Akhar, Project Documentation

Page 1

Project Documentation Namrata Goyal, VCD 2013 Srishti School of Art, Design & Technology

Dedicated to every final year student who has had to go through the final few months of completing a graduation project, hoping its their best piece of work yet.














project proposal

"The lack of typographic support and richness in vernacular typography is hampering the bi-lingual design process." Premise Typography, a craft traditionally practiced by specialists, is now widespread due to the advent of information age and digital tools. This explosion of text communication has created a need for quality typefaces. In adapting to these technologies that evolved for Latin script, Indic scripts as with many other non-Latin scripts, have an added complexity. Given the vernacular diversity, this explosion and the rapidly growing traditional media, television, newspaper and magazines, has caused a more urgent and pressing need for quality typefaces and language support for the diversity of scripts.

Background URW Global is a project, which is trying to support all languages for a version of Helvetica, called Nimbus Sans. URW++ Design and Development GmbH is a typeface foundry based in Hamburg, Germany. It is the successor of Unternehmensberatung Rubow Weber (URW), which was founded in 1972. URW++ has become a leading developer of digital font technology, designing open source fonts and custom typefaces for businesses. One such typeface is Nimbus Sans, which is based on Helvetica. It is a version using URW++ font source. The family supports West European, East European, Turkish, Baltic, and Romanian languages. Some of the fonts have history predating Helvetica’s first release. For example, Nimbus Sans bold condensed, Nimbus Sans bold condensed (D) were dated 1940; Nimbus Sans Black Condensed, Nimbus Sans Black Condensed (D) were dated 1946. The font names ending with (D) have slightly lighter font weights and tighter spacing.


project proposal

Starting Point During the course of a workshop on Letterform Design, I had an opportunity of working under the guidance of Mahendra Patel. During this time I created letterforms using handmade and digital methods. Not only did I gain an understanding of the type design process with and without involving softwares, but I also understood the same for different scripts. It was a starting point. It was this workshop that got me interested in the project (besides the language, culture and colors of Punjab that have always drawn me.) Working on Gurmukhi was a great opportunity to harvest a pool of inspiration. “To provide a choice for better design.” To gain language support with the existing technologies, the advent of open-type, overflow and easy availability of digital tools – typography is required to scale up and meet the technological constraints. When one looks up for fonts in Latin, there are thousands, but it is not the same for vernacular scripts. There’s a compromise on typography almost every time a logo needs to be made bilingual, simply because of the lack of fonts. The only way to have some kind of visual presence to support language diversity is to take this forward and provide a choice of fonts for the designers to choose from, making the design process more effective.

Objective Vernacular languages and scripts are still understated in the new-age media sphere. The booming growth in technology aims at the youth today. This calls for better-designed vernacular typography for both print and web. The objective of the project is to provide for this. Project Brief Developing the Gurmukhi Script for Nimbus Sans in the form of contemporary type-design. Client: URW++ Design and Development, a typeface foundry based in Hamburg, Germany.


project approach

Research Research on the evolution of the script, understanding how strokes form characters, the ligatures, and the cultural context of the script. Design Process Stage 1: Encoding Decide the character-set of the type-family. Stage 2: Letterform Understanding the letterforms of each character in the script. Stage 3: Interpolation Designing a type family of four weights i.e., light, regular, medium, and bold. Stage 4: Spacing Creating Individual spacing for each character. Stage 5: Kerning Gap between each two characters, needs to be checked and if need be, then manually altered and programmed. Design project deliverables and collaterals Type Specimens, Posters and Postcards.


project timeline

Week 9 & 10 Create and Test Regular. 13 September Present final Bold and Regular Process – learning, fall backs, feedback from the client.

Week 1 & 2 Research on the evolution of Gurumukhi; explorations regarding letterforms and script. 19 July Research finished – to be presented. Collated document on the history of Gurumukhi – letterform experimentations with various tools, included. Week 3 & 4 Design the light character set. 2 August Finish Gurumukhi light with spacing. Week 5 Testing the light. Test in different sizes – paragraphs, headings etc. Controlling the texture, color of the type. Make changes in design and spacing as required.

Week 11 & 12 Finish Medium. Test the entire typefamily. Design Type Specimen and Collaterals (Posters, postcards). 27 September Present entire typefamily and work in progress of typespecimen and collaterals. Week 13 – 6 October Design collaterals and type specimen. 7 October Spend the day with the printers. Print drafts of final collaterals and type specimen book. Check colors. 9 October Submit the final prototypes. 19 October Submit the project documentation (book). 21 October Submit the final deliverables. Completed.

8 August Present the first character set designed – Gurumukhi Light. Week 6 - 7 Design the bold character set. 23 August Present Gurumukhi Bold WIP with reference to Gurumukhi Light designed previously. Week 8 – 31 August Testing Bold










understanding the script The Script

Word partitioning into zones

Gurmukhi is the name of the script used in writing primarily Punjabi and, secondarily, Sindhi language. It is used in the Sikh scripture and in contemporary India. It is an evolute from the old Brahmi script like Devanagari and other scripts of the area like Sharda, Takri, Mahajani etc. Gurmukhi characters are even older than Devanagari. The word Gurmukhi seems to have gained currency from the use of these letters to record the sayings coming from the mukh (literally mouth or lips) of the (Sikh) Gurus. The letters no doubt existed before the time of Guru Angad Dev (even of Guru Nanak) as they had their origin in the Brahmi, but the origin of the script is attributed to Guru Angad Dev.The Gurmukhi Alphabet is also called ‘Painti Akhri’ because it contains thirty-five letters.

A word in Gurumukhi can be partitioned into three horizontal zones. The upper zone denotes the region above the headline, where vowels reside, while the middle zone represents the area below the headline where the consonants and some sub-parts of the vowels are present. The middle zone is the busiest zone. The lower zone represents the area below the middle zone where the two vowels (u ,oo) and half characters lie in the foot of the consonants.

Characteristics Like most Indian scripts, Gurumukhi is written in a nonlinear fashion, where the width of the characters is not constant. The vowels attached to consonants are not in one vertical or horizontal direction, but rather placed either on top or at the bottom of consonants. This makes the use of the script on computers complicated to represent and process. Some of the major characteristics of the Gurumukhi script which present a challenge for the OCR (Optical Character Recognition) are: the character set; connectivity of symbols; word partitioning into zones; frequently touching characters; broken characters and headlines; and similarity of group symbols. Character set Symbolic in nature, Gurumukhi script consists of 41 consonants called vianjans, 9 vowel symbols called laga or matras, 2 symbols for nazal sounds, 1 symbol for reduplication of any consonant sound and 3 half characters. Connectivity of symbols Most of the characters contain a horizontal line at the top, which mostly connects the characters of a word. Because of this headline, there is no vertical inter-character gap in the letters of a word, and formation of merged characters is a norm rather than an aberration in Gurumukhi Script.


Frequently touching characters Many of the characters in the lower zone of a text line frequently touch the characters in the middle zone. Additionally, upper zone characters are occasionally merged into a single component. Broken characters and headlines It is observed in Gurumukhi texts printed before the 1990s, there are frequently broken characters and headlines. The broken characters in the middle zone have to be carefully joined so that the lower zone characters are not joined accidentally. Broken headlines have to be joined together to improve the word shape for recognition. Similarity of group of symbols There are many topologically similar character pairs in Gurumukhi Script. i. Character pairs which, after thinning or in noisy conditions, appear very similar (ਟ and ਦ, ਤ and ੜ, ਬ and ਥ, ਤ, ਡ, ਤੋ and ਤੇ) ii. Character pairs which are differentiated by whether they are open are closed along the headline (ਸ and ਮ, ਪ, ਧ, ਥ and ਖ) iii. Character pairs which are exactly similar in shape but are distinguished by the presence/absence of a dot in the feet of the character (ਸ and ਸ਼, ਖ and ਖ਼, ਜ and ਜ਼, ਫ and ਫ਼) Association with other scripts Regionally and contemporarily compared, Gurmukhi characters have direct similarities with Gujarati, Lande, Nagari, Sharada script or (Sharda) and Takri. Internally, Gurmukhi had undergone some minor orthographical changes before AD 1610. Further changes came in the forms of H, T, and 7, in the first half of the nineteenth century. The manuscripts from the eighteenth century have different forms of these letters.

evolution of the script Evolution of Script Serampore Missonary Press, Serampore The Serampore Missonary Press (SMP) was extablished in 1800 by Williams Carey. With the help of William Ward, Joshua Marshman, a punchcutter, and two Indians, Panchanan Karmakar and Manohar who helped cast the types.Punjabi is dated 1815, referring only to the New Testament, and in 1822 it is stated that historical books were also printed. In Priolkar’s book, plate 48 shows an extract from ‘The Holy Bible in the Punjabee language’, published in Serampore in 1811 [fig.]

The earliest example found of a Gurmukhi typeface, and seems to be identical to the typeface used in Carey’s Grammar of the Punjabee language, published in 1812 [fig].

Another specimen is shown in the SMP’s Brief View of the Baptist Missions and Translations, with specimens of various languages in which the Scriptures are printing at the Mission Press, Serampore, published in 1815, which appears to be the same typeface again [fig]

Looking at the three examples from the SMP could lead one to believe that they are of three separate designs. Considering the close proximity of which the publications are dated, and the length
of time in which it takes to design, cut and cast an entire metal typeface, this seems unlikely. The printing quality of each example varies, making it difficult to formulate a valid evaluation.

