NNF annual report 2015/16

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Created and designed by Steven Payne using Adobe InDesign

Contents About our organisation 4

Chairman’s Report 5 Board Members 6 A word from Angus Middleton 8 Our business strategy 10 Natural Ecosystems and Biodiversity


Albatross Task Force (ATF) 12 Namibian Dolphin Project 15 Kavango East Small Mammal Pilot Surveys 16 Large Carnivore Management Association of Namibia (LCMAN) 18 NestBox’s with Dr. Mark Stanback, Dept. of Biology at Davidson College USA 20 Mountain Zebra 22 Namibian Islands Marine Protected Area (NIMPA) - African Penguins 24 Development of an Inventory of Ecosystem Services in Namibia –MET/GIZ 26 Vultures Namibia 28 Kwando Carnivore Project (KCP) 30 NamPower/Namibia Nature Foundation Strategic Partnership 34 Namibia National Parks Programme – Phase 3 (NamParks III) 36 Rare and Endangered Species Trust (REST) 38 Publication - Birds to Watch in Namibia: Red, Rare and Endemic Species 40 Publication - Conservation and the Environment in Namibia 41

Social Ecosystems 42 Feasibility Study: Expansion Katima Mulilo Campus, University of Namibia 42 Integrated Planning in Community Forests 43 Global Giving – Crowd Funding support for Rhino Ranagers 44 Institutional and Governance Capacity Building for Community Based Natural Resource Management 46 WWF Joint Venture Support 48

Productive land and seascapes 50 Publication - Strengthening the Human Dimension of an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management in the BCC Region – Final Report 50 Hunting for Opportunities: Promoting Business and Employment for Communal Conservancies 51 Community Conservation Fisheries In KAZA Project 52 Assessment of the Economics of Land Degradation related to Bush Encroachment in Namibia – GIZ/MAWF 54 Kavango Indigenous Natural Product (INP) - Devil’s Claw 56 Conservation Agriculture (CA) 58 Bio Trade - Indigenous Natural Products (INP) 60

Global Environmental Issues 62 Baseline Assessment of Economic Instruments for Biodiversity Conservation in Namibia –MET/ ResMob/GIZ/Linkd 62

Corporate Sponsorship Diamond Sponsors 2015/16 Gold Sponsors 2015/16 65 Corporate Sponsors 2014/15

64 65

Financial Statements 68



About our organisation Namibia’s Leading Sustainable Development Organisation. Growing Namibia, Naturally. CC Photo by Aftab Uzzaman

The Namibia Nature Foundation (NNF) is Namibia’s leading, conservation and sustainable development, non-governmental organisation (NGO), contributing to a wide range of programmes through our core technical specialisms and expertise in financial and project management.

Department of Nature Conservation to raise and administer funds for the conservation of wildlife and protected area management. Since then, the work of the NNF has expanded, in both scope and volume, to encompass the whole field of environment.

The NNF has evolved into a national institution that works with partners at all levels and provides support to all relevant aspects of the environment in Namibia, to sustainable development and to wise and ethical natural resource management.

“The NNF promotes sustainable development, the conservation of biological diversity and natural ecosystems, and the wise and ethical use of natural resources for the benefit of all Namibian’s both present and future” The NNF envisages a sustainable Namibia both in terms of its people and the land upon which it develops. We value working together, a job well done, the worth of the individual, a good conversation, trust – given and received, respect, enjoyment/fulfilment and the wonders of nature.

The NNF fully endorses the environmental clauses in Namibia’s national Constitution and works to implement the policies and programmes that are contained in, and have evolved from, Namibia’s Green Plan. While considerable emphasis is still placed on the protection of parks and endangered species, the current focus of work is The NNF was founded in 1987. It was on broad sustainable development: initially established to help the (then) people, development and nature.

The NNF actively participates in key local, regional, national and global initiatives to implement environmental and sustainability solutions primarily within Namibia but also beyond our borders. We are also members of the world’s largest conservation body, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN).


Chairman’s Report The Namibia Nature Foundation (NNF) has gone through a protracted period of change, driven by a number of events and circumstances. However, the green shoots of revival are growing and the NNF is moving in the right direction. There remains a lot more work to be done and the Board and Management team together with the staff of the organisation and our key partners have worked to put the NNF on a good footing. Whilst some key staff moved on to other challenges, the NNF has managed to attract new talent into the organisation and this coupled with improved project acquisition and management together with better financial management resulted in a return to posting an annual surplus. The outlook for 2017-2018 is positive as the NNF continues to adapt to the changing donor and financing environment, mainly through professionalising our work. In this regard, the NNF is again becoming the partner of choice for conservation and sustainable development across a widening range of areas. Notwithstanding this, the Board and Management anticipate a constrained financing environment that will require diligent budgeting and financial management. I would like to thank all our partners in government, the private sector, academic institutions, NGOs, communities, donors and the media, within Namibia, in neighbouring countries and overseas, for the support they have given the NNF. This has in many cases been critical in affording the NNF the opportunity to restructure and revitalise. I would like to extend my own and the Board’s thanks and congratulations to all the staff members of the NNF for their commitment and hard work over the past year, and for their achievements that help make the NNF such a respected conservation and sustainable development organisation in Namibia and the Southern African region. I would like to thank all my fellow Trustees for their hard work during the year and their support. Trustees provide their time and expertise on an honorary basis, they are all dedicated people who strongly support sustainable development and who want to make a difference in Namibia to ensure that the nation’s children and grandchildren inherit this country in as good or in a better condition than we did.

The NNF is again becoming the partner of choice for conservation and sustainable development across a widening range of areas

Dr R. Miller, Chairman

Board Members

The NNF Board is the body that guides our organization forward, they have a basic legal responsibility to exercise reasonable business judgment and do what is in the best interests of our organization. This responsibility requires our board members to put aside their personal interests and opinions when performing board duties and participating in decisionmaking. In addition our board members consider the impact of their decisions on the interests of other parties, including our donors, beneficiaries and employees. The NNF has been extremely fortunate to have been served, over the years, by a set of truly outstanding Board Members who have voluntarily shared their experience and helped guide us along the way. They have come from varied backgrounds and contributed in different ways but have all been united in their passion for serving a good cause. The success stories celebrated in this Annual Report are also very much their success stories and for us they are our conservation heroes.

Current: Mr. M. Bottger, H. E. Hanno Rumpf, Dr C. J. Brown, Mr A. Corbett, Dr S. Heita, Dr P. Lindeque, Mr A. G. Middleton (Director), Dr R. Miller (Chair), Mr R Niddrie (Treasurer), Dr H. J. Orford, Ms. L. Shikongo (Vice Chair). Retired: Andrew Corbet

NNF Staff

The NNF is driven by passion and we are lucky to have been and continue to be served by some of the most dedicated and passionate people. Some stay on for longer others move on to other opportunities, some come back, all achieve. We are a conservation team that believe in people and are united in a love of Namibia and a Love of Nature.

The NNF team at their strategic workshop. Hosted by B2Gold in April 2016.


“Our greatest asset, and key to our success, is our people. We believe that each of us needs a sense of dignity, pride and satisfaction in what we do.� Angus Middleton Executive Director

Angus Middleton has over 15 years of senior management experience and organisational leadership in Africa and Europe. He brings together a relevant mix of knowledge and technical experience in, environmental economics; ecological resource management; agricultural management and biodiversity policies. At the NNF he provides overall leadership for the organisation and also works directly on a number of projects, particularly in the field of environmental economics. He holds an MSc in Environmental Economics and Policy from Imperial College London and a BSc in Ecological Resource Management from Newcastle University. He has a great passion for the outdoors, a particular interest in raptors and a love of fresh-water angling.

Britta Hackenberg Head of Projects

Britta Hackenberg is the NNF Head of Projects, she holds a Master of Science in Sustainable Forestry and Land Management and a number of certificates in various aspects of participatory planning and appraisals. Her specific experience includes technical advisory skills in CBNRM, land-use planning and community forest; land rights and tenure systems; developing Forest Management Plans. Britta has extensive project management experience in the field of land management, community-based natural resource management, marine and freshwater fisheries and ecosystem services. Britta is also a member of the Sustainable Land Management Committee coordinated by the Ministry of Environment and Tourism.

Edla Kaveru Head of Finance

Edla Kaveru as the Head of Finance has the responsibility for upholding strong financial management and accountability while providing timely, accurate, and reliable financial information and enhancing internal controls at the Namibia Nature Foundation. She has over 18 years of financial management, business administration and human resource management experience of which 16 years has been at senior management level. She has served in a wide variety of senior financial positions in Namibia’s development sector through her experience with the World Bank, Millennium Challenge Corporation and other international donor organisations. She holds a B.com degree from the University of Namibia and an MBA degree from Regent University (South Africa); in addition she has undergone the Management Development Program through MAST Namibia. She has a passion for the development sector in Namibia in general and a special interest in the improvement of livelihoods of rural Namibians through women empowerment.


