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Chinatown Gangs: In 1972 the, Attorney General of California held a hearing in which many issues concerning the emergence of Chinese gangs

were discussed and documented. According to Malcolm Klein (1969: 1427), a gang is: • . . any denotable adolescent group of youngsters who (a) are generally perceived as a distinct aggregation by others in their neighborhood, (b) recognize themselves as a de- notable group (almost invariably with a group name), and TOY 651 (c) have been involved in a sufficient number of delin- quent incidents to call forth a consistent negative re- sponse from neighborhood residents and/or enforcement agencies.

Gangs: Wah Ching, Suey Sing, Hop Sing, Asian Invasion,Cp Boys, Ping Boys, and Eddy Boys

The Beginning of the war was in 1875 followed by 1882 and 1892 because during those years the Chinese Exclusion Act was passed by the Congress, provided for the examination of immigrants and for the exclusion from the U.S. of convicts, polygamists, prostitutes, persons suffering from loathsome or contagious diseases, and persons liable to become public charges. The Alien Contract Labor Laws of 1885, 1887, 1888, and 1891 prohibited the immigration to the U.S of persons entering the country to work under contracts made before their arrival.

After the Chinese were treated so disrespectfully triad groups began to spurge. These group appeared out of protection of their own people. Triad groups are very well structured organized crime groups, containing a strict hierarchy with a boss at the top.

By forming triads it was inevitable that gangs would soon enough emerge. Gangs are considered to be under the law any denotable adolescent group of youngsters who are generally perceived as a distinct aggregation by others in their neighborhood, recognize themselves as a de- notable group (almost invariably with a group name), and have been involved in a sufficient number of delinquent incidents to call forth a consistent negative response from neighborhood residents and/or enforcement agencies.

Conflict between civilians and gangs: A fight for respect, power and money.

g on

Chinese Immigrants Lack of legitimate opportunities combined with hostility and violence from local youths.

T ng i S Yyo Civilians ew Su Te eG an


Gangs began to splurge all over Chinatown out of protection of local youth violence


d an ng o gT

Sin ey u SW ah Ch ing


ng Ga s oy eB

Completely run by the underground world.

Ga ng

Attack on civilians

Increase in fights, carried guns. Increase in # of high school kids joining

Destruction of Respect, Compassion and Values

What could compelling and effectively respond to the stated conflict? Change the values of gangs, redirect their lives. Give them the respect they deserve. I would show them that there are other ways of feeling respected. How could architecture respond? Architecture could respond by reacting the same way a gang does. It entices you in but after it has you hooked all it does is ruin your life. I want to create a structure that will show the mechanics of gangs but in the worst case scenario. At the same time show the positive aspect of gangs, that are very few. Show how they protect each other but they go against innocent people. After you are in the structure there is no easy way out. A horrible experience that might make you change your mind of becoming a gang member. Works Cited A Short History of Asian Gangs in San Francisco by Calvin Toy Encyclopedia Immigration by Oscar Handlin, M.A., Ph.D. The Golden Dragon Restaurant Massacre by Kevin J. Mullen

By Fernanda Bernardes

Tongs First Originated

Opium, gambling, prostitution to ease the needs of the men who had immigrated from Gangs during this time only got into China. petty fights with knifes no guns or drugs. Initially only had 50 to 60 members

Fight Between gangs became an assault towards civilians

Later gangs had 100 or more members and was the start of illegal activities.

Gangs disappeared for a while.

Gangs focused on drug selling and using the drugs


After 1965

During 1980’s


During the Gold Rush when first Chinese immigrated to U.S

AntiChinese Cubic Air Anti- Coolie Tax-Ordinancemaking the Protection for white labors over spaces of jails Chinese smaller per person



U.S and China sign treaty saying that the U.S. was allowed to limit # of Chinese in.


Geary Act required the Chinese people to carry a Chinese Visible certificate of Exclusion Tong residence. Act Crime




Chinese Exclusio n Act was extended 10 years


Chinese Exclusion Act made indefinet Earthquake


1904 1906


WW2 alliance with China


Chinese Exclusion Act repeal


Immigration Act allowed people of Immigration Civil Rights Asia, Mexico, and Act Latin Nationality America to Act enter the U.S


1957 1964

Golden Dragon Massacre


Gang Turf Related War over fire works



The conflict is that people accept criminal activities as long as it does not affect them selves. Chinatown had so many illegal activities because the people did not want it to stop. Criminal activity went on for about 150 years and still goes on because the community allows and enjoys such activities.