However, one can see that similarities can be drawn between each. In the first fig. the colour appears considerably even overall, and the line is fine, with few dark points, noticeably so on those characters with knots, such as ਅ and ਦ. Comparing the first and the second, the colour appears much darker in the latter and both are examples of
 poor typesetting. This effect is evident more so in the third fig.; The difference in colour could be the result of a number of factors: the reproduction of samples, the choice of stock and ink used, the metal sorts would have attained some level of wear-and-tear, resulting in a defected print. The vowels signs are short and stumpy, except for (o) which appears narrow, tall and connected to the headline (reflecting a handwritten trait), whereas the rest sit apart. It is possible that smaller characters such as the vowels signs could have been adjusted, refined or even re-cut at a later date, a process which would not require as much time.


evolution of the script Ludhiana Missionary Press (LMP) The Ludhiana Missionary Press (LMP) was the first press in the Punjab, arriving in 1835.1838 was the year in which Devanagari and Gurmukhi fonts were employed for the first time. In 1845, a fire broke out at the LMP destroying everything apart from
a Gurmukhi typeface that was in situ in the original press. Nevertheless, John Marshman (son of Joshua Marshman, one of the original puncutters of the SMP) of the SMP had cast an improved font of Punjabi type. The date is unknown, but one can see it is of a similar design, even if smaller in size than that of the SMP’s typeface, visible in the 1851 publication, A Grammar of the Panjabi Language, with Appendices, by Rev. John Newton. The quality of printing has greatly improved from the facilities at the SMP, which emphasizes the newly refined characters. Each character is either identical in form or a development is clear from one to the other: curved strokes appear refined, as do the vertical and horizontal strokes; inconsistencies between identical characters still exist [fig.]

the Gurmukhi danda and a selection of basic Latin components. Sudarshan Printing Press, Amritsar Only one reference was found to mention the Sudarshan Printing P 
 ress (SPP), Varinder Walia’s article A proud legacy lies in dust, published online in 2006. It is worth discussing as the SPP’s ownership is mentioned, Dhani Ram Chatrik, who supposedly was the first to standardise the Gurmukhi type; using modern technique at his SPP. Assuming this
is true, for someone like Chatrik, who had established a standard form for a particular script, it seems odd to find so little reference to his name. No dates are declared in Walia’s article regarding the SPP’s existence, but one can assume it is likely to have been around the 1900s. The SPP’s location is not mentioned, but again one will assume that it is of the same location or within close proximity to Chatrik’s house in Amritsar. One of Chatrik’s sons still possesses, at his father’s house, parts of the Gurumukhi letters prepared by Chatrik. These letters, made of metal, are worth keeping in a museum. The last paragraph of Walia’s article mentions two presses, which were not directly referenced to Chatrik himself: ‘Later, Munshi Gulab Singh & Sons, Lahore, prepared another Gurmukhi type with the help of a Muslim worker, Munshi Noordin, who was instrumental in introducing the Gurmukhi letters in different parts of Punjab. He was later employed by the Wazir Hind Press, Amritsar, and more varieties of the Gurmukhi type were introduced.

The superscript vowel signs are of a similar characteristic to the SMP typeface, whereas those that sit beneath the characters, appear to have no design: they are small horizontal, monolinear dashes, which have a slight curve to their form and appear to be set both ways, curve arched and curve dipped. Characters constructed predominantly by curves, stress a handwritten quality, with an emphasis on the horizontal movement. Conjuncts are
not visible in this sample. Punctuation is a combination of 9

Specimens could not be traced regarding the typefaces used at the Munshi Gulab Singh & Sons (MGS), in Lahore and the Wazir Hind Press (WHP), in Amritsar. A publication from each shows an improved development in the design and reproduction of Gurmukhi typeface. The Panjábí dictionary prepared by MGS [fig.] uses a typeface of substantial quality. The heavy appearance does not deter you from the use of consistent, well-balanced forms. The ਜ is unusual, the left stem flares drastically beneath a rather heavy knot.Counters are open and spacing is fair. The character ਣ has a smaller protrusion, closer to its contemporary representation. Vowel signs are even in colour and stroke formation, yet somewhat light in comparison with the base characters.

evolution of the script

Gujrati Type Foundry, Bombay The Gujarati Type Foundry (GTF) was founded in 1900. Its purpose was to manufacture typefaces of high quality, which were required by the Gujarati Printing Press. The American point system and standard type height were adopted by the GTF and featured in their specimen books [fig.] The system would enable coherence and understanding between western and eastern typefaces. The specimen page displays four Gurmukhi typefaces, all of a fairly light colour and appearance,
 an italic variant appears slightly darker. The impression is even with regards to the larger typefaces. The proportions are now standardised, and characters appear consistent, as if they have been adapted from the same forms [fig.] The cursive characteristics have almost disappeared; ਵ has a structured form compared to earlier variants seen in manuscripts and the SMP. The majority of characters are of a monolinear fashion, showing little evidence of variation in contrast. The colour of the knots is balanced with that of the bindi’s weight; a 
 characteristic that is lost in the smaller size, where knots, vowels a 
 nd conjuncts appear oversized [fig.] Types were cast using ‘the Akhand system, not visible in the vowels ‘i’ and ‘ee’, yet they kern neatly alongside their base character, due to a shortened headline strokes [fig.]. The consonant conjunct, only used once in the specimen, sits neatly, even if detached from the base of its corresponding character: the distance from the base character could vary depending upon the vertical strokes o 
 f each component

The Monotype system developed by Tolbert Lanston and J. S. Bancroft in 1890 and The Linotype system of 1885, developed by Ottmar Mergenthaler. The introduction of these machines improved the speed and cost of the manufacturing process, but they also caused constraints of their own.

Hot metal to early digital type The end of the nineteenth century saw the transition from hand-composed type to type composed by a machine. There are two predominant systems to consider: 10

evolution of the script

Monotype Gurumukhi The first of Monotype Gurmukhi typefaces can be found in the Specimen book of ‘Monotype’ non-Latin faces, dated 1963. Titled Gurmukhi Bold 601 and Gurmukhi Light 604, referred to as MTC 1a and MTC 1b respectively. They are essentially of the same design, just a variation in weight. Figures below refer to both MTC 1a and MTC 1b. Knots are small and match stroke weight;

Counter shapes are balanced;

Typesetting is neat with minor gaps;

Character widths are controlled;

Vowels are open and do not join the headline;

was increased. However, it became evident that the system was not suited to the complicated nature of non-Latin scripts, such as Devanagari and Bengali, regarding the difficulty of kerning numerous subscript and superscript characters. The first Linotype Gurmukhi typeface, LTG 1, appears as an early digital format. Developed in conjunction with Tribune Trust Publications in Chandigar, it is available in Light and Bold for the Linotron 202. Linotype Gurmukhi Light and Bold, LTG 1a and LTG 1b respectively were designed by Fiona Ross, Georgina Surman & Donna Yandle. The character synopsis is substantial, supporting all of the necessary characters plus extra: a benefit of digital technology meant, that a character synopsis need not be constrained to a particular figure [fig.] Attention to typesetting was improved with the capabilities of specialized software, designed specifically with consideration for the correct placement of superscript and subscript vowel signs. Alterations and decisions made can be seen amongst the drawings in the Linotype Collection. In 1992 Linotype Gurmukhi Light and Bold were revised and released using the Post Script technology. The new technology meant an increase in resolution size, resulting in improved quality of outlines. Right: Linotype specimen and synopsis for the 1985, early digital typeface.

Vowels signs share proportions and weight; Kohinoor Gurumukhi

Other features include pre-composed characters are supplied (ਆ, ਇ, ਈ, ਐ, ਏ, ਉ, ਊ, ਔ, and ਓ); Only one half-form character. Linotype Gurumukhi In comparison to the Monotype system, it was now possible to set type a 
 s an entire line rather than individual characters. The combination of previous separate methods such as casting and typesetting into one system meant that the production rate 11

Designed by the Indian Type Foundry, Ahmedabad. Kohinoor Gurmukhi is a lower contrast typeface suitable for both body and display text. It is a highly functional typeface family that is easy to work with and inviting to read. Kohinoor super-family currently supports Latin, Devanagari, Tamil and Gurmukhi, over 150 languages and 1.5 billion native speakers. The longterm plan is to make Kohinoor support all official writing scripts of India. Kohinoor Gujarati is at the last stage of development and will be published soon. Kohinoor Bengali, Kohinoor Malayalam, and Kohinoor Kannada were scheduled for 2012.

evolution of the script

Gurmukhi works best in text setting, for which it was designed, but the letter shapes remain interesting and elegant when set at larger display sizes. Nirmala UI Authors: Tiro Typeworks: David Brezina (Gujarati), Valentin Brustaux (Telugu & Kannada), Jo De Baerdemaeker (Bengali), John Hudson (Devanagari, Odia, Gurumukhi). Microsoft Corp released Nirmala UI with another variant: Nirmala UI Bold. Conclusion The Gurmukhi script has made a clear development from the early nineteenth century metal types to its contemporary digital format. T 
 he most prominent being that of a standardization of the characters’ proportions and repeated forms, achieving consistency and balance. Surprisingly, the standardization took some time, where one would have expected such a method to have been implicated earlier, providing a solution to saving materials etc. resulting in cheaper production.