A word from Angus Middleton

Since our last annual report in 2012, a huge amount of work has been invested in realigning the Namibia Nature Foundation to meet our contemporary challenges and put us in a strong position to leverage future opportunities. Namibia has been reclassified as an upper middle income country, despite an exceedingly high rate of inequality, widespread poverty, and a deteriorating economic outlook. This has resulted in a drop off in donations and official development assistance. The Namibian Government is obliged to deliver basic services and support economic growth and job creation, but with limited resources available, this often comes at the expense of environmental issues. At the same time, donor support is becoming increasingly metric to meet greater transparency and reporting requirements of concerned taxpayers which, in general, creates more project interventions at the expense of programmatic approaches. The reduced flexibility for funding also leaves limited room to cover issues of broader concern and increased professionalisation can dampen the passion that attracts the best people, generates great ideas, and drives us forward. However, no challenge is insurmountable and this report highlights some of our recent achievements and outlines some of our ambitions for the future, as we prepare to celebrate our 30th anniversary in 2017. Over the years, one thing has remained constant: the NNF is a product of its people and, personally, I have been extremely fortunate to work with passionate, professional people who regularly go above and beyond the call of duty. As a team, we have benefited from having a highly skilled and engaged Board of Trustees who share our passion. The best journeys are a shared experience and the NNF is fortunate in having a wide range of constructive and supportive partners, most of whom are recognised in this report.

Together, we not only continue to deliver conservation outcomes for sustainable development, but also achieve something bigger than all of us as individuals, united in a love of Nature and a love of Namibia.


Summary of the year ending February 2016 Following an expansion in NNF managed projects in 2015, driven largely by the successful applications for 11 Civil Society Grants mainly in the CBNRM field, much of our work was realigned to refocus on our core CBNRM areas of Erongo/Southern Kunene, Kavango East and West and Zambezi. The work in Erongo and Southern Kunene focused on supporting 12 conservancies through a variety of interventions from various funding sources, including the EU/CSFN WWF, NACSO, B2Gold and the Finnish Embassy. Our work in Kavango is focused on protected area management in Khaudum National Park within the NamparksIII project (MET/KfW funding), support to Conservancies and Community Forests particularly on indigenous natural product harvesting (SAREP, GIZ and EU/CSFN funding), and

Conservation Agriculture (EU funding). Our large EU funded fisheries project continues to operate in Kavango and Zambezi as well as Botswana and Zambia. We had a major success in having two Fish Protection Areas gazetted by the Minister of Fisheries and Marine Resources at the end of 2015 and a harmonised blanket ban on fishing with Zambia at the start of 2016. In terms of Natural Ecosystems and Biodiversity, the Albatross Task Force (funded by BirdlLife International and RSBP) had a great year, with the Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources finally adopting Regulations, with the support of industry, mandating the use of bird-scaring devices (Tori lines) in the demersal fishing sector. Other Natural Ecosystems and Biodiversity highlights were the 20th anniversary of The Large Carnivore Management Association of Namibia.

Namibian Road. CC Photo by Ben Haeringer

The best journeys are a shared experience and the NNF is fortunate in having a wide range of constructive and supportive partners, most of whom are recognised in this report.

Other projects which were supported through the NNF include the African Penguin Project (Jessica Kemper), Namibian Dolphin Project, support to Rhino Conservation (WWF/MET), Cavity Nesting Research (Dr Mark Stanback), Mountain Zebra (Dr Morris Gosling), Kwando Carnivore (Lise Hansen), the Rare and Endangered Species Trust (Maria Diekmann), NamPower (Mike & Ann Scott) and Vultures Namibia (Peter Bridgeford). NNF Has also continued to provide financial management services to a wide range of other projects and initiatives across the sustainable development sector to both state and non-state actors. Our consultancy work grew in importance over the course of 2015/16 which reflects the move by the NNF to adapt to the changing funding climate in which services are tendered out in support of bilateral projects. This has been an important source of revenue but has also opened doors, given NNF access to wider network and built up institutional capacity. Our consultancies covered environmental economics, feasibility studies, and support to protected areas and conservancies. Our main clients included GIZ (with MET and MAWF), KfW (with MET and UNAM), UNESCO, WWF and NACSO/B2Gold.


Our business strategy The NNF promotes sustainable development, the conservation of biological diversity and natural ecosystems, and the wise and ethical use of natural resources for the benefit of all Namibian’s both present and future.

Mandates: The NNF actively participates in key local, regional, national and global processes and contributes to environmental and sustainability solutions primarily within Namibia but also beyond our borders. To be able to perform our work in a coherent and impactful way the Board empowers the Executive Director and Senior Management team to work under the key mandates which are grouped as thematic areas of work, types of intervention, mainstreaming issues and a very important set of enablers.

Thematic Areas of Work

Namibia are inherently related to and affected by global environmental issues and policies. In this regard we have grouped our work into 4 core themes as follows; Social ecosystems - The NNF aims to fully support the implementation and evolution of the national CBNRM Programme whilst also mobilising resources to build up alliances and partnerships to foster a more integrated approach to sustainable urban living). Natural ecosystems and biodiversity - The NNF aims to continue supporting species research and conservation, whilst also placing this work within a broader context of biodiversity, ecosystems and their services.

Our work is organised into four core thematic areas which provide the main building blocks of NNF’s work. Our core thematic areas Vision: “An equitable, informed society are reflective of our philosophy that the concept of nature is a human conliving in harmony with nature and struct and that all society depends on the environment. In this regard and sustained, physically and mentally, by in line with Namibia’s constitution the natural richness of our environment” and general nature conservation policies we promote an anthropocentric approach to conservation. These social ecosystems are underpinned by a strong and vibrant Productive land and seascapes - The NNF aims to pronatural ecosystems and biodiversity through which an mote integrated planning and development to secure and informed society develop and maintain productive land enhance the ability of our land and seascapes to remain and seascapes. But we also recognise that our actions in materially and intrinsically productive.


CC Photo by Massmo Relsig

Global environmental issues and policies - The NNF aims to consistently promote and uphold conservation and sustainable development in line with our overall mission to promote sustainable development, the conservation of biological diversity and natural ecosystems, and the wise and ethical use of natural resources for the benefit of all Namibian’s both present and future.

Our Interventions The NNF employs a number of interventions aimed at fulfilling our Mission, these are carried out directly or more often in collaboration and must be in line with our mandate. Our interventions encompass the following areas (see diagram to the right).

Managing our Risks We recognise that we are entrusted with investing public and private finances into conservation and have an enhanced duty to ensure that these investments

are secure and wisely managed. We also recognise that there are communities and ecosystems and biodiversity with differing vulnerabilities that rely on our interventions. Finally we recognise that the NNF is a product of its people and our partners who face risks in their day to day work.

All of these aspects require that we identify and manage our risks to ensure that we pragmatically minimise risk to our employees, our partners and ultimately the environment that we strive to conserve.


Natural Ecosystems and Biodiversity

Photo by Bruno Nepomuceno

Natural Ecosystems and the biodiversity that they hold are the basis of life, and the NNF works directly to address nature conservation issues in relation to ecosystems and biodiversity. Given the inherent complexity and scale of ecosystems and biodiversity, we place significant emphasis on empowering passionate individuals to research and understand species and their role within the wider ecosystems. We also seek to enhance our understanding of ecosystems and their services to better manage for productive land and seascapes that feed into our social ecosystems. Albatross Task Force (ATF) Albatrosses are one of the most threatened groups of birds in the world. Every year, an estimated 100,000 albatrosses are incidentally killed on longline fishing hooks and trawl cables. In the past, up to 30,000 birds per year were killed in Namibia alone. Fishery mortality is the main driver of albatross population declines, and 15 of the 22 species of albatross are threatened with extinction. The problematic link between fisheries and seabird mortality is that the seabirds have learnt that they can catch a quick meal from the baited hooks when they are deployed during setting operations on longline vessels, but often become hooked themselves and drown. These very special birds can live up to 60 years, mate for life and start reproducing at the relatively late age of 5-10 years. An albatross couple produces only one egg, which is incubated for up to three months, one of the longest incubation periods of any bird. It can take some time for the chick to fledge, so a year may pass by between laying the egg and the chick leaving the nest. Killing one bird also

means that the partner will stop nursing the chick, resulting in the death of the chick. The partner may take years to find another mate.