Works Cited A Short History of Asian Gangs in San Francisco by Calvin Toy Encyclopedia Immigration by Oscar Handlin, M.A., Ph.D. The Golden Dragon Restaurant Massacre by Kevin J. Mullen

By Fernanda Bernardes

Community Unity Chinatown Gangs: 1977 Golden Dragon Massacre The press reaction was “It was one thing for gangsters to kill one another in occasional street shootings; it was another thing to shoot down innocent bystanders in the public restaurant. The public was aroused, and called for action.� During late September, the Chinese Chamber of Commerce reported that Chinatown business had dropped off by 50 percent. Five years earlier the police had begun to get tough on the gangs with sweeps to prevent fights between warring factions, but had been forced off because of pressure from Chinatown after a few complaints that business was being harmed.


Community Organizations

Private Citizens

Works Cited

Get People Involved 1. Enhance a sense of community responsibility and commitment to address gang violence. 2. Promote positive youth development and develop conditions to prevent young people from becoming involved in gangs. 3. Create a communitywide plan and network of support to find solutions to gang violence.

The Ferry Building The Ferry Building in comparison to Chinatown is a location where diversity meets an agreement. Chinatown has diversity but lacks community unity therefore creating cultural barriers. The Ferry Building has no buildings blocking its view from three sides. The circulations allows for an inviting entrance. Directly across are little spots to sit and look at the view of the ocean. “Today ferry terminals operate at Larkspur, Sausalito, Vallejo, and Alameda. As many as 25,000 people a week visit the separate, three-day-a-week outdoor farmers' market. The Marketplace itself, comprising 41 retailers in 65,000 square feet of space.� said Janny Hu

Works Cited

The Community feeling comes from the openness surrounding the building followed by inside having tall arched ceilings . What gives the extra touch of community is the variety in the produces. There are various cultures contributing to this market.

Safety and Equal rights Chinatown Gangs- Racially separated: There were groups of American born Chinese, foreign born Chinese and Chinese Vietnamese. These gangs got involved in many illegal activities making the neighborhood hard for civilians to live in. A specific group called Yow Yee converted from an assertive position to an offensive, aggressive standing . The community did not approve so they did not get any help financially from the community any longer. The group then began doing more illegal activities. While the Chinese battled against each other the whites blamed their presence in the country for all that went wrong. The Exclusion Act was redefined many times, making it indefinite until 1943 when WW2 happened and the U.S. needed more support.

A place that deals with security and equal rights is a church.

A church is a symbol of hope for most people. People go in, in search of solutions or forgiveness to their problems. It is a place where you feel safe enough to confess all your mistakes.

The Cathedral of Saint Mary of the Assumption

The Cathedral of Saint Mary of the Assumption

The main entrance is directed towards the busiest street. The exterior of this church gives the essences of tough but approachable.

There are streets on all four sides, allowing plenty of accessibility. No mystery in its shape creating a shield for those that do not respect it and for those the admire, it invites you in. It is surrounded by plants, allowing for some privacy but not alienation in the neighborhood.

The interior has a concave roof that gives the motherly protection. Seating is all the same creating unity between all races.

Light helps in creating a safety essences by allowing light from the sky brighten the space. The outside has a presence inside even though the glass is not completely transparent.

Racial Integration

1900’s Chinese All lived next to each other Korean but did not mix even though Japanese were discriminated by the whites.

In the Alemany Farmer’s Market there is a a wider range in products that serve Asians, whites, and Latinos

In the Civic Center Farmer’s market many cultures are united in one place to sell food. It is a way to bring different cultures to one place without disagreement. Culture is advertized but without competition between each other.

“Most outsiders attributed similar characteristics to all Asians, and the social construction of Asians was of a homogeneous racial group of mongoloids, or Orientals. Often restricted to ethnic enclaves, Asian immigrants did not think of themselves as Oriental or as nationally identified when they first arrived in the United States. Although Asian immigrants were also forced to engage with the Oriental construct in interaction of themselves to fit this social category, they also were mindful of the differences among the groups who lived next each other in Chinatown. Despite the commerce across ethnic lines and the sense of a shared situation as Orientals in America, language differences as well as ignorance of one another’s cultural practices unquestionably promoted the maintenance of separate social spheres.”

Both the Civic Center and Alemany Farmer’s Market have characteristics that bring different cultures together. By treating the different ethnicities that live in Chinatown as each having a separate culture then more can be gained from each. To be Asian is a category and it does not show who they really are. They are Chinese, Korean and Japanese, each with different characteristics.

Another event that brings different ethnicities together is the El Cerrito Fourth of July festival. It is combined with live performances of different cultures. Various foods, clothing and jewelry of different parts of the world.

Site Analysis Location: Walter U Lum PI


Demographics AGE RANGE IN CHINATOWN PINK- BELOW 10 RED- 10 to 19 ORANGE - 20 to 29 YELLOW – 30 to 39 DARK GREEN – 40 to 49 LIGHT GREEN – 50 to 59 PURPLE – 60 to 69 BLUE – ABOVE 70

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