Adobe Gurumukhi The Adobe Gurmukhi family is the result of a working collaboration by Paul D. Hunt of Adobe and Vaibhav Singh. The general design follows the treatment realized by Tim Holloway and Fiona Ross in their work on the Adobe Devanagari family. Adobe Gurmukhi attempts to fuse calligraphic details, which can be readily seen in traditional Punjabi manuscripts, with modern proportions and character constructions. The rationale behind this approach is to reintroduce some of the attractiveness of modulated letterforms to Punjabi text typography while retaining letter shapes familiar and legible to today’s readers. The Adobe Gurmukhi fonts comply with the Unicode standard for character encoding and leverage the technology of Open–Type to produce correct script shaping and accurate mark placement. The resulting typeface is an important addition to the cannon of Gurmukhi type that can be used successfully in a wide range of typographic environments. Adobe

Through this process there has been a reduction of the traditional handwritten qualities that were once visible in the first metal types,
 a feature that only ever occurred with a small selection of characters.
 The Oxford University Press’ typeface was unique, with the handwritten quality overtly evident in all characters. The Gurmukhi characters are very much of a mono-linear fashion, a characteristic, which had been predominantly visible in the handwritten manuscripts, and is in existence in the contemporary digital format. One is still unclear with regards to which tool and method had been utilized, yet with further investigation one would hope to decipher this so that the transition between paper and screen could be understood a little more. Technology has evolved immensely over the past four centuries, yet it has not had a great effect upon the design of the Gurmukhi script. It seems to have steadily evolved between each transition, improving the typesetting at each point.


development process/drawings


development process/drawings


development process/script features

closed counter vowel bearer


stems superscript



knot join

vowel signs

ਉਨਾਂ� ਪੂੱ ਿਜ਼ਔ ਹੈ ˘ ਉਨਾ�ਂ ਪੂਿਜ਼ਔ ੱ ਹੈ ˘ base character height

consonant conjunct

Script nomenclature Type terminology for the Gurmukhi Script.


vowel sign

additional sound


open counter

development process/type features

swag ਸ ਵੈ ਗ Clarity in letterforms, as in the Nimbus Sans Latin. However, the Gurmukhi is more condensed than the Nimbus Sans Latin, to accommodate the word length of Indic scripts.

The sharp edges have been eradicated without affecting legibility, identity or readability of the font. Therefore, it is also a hundered percent match in form with other top line Indic scripts and better reproduction on screens.

Contemporary writing based forms.

Versatile - can be used for any size and medium. 18

digitization/character iterations

Initial character development, done on illustrator. Gurmukhi has similar characters. There are about 8-9 characters out of which the rest of the alphabet can be derived.


digitization/character iterations



URWGur Light. Character set development process.


Alot of firsts. First weight of the four, first time with the software and first time with the script.


ਂ ੰ ੱ ਾ ੁਿ ੂ ੇ ੀ ੈ ੋ ੍ ੌ ੑ ਆਇਈਉਊ ਏਐਓਔਕਖਗਘਙਚਛਜਝਞਟਠ ਡਢਣਤਥਦਧਨਪਫਬਭਮਯਰਲਵ ਸ਼ਸਹਖ਼ਗ਼ਜ਼ੜਫ਼ਅੲੳ � � � � ੴ ੦੧੨੩੪੫੬੭੮੯ !"#$%&'()*+,-./:;< => ?@ ^_`{|}~¡¢£¤¥¦§¨©«´»

URWGur Light character set.

Vowels, consonants, script numerals and Latin punctuatuion.



URWGur Bold. Character set development process. Although last of the four weights, the bold was the second in the design process. This was done to get the extremes in place before the regular and medium could be designed, to get the weights to be gradual. 23

Contrast issues - the thick and the thin strokes. Should stick to being bold and not becoming black. Forms and counterforms. White shapes versus the black shapes.


ਂ ੰ ੱ ਾ ੁਿ ੂ ੇ ੀ ੈ ੋ ੍ ੌ ੑ ਆਇਈਉਊ ਏਐਓਔਕਖਗਘਙਚਛਜਝਞਟਠ ਡਢਣਤਥਦਧਨਪਫਬਭਮਯਰਲਵ ਸ਼ਸਹਖ਼ਗ਼ਜ਼ੜਫ਼ਅੲੳ � � � � ੴ ੦੧੨੩੪੫੬੭੮੯ !"#$%&'()*+,-./:;< => ?@ ^_`{|}~¡¢£¤¥¦§¨©«´»

URWGur Bold character set.

Vowels, consonants, script numerals and Latin punctuatuion.



URWGur Regular. Character set development process.

Second of the four. More towards the light than the bold. Regular is the weight that is used for larger portions of text. Which means, it should be the least strenuous to read as body copy. Hence, its counterform and the ‘white space’ needed to be just right.



ਂ ੰ ੱ ਾ ੁਿ ੂ ੇ ੀ ੈ ੋ ੍ ੌ ੑ ਆਇਈਉਊ ਏਐਓਔਕਖਗਘਙਚਛਜਝਞਟਠ ਡਢਣਤਥਦਧਨਪਫਬਭਮਯਰਲਵ ਸ਼ਸਹਖ਼ਗ਼ਜ਼ੜਫ਼ਅੲੳ � � � � ੴ ੦੧੨੩੪੫੬੭੮੯ !"#$%&'()*+,-./:;< => ?@ ^_`{|}~¡¢£¤¥¦§¨©«´»

URWGur Regular character set.

Vowels, consonants, script numerals and Latin punctuatuion.




੨੨੨੨ ੬੬੬੬

ਓਓਓਓ ਏਏਏਏ ਛਛਛਛ ਤਤਤਤ URWGur Medium. Character set development process.


Third of the four. This was not bold neither the regular. Getting that gap right.


ਂ ੰ ੱ ਾ ੁਿ ੂ ੇ ੀ ੈ ੋ ੍ ੌ ੑ ਆਇਈਉਊ ਏਐਓਔਕਖਗਘਙਚਛਜਝਞਟਠ ਡਢਣਤਥਦਧਨਪਫਬਭਮਯਰਲਵ ਸ਼ਸਹਖ਼ਗ਼ਜ਼ੜਫ਼ਅੲੳ � � � � ੴ ੦੧੨੩੪੫੬੭੮੯ !"#$%&'()*+,-./:;< => ?@ ^_`{|}~¡¢£¤¥¦§¨©«´»

URWGur Medium character set.

Vowels, consonants, script numerals and Latin punctuatuion.


digitization/opentype features

Language based forms Nukta A combining character that alters the way a preceding consonant (or matra) is pronounced.

Below-base form A variant form of a consonant that appears below the base glyph.

Post-base form A variant form of a consonant that appears to the right of the base glyph. Post-base forms are usually spacing glyphs.

Vattu A below-base form of Ra, Ha and Va that can occur (and form ligatures) anywhere in the syllable and not just after the base glyph. Since it is an exception we treat it here as such.

ਖ+ ਼ = ਖ਼

ਗ+ ੍ = � ਯ+ ੍ = �

ਟ+ ੍ +ਗ ਟ+ ੍ = ਟ� ਟ+ਗ+ ੍ is reordered as


digitization/opentype features

Conjuncts and typographical forms All previous features have dealt with language features only, dedicated to forming glyph shapes dictated by the languages. The remaining shaping features cover optional features. Ligatures of two or more consonants. Consonant conjuncts may have both full and half forms, or only full forms. Above-Base Substitution A variant form of a consonant that appears above the base glyph.

Below-Base Substitution A variant form of a consonant that appears below the base glyph. In the glyph sequence, the belowbase form comes after the consonant(s) that form the base glyph.

Halant forms

ਗੇ +ਂ = ਗੇਂ � ੁ= ਟੁ � ਟ+

The form produced by adding the halant (virama) to the nominal shape. The Halant form is used in syllables that have no vowel or as the half form when no distinct shape for the half form exists. Halant A variant form of a consonant that appears above the base glyph.

Above-base marks This feature positions all above-base marks on the base glyph or the post-base matra.

Below-base marks This feature positions all below-base marks on the base glyph.

ਥ+ ੑ = ਥੑ

ਚ+ ੰ = ਚੰ

ਠ+ ੁ = ਠੁ



ਕਕ ਕਕ 33


ਖਖ ਖਖ 34


ਗਗ ਗਗ 35


ਘਘ ਘਘ 36


ਙਙ ਙਙ 37


ਚਚ ਚਚ 38


ਛਛ ਛਛ 39


ਜਜ ਜਜ 40


ਝਝ ਝਝ 41


ਞਞ ਞਞ 42


ਟਟ ਟਟ 43


ਠਠ ਠਠ 44


ਡਡ ਡ ਡ 45


ਢਢ ਢਢ 46


ਣਣ ਣਣ 47


ридрид рид рид 48


риерие риерие 49


ਦਦ ਦਦ 50


ризриз ризриз 51


риирии риирии 52


рикрик рикрик 53


ਫਫ ਫਫ 54


ਬਬ ਬਬ 55


ਭਭ ਭਭ 56


риорио риорио 57


риприп риприп 58


ਰਰ ਰ ਰ 59


ਲਲ ਲਲ 60


ਵਵ ਵਵ 61


ਸਸ ਸਸ 62


เจนเจน เจน เจน 63


ੜੜ ੜ ੜ 64


ਫ਼ਫ਼ ਫ਼ਫ਼ 65


啜多ǘ 啜多ǘ 66

ਲਲ ਲਲ ਲਲ ਲਲ ਲਲ ਲਲ ਲਲ ਲਲ

ਲਲ ਲਲ ਲਲ ਲਲ ਲਲ ਲਲ ਲਲ ਲਲ

on other mediums

URWGur Bold and Light PDFs on smart phones.