On World Oceans Day 2016 the ATF project celebrated ten years of conservation success The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) and Birdlife International launched the Albatross Task Force (ATF), the world’s first international team of bycatch mitigation instructors. The ATF is a BirdLife International project funded by the


RSPB and supported locally through the Namibia Nature Foundation (NNF) with the following objectives: • To reduce the number of albatross and petrel deaths from fishing and, • To improve the conservation status of threatened seabirds. ATF recommendations are based on rigorous scientific testing, working side by side with the fishing industry. The ATF was established in Namibia eight years ago, supported by the NNF with people on the ground, and has achieved success in raising awareness of the issue and introducing mitigation measures. The ATF initially monitored the fishing fleet to collect data and highlight the significant bycatch of seabirds. The findings were then presented to government organisations and the fishing industry, and the ATF made suggestions for mitigation measures, which are now being implemented. Measures include the use of bird-scaring lines (also referred to as ‘tori lines’), setting baited hooks under the cover of darkness and weighting hook lines to help them sink rapidly, out of reach of foraging birds. A bird-scaring line is a simple plastic rope with streamers fixed to it, which is attached to a buoy and dragged behind the vessels. The streamers flap in the wind, irritating the birds and scaring them away from the longlines and hooks.

situated in Walvis Bay. Meme Itumbapo is represented by 5 women, aged between 33 and 47 who generate a small income from traditional jewelry sales. These handcrafted accessories are called “onyoka” which is made from seashells.

100% by-catch reduction since the introduction of bird-scaring lines Improvements in environmental awareness within the fishing industry are an ongoing responsibility for this project. The materials and activities developed here are used to encourage best practice and the use of mitigation measures to reduce seabird bycatch. They will also raise social awareness within the community of Meme Itumbapo’s role in producing the lines.

Through presentations to government and industry, the ATF and the NNF helped update the Namibian National Plan of Action – Seabirds (NPOA-S) and the Namibian Fisheries policy. Consequently, new regulations were introduced to the FishA recent report shows eries Act and gazetted that since its launch, in November 2015, the Albatross Task making the use of birdForce has been exscaring lines mandatory. tremely successful. In The ATF has driven the Namibia, the experiadoption of mitigation mental use of birdmeasures in Namibia’s scaring lines over the fishing fleet. Currently, past 6 months has 74% of demersal trawlresulted in a 100% byers and 79% of demerWandering Albatross catch reduction. ATF sal longline vessels have Namibia records show that, if installed properly, zero sea- bird-scaring lines installed, and at least 50% of longline bird deaths and very low interaction rates with trawl cables weights on demersal longline vessels meet the requireare possible. ments. In the spirit of job creation and further environmental education, a proposal was developed for Namport by the ATF in early 2014 to work with a local women’s empowerment group called Meme Itumbapo. The women manufacture and supply the ‘bird-scaring’ lines for the longline and trawl fisheries from their headquarters “Bird’s Paradise”,

Initially, many decision-makers in the fishing industry were reluctant to install bird-scaring lines, since it was presumed that this would reduce the efficiency of the operations. To say the least, the opposite is the case: every baited hook that does not catch a bird is available to catch a fish, increasing income. Furthermore, the bird-scaring lines re-


quire very little investment (as little as N$ 2000 per vessel) and last about 6 months. The challenge now is to ensure widespread compliance and demonstrate significant reductions in bycatch across the fleet.

The ATF and NNF are continuing to work with the Government of Namibia (Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources) and the fishing industry to ensure that all target fleets are complying with the recommended mitigation methods and regulations now in place.

Juvenile black-browed albatross caught on a baited longline hook

Fisherman and their new bird scaring lines

Albatross at sunset. Photo by Nahuel Chavez


Namibian Dolphin Project - J-P Roux

Namibian Dolphin Project

Namibian Dolphin Project - Barry McGovern

The Namibian Dolphin Project (NDP) is a non-profit research and conservation organisation run by an independent group of scientists. Founded in 2008, the primary goal of the NDP is to research Namibian cetaceans (whales and dolphins) to generate data that can be used to inform management for conservation purposes. Additionally, the NDP work with the community and policy makers to increase awareness of Namibia’s marine life. To date, the NDP’s work has primarily focused on the two resident dolphin species in Walvis Bay; the bottlenose and the Heaviside’s. They have gathered data on the species’ abundance, distribution, behaviour and anthropogenic threats. Data they have gathered has been instrumental in formulating incoming (June 2016) marine tourism guidelines. This year they are researching the potential impacts of sound generated from several construction projects taking place in Walvis Bay with the hope that the information will be used for mitigation measures. The NDP also collect data on other cetacean species and marine megafauna they encounter within the bay and also collect data on cetaceans in Lüderitz.

The other focus of the NDP is education. Through school education days, school talks and public presentations, the NDP uses data to inform the community on the animals inhabiting the bay and the threats they can face. This is the first year that the NDP have gone to schools to give talks and they are planning to do a further 4 - 6 during the JuneAugust period. The NDP also takes on local, South African, and overseas students as interns for training purposes. They also facilitate projects and supervisors at the undergraduate and graduate level with the focus heavily on journal publication. The NDP is hosted in Namibia by the Namibia Nature Foundation (NNF), which also manages the NDP’s accounts and handles many of the logistics of running a small nonprofit organisation. The NNF also facilitate the visa process for the NDP’s international students.

Namibian Dolphin Project - Barry McGovern


Kavango East Small Mammal Pilot Surveys

The Small Mammals survey team

In the north-eastern corner of Namibia, where the Kavango East region envelops north-west Botswana, two conservancies, George Mukoya and Muduva Nyangana, cover an area of over 1,000 km2 directly north of Khaudum National Park. Villages and family settlements dot the landscape, as do mahangu and maize fields. These crops, along with goats, are the primary form of subsistence here. The third conservancy in the region, Joseph Mbambangandu, borders the Kavango River approximately 30km east of Rundu. These three conservancies were the study locations for an ambitious mammal survey expedition by the Namibia Nature Foundation (NNF) and Namibia University of Science and Technology (NUST).

Small mammals are usually overlooked; consequently, relatively little data on their distribution and abundance in Namibia is available. Without awareness of these species, conservancy management practices may be at risk of negatively impacting them, with potential flow-on effects to other species, as small mammals can be used as indicators of ecosystem condition. Trends in their density, diversity and distribution over time can provide an indication of the success of the conservancies in conserving biodiversity.

Small mammals (such as mice, gerbils and shrews) have received little research attention, despite the deficiency of current data for many species and regions. Small mammals are important components of an ecosystem. They are ecosystem engineers, creating habitat resources that are also used by other animals (for example, the burrows they dig are often used by other species). They also spread the seeds of many plants, fertilise the soil, and are key prey species for a wide range of predators. Despite these important ecosystem functions, the focus of most wildlife surveys and monitoring in conservancies is large game species, because of their relatively high value in terms of trophy hunting, tourism, and meat.

Pouched mouse (Saccostomys campestris)

To address this in the Kavango East region, the Namibia Nature Foundation (NNF) in collaboration with the Namibia University of Science and Technology (NUST), with funding


provided by UNESCO, undertook small mammal surveys using pitfall and Sherman traps in three conservancies. These three conservancies were chosen as they are well known to NNF, which has worked closely with them on numerous projects over the past several years. The project was undertaken as a pilot study; if successful, there would be potential for it to be repeated in future and/or expanded to other conservancies across Namibia. The objectives of the project were to: • Obtain current data on the density, diversity and distribution of small mammals (such as mice, shrews and gerbils) in the Kavango East region, for contribution to the Namibia Mammal Atlas; • Increase awareness of small mammals and their value amongst Kavango East conservancy members;

The survey data was submitted via the Environmental Information Service (EIS) and entered into the Namibia Mammal Atlas by Dr Hauptfleisch and Mr Khaebeb at NUST. This pilot project was considered very successful; the large amount of data collected and the successful engagement of conservancy members meant that all of the project objectives were met. The project contributed significantly to addressing the lack of data on small mammal density, diversity and distribution in Kavango East, and provided a clear indication of the usefulness of employing pitfall and Sherman traps to comprehensively survey small mammals. By establishing relationships between the conservancies and NUST, the project has provided momentum for ongoing field-based research to be undertaken in the conservancies, as well as ongoing training opportunities for Namibian students. The data collected can be used as a baseline for long term monitoring, as small mammals can be good indicators of ecosystem condition and health, and can act as a proxy for biodiversity conservation in general.

• Provide employment and training opportunities for Kavango East conservancy members; • Establish a model for similar types of surveys that can be replicated in other conservancies across Namibia; and • Provide momentum for field-based research to be undertaken in the Kavango East conservancies. The surveys took place at eight sites in each conservancy across a range of habitat types, over four days and nights from March to May 2015. The surveys were led by Katie Oxenham of the NNF and Dr Morgan Hauptfleisch, a small mammal expert from NUST. NNF engaged prominently with the conservancy management committees (CMC) and had ten members from each conservancy employed to assist with setting and checking traps and processing the animals captured. Great emphasis was put on gender equality to ensure equal representation of both women and men amongst those selected by the CMC. The results showed that 22 small mammal species were recorded from these three conservancies, including three species that were observed, but not captured, and two species that were recorded well outside of their previously known distribution. The four most abundant species overall were the Bushveld Gerbil, Multimammate Mouse, Pouched Mouse and Red Veld Rat; the Bushveld Gerbil was particularly abundant. A poster outlining the project and depicting the results (graphical representation of results, species list and photos) was presented to each of the conservancy members who participated, the CMCs and every school within each of the conservancies.

