintensive method to ensure comfort.
1.Planning criteria and Architectural Strategies to reduce energy consumptions and environmental impact in Mediterranean Schools: • Low-energy architectural solutions according to the traditional principles in Mediterranean area: creation of thermal mass and natural ventilation combined with Passive Cooling techniques and Sun shading to cope with high Summer temperatures • Application of appropriate, bio-climatic technology following a critical costbenefit analysis • Solar architecture controlling the use of
glass surfaces and bow-windows facing south working with passive solar gains helping to abate energy consumption in the Winter time, making sure that during the summertime correct sun shading and natural ventilation systems avoid overheating • Use of traditional and innovative materials possibly from natural, renewable resources
2. Materials technologies
• Using life cycle integrated analysis (LCA) helps to define appropriate choices regarding the productive cycle of each
The experience of Teenergy Schools after having developed a Common Implementation Methodology , what pragmatic technical prescriptions can be given regarding energy efficiency in the Mediterranean school context? In the following pages a short Guidelines are presented to implement the Decalogue approach as a pragmatic technical indications to allow higher energy efficiency in the Mediterranean schools buildings. Analyzing the appropriated Architectural Solution elaborated during the Concept Design of the 12 innovative Pilot Projects we should take advice about developing an energy strategy, designing and specifying the fabric, services and controls systems, as tangible results and feasible propositions developed with the Partnerships local administrators.
The Teenergy schools guidelines
single employed building material: In fact, selecting high quality materials based on natural renewable resources possibly of local origin contribute to abate incidence of transportation The use of some traditional materials such as bricks as one of the main protagonists of technical evolution in the recent years have given birth to innovative building components with high added value , compatible to the use in the Mediterranean Building such as: high energy efficient hollow bricks combining insulation, thermal mass and anti-seismic characteristics in one material, suitable of being used in load bearing walls without reinforced concrete structure brick elements for “ventilated facades” that help to reduce solar impact on the buildings’ outer shell creating a natural ventilation without energy consumption innovative wood components allow compact, massive wood bearing elements for walls and ceilings, ideal for custom-tailored prefabrication ( this technology has indeed many positive aspects but must be contextualized with some thermal mass in order to make it suitable for Mediterranean Architecture, otherwise Night Cooling systems for example lose their efficiency) hydraulic lime mortar and plasters from naturally generated lime stone ensuring good structural characteristics and high hygroscocip capacities new , good quality cements that reduce the CO2 emission in their production, containing also less industrial waste material photo-catalytic external building elements such as tiles and plasters that absorb and eliminate the atmospheric pollution, new insulating materials from natural origin such as: wood and other vegetal fiber, plain wool, kork that allow a reduction of the heat dispersion, up to 50%, increasing comfort because
transpiring, permeable to the diffusion of vapour, fundamental criteria to avoid phenomena of moist and fungus creation indoor. 8. Green roofs (and so called cool roofs) ensure a significant abatement of overheating of the buildings upper outer shell
Architectural Integration Renewable energy source
• integrated photovoltaic cells in semitransparent glass surfaces, • photovoltaic and thermal panels integrated in the façade • use of local micro-wind generators and micro-turbines for the generation of electricity from renewable resources (after critical evaluation of wind incidence in the relevant area) • co-generation energy and biofuel advanced systems ,
• energy recovery systems, • heat pumps with geothermal tubes.
4. Advanced technologies for energy efficiency in buildings: • lighting systems using LED lamps, that allow the energy reduction up to 80%, integrated dimming systems measuring the natural light intensity • low energy ventilation systems, based on cycles of absorption / recovery heat with the possibility of integration in innovative “intelligent window” technology • hybrid intelligent systems of passive ventilation using ground cooling and night cooling • efficient building’s energy management including sensors, thermostatic and light-intensity and movement sensors • solar system with direct integration for high efficient air conditioning.
The Teenergy schools guidelines
5. Advanced technologies for energy/ water resource management: • integrated systems for water reuse, (rainwater retention and use for toilet flushings) local plant-purification systems, • technologies to monitoring and purification/controlled exchange of the indoor air • BEMS (Building Management System) and IT systems for the continuous monitoring and optimization of the indoor comfort related to the energy consumption
6. Direct Benefits of Sustainable Schools The results of a sustainable energy efficient schools building are not only economical: • A healthy, productive learning environment (daylight and good acoustics improves performance, fresh air ensures a better level of attention) • More concentrated pupils and therefore better learning quality • comfortable indoor temperatures increase occupant satisfaction • improved school environment means improved teacher retention • and, of course: economical advantages in running the school building mean fast pay-back period of the investment for the refurbishing or new construction The measures illustrated in this short Guide can be applied when designing a new building as well as refurbishing existing ones. In the case of retrofitting action the Energy efficiency measures can often be incorporated at a marginal extra cost. Routine maintenance can also present opportunities for introducing energy efficiency measures. These measures have the advantage of not requiring capital investment, because they are financed out of the annual maintenance budget. Energy saving measures incorporated into maintenance work provide very good payback returns, some costing no more than the conventional solution.
Fig 3. Intelligent Window module as innovative solution for the Mediterranean climate conditions: photovoltaici façade, controlled ventilation and heat exchanger, sun shading and mosquito-net all-in-one solution (MSA, Arch. Rosa Romano PHd Thesis: “Smart Envelope - dynamic and innovative technologies for energy saving”)
Fig 4. From research to the built solution example of technological innovation suitable for Mediterranean Architecture: “Polo Technologico” Province of Lucca Arch. Marco Sala, Responsible Arch. Francesca Lazzari , Province of Lucca Arch. Rosa Romano PHd Thesis: “Smart Envelope - dynamic and innovative technologies for energy saving”
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Building solutions for improving energy efficiency
Building solutions for improving energy efficiency
TEENERGY SCHOOLS PARTNER Province of Lucca, Lead Partner ABITA Inter University Research Center Florence IASA of National Kapodistrian University of Athens Cyprus University of Technology Province of Trapani County Council of Granada Agency for the Protection of the Environment Sicily Prefecture of Athens