URWGur Bold and Light PDFs on tablets.


For all the material generated in this project, the target is two-fold; Firstly, to showcase the type created, in the best manner possible. To seduce its primary user – the type-hungry designer.

Secondly, to give the non-punjabi, nondesigner audience a chance to understand the project as well as the language.



Initially, when the posters were not really a part of the final "deliverables" but just something to eperiment with the font, I took different concepts for each. The first one is kind of editorial in its design. But there isn't a "story" to it as such. 73

In the second one, I tried to bring in a little element of typographic play and used a common phrase from the language.


This page, on the left: I thought I'd showcase a little more of what the font can do, so used big alphabets. Although, there isn't much copy to work on, the poster says "Chh se Chittar". Kind of like what an alphabet chart does for children to introduce them to various alphabets. (This ideology was eventually taken forward as a concept to

develop the final series of deliverables.) Finally, the last one is on another popular rhyme from the childhood of most punjabi kids, while they were growing up – "Akkad Bakkad Bhambe Bho." 74


Final set of posters are all about showcasing URW++ Gurmukhi Nimbus Sans. Consonants, vowels, OpenType features, conjuncts and the four weights.


Colors were picked from pictures of the state of Punjab. Yellow was the most common color looking at the landscapes, food, and apparels of the local Punjabi Folk. Other than that bright blue, pink, sap green, saffron and red and indigo.



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ਰੋਜ਼ਾਨਾ ਅਖਬਾਰ

ਨਵੀਂ ਿਦੱਲੀ- ਪੰਜਾਬ ਦੇ ਸਾਬਕਾ ਪੁਲਸ ਡੀ. ਜੀ. ਪੀ. ਅਤੇ ਗੁਜਰਾਤ ਦੰਿਗਆਂ ਦੇ ਸਮੇਂ ਮੋਦੀ ਦੇ ਸਲਾਹਕਾਰ ਕੇ. ਪੀ. ਐਸ. ਿਗੱਲ ਨੇ ਿਕਹਾ ਿਕ ਦੰਿਗਆਂ ਲਈ ਮੁਖ ੱ ਮੰਤਰੀ ਨਿਰੰਦਰ ਮੋਦੀ ਨੂੰ ਿਜ਼ੰਮਵ ੇ ਾਰ ਨਹੀਂ ਠਿਹਰਾਇਆ ਜਾ ਸਕਦਾ ਹੈ| ਿਗੱਲ ਨੇ ਿਕਹਾ ਿਕ ਗੁਜਰਾਤ ਿਵਚ ਕਾਨੂਨ ੰ ਿਵਵਸਥਾ ਦੀ ਸਿਥਤੀ ਨਾਲ ਨਿਜੱਠਣਾ ਪੁਲਸ ਦਾ ਕੰਮ ਹੈ| ਸਾਲ 2002 'ਚ ਮੋਦੀ ਦੇ ਸੁਰਿੱ ਖਆ ਸਲਾਹਕਾਰ ਰਿਹ ਚੁਕ ੱ ੇ ਿਗੱਲ ਆਪਣੀ ਜੀਵਨੀ 'ਕੇ. ਪੀ. ਐਸ. ਿਗੱਲ : ਦ ਪੈਰਾਮਾਊਂਟ ਕਾਪ| ਦੀ ਲਾਿਚੰਗ ਮੌਕੇ ਬੋਲ ਰਹੇ ਸਨ| ਿਕਤਾਬ ਿਵਚ ਿਗੱਲ ਨੇ ਮੋਦੀ ਦੀ ਤਰੀਫ ਕਰਦੇ ਹੋਏ ਿਕਹਾ ਹੈ ਿਕ ਗੁਜਰਾਤ ਦੇ ਮੁਖ ੱ ਮੰਤਰੀ ਿਹੰਸਾ ਖਤਮ ਕਰਨ ਲਈ ਗੰਭੀਰ ਸਨ| ਪਰ ਦੂਜੇ ਦਲਾਂ ਨੇ ਮੋਦੀ ਨੂੰ ਬਦਨਾਮ ਕਰਨ ਦਾ ਦੋਸ਼ ਲਾਇਆ ਹੈ| ਿਗੱਲ ਨੇ ਿਕਹਾ ਿਕ ਦੇਸ਼ ਅੱਜ ਵੀ ਦੰਿਗਆਂ ਦਾ ਦੁਖ ਝੱਲਣ ਲਈ ਮਜਬੂਰ ਹੈ| ਸਾਰੀਆਂ ਪਾਰਟੀਆਂ ਇਕ ਹੀ ਲਕੀਰ 'ਤੇ ਚਲ ਰਹੀਆਂ ਹਨ| ਿਸਰਫ ਿਗਣੇ-ਚੁਣੇ ਨੇਤਾਵਾਂ 'ਤੇ ਹੀ ਦੇਸ਼ ਨੂੰ ਿਵਕਾਸ ਦੀ ਰਾਹ 'ਤੇ ਲੈਣ ਜਾਣ ਦਾ ਭਰੋਸਾ ਕੀਤਾ ਜਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਹੈ| ਦੰਿਗਆ ਦੌਰਾਨ ਮੋਦੀ ਨਾਲ ਪਿਹਲੀ ਮੁਲਾਕਾਤ ਦਾ ਿਜ਼ਕਰ ਕਰਦੇ ਹੋਏ ਿਗੱਲ ਨੇ ਿਕਹਾ ਿਕ ਮੋਦੀ ਨੇ ਉਨ�ਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਿਕਹਾ ਸੀ ਿਕ ਕਾਫੀ ਕੋਿਸ਼ਸਾਂ ਤੋਂ ਬਾਅਦ ਵੀ ਉਹ ਦੰਗੇ ਰੋਕਣ ਿਵਚ ਨਾਕਾਮ ਰਹੇ| ਉਨ�ਾਂ ਨੇ ਇਸ ਦਾ ਕਾਰਣ ਦੱਸਦੇ ਹੋਏ ਿਕਹਾ ਿਕ ਉਨ�ਾਂ ਨੇ ਗੁਆਂਢੀ ਸੂਿਬਆਂ ਤੋਂ ਪੁਲਸ ਫੋਰਸ ਮੰਗੀ ਸੀ ਪਰ ਉਨ�ਾਂ ਨੇ ਦੇਣ ਤੋਂ ਇਨਕਾਰ ਕਰ ਿਦੱਤਾ| ਿਜ਼ਕਰਯੋਗ ਹੈ ਿਕ ਗੁਜਰਾਤ ਦੰਿਗਆਂ ਦੀ ਜਾਂਚ ਸੁਪਰੀਮ ਕੋਰਟ ਦੀ ਿਨਗਰਾਨੀ ਵਿਚ ਿਵਸ਼ੇਸ਼ ਜਾਂਚ ਦਲ ਪੂਰੇ ਮਾਮਲੇ ਦੀ ਜਾਂਚ ਕਰ ਿਰਹਾ ਹੈ| ਮੋਦੀ ਦੀ ਦੰਿਗਆਂ ਿਵਚ