Elephant Shrew (Elephantulus). Photo by Dr. Morgan Hauptfleisch

The banded mongoose (Mungos mungo)


Large Carnivore Management Association of Namibia (LCMAN) The Large Carnivore Management Association of Namibia (LCMAN) was started back in 1996 by a group of large carnivore managers. Their aim was to curb human wildlife conflict by addressing livestock farmers’ challenges and sharing information on predator behaviour and ecology. There are currently 8 full voting LCMAN members that include NamibRand Nature Reserve, Cheetah Conservation Fund, Africat Foundation, Leibnitz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (IZW) and Erindi Game Reserve. There are an additional 7 associate members, including Conservancies Association of Namibia (CANAM) / Namibia Agricultural Union (NAU), Kiripotib Collection, Kwando Carnivore project, Brown Hyena project, and Ongava Research Centre. This year, LCMAN is celebrating its 20th anniversary and is continuing to focus on its mandate to work closely with farmer organizations such as the NAU as well as provide support and knowledge to the farming community in order to reduce the rate of human wildlife conflict. The key objectives of LCMAN are to: • Promote a biological, ecological understanding of large carnivores and their value in the ecosystem and interactions with people; • Serve as a national body of expertise and point of reference for all carnivore matters including legal, policy, management, research and related issues; and

Wild Dog. Photo by Louisa RichmondCoggan (LCMAN)

• To evaluate and review best practices in the field of large carnivore research, monitoring, management and conservation and share such information with other stakeholders. One of the biggest milestones of the LCMAN project in 2015 was the production of a Namibia Carnivore Poster which was successfully and widely distributed to Farmers Associations such as Otjiwarongo Farmers Association, Agra, MET and MAWF regional offices among other stakeholders and organisations and was also published in Agri Forum Magazine, NAPHA and NAU newsletters . The poster has successfully raised awareness and educated readers about the carnivores found in Namibia. An additional benefit is that it makes it easier for people to report when they spot these animals, increasing the accuracy of the data recorded.

LCMAN celebrates its 20th anniversary in 2016 The development and initial release (January 2016) of the Carnivore Tracker app, initiated and co-ordinated by the Cheetah Conservation Fund (CCF), was a highlight early this year and a remarkable achievement for LCMAN. It was designed for a wide and varied user base which includes farmers, hunters, researchers, the general public, tour guides, tourists, and government departments (e.g. MET). The aim of this app is to develop a comprehensive distribution map of Namibia’s carnivores. The next steps for LCMAN in regards to the app are to continue with its constant promotion via members/ partners, social media, news articles, websites, newsletters, and to get key organisations on board. This will ensure that the information is reaching the relevant audience. Within the first 6 months, there are 20 users signed up and successfully using the Carnivore Tracker across Namibia. The app has had 44 sightings logged of 14 species, including 6 unique sightings of cheetah.


For more information about the App please visit http:// www.carnivore-namibia.org LCMAN is also involved with assisting farmers who report problem animals and other issues relating to carnivores. Reporting is done either through the Coordinator’s office or directly to other LCMAN members who are in the field. A small number of cases have been reported this year through the secretariat’s office concerning roaming wild dogs near Oshivelo and a tight-collared lion that was spotted in the Kunene region. In both cases, the MET was informed and attended to the issues successfully. A hotline is also available at the Cheetah Conservation Fund for farmers to discuss any issues relating to cheetahs and other carnivores on their farms. LCMAN representatives have attended AGMs of farmer organisations such as NAU and Namibia National Farmers Union (NNFU), presenting papers addressing the issue of human wildlife conflict and offering ways of dealing with the challenges. It is LCMAN’s hope to continue attending such AGMs including for The Federation of Namibian Tourism Association (FENATA) and Namibia Professional Hunting Association (NAPHA) whenever an opportunity is given.

issues beyond the influence of the decision-making powers, administrative and technical staff of the project. The current poaching crisis diverts time from other important tasks, such as park management and law enforcement. There is also a lack of experienced staff members in Khaudum National Park, across all levels. For the remainder of 2016 and into 2017, the completion of construction projects in July 2017 is a key outcome to achieve and ensure the project stays on track. Recruitment of appropriate and experienced staff at park level will be conducted and supporting park management plans will be implemented. Furthermore, MET will strengthen its role in the establishment of the KAZA TFCA and development of tourism. LCMAN funding is obtained through membership fees that are paid on a yearly basis, by full members, as well as associate members and students. The Namibia Nature Foundation (NNF) manages the finances of LCMAN and prepares financial reports for major meetings. NNF has also provided LCMAN with a secretariat since 2010, when NNF took over the financial and technical management of LCMAN, under a contract that is renewed annually.

The LCMAN is planning to host a global human wildlife conference in 2018 right here in Namibia. A concept has already been drafted and will be finalised before being sent out to potential sponsors. The NNF was asked to be part of the organisation of this prestigious event and is looking into the possibility of the private sector overseeing the bookings, management and marketing of the Rupara Campsite after the renovations and upgrade from NamParks III is completed. This will hopefully lead to conversion of the camp site into an efficient and profitable tourism enterprise for the conservancy. The conservancy has started engagement with their partner and it is expected that a proposal for funding will be developed and tabled. Technical and financial support from NamParks was given to the two conservancies north of Khaudum NP with their annual event book and institutional audits. This was the first time that the institutional audits were conducted in the two conservancies. Technical and financial support from NamParks was given during the event book training for the resource monitors, conservancy managers and chairpersons for the two conservancies north of Khaudum NP in February. Challenges faced are usually in relation to the complex

Lion in the grass. Photo by Louisa Richmond-Coggan (LCMAN)


NestBox’s with Dr. Mark Stanback, Dept. of Biology at Davidson College USA In 2014, Dr. Stanback, from Davidson College, USA, launched a research program to identify which cavity-nesting birds were most and least competitive when vying for tree cavities. With funding from the Columbus Zoo, the Fresno-Chaffee Zoo, the John Ball Zoo, the Sacramento Zoo, and the National Birds of Prey Trust (UK), the Namibian collaborators and Dr. Stanback installed nest boxes at several locations around Namibia (Cheetah Conservation Fund - CCF, Farm Aris, Regenstein Nature Estate). By documenting how resident species sort themselves out spatially, the intention was to determine their respective positions in this guild. Any species that was over-represented in quartets relative to their presence in other scenarios would be of the lowest competitive rank, and thus most vulnerable to the loss of tree cavities. Results from the first two breeding seasons revealed some surprises. Firstly, the study sites differed markedly in both the rate of occupancy and the species diversity of occupants. Secondly, honey bees occupied up to half of the boxes at some sites. And finally, it was discovered that the experimental design was faulty. It was assumed that members of the same species would not nest a mere 50 m from one another, but this was not the case: at one quartet of boxes, three pairs of Damara hornbills nested. Consequently, there was a shift in the focus of the research to reflect these realities on the ground. The investigation into nest site competition among Namibian cavity-nesters is still underway, but is now concentrating on understanding how honey bees fit into the “nest web”. Unlike other cavity-nesters, honey bees cannot be behaviourally dominated and evicted from a box. Moreover, even after honey bees leave a cavity, the cavity may not be usable by birds, as bees often leave cavities filled with wax. Enter the lesser honeyguide. Like all honeyguides, the lesser honeyguide can digest wax. So not only do these birds make opportunistic raids on active honey bee hives (especially to consume bee eggs, larvae, and pupa), they are also capable of stripping out old comb from abandoned hives. This in turn makes the cavity available to a variety of other cavity-nesting birds. How then can one demonstrate that honeyguides are not only capable of clearing out comb, but actually ready and willing to do so? This was addressed with an experiment.

In December 2015, David Millican, a PhD student at Virginia Tech, who is collaborating with Dr. Stanback on this work, installed 28 special nest boxes at CCF. These boxes each contained 150 grams of honey-free comb. The comb was placed in a wire “cage” that was hung near the ceiling of the box. To keep the wax out of reach of baboons or honey badgers, boxes were hung in the trees upside-down. Consequently, the entrance hole was near the “bottom” of the box – meaning that the wax was up near the lid – just as it would be if bees had produced it. Having the boxes inverted also had the added benefit of making it less likely that birds would choose to nest in them. Of these 28 boxes, 14 were randomly assigned a “honeyguide accessible” treatment and the other 14 a “honeyguide inaccessible” treatment. For the latter, blocks of wood were attached to the box to partially cover the entrance hole. This would prevent honeyguides from entering the box. This acted as a control for smaller creatures

Honeyguide-accessible and honeyguide-proof “wax boxes”

(mice, beetles, ants, honey bees) which could also remove comb from a cavity. By having half of the boxes “honeyguide-proof”, the rate of disappearance of comb from honeyguide-accessible and honeyguide-proof boxes could be compared. If the wax disappeared equally quickly in both treatments, it could be concluded that honeyguides are not critical for maintaining the availability of cavities for cavity-nesting birds.