ਸਫੈਰਾ ਸ਼ਹਿਰ ਨੂੰ ਬਾਗੀਆਂ ਦੇ ਕਬਜ਼ੇ ਤੋਂ ਛੁਡਵਾਇਆ ਿਗਆ


ਵੀਰਵਾਰ, 26 ਸਤੰਬਰ, 2013

'ਸਾਨੂੰ ਕਿਸੇ ਦੀ ਨਹੀਂ ਪ�ਵਾਹ' ਜਲੰਧਰ, (ਅਿਮਤ, ਵਿਰਆਣਾ)-ਵਾਹ ਰੇ! ਡੀ. ਟੀ. ਓ. ਦਫਤਰ ਤੇਰੀ ਮਿਹਮਾ ਅਪਰਮ-ਅਪਾਰ, ਿਕਉਂਿਕ ਇਥੇ ਸਭ ਕੁਝ ਹੈ ਸੰਭਵ, ਨਹੀਂ ਕਰ ਸਕਦੇ ਿਕਸੇ ਗੱਲ ਤੋਂ ਇਨਕਾਰ| ਡੀ. ਟੀ. ਓ. ਦਫਤਰ ਦੇ ਅੰਦਰ ਿਭ�ਸ਼ਟਾਚਾਰ ਿਕਸ ਕਦਰ ਹਾਵੀ ਹੋ ਿਰਹਾ ਹੈ, ਇਸਦਾ ਸਬੂਤ ਉਸ ਸਮੇਂ ਿਮਿਲਆ, ਜਦੋਂ ਜਗ ਬਾਣੀ ਟੀਮ ਦੇ ਹੱਥ ਫਾਰਮ ਨੰਬਰ 7 ਦੀ ਇਕ ਕਾਪੀ ਆਈ, ਿਜਸ ਨੂੰ ਦੇਖਕੇ ਸਾਫ ਪਤਾ ਚਲਦਾ ਸੀ ਿਕ ਿਜਸ ਿਵਅਕਤੀ ਨੇ ਪੱਕੇ ਲਾਇਸੰਸ ਲਈ ਆਵੇਦਨ ਕੀਤਾ ਹੈ, ਉਸਦੇ ਲਰਿਨੰਗ ਲਾਇਸੰਸ ਨੂੰ ਬਣੇ ਅਜੇ ਇਕ ਮਹੀਨਾ ਵੀ ਪੂਰਾ ਨਹੀਂ ਹੋਇਆ ਅਤੇ ਉਸ ਆਵੇਦਨ ਫਾਰਮ 'ਤੇ ਡੀ. ਟੀ. ਓ. ਦੇ ਹਸਤਾਖਰ ਕਰਵਾਏ ਜਾ ਚੁਕੇ ਸਨ| ਮੌਜਦ ੂ ਾ ਸਮੇਂ ਿਵਚ ਜੇਕਰ ਦੇਿਖਆ ਜਾਵੇ ਤਾਂ ਇਹ ਡੀ. ਟੀ. ਓ. ਦਫਤਰ ਦੇ ਅੰਦਰ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਵੱਡੇ ਸਕੈਂਡਲਾਂ ਿਵਚੋਂ ਇਕ ਹੈ, ਜੇਕਰ ਇਸ ਮਾਮਲੇ ਿਵਚ ਜ਼ਰਾ ਿਜੰਨੀ ਵੀ ਸਫਾਈ ਸਾਹਮਣੇ ਆਉਂਦੀ ਹੈ ਤਾਂ ਦਫਤਰ ਿਵਚ ਬਹੁਤ ਵੱਡੇ ਰੈਕਟ ਦਾ ਪਰਦਾਫਾਸ਼ ਹੋ ਸਕਦਾ ਹੈ| ਿਕਵੇਂ ਹੋਏ ਉਕਤ ਆਵੇਦਨ ਫਾਰਮ 'ਤੇ ਡੀ. ਟੀ. ਓ. ਦੇ ਹਸਤਾਖਰ| ਲਰਿਨੰਗ ਲਾਇਸੰਸ ਤੋਂ ਪੱਕਾ ਲਾਇਸੰਸ ਬਣਾਉਣ ਲਈ ਆਵੇਦਨ ਫਾਰਮ ਨੰ.7 'ਤੇ ਸੰਬਿੰ ਧਤ ਕਲਰਕ ਨੇ ਰੂਟੀਨ ਡਾਕ ਹਸਤਾਖਰ ਕਰਵਾ ਲਏ, ਜਦਿਕ ਉਕਤ ਲਰਿਨੰਗ ਲਾਇਸੰਸ ਨੂੰ ਬਿਣਆਂ ਅਜੇ ਇਕ ਮਹੀਨਾ ਵੀ ਨਹੀਂ ਹੋਇਆ ਸੀ| ਕੁਝ ਿਦਨ ਪਿਹਲਾਂ ਹੀ ਡੀ. ਟੀ. ਓ. ਪਰਮਜੀਤ

ਹ| ਉਨ�ਾਂ ਨੇ ਿਕਹਾ ਿਕ ਉਹ ਇਸ ਮਾਮਲੇ ਦੀ ਗੰਭੀਰਤਾ

ਪਹੁਚ ੰ ਾਉਣਾ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਬਾਅਦ ਿਵਚ ਪੈਸੇ ਇਕੱਠੇ ਕਰਨ ਦਾ ਕੰਮ ਵੀ ਇਹੀ ਕਿਰੰਦਾ ਹੀ ਕਰਦਾ ਹੈ| ਉਧਰ ਇਸ ਮਾਮਲੇ ਦੀ ਜਾਣਕਾਰੀ ਲੈਣ ਲਈ ਜਦੋਂ ਸੰਬਿੰ ਧਤ ਕਲਰਕ ਨੂੰ ਫੋਨ ਕੀਤਾ ਤਾਂ ਉਹ ਭੜਕ ਿਪਆ ਿਕ ਤੁਸੀਂ ਮੈਨੰੂ ਮੋਬਾਈਲ ਫੋਨ ਿਕਵੇਂ ਕਰ ਿਦਤਾ ਪਰ ਬਾਅਦ ਿਵਚ ਮਿਰਆਦਾ ਦਾ ਪਾਠ ਪੜਾਉਣ 'ਤੇ ਉਸਨੇ ਦਿਸਆ ਿਕ ਸਾਰਾ ਕਸੂਰ ਐਮ. ਵੀ. ਆਈ. ਦਾ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਉਹ ਹੀ ਬਿਨਾਂ ਜਾਂਚ ਕੀਤੇ ਪਾਿਸੰਗ ਕਰਦੇ ਹਨ| ਡਾਕ ਹਸਤਾਖਰ ਕਰਵਾਉਣ ਦੇ ਸੰਬਧ ੰ ਿਵਚ ਕਲਰਕ ਨੇ ਿਕਹਾ ਿਕ ਮੈਨੰੂ ਸਬੂਤ ਿਦਖਾਓ ਿਫਰ ਯਕੀਨ ਕਰਾਂਗਾ| ਉਧਰ ਐਮ. ਵੀ. ਆਈ. ਨੂੰ ਜਦੋਂ ਇਸ ਸੰਬਧ ੰ ੀ ਪੁਿੱ ਛਆ ਿਗਆ ਤਾਂ ਉਨ�ਾਂ ਦਾ ਕਿਹਣਾ ਸੀ ਿਕ ਉਨ�ਾਂ ਨੇ ਇਸ ਤਰ�ਾਂ ਦੀ ਕੋਈ ਪਾਿਸੰਗ ਨਹੀਂ ਕੀਤੀ, ਕਲਰਕ ਵਲੋਂ ਲਗਾਏ ਦੋਸ਼ ਬੇਬਿੁ ਨਆਦ ਹਨ| ਉਧਰ ਡੀ. ਟੀ. ਓ. ਪਰਮਜੀਤ ਿਸੰਘ ਦਾ ਇਸ ਸੰਬਧ ੰ ਿਵਚ ਕਿਹਣਾ ਸੀ ਿਕ ਉਹ ਇਸ ਮਾਮਲੇ ਦੀ ਿਨਜੀ ਤੌਰ 'ਤੇ ਜਾਂਚ ਕਰਨਗੇ ਅਤੇ ਦੋਸ਼ੀ ਪਾਏ ਜਾਣ ਵਾਿਲਆਂ ਿਖਲਾਫ ਸਖਤ ਕਾਰਵਾਈ ਕੀਤੀ ਜਾਵੇਗੀ| ਇਸ ਸੰਬਧ ੰ ੀ ਸਟੇਟ ਟਰਾਂਸਪੋਰਟ ਕਿਮਸ਼ਨਰ ਨਾਲ ਗੱਲ ਕੀਤੀ ਗਈ ਤਾਂ ਉਨ�ਾਂ ਦਾ ਕਿਹਣਾ ਸੀ ਿਕ ਕਾਨੂਨ ੰ ਤੋਂ ਉਪਰ ਕੋਈ ਨਹੀਂ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਇਸ ਿਵਚ ਬਦਲਾਅ ਕਰਨ ਦਾ ਹੱਕ ਿਕਸੇ ਨੂੰ ਨਹੀਂ ਿਦਤਾ ਜਾ ਸਕਦਾ ਅਤੇ ਨਾ ਹੀ ਿਭਸ਼ਟਾਚਾਰ ਨੂੰ ਬਰਦਾਸ਼ਤ ਕੀਤਾ ਜਾ ਸਕਦਾ

ਪ੍ਰਧਾਨ ਮੰਤਰੀ ਦੇ ਭਰਾ ਦੀ ਫੈਕਟਰੀ 'ਚ ਲੱਗੀ ਅੱਗ (ਵੀਡੀਓ)

ਿਸੰਘ ਨੇ ਆਦੇਸ਼ ਜਾਰੀ ਕੀਤਾ ਸੀ ਤੇ ਿਜਸਦੇ ਤਿਹਤ ਕੋਈ ਵੀ ਲਰਿਨੰਗ ਲਾਇਸੰਸ 4 ਮਹੀਨੇ ਤੋਂ ਪਿਹਲਾਂ ਪੱਕਾ ਨਹੀਂ ਕੀਤਾ ਜਾ ਸਕਦਾ| ਿਕਸ ਤਰ�ਾਂ ਹੋ ਿਰਹਾ ਸਾਰਾ ਗੋਰਖਧੰਦਾ-ਜੇਕਰ ਡੀ. ਟੀ. ਓ. ਦਫਤਰ ਦੀ ਮੰਨੀਏ ਤਾਂ ਇਹ ਸਾਰੇ ਕੰਮ ਦੇ ਿਪੱਛੇ ਮਾਸਟਰ ਮਾਈਂਡ ਕੋਈ ਹੋਰ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਉਸੇ ਦੇ ਇਸ਼ਾਰੇ 'ਤੇ ਉਕਤ ਕਲਰਕ ਨੇ ਸਾਰਾ ਪਲਾਨ ਬਣਾਇਆ ਹੈ| ਪ�ਾਪਤ ਜਾਣਕਾਰੀ ਅਨੁਸਾਰ ਇਸ ਕੰਮ ਲਈ ਕਲਰਕ ਵਲੋਂ ਰੂਟੀਨ ਡਾਕ ਦੇ ਨਾਲ ਆਪਣੇ ਗਾਹਕਾਂ ਦੇ ਆਵੇਦਨਾਂ 'ਤੇ ਵੀ ਡੀ. ਟੀ. ਓ. ਦੇ ਹਸਤਾਖਰ ਕਰਵਾਏ ਜਾ ਰਹੇ ਹਨ ਅਤੇ ਿਜਵੇਂ ਹੀ ਲਰਿਨੰਗ ਲਾਇਸੰਸ ਦੀ ਇਕ ਮਹੀਨਾ ਸਮਾਂ ਸੀਮਾ ਖ਼ਤਮ ਹੁਦ ੰ ੀ ਹੈ ਤਾਂ ਉਹ ਸਰਕਾਰੀ ਫੀਸ ਜਮਾਂ ਕਰਵਾ ਕੇ ਆਪਣੇ ਗਾਹਕਾਂ ਦੀ 120 ਨੰਬਰ ਕਮਰੇ ਿਵਚ ਫੋਟੋ ਕਰਵਾ ਿਦੰਦੇ ਹਨ| ਿਕਉਂ ਅਪਣਾਉਣਾ ਿਪਆ ਇਸ ਤਰ�ਾਂ ਦਾ ਤਰੀਕਾ- ਸੂਤਰਾਂ ਅਨੁਸਾਰ ਕਲਰਕ ਨੇ ਉਕਤ ਤਰੀਕਾ ਇਸ ਲਈ ਅਪਣਾਇਆ ਹੈ, ਿਕਉਂਿਕ ਡੀ. ਟੀ. ਓ. ਵਲੋਂ 4 ਮਹੀਿਨਆਂ ਬਾਅਦ ਲਾਇਸੰਸ ਪੱਕਾ ਕਰਨ ਦੀ ਕੰਡੀਸ਼ਨ ਲਗਾਏ ਜਾਣ ਦੇ ਬਾਅਦ ਕੋਈ ਵੀ ਬਿਨਾਂ ਡੀ. ਟੀ. ਓ. ਦੀ ਇਜਾਜ਼ਤ ਦੇ ਸਮਾਂ ਸੀਮਾ ਤੋਂ ਪਿਹਲਾਂ ਆਵੇਦਨ ਨਹੀਂ ਕਰ ਸਕਦਾ| ਪ�ਾਪਤ ਜਾਣਕਾਰੀ ਅਨੁਸਾਰ ਇਸ ਸਾਰੇ ਕੰਮ ਿਵਚ ਤਿਹਸੀਲ ਹਾਲ ਿਵਚ ਕਲਰਕ ਦਾ ਕਰੀਬੀ ਇਕ ਕਿਰੰਦਾ ਸ਼ਾਿਮਲ ਹੈ, ਿਜਸਦਾ ਕੰਮ ਇਸ ਤਰ�ਾਂ ਦੇ ਆਵੇਦਨ ਕਲਰਕ ਤਕ

ਮਾਮਲਾ ਗਾਇਕ ਹਨੀ ਿਸੰਘ ਵੱਲੋਂ ਅਸ਼ਲੀਲ ਗਾਣੇ ਗਾਉਣ ਦਾ

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MRP RS 1.50/-

ਪਰ ਦੂਜੇ ਦਲਾਂ ਨੇ ਮੋਦੀ ਨੂੰ ਬਦਨਾਮ ਕਰਨ ਦਾ ਦੋਸ਼ ਲਾਇਆ

ਭੂਿਮਕਾ 'ਤੇ ਅਜੇ ਸੁਪਰੀਮ ਕੋਰਟ ਦਾ ਫੈਸਲਾ ਆਉਣਾ ਬਾਕੀ ਹੈ| ਨਵੀਂ ਿਦੱਲੀ- ਪੰਜਾਬ ਦੇ ਸਾਬਕਾ ਪੁਲਸ ਡੀ. ਜੀ. ਪੀ. ਅਤੇ ਗੁਜਰਾਤ ਦੰਿਗਆਂ ਦੇ ਸਮੇਂ ਮੋਦੀ ਦੇ ਸਲਾਹਕਾਰ ਕੇ. ਪੀ. ਐਸ. ਿਗੱਲ ਨੇ ਿਕਹਾ ਿਕ ਦੰਿਗਆਂ ਲਈ ਮੁਖ ੱ ਮੰਤਰੀ ਨਿਰੰਦਰ ਮੋਦੀ ਨੂੰ ਿਜ਼ੰਮਵ ੇ ਾਰ ਨਹੀਂ ਠਿਹਰਾਇਆ ਜਾ ਸਕਦਾ ਹੈ| ਿਗੱਲ ਨੇ ਿਕਹਾ ਿਕ ਗੁਜਰਾਤ ਿਵਚ ਕਾਨੂਨ ੰ ਿਵਵਸਥਾ ਦੀ ਸਿਥਤੀ ਨਾਲ ਨਿਜੱਠਣਾ ਪੁਲਸ ਦਾ ਕੰਮ ਹੈ| ਸਾਲ 2002 'ਚ ਮੋਦੀ ਦੇ ਸੁਰਿੱ ਖਆ ਸਲਾਹਕਾਰ ਰਿਹ ਚੁਕ ੱ ੇ ਿਗੱਲ ਆਪਣੀ ਜੀਵਨੀ 'ਕੇ. ਪੀ. ਐਸ. ਿਗੱਲ : ਦ ਪੈਰਾਮਾਊਂਟ ਕਾਪ| ਦੀ ਲਾਿਚੰਗ ਮੌਕੇ ਬੋਲ ਰਹੇ ਸਨ| ਿਕਤਾਬ ਿਵਚ ਿਗੱਲ ਨੇ ਮੋਦੀ ਦੀ ਤਰੀਫ ਕਰਦੇ ਹੋਏ ਿਕਹਾ ਹੈ ਿਕ ਗੁਜਰਾਤ ਦੇ ਮੁਖ ੱ ਮੰਤਰੀ ਿਹੰਸਾ ਖਤਮ ਕਰਨ ਲਈ ਗੰਭੀਰ ਸਨ| ਪਰ ਦੂਜੇ ਦਲਾਂ ਨੇ ਮੋਦੀ ਨੂੰ ਬਦਨਾਮ ਕਰਨ ਦਾ ਦੋਸ਼ ਲਾਇਆ ਹੈ| ਿਗੱਲ ਨੇ ਿਕਹਾ ਿਕ ਦੇਸ਼ ਅੱਜ ਵੀ ਦੰਿਗਆਂ ਦਾ ਦੁਖ ਝੱਲਣ ਲਈ ਮਜਬੂਰ ਹੈ| ਸਾਰੀਆਂ ਪਾਰਟੀਆਂ ਇਕ ਹੀ ਲਕੀਰ 'ਤੇ ਚਲ ਰਹੀਆਂ ਹਨ| ਿਸਰਫ ਿਗਣੇ-ਚੁਣੇ ਨੇਤਾਵਾਂ 'ਤੇ ਹੀ ਦੇਸ਼ ਨੂੰ ਿਵਕਾਸ ਦੀ ਰਾਹ 'ਤੇ ਲੈਣ ਜਾਣ ਦਾ ਭਰੋਸਾ ਕੀਤਾ ਜਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਹੈ| ਦੰਿਗਆ ਦੌਰਾਨ ਮੋਦੀ ਨਾਲ ਪਿਹਲੀ ਮੁਲਾਕਾਤ ਦਾ ਿਜ਼ਕਰ ਕਰਦੇ ਹੋਏ ਿਗੱਲ ਨੇ ਿਕਹਾ ਿਕ ਮੋਦੀ ਨੇ ਉਨ�ਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਿਕਹਾ ਸੀ ਿਕ ਕਾਫੀ ਕੋਿਸ਼ਸਾਂ ਤੋਂ ਬਾਅਦ ਵੀ ਉਹ ਦੰਗੇ ਰੋਕਣ ਿਵਚ ਨਾਕਾਮ ਰਹੇ| ਉਨ�ਾਂ ਨੇ ਇਸ ਦਾ ਕਾਰਣ ਦੱਸਦੇ ਹੋਏ ਿਕਹਾ ਿਕ ਉਨ�ਾਂ ਨੇ ਗੁਆਂਢੀ ਸੂਿਬਆਂ ਤੋਂ ਪੁਲਸ ਫੋਰਸ ਮੰਗੀ ਸੀ ਪਰ ਉਨ�ਾਂ ਨੇ ਦੇਣ ਤੋਂ ਇਨਕਾਰ ਕਰ ਿਦੱਤਾ| ਿਜ਼ਕਰਯੋਗ ਹੈ ਿਕ ਗੁਜਰਾਤ ਦੰਿਗਆਂ ਦੀ ਜਾਂਚ ਸੁਪਰੀਮ ਕੋਰਟ ਦੀ ਿਨਗਰਾਨੀ ਵਿਚ ਿਵਸ਼ੇਸ਼ ਜਾਂਚ ਦਲ ਪੂਰੇ ਮਾਮਲੇ ਦੀ ਜਾਂਚ ਕਰ ਿਰਹਾ ਹੈ| ਮੋਦੀ ਦੀ ਦੰਿਗਆਂ ਿਵਚ ਭੂਿਮਕਾ 'ਤੇ ਅਜੇ ਸੁਪਰੀਮ ਕੋਰਟ ਦਾ ਫੈਸਲਾ ਆਉਣਾ ਬਾਕੀ ਹੈ| ਨਵੀਂ ਿਦੱਲੀ- ਪੰਜਾਬ ਦੇ ਸਾਬਕਾ ਪੁਲਸ ਡੀ. ਜੀ. ਪੀ. ਅਤੇ ਗੁਜਰਾਤ ਦੰਿਗਆਂ ਦੇ ਸਮੇਂ ਮੋਦੀ ਦੇ ਸਲਾਹਕਾਰ ਕੇ. ਪੀ. ਐਸ. ਿਗੱਲ ਨੇ ਿਕਹਾ ਿਕ ਦੰਿਗਆਂ ਲਈ ਮੁਖ ੱ ਮੰਤਰੀ ਨਿਰੰਦਰ ਮੋਦੀ ਨੂੰ ਿਜ਼ੰਮਵ ੇ ਾਰ ਨਹੀਂ ਠਿਹਰਾਇਆ ਜਾ ਸਕਦਾ ਹੈ| ਿਗੱਲ ਨੇ ਿਕਹਾ ਿਕ ਗੁਜਰਾਤ ਿਵਚ ਕਾਨੂਨ ੰ ਿਵਵਸਥਾ ਦੀ ਸਿਥਤੀ ਨਾਲ ਨਿਜੱਠਣਾ ਪੁਲਸ ਦਾ ਕੰਮ ਹੈ| ਸਾਲ 2002 'ਚ ਮੋਦੀ ਦੇ ਸੁਰਿੱ ਖਆ ਸਲਾਹਕਾਰ ਰਿਹ ਚੁਕ ੱ ੇ ਿਗੱਲ ਆਪਣੀ ਜੀਵਨੀ 'ਕੇ. ਪੀ. ਐਸ. ਿਗੱਲ : ਦ ਪੈਰਾਮਾਊਂਟ ਕਾਪ| ਦੀ ਲਾਿਚੰਗ ਮੌਕੇ ਬੋਲ ਰਹੇ ਸਨ| ਿਕਤਾਬ ਿਵਚ ਿਗੱਲ ਨੇ ਮੋਦੀ ਦੀ ਤਰੀਫ ਕਰਦੇ ਹੋਏ ਿਕਹਾ ਹੈ ਿਕ ਗੁਜਰਾਤ ਦੇ ਮੁਖ ੱ ਮੰਤਰੀ ਿਹੰਸਾ ਖਤਮ ਕਰਨ ਲਈ ਗੰਭੀਰ ਸਨ|