To further document the role of honeyguides, game cameras (funded by a grant from IdeaWild) were placed at several of the honeyguide-friendly boxes. Although the results are preliminary, they suggest that honeyguides did visit cavities with wax and that wax disappears more quickly from honeyguide-friendly boxes. This finding is especially interesting in that it demonstrates that honeyguides don’t restrict their activities to cavities known to contain or to have contained bees. Whether they find Honeyguide the wax by smell or simply investigate tree holes, it suggests that honeyguides are indeed a keystone species in African woodlands. By quickly detecting abandoned hives and efficiently removing comb, honeyguides ensure that tree cavities are available for breeding by the hornbills, rollers, hoopoes, woodhoopoes, owlets, and starlings that depend on them. The NNF has been a valuable partner in this research, by providing Dr. Stanback with financial management of fund deposits and disbursements to parties in Namibia. NNF also rented a vehicle to Dr. Stanback and David Millican that allowed them to conduct their research at CCF.

Mark Stanback with nest box Mark Stanback and David Millican with NNF vehicle (below)


Mountain Zebra A collaborative project aiming to provide the scientific underpinning for informed conservation management through an understanding of the population and evolutionary ecology of Hartmann’s mountain zebra throughout Namibia

areas, improving survival rates when rainfall is sparse. A second landscape project that holds similar promise is the Greater Sossusvlei-Namib Landscape and long term monitoring is already underway there, particularly in the Naukluft National Park, NamibRand Nature Reserve and Büllsport Guest Farm.

Hartmann’s mountain zebra occur in very small numbers in southern Angola and in the Northern Cape region of South Africa, but the great majority live in Namibia. Thus, they could almost be considered Namibia’s only endemic large mammal. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), they are classified as Vulnerable and they are a Specially Protected Species under Namibian legislation.

An important result in 2016 was the detection of large scale movement from the Naukluft Park onto the farms to the east in the first months of 2016. The movement was probably a response to local showers which produced a green flush in the

The Mountain Zebra Project is co-ordinated by Professor Morris Gosling of the University of Newcastle, UK, in partnership with landowners and conservationists who share the aims of scientifically-based conservation management. The project explores the limiting effect of the food supply and predation on populations in an arid environment and provides advice to conservation managers. Individual zebras are recognised by variation in stripe patterns using a type of bar-code system that can accurately and quickly identify individuals in large populations. Over 5,400 individual animals are now being monitored in seven main study populations. The work is carried out with the support of the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET), most recently under MET Permit Number 2100/2015. The Rufford Foundation, the Parc Zoologique de Montpellier, the Whitley Fund for Nature, and Newcastle University have provided financial and administrative support to the Mountain Zebra Project. The Namibia Nature Foundation provides administrative support, links with conservationists in Namibia and other practical support including storage for research equipment. Individual-based monitoring continued into its eleventh year in Gondwana Canyon Park (GCP) and the adjacent AiAis National Park and, in 2015, it was extended into the wider Fish River Canyon Landscape area. This landscapescale project is one of two in which mountain zebra populations may eventually move relatively freely over large

area to the north-east of the Park, including Büllsport, when there was drought elsewhere. Distances travelled by known individuals were over 45 km from various locations in the Park. 189 new animals were identified on the farm in 2016 and, of these, 71 (38%) were known animals from the Park. Such animals inevitably come into conflict with livestock farming interests and 9 out of the 71 known animals have been shot. The survivors will move back into the Park in coming months to feed on dry season food reserves at higher altitudes but, in the current drought, such reserves are limited and there may be large-scale natural mortality during 2016. The long term study in GCP has produced estimates of the source population (the number that visit the area over a defined period, as opposed to the number present at any one time) each year from 2005 to the present and these results can be compared with the results of sample road counts that are carried out by the Park each year. The road counts are conducted in the same way as counts in other parts of Namibia – this comparison is important for


interpreting these wider monitoring schemes. The results from GCP show that ground counts detect on average 56% of the annual source population and that variation in this proportion is dependent on seasonal rainfall. In wet years a smaller proportion of the population is seen in the Park, probably because the zebra disperse to graze elsewhere. In dry years a larger proportion is present, perhaps attracted by the network of waterholes provided by the Park. A second mark-recapture estimate of the mountain zebra in the west of Etosha National Park was completed in 2015.

of mortality have already been identified. In an area with average annual rainfall of 114 mm, most deaths are due to limited food, particularly in drought years. These include significant numbers of deaths of young foals and animals leaving their birth groups to try to achieve breeding status. In dry years, mortality during the dispersal transition away from birth groups can be up to 40% of the age group. As the period since the GCP population came under protection (since 1997) gets longer and the population age structure increases, a larger proportion of the animals will

The Hartmann’s Mountain Zebra is listed as Vulnerable under the IUCN Red List.

The results suggest that air surveys underestimate mountain zebra (particularly when in mixed groups with plains zebra, as often happens in western Etosha) and that there was a large increase in the population between 2012 and 2015. The extent of the increase means it was very unlikely to be by reproduction alone, particularly since the Etosha population is under intense predation by lions and spotted hyena. The alternative is immigration and this might be through temporary gaps in the Park fence caused by elephant damage; however, this possibility remains to be tested. A long term aim of the project is to identify limits on mountain zebra populations, both for basic reasons and also to identify when management intervention is needed and when it is not. After 11 years of study, over 60% of the GCP population is known-age and some important sources

also become vulnerable to drought due to senility. There is preliminary evidence that the population growth rate is now negative in dry years and positive in wet years. The working hypothesis that will be tested in coming years is that the combined effects of these types of mortality, under density-dependence, will result in a self-limiting population that does not require intensive management intervention to limit numbers. The Mountain Zebra project is hosted in Namibia by the Namibia Nature Foundation (NNF), which also manages the Mountain Zebra project’s accounts and handles many of the logistics of running a project.

Part of a Hartmann’s mountain zebra group in Gondwana Canyon Park. Photo Morris Gosling


Namibian Islands Marine Protected Area

Monitoring flagship

(NIMPA) - African Penguins

species in the Namibian Islands Marine Protected Area conservation importance. Possible negative impacts include increased water turbidity, sediment movement, displacement of forage prey species, entanglement in anchor spreads, and underwater noise.

African Penguin. CC Photo by Karen

The marine environment off southern Namibia, characterized by low sea temperatures and strong winds, supports unique biodiversity. In 2009, the first marine protected area in Namibian waters, the Namibian Islands Marine Protected Area (NIMPA), was proclaimed, covering about 1 million hectares of coastal waters along a 400 km stretch of coast. One of the NIMPA’s three main objectives is to protect the breeding sites and key foraging areas of a number of flagship species, including those of the globally endangered African Penguins and Bank Cormorants, and locally critically endangered Cape Gannets, as well as known calving grounds of Southern Right Whales.

Namdeb is therefore funding a twoyear project to collect baseline data on several flagship species in NIMPA and to subsequently monitor the effect of these new mining technologies on key species, in order to plan and implement mitigation measures if necessary. Logistical support is provided by the Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources (MFMR), the ministry responsible for managing the NIMPA. Funds made available by Namdeb are administered by the NNF.

In search of food the Halifax Island penguins travelled an average of 52km per trip

Namdeb Corporation operates in nine mining licence areas that border or overlap the NIMPA. Marine diamond production is increasing as land deposits are declining and as new techniques to extract diamonds from inshore marine sediments are developed. There are concerns that these techniques could negatively affect marine habitats, and therefore species of

The monitoring programme consists of three components:

• Investigating the foraging ecology of African Penguins at Halifax and Possession islands. GPS data loggers are used to gather detailed information on habitat use and foraging efficiency of breeding penguins. This forms part of a long-term study, initiated in 2005. The main objective is to identify key foraging areas of breeding penguins, and how mining activities could affect these areas as well as the penguins’ foraging efficiency.

• Monitoring breeding success of African Penguins, Cape Gannets and Bank Cormorants using timelapse photography. This non-invasive technique will be used to provide accurate records of breeding activities of threatened seabirds in the NIMPA, especially at remote and/or sensitive breeding sites. • Conducting aerial surveys of Southern Right Whales


and building a photographic database for individual identification. This component forms part of a long-term monitoring programme to document the numbers of Southern Right Whales (including the number of calves born) in southern Namibia, and to monitor coastal habitat use and identify key calving areas. Photographic records allow the identification and monitoring of individuals. The project kicked off in early-2016. So far, valuable data on the foraging ecology of breeding African Penguins have been collected at Halifax Island. Altogether 12 penguins were equipped with a GPS data logger, providing detailed information on 13 foraging trips. Foraging trips lasted between one and 15 hours, and penguins moved an average distance of 15.5 km from the island, travelling an average of 52 km in search of food before returning to the island to feed the chick(s). Compared with foraging trips recorded at Halifax Island during seven previous years, it was apparent that breeding penguins had to work harder during the summer of 2016 than in other recorded years.

Dawn at Halifax Island, complete with welcoming committee ©J Kemper

October, as it depends on the availability of a suitable plane (such as a small Cessna, complete with a window that can be opened to take usable photos of individual whales), the availability of a pilot, as well as calm weather conditions conducive to conducting a survey. The NIMPA project is hosted in Namibia by the Namibia Nature Foundation (NNF), which also manages the NIMPA project’s accounts and handles many of the logistics of running a project.

It is envisaged that another set of GPS data loggers will be deployed at Possession and/or Halifax islands during spring 2016. Camera traps will be set up at Penguin, Possession A Cape Gannet noisily announcing its arrival at a breeding colony and Plumpudding islands later this year. The most chal©J Kemper lenging component appears to be the aerial monitoring of Southern Right Whales, usually done in early

More than 70% of the world population of Bank Cormorants breed on one tiny island in Namibia ©J Kemper


Tourism is a cultural ecosystem service

Development of an Inventory of Ecosystem Services in Namibia –MET/GIZ

The principal driver of change in the flows of ecosystem services in Namibia over the past 50 years has been exploitation. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) found that over the course of the twentieth century, humans have extensively and rapidly changed ecosystems in a way that has diminished their capacity to deliver services. Ecosystem services contribute to benefits that are ultimately used and enjoyed by people, and consequently affect human well-being. The Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) identifies three categories of ecosystem services: provisioning (e.g. provision of meat, crops, water, and wood for fuel), regulation and maintenance (e.g. control of erosion, carbon sequestration, chemical condition of fresh and salt waters, and maintenance of nursery populations), and cultural (e.g. wildlife viewing, hunting, cultural, aesthetic, symbolic, existence and bequest services). The Inventory helps to map out ecosystem zones and their services in a manner that can assist with

mainstreaming ecosystem services into policy making for public, corporate and private decisions. It was commissioned by the Resource Mobilisation for Biodiversity Conservation Project, which is being co-ordinated by the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET) with the support of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). The study began in October 2014 and the final report and policy brief were submitted and accepted in July 2016. The study exceeded the initial timeframe and was extended. This was at least partly due to an expansion of the scope and depth of the study from that which was originally intended. The key objectives of this study were to: • Identify ecosystem services in Namibia at a subnational level; • Assess the trends in the delivery of these ecosystem services and the underlying drivers of change; • Provide suggested criteria for prioritising ecosystem services for mainstreaming into decisionmaking ; and • Ensure consistency with the outcomes of currently ongoing and potential future initiatives in the ResMob project, namely environmental-economic accounting, experimental ecosystem accounting and conducting a TEEB Country Study.


A total of seventeen ecosystem zones (thirteen terrestrial and four coastal/marine) were identified in Namibia. These ecosystem zones were then used as the basis from which to present an inventory of ecosystem services at the subnational level, using CICES. Six broad drivers of change were adopted when assessing trends in the flow of identified ecosystem services: habitat change, exploitation, pollution, climate change, illegal use and invasive species. The principal driver of change in the flows of ecosystem services in Namibia over the past 50 years has been exploitation. This is the result of increased demand for goods and services due to growing human populations and the opening up of the country post-independence, and this trend is expected to continue. Although the flows of many services (particularly provisioning services, such as livestock production) have increased as a result, this has come at the expense of other services, particularly those in the regulation and maintenance category, such as those related to soil formation and composition. Habitat change, is often associated with exploitation, has also had a negative impact on the flows of several services across terrestrial and coastal/marine ecosystem zones. In terms of cultural services, the flows of tourism-related services have tended to increase significantly over the past 50 years, and are expected to continue to rise. However, there is a general lack of understanding of other less tangible services. In order to provide the basis for incorporating ecosystem services into decision-making, the report suggests five criteria for prioritising ecosystem services for this purpose: current and expected future impacts on the flow of the service; services affected by critical threats identified in Namibia Second National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan; economic importance; affected population; and availability of data. One way of incorporating ecosystem services into policy and decision making is to undertake economic valuations of these services. The Inventory and the attached Roadmap for the Economic Valuation of Ecosystem Services in Namibia provide a base for this type of analysis and have the potential to support important work in this area in Namibia.

The Inventory has already been used as a resource for the Assessment of the Economics of Land Degradation related to Bush Encroachment in Namibia and will be used in the follow up assessment in Otjozondjupa and during the SEA (Strategic Environmental Assessment) associated with the IRLUP (Integrated Regional Land Use Planning) process currently underway in Otjozondjupa. The Inventory has been presented at MET, at an Environmental Economics Network of Namibia (EENN) meeting, and at a workshop for Masters students at NUST, as well as at various other events. NNF will be involved in the dissemination of the Inventory so that it can be used more widely.

Regulation and maintenance ecosystem services – maintenance of chemical condition of freshwater

Meat and dairy production are provisioning ecosystem services


Vultures Namibia Namibia’s long established vultures play an incredibly important role in the food chain, despite making up only a small part of Namibia’s rich biodiversity. However, human impact has had a devastating effect on vulture populations. Vulture numbers throughout the world are declining and the threats to their survival are universal. Poison is the greatest killer of vultures across the world, whether it be deliberate or accidental (e.g. via the poisoning of poached elephant carcasses), but other factors include increasing human populations, destruction of habitat, use of vulture body parts by traditional healers, and disturbance at nesting sites. Furthermore, unlike many other birds that can vary their reproductive rate to suit environmental factors, vultures are unable to do so.

1,222 Lappet-faced and 550 Whitebacked Vultures have been ringed/tagged Vultures Namibia is volunteer-run project which aims to raise awareness of the plight of vultures in Namibia via three main projects: • Ringing of Lappet-faced Vulture chicks in the Namib-Naukluft Park. • Ringing on farms, which involve the farmer, his family and workers. Although conservation areas in Namibia are very large, vultures still feed on farms and communal areas – this is often where they are poisoned. Seventy-eight farms have participated in this project so far. • Monitoring of ringed/tagged vultures. There are now four camera traps in the Namib-Naukluft Park and one will soon be erected at a vulture restaurant in the Otjiwarongo area. The monitoring and ringing of Lappet-faced Vultures, a near-endangered species, to ID, track and determine population trends in the Namib-Naukluft Park started in 1991. Funding for this project is derived entirely from donations from local Namibian companies, individuals, and fundraising dinners in Swakopmund. The Namibia Nature Foundation (NNF) manages the project’s finances.

Lappet-faced Vulture chick

Visits by the Vultures Namibia project to farming communities have raised significant awareness of the importance of vulture conservation. This is done through the local agricultural farmers associations and conservancies. Talks illustrated with photos, maps, and graphs educate farmers on the importance of vultures in the ecosystem and the dangers that the birds face from indiscriminate use of poison. This has resulted in landowners contacting Vultures Namibia and asking to be involved in the project. Progress of the project so far shows that a record number of vultures were ringed/tagged in the Namib-Naukluft Park during the past season (2015). Funding and continued support for the annual aerial survey by WestAir Aviation, Windhoek, is one of the highlights of the past year. During the aerial surveys, the coordinates of occupied nests are stored on a GPS and from the air, adult birds, chicks and even eggs are visible in the nests. This has allowed Vultures Namibia to establish where prime breeding areas are within conservation areas, which has led to the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET) setting aside these sensitive areas for safeguarding and keeping traffic to a minimum. The 2015 breeding season was an especially good one for vultures in the Namib-Naukluft Park and 99 chicks were ringed. To date 1 222 Lappet-faced and 550 Whitebacked Vultures have been ringed/tagged. During the 2016 breeding season, the project plans to fit 18 trackers to young vultures, which will send signals through to cell phone towers, allowing the birds to be monitored. This will further improve our understanding of their movements and behaviour and support the conservation effort. The Vultures Namibia project is hosted in Namibia by the Namibia Nature Foundation (NNF), which also manages the Vultures Namibia project’s accounts and handles many of the logistics of running a project.


Vultures Namibia team

Involving adults and children Large Lappet-faced Vulture in its nest

Large Lappet-faced Vulture takeoff by Chris Coetzee


Cameratrap Hyaena mother and cub at den Mudumu Clan

Kwando Carnivore Project (KCP) The overall aim of the KCP is the conservation of large carnivores through applied research and human wildlife conflict mitigation in the Zambezi and Kavango Regions.

landscape of Kavango-Zambezi Trans frontier Conservation Area (KAZA TFCA) has become the overarching aim of the KCP. This involves a number of objectives and activities:

The project first started with a study of the ecology and conservation of spotted hyaenas in the protected areas of the Zambezi Region, as well as an investigation into their role in human wildlife conflict in the conservancies and within the multiple-use area of Bwabwata National Park.

• Monitoring large carnivore populations using various survey methods throughout the Zambezi Region – this provides long-term information on population trends and highlights conservation issues with regard to large carnivores.