ਨਵੀਂ ਿਦੱਲੀ- ਪੰਜਾਬ ਦੇ ਸਾਬਕਾ ਪੁਲਸ ਡੀ. ਜੀ. ਪੀ. ਅਤੇ ਗੁਜਰਾਤ ਦੰਿਗਆਂ ਦੇ ਸਮੇਂ ਮੋਦੀ ਦੇ ਸਲਾਹਕਾਰ ਕੇ. ਪੀ. ਐਸ. ਿਗੱਲ ਨੇ ਿਕਹਾ ਿਕ ਦੰਿਗਆਂ ਲਈ ਮੁਖ ੱ ਮੰਤਰੀ ਨਿਰੰਦਰ ਮੋਦੀ ਨੂੰ ਿਜ਼ੰਮਵ ੇ ਾਰ ਨਹੀਂ ਠਿਹਰਾਇਆ ਜਾ ਸਕਦਾ ਹੈ| ਿਗੱਲ ਨੇ ਿਕਹਾ ਿਕ ਗੁਜਰਾਤ ਿਵਚ ਕਾਨੂਨ ੰ ਿਵਵਸਥਾ ਦੀ ਸਿਥਤੀ ਨਾਲ ਨਿਜੱਠਣਾ ਪੁਲਸ ਦਾ ਕੰਮ ਹੈ| ਸਾਲ 2002 'ਚ ਮੋਦੀ ਦੇ ਸੁਰਿੱ ਖਆ ਸਲਾਹਕਾਰ ਰਿਹ ਚੁਕ ੱ ੇ ਿਗੱਲ ਆਪਣੀ ਜੀਵਨੀ 'ਕੇ. ਪੀ. ਐਸ. ਿਗੱਲ : ਦ ਪੈਰਾਮਾਊਂਟ ਕਾਪ| ਦੀ ਲਾਿਚੰਗ ਮੌਕੇ ਬੋਲ ਰਹੇ ਸਨ| ਿਕਤਾਬ ਿਵਚ ਿਗੱਲ ਨੇ ਮੋਦੀ ਦੀ ਤਰੀਫ ਕਰਦੇ ਹੋਏ ਿਕਹਾ ਹੈ ਿਕ ਗੁਜਰਾਤ ਦੇ ਮੁਖ ੱ ਮੰਤਰੀ ਿਹੰਸਾ ਖਤਮ ਕਰਨ ਲਈ ਗੰਭੀਰ ਸਨ|

ਪਰ ਦੂਜੇ ਦਲਾਂ ਨੇ ਮੋਦੀ ਨੂੰ ਬਦਨਾਮ ਕਰਨ ਦਾ ਦੋਸ਼ ਲਾਇਆ ਹੈ| ਿਗੱਲ ਨੇ ਿਕਹਾ ਿਕ ਦੇਸ਼ ਅੱਜ ਵੀ ਦੰਿਗਆਂ ਦਾ ਦੁਖ ਝੱਲਣ ਲਈ ਮਜਬੂਰ ਹੈ| ਸਾਰੀਆਂ ਪਾਰਟੀਆਂ ਇਕ ਹੀ ਲਕੀਰ 'ਤੇ ਚਲ ਰਹੀਆਂ ਹਨ| ਿਸਰਫ ਿਗਣੇ-ਚੁਣੇ ਨੇਤਾਵਾਂ 'ਤੇ ਹੀ ਦੇਸ਼ ਨੂੰ ਿਵਕਾਸ ਦੀ ਰਾਹ 'ਤੇ ਲੈਣ ਜਾਣ ਦਾ ਭਰੋਸਾ ਕੀਤਾ ਜਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਹੈ| ਦੰਿਗਆ ਦੌਰਾਨ ਮੋਦੀ ਨਾਲ ਪਿਹਲੀ ਮੁਲਾਕਾਤ ਦਾ ਿਜ਼ਕਰ ਕਰਦੇ ਹੋਏ ਿਗੱਲ ਨੇ ਿਕਹਾ ਿਕ ਮੋਦੀ ਨੇ ਉਨ�ਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਿਕਹਾ ਸੀ ਿਕ ਕਾਫੀ ਕੋਿਸ਼ਸਾਂ ਤੋਂ ਬਾਅਦ ਵੀ ਉਹ ਦੰਗੇ ਰੋਕਣ ਿਵਚ ਨਾਕਾਮ ਰਹੇ| ਉਨ�ਾਂ ਨੇ ਇਸ ਦਾ ਕਾਰਣ ਦੱਸਦੇ ਹੋਏ ਿਕਹਾ ਿਕ ਉਨ�ਾਂ ਨੇ ਗੁਆਂਢੀ ਸੂਿਬਆਂ ਤੋਂ ਪੁਲਸ ਫੋਰਸ ਮੰਗੀ ਸੀ ਪਰ ਉਨ�ਾਂ ਨੇ ਦੇਣ ਤੋਂ ਇਨਕਾਰ ਕਰ ਿਦੱਤਾ|

ਦੀ ਸਿਥਤੀ ਨਾਲ ਨਿਜੱਠਣਾ ਪੁਲਸ ਦਾ ਕੰਮ ਹੈ| ਸਾਲ 2002

ਿਜ਼ਕਰਯੋਗ ਹੈ ਿਕ ਗੁਜਰਾਤ ਦੰਿਗਆਂ ਦੀ ਜਾਂਚ ਸੁਪਰੀਮ ਕੋਰਟ ਦੀ ਿਨਗਰਾਨੀ ਵਿਚ ਿਵਸ਼ੇਸ਼ ਜਾਂਚ ਦਲ ਪੂਰੇ ਮਾਮਲੇ ਦੀ ਜਾਂਚ ਕਰ ਿਰਹਾ ਹੈ| ਮੋਦੀ ਦੀ ਦੰਿਗਆਂ ਿਵਚ ਭੂਿਮਕਾ 'ਤੇ ਅਜੇ ਸੁਪਰੀਮ ਕੋਰਟ ਦਾ ਫੈਸਲਾ ਆਉਣਾ ਬਾਕੀ ਹੈ| ਨਵੀਂ ਿਦੱਲੀ- ਪੰਜਾਬ ਦੇ ਸਾਬਕਾ ਪੁਲਸ ਡੀ. ਜੀ. ਪੀ. ਅਤੇ ਗੁਜਰਾਤ ਦੰਿਗਆਂ ਦੇ ਸਮੇਂ ਮੋਦੀ ਦੇ ਸਲਾਹਕਾਰ ਕੇ. ਪੀ. ਐਸ. ਿਗੱਲ ਨੇ ਿਕਹਾ ਿਕ ਦੰਿਗਆਂ ਲਈ ਮੁਖ ੱ ਮੰਤਰੀ ਨਿਰੰਦਰ ਮੋਦੀ ਨੂੰ ਿਜ਼ੰਮਵ ੇ ਾਰ ਨਹੀਂ ਠਿਹਰਾਇਆ ਜਾ ਸਕਦਾ ਹੈ| ਿਗੱਲ ਨੇ ਿਕਹਾ ਿਕ ਗੁਜਰਾਤ ਿਵਚ ਕਾਨੂਨ ੰ ਿਵਵਸਥਾ


Above-base form of consonants - A variant form of a consonant that appears above the base glyph. Abugida - An abugida also called an alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary. This contrasts with a full alphabet, in which vowels have status equal to consonants, and with an abjad, in which vowel marking is absent or optional. (In less formal contexts, all three types of script may commonly be termed as alphabets.) Abugidas include the extensive Brahmic family of scripts of South and Southeast Asia. Akhand system - The akhand system uses as few components as possible to create the desired full character, resulting in a larger character set. Components (base characters and vowel signs) over hang their body to achieve improved kerning, The nature of this design, and the fragility of overhangs caused the components to be broken. Base glyph - The only consonant or consonant conjunct in the orthographic syllable that is written in its "full" (nominal) form. In Gurmukhi, the last consonant of the syllable usually forms the base glyph. In "degenerate" syllables that have no vowel (last letter of a word), the last consonant in halant form serves as the base consonant and is mapped as the base glyph. Layout operations are defined in terms of a base glyph, not a base character, since the base can often be a ligature. Below-base form of consonants - A variant form of a consonant that appears below the base glyph. In the glyph sequence, the below-base form comes after the consonant(s) that form the base glyph. Below-base forms are represented by a non-spacing mark glyph. Consonant - Each represents a single consonant sound. Consonants may exist in different contextual forms and have an inherent vowel (usually, the short vowel "a"). For example, "Ka" and "Ta", rather than just "K" or "T."