Livestock mortality to lions has declined by 80% Finding funding for spotted hyaena conservation is challenging, but grants from the DierenPark Amersfoort Wildlife Fund and Prince Bernhard Nature Fund in the Netherlands, long term support through the Predator Conservation Trust in the UK, as well as donations from private individuals in the USA through the WildiZe Foundation, have provided funding to purchase equipment such as GPS/GSM and Satellite collars. Along with Nedbank’s Go Green Trust in partnership with the NNF as well as the Wilderness Trust, KCP received the necessary support for field work and vehicle maintenance. The KCP is not a registered trust or NGO, therefore the NNF administers project funding and this collaboration provides the necessary transparency to develop partnerships for larger conservation goals. Over time the project has evolved to undertake broader goals. As well as the conservation of large carnivores, the role of the Zambezi Region in the trans boundary

• Carrying out field research such as dispersal patterns of large carnivores in the Zambezi Region – this provides information on the effectiveness of the Zambezi Region for large carnivore conservation in the KAZA landscape. • Providing ongoing information to MET, conservancies and CBNRM support NGOs on the status of large carnivores to assist with adaptive management strategies – this is vital for the sustainable utilisation of wildlife. • Facilitating corridors for the movement of large carnivore between major protected areas in neighboring countries by mitigating conflict with livestock owners. Mitigation efforts include contributing to the introduction of holistic rangeland management and conservation agriculture methods, which protects habitat as well as livelihoods. In order to carry out these objectives, KCP collaborates and partners with many institutions and organisations. All field work provides training opportunities for community game guards, MET personnel and students from the University of Namibia.


KCP has achieved a myriad of measurable outcomes since its beginnings in 2008. Status reports on population estimates and conservation threats to spotted hyaenas and lions in the Zambezi Region have been produced. These are regularly updated with ongoing monitoring. In 2014, KCP carried out a camera trapping survey throughout the Mudumu Complexes, which resulted in a baseline population estimate and conservation status of leopards. In 2015, KCP carried out the first wild dog survey in both the core conservation areas and multiple use areas of Bwabwata National Park. These efforts have resulted in changes to the management of large carnivores in conservancies and protected areas.

This year, KCP will be expanding the focus area of humanlion conflict mitigation to include the conservancies of the Mudumu North Complex, where conflict is on the increase.

More recently, KCP has focussed on mitigating lion-farmer conflict in the Mudumu South Complex. Initial efforts concentrated on reinforcing cattle kraals to protect livestock from lion attacks. Fifty kraals have been upgraded to date and another thirty upgrades are planned during 2016. A member of the Mudumu South Complex community has been employed as a lion conflict coordinator. He communicates directly with farmers about protecting livestock and assists the conservancies and game guards in rapidly responding to incidents of lion-livestock conflict. Livestock mortality to lions has declined by 80% and there has been an overall reduction of 73% in lion-livestock incidents over the past three years in the Mudumu South Complex. Retaliatory killing of lions was reduced to zero during 2015.

Large carnivores in the Zambezi Region require transboundary conservation as many of these populations are shared with our neighbours. We are currently setting up collaborations with researchers and governments across international borders. Collaborative transboundary field work will be expanded and intensified over the next few years. Transfrontier conservation is essential for KAZA to be an effective large carnivore landscape.

Another current undertaking is a holistic rangeland management and conservation agriculture plot project where protecting cattle from predators is linked to habitat protection. Mobile kraals are erected on cropping areas where cattle dung and urine are trampled into the ground, nutrifying the soil. The same field can be used every year for planting crops rather than clearing away woodland once old fields are depleted. These mobile bomas also protect cattle from predation at night.

African wild dog

Taking blood samples from an immobilized spotted hyaena

Camera trap Wild dog pups at den Chetto Bwabwata National Park



Lupala pride of lions from Nkasa Rupara National Park (Photo KCP Project)


NamPower/Namibia Nature Foundation Strategic Partnership The NamPower/Namibia Nature Foundation Strategic Partnership was launched in October 2008 with a mission to address wildlife and power line interactions in Namibia, in the interests of promoting sustainable development.

A conservation-industry partnership seeks win-win solutions to wildlife and power line interactions

An environmental checklist and EIA guidelines on high risk factors and mitigation are being developed in 2015/16 to become part of standard EIA procedure. The effectiveness of mitigation is being monitored on sensitive sections of new power lines, such as at a wetland in Walvis Bay. Further priority areas for mitigation are being targeted for retro-fitting of devices. The Partnership has initiated three dedicated research projects. Tracking the flight-paths of flagship bird species with GPS satellite devices is an important prerequisite for

The project is funded by the European Investment Bank. The project objectives are to: • Monitor, report and manage power line/wildlife interactions, • Conduct research and incorporate bird/wildlife mitigation into existing power line networks, and into the planning of future networks, • Promote awareness and communication about the risks that power lines pose to wildlife, and wildlife to the power supply, and • Develop an over-arching, easily accessible environmental information service to assist with achieving the above objectives. Much has been achieved over the life of this project. An incident-reporting database has been implemented, with field investigators (including NamPower staff) regularly submitting reports of power line incidents. The Partnership has also initiated dedicated power line monitoring surveys in collaboration with NamPower and other partners; two monitoring projects have been conducted in collaboration with the Namibia University of Science and Technology (NUST). From 2009-2015, 152 dedicated power line surveys have been recorded covering 3,500 km, with a rate of 0.08 incidents per km. A total of 483 incidents have been recorded during the project. The results to date indicate that the majority of species involved are birds, many of them species with high biodiversity value (raptors, bustards and flamingos). Survey/incident results are evaluated regularly, and recommendations are made for mitigation.

Persistent Sociable Weaver nesting on power lines can cause short circuits and outages, and sometimes fires.

identifying potential focal collision areas on power lines. An MSc project under NamPower bursary has been completed on investigating appropriate mitigation methods to address outage problems caused by weaver nesting. A second MSc project is underway to investigate the impacts of power line collisions on bustards and other birds, and to make recommendations for mitigation. Communication and information sharing are promoted with partners and other stakeholders, both in Namibia and elsewhere. A project website is maintained; sixteen newsletters have been compiled and distributed, together with media releases and journal articles. Awareness and communication have been promoted by means of a country-wide series of training/awareness workshops. A collaborative workshop/training session was organised with the Eskom/Endangered Wildlife Trust Strategic Partnership (June 2014), culminating in a visit to their project in South


Africa in March 2015. A wind energy workshop on best practice for avian monitoring and mitigation was organised in July 2015. An Environmental Information Service (EIS) has been developed as a free, online “one-stop-shop” information resource for Namibia (www. the-eis.com). The EIS is now in its third phase and houses some 11,697 records. Recently a citizen-science system has been initiated for entering atlas records. Information on birds has been consolidated into a Bird Information System. A special feature of the EIS is the “Birds and Power lines Tool”, a fully-customised tool that allows the user to view and overlay maps, for example of bird distributions

and sensitive habitats, to indicate potential “hotspots”. NamPower is responsible for the disbursement of funds to the Partnership on behalf of the European Investment Bank (EIB), via the NNF. The NNF is responsible for the overall management of the Partnership and the coordination and active implementation of its projects according to an approved action plan. A Management Committee comprising representatives of both NamPower and NNF offers guidance and steers the management processes.

152 dedicated power line surveys have been recorded covering 3,500 km

Installing Double Loop Bird Flight Diverters (BFDs) – a mitigation measure against collisions, to make the power lines more visible

GPS satellite tracker fitted to a Greater Flamingo. Photo by K Reddig

Marking of a power line near a water body at Walvis Bay to increase visibility and thus reduce the chance of bird collisions. Photo by A Scott


Namibia National Parks Programme – Phase 3 (NamParks III) The Namibia National Parks Programme – Phase 3 (NamParks III) is a development programme of the Government of the Republic of Namibia, executed by the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET) and co-financed by the Federal Republic of Germany through KfW. The current phase of the programme will develop the North Eastern National Parks (NE Parks) comprising Khaudum, Bwabwata, Mudumu and Nkasa Rupara National Parks through the improvement of park management and infrastructure. The estimated total programme cost is approximately €11.313 million.

NamParks: Namibia National Parks Programme. Our Parks. Our Partners. Our Future A Financing Agreement between Namibia and KfW was signed on 1st August 2012 and the Separate Agreement (SA) was signed between KfW and MET on 20 December, 2012. The consulting contract commenced on the 31st January 2014 between MET and GFA Consulting Group GmbH in association with Consulting Services Africa (CSA) and NNF to provide consulting services for the Financial Cooperation Programme “North Eastern Parks Programme” in Namibia. Project implementation is being carried out by MET with technical assistance from a Consortium of GFA Consulting Group GmbH (GFA) and the NNF. The NNF is tasked with the responsibility to provide technical backstopping to the project through the provision of direct technical staff to the NamParks III Project.