Consonant conjuncts (aka "conjuncts") Ligatures of two or more consonants. Consonant conjuncts may have both full and half forms, or only full forms. Degree system - A kind of type-setting system in which the character ‘is assembled in three steps’. The character is divided into a total of four ems50: one em for the superior and subscript diacritics and two ems for the base character, or in instances where a subscript character is not necessary, a three em base character can be used to create the required total of four ems. Em - An em in metal type refers to the height of the metal body. Gurmukhi syllable - Effective orthographic "unit" of Gurmukhi writing systems. Syllables are composed of consonant letters, independent vowels, and dependant vowels. In a text sequence, these characters are stored in phonetic order (although they may not be represented in phonetic order when displayed). Once a syllable is shaped, it is indivisible. The cursor cannot be positioned within the syllable. Transformations discussed in this document do not cross syllable boundaries. Halant (Virama) - The character used after a consonant to "strip" it of it's inherent vowel. A Halant follows all but the last consonant in every Gurmukhi syllable. Halant form of consonants - The form produced by adding the halant (virama) to the nominal shape. The Halant form is used in syllables that have no vowel or as the half form when no distinct shape for the half form exists. Interpolation - The generation of weights for the same typeface, to generate a type-family is known as interpolation. Type designers are often inclined to establish intermediate weights by drawing, as it were, a straight line between the boldest and lightest versions of a family and then choose the intermediate weights somewhere along that graph.


Kerning - In typography, kerning (less commonly mortising) is the process of adjusting the spacing between characters in a proportional font, usually to achieve a visually pleasing result. Kerning adjusts the space between individual letter forms, while tracking (letter-spacing) adjusts spacing uniformly over a range of characters. Leading - In typography, leading refers to the distance between the baselines of successive lines of type. The term originated in the days of hand-typesetting, when thin strips of lead were inserted into the forms to increase the vertical distance between lines of type. The term is still used in modern page layout software such as QuarkXPress and Adobe InDesign. In consumer-oriented word processing software, this concept is usually referred to as "line spacing" or "interline spacing." Matra (Dependent Vowel) - Used to represent a vowel sound that is not inherent to the consonant. Dependent vowels are referred to as "matras" in Sanskrit. They are always depicted in combination with a single consonant, or with a consonant cluster. The greatest variation among different Indian scripts is found in the rules for attaching dependent vowels to base characters. Monolinear - (of a typeface) Having vertical and horizontal strokes of the same visual weight; (comparative more monolinear, superlative most monolinear). Nukta - A combining character that alters the way a preceding consonant (or matra) is pronounced. OpenType - OpenType is a format for scalable computer fonts. It was built on its predecessor TrueType, retaining TrueType's basic structure and adding many intricate data structures for prescribing typographic behavior. OpenType is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

glyph plus a halant (virama). Post-base forms are usually spacing glyphs. PostScript - PostScript (PS) is a computer language for creating vector graphics. It is a dynamically typed, concatenative programming language and was created by John Warnock, Charles Geschke, Doug Brotz, Ed Taft and Bill Paxton in 1982. It is best known for its use as a page description language in the electronic and desktop publishing areas. Split Matra - A matra that is decomposed into pieces for rendering. Usually the different pieces appear in different positions relative to the base. For instance, part of the matra may be placed at the beginning of the cluster and another part at the end of the cluster. Syllable - A single unit of Indic text processing. Shaping of Indic text is performed independently for each syllable. Process of identifying boundaries of each syllable is described below. Typesetting - Typesetting requires the prior process of designing a font and storing it in some manner. Typesetting is the retrieval of the stored letters (called sorts in mechanical systems and glyphs in digital systems) and the ordering of them according to a language's orthography for visual display. Unicode - Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. Developed in conjunction with the Universal Character Set standard and published in book form as The Unicode Standard, the latest version of Unicode contains a repertoire of more than 110,000 characters covering 100 scripts. Vattu - A below-base form of a consonant.

Post-base form of consonants - A variant form of a consonant that appears to the right of the base glyph. A consonant that takes a post-base form is preceded by the consonant(s) forming the base



Books and Monographs 1. A comparative study of the development of the Gurmukhi script: from handwritten manuscript to the digital typeface. Article by Emma Williams. 2. William Addison Dwiggins, WAD to RR: a letter about designing type. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard College Library, 1940. 3. Jost Hochuli, Detail in typography, London, Hyphen Press, 2008. 4. Robin Kinross, Modern typography, 2nd ed., London, Hyphen Press, 2005. 5. Gerritt Noordzij, The stroke: theory of writing of the pen, London, Hyphen Press, 2005. 6. Fred Smeijers, Counterpunch: making type in the sixteenth century; designing typefaces now, London, Hyphen Press, 1996.

Magazines and Journals 1. Issues of Typography Papers, the journal edited by the Department of Typography (and now published by Hyphen Press. The level of writing and editing, as well as the objects themselves, are generally exemplary. (See, for example, the ‘type rich’ issue 7) 2. Visible Language - One of the most important for typeface design was 19.1 (1985) with the title The computer and the hand in type design, which is still available. That issue included Matthew Carter’s ‘Galliard: a modern revival of the types of Robert Granjon’ (pp 77–97) and Jack Stauffacher’s ‘The Transylvanian Phoenix: the Kis-Janson types in the digital era’ (pp 61–76).

7. Walter Tracy, Letters of credit: a view of type design, London, Gordon Fraser, 1986

3. Quarterly Eye magazine occasionally publishes relevant articles. Typography Special’ issues are particularly relevant. Eye manages to be British in its approach, and international in its scope and response.

8. Michael Twyman, The British Library guide to printing: history and techniques, London, British Library, 1998

4. Some articles are available to read online, such as Emily King’s Digital type decade (vol 10, no 40, 2001, pp 40–47 | full text, no images).

9. Gerrit Noordzij’s The Stroke, theory of writing.

5. Codex magazine has only published one issue. It offers a very promising middle ground between Typography Papers and titles that are more graphic design orientated. The publisher (John Boardley) has struck a good balance between longer articles and lighter entries.

Anthologies 1. Steven Heller & Philip B Meggs (eds), Texts on type: critical writings on typography, New York, Alworth Press, 2001. 2. Rosemary Sassoon (ed.), Computers and


typography. Oxford, Intellect, 1993 and Computers and typography 2, Bristol, Intellect, 2002.




1. Eye blog - Type Tuesdays (also other categories; explore the online archive or posts and articles).

The design of a bilingual dictionary. ISType conference, Istanbul, 30 mins on Vimeo ; and a better capture in ALUO Design Talks, Ljubljana on YouTube

2. James Mosley’s Typefoundry is the definitive example of online writing on type history. 3. Mark Jamra’s Type Culture includes a lot of good student work. 4. Edited blogs such as John Boardley’s I Love Typography and Stephen Coles’ Typographica. On ILT - the ‘Type history’ series, and the designer interviews; start with Sebastian Lester’s. 5. Peter Bil’ak and Johanna Bil’ak-Balusíková’s Typotheque article’s section makes available many relevant articles.

“It’s typography, Jim, but not as we know it…” Od Ala Ma Kota do E matury, Warsaw. 16 mins on YouTube 2010 Excerpt from interview to Mike Harkins: the origin of “adhesion” as a design tool: on Vimeo; transcript here: http://leonidas.org/matd-resources/somevideos-on-typeface-design/the-origin-of-adhesion/

Online Articles 1. Ladislas Mandel, Developing an awareness of typographic letterforms. Electronic Publishing, vol 6, no 1, 1993, (pp 3–22). Some Videos on Type Design and Typography 2013 Interview at ALUO Design Talks, Ljubljana, on YouTube This is the New Typography (and the typefaces that make it work). TypoLondon 2012; captured in ALUO Design Talks, Ljubljana on YouTube



My sincere gratitude to the following people and institutions. Pria Adireddi Ramesh Kalkur Ajai Narendran Smriti Mehra Binu Bhaskaran Kruti Saraiya Srishti School of Art, Design and Technology for the academic guidance. Jasdeep Singh Arvinder Singh Kang, for translations. Kolor Kode for printing assistance. Aman Randhawa Sibya Rosalyn and whoever gave me feedback and suggestions on this project. Our seniors for 'Dip Not Drown'. My parents, for their constant support and encouragement.



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