2. Park management of North Eastern Parks is improved, for example by establishing monitoring and evaluation tools to assess the conditions of the parks 3. Communities benefit from parks and sustainable use of natural resources by supporting Community-based Tourism Enterprises (CBTE) 4. MET is supported in its role in KAZA TFCA, and in the development of tourism through collaboration with the Namibian Tourism Board and professional associations for the promotion of tourism in the region 5. Ensure the MET Project Management team is supported and advise on strategic and technical planning and project implementation A large portion of the project’s funds are devoted to the development of infrastructure in NE Parks. WML was appointed as the Infrastructure Consultant to supervise the construction of N$110m worth of staff houses, entrance De-bushing in progress

The North Eastern Parks are effectively protected against pressures on natural resources, provide a corridor for animal migration and represent a competitive destination for tourists. The residents and neighbours of the parks profit economically from them. There are 5 main objectives or result areas: 1. The infrastructure of the North Eastern Parks is improved, such as the rehabilitation of water points in Khaudum National Park and signposting and track maintenance in the parks

gates and management facilities at all three sites - Sikereti, Khaudum and Shezinze. Work contracts have been signed for the construction of the three new stations, site handovers were completed in April 2016 and construction is now underway with completion expected around July 2017. A number of track networks in the area have been debushed using a local labour force to improve and extend


the road networks inside NE Parks. This method provides employment and income to local conservancy members and is also less environmentally-damaging than a bulldozer or grader. The first draft of the Bwabwata East Security plan was drafted following the Anti-Poaching Unit Training for the MET North East Leadership group, where the group was exposed to new ideas and principals of law enforcement. Further plans will be drafted for Bwabwata West and Mudumu NP. The Sustainability of the Institutional Support and Governance programme, including the financial management aspects in the Zambezi region, will continue to be Guesha Pan, additional water will be delivered to coordinated very closely with partners such as Integrated maintain the pool in dry season - S. Mayes Rural Development and Nature Conservation (IRDNC) and the MET Warden on Community Based Natural Resource Banner for NamParks III. (Real size - 2m tall) Management (CBNRM) issues in that region. Engagement with owners of the Nkasa Lupala Tented Lodge, who are joint venture partners with the Wuparo conservancy, has begun. This partnership is looking into the possibility of the private sector overseeing the bookings, management and marketing of the Rupara Campsite after the renovations and upgrade from NamParks III is completed. This will hopefully lead to conversion of the camp site into an efficient and profitable tourism enterprise for the conservancy. The conservancy has started engagement with their partner and it is expected that a proposal for funding will be developed and tabled. Technical and financial support from NamParks was given to the two conservancies north of Khaudum NP with their annual event book and institutional audits. This was the first time that the institutional audits were conducted in the two conservancies. Technical and financial support from NamParks was given during the event book training for the resource monitors, conservancy managers and chairpersons for the two conservancies north of Khaudum NP in February. Challenges faced are usually in relation to the complex issues beyond the influence of the decision-making powers, administrative and technical staff of the project. The current poaching crisis diverts time from other important tasks, such as park management and law enforcement. There is also a lack of experienced staff members in Khaudum National Park, across all levels. For the remainder of 2016 and into 2017, the completion of construction projects in July 2017 is a key outcome to achieve and ensure the project stays on track. Recruitment of appropriate and experienced staff at park level will be conducted and supporting park management plans will be implemented. Furthermore, MET will strengthen its role in the establishment of the KAZA TFCA and development of tourism.


Rare and Endangered Species Trust (REST) Founded in 2000, REST’s aim is to care for, research, and educate the public on some of Namibia’s least known species. Despite some challenges during 2016, including a relocation to Outjo with the hope of reopening its centre to the public in early 2017, REST continues to provide a refuge for numerous wild animals, always with the aim of rehabilitating them into the wild. Much of REST’s recent work has focused on pangolins, which have the unfortunate status of being the most trafficked mammal in the world. The IUCN pangolin specialist group estimates that over 1 million of these rare creatures have been illegally taken from the wild in the last 10 years. Despite the recent attention to this issue at the IUCN World Conservation Congress (September 2016) and their up-listing to Appendix I at the CITES COP17, they are still not getting the conservation attention that they deserve. In the beginning, REST focused on the Cape Griffon vulture (Gyps coprotheres), which at that time was considered

Namibia’s most endangered species. It has recently been listed as nationally extinct, only the second recorded extinction in Namibia’s history. The first was the white rhino, which has successfully been brought back through major work, time, and money. Every effort was made to support the small surviving population of Cape Griffon vultures found near the Waterberg Plateau Park. REST was the first organisation in Africa to fit satellite telemetry on a vulture. With the support of Nedbank’s Go Green Fund, “Sky Banker” was the first Cape Griffon in the world to have his every movement recorded via satellite tracking. Air Namibia then lent its support and transported 12 rehabilitated Cape Griffons from South Africa for release. Most of the birds survived and stayed in country, even attempting to breed, until quite recently. Unfortunately, in the last 5 years, there have been massive vulture losses due to poisoned baits put out by elephant and rhino poachers. Prior to this, smaller losses occurred when farmers baited for carnivores, and vulture deaths were accidental. REST Close up of Honeybun the Pangolin


Maria Diekmann carrying Honeybun the Pangolin for her daily walk and forage

noticed serious population declines in Africa and gave a presentation with preliminary data at an international Birds of Prey conference. The East Africans began recording losses and producing scientific papers. Today it is widely recognized that vulture populations in Southern Africa may have declined by up to 50-80%. As a result of continued work regionally, a few years ago CITES gave massive support to vulture conservation by up-listing most of the southern African species.

all 8 species of pangolins to Appendix I, which means that international trade in pangolins and their parts is prohibited, except when the purpose of the import is not commercial. This is the highest level of protection and is reserved for those species threatened with extinction.

Poaching for illegal wildlife trade and habitat loss have made these incredible creatures one of the most endangered groups of mammals in the world.

Four years ago REST also became very involved with in situ pangolin conservation when they were given a pangolin from the black market to release. REST’s founder became the first person to film the birth of an African pangolin pup and valuable data was able to be collected. This beginning has led REST to be a leader in pangolin conservation and to continue valuable research and rehabilitation of this little-known species. The Prince Bernhard Nature Fund, the Body Shop, Varta Batteries, and many individual donors have allowed us to expand our study of pangolins and have supported our field work and development. Recently all of this hard work paid off when CITES up-listed

Despite its small size, REST has developed through the years into a world recognized research, conservation, and education centre. Not only are their research and conservation efforts producing results for individual animals, their work is helping decision-making on the protection and future of these species. None of these successes would have been possible without our many and varied project partners. Media exposure brought us to the attention of donors and researchers, while locally we have enjoyed collaborations with many of the higher learning institutions. From the beginning, the Namibia Nature Foundation managed the Namibian REST account in order to provide transparency for our local and international donors. We are honoured to still be a project partner with NNF.


Publication - Birds to Watch in Namibia: Red, Rare and Endemic Species In 2015, the Namibia Nature Foundation (NNF) was involved in a number of prestigious publications that were of diverse focus, from conservation and the environment, to fisheries management and birds. The NNF, from our Environmental Publications Fund, helped to publish Birds to Watch in Namibia: Red, Rare and Endemic Species, the first comprehensive Red Data

There are 16 species, all with about 90% or more of their global populations in Namibia.

Book of Namibia. Birds to Watch in Namibia is a Red Data Book (RDB) written by Christopher Brown, Jessica Kemper and Rob Simmons. It was published by the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET) and the NNF. RDBs play an important role in providing detailed analysis at the species level using agreed international criteria, presenting upto-date information, and making recommendations for conservation action. The information provided in RDBs is used to help direct attention and resources to the greatest conservation priorities so that the future of threatened species and their habitats can be safeguarded. In general RDBs also provide baseline information required for monitoring the status and health of various birds, mammals and plants. This RDB focuses on the birds of Namibia and has assessed the conservation status of all 687 species recorded in Namibia and divided them into 3 colour-coded categories: “Red Data” species (threatened birds), endemic and nearendemic species (those that do not qualify as “Red Data” species) as well as rare and peripheral species. One of the key aims of the list and of Birds to Watch in Namibia, is to convey the nature and urgency of conservation issues to the public and policy makers, as well as to help the international community reduce species’ extinction. Birds offer a special fascination for humans and as a conservation partner, the NNF is proud to have played a part in the publication of this book, which underlines Namibia’s commitment to conservation.

71 (10.4%) Namibian birds species fall under the “Red Data” category


Publication - Conservation and the Environment in Namibia In 2015, the Namibia Nature Foundation (NNF) was involved in a number of prestigious publications that were of diverse focus, from conservation and the environment, to fisheries management and birds. The NNF collaborated with Nedbank to have a special edition of Conservation and the Environment of Namibia, the Go Green Fund which assists with biodiversity and funding for a wide variety of projects. Over the years, the Conservation and the Environment in Namibia magazine has shared many success stories of projects supported by the Go Green Fund with the Namibian public. The aim of this magazine is to familiarise the public with environmental issues, trends as well as the successes and challenges of practical conservation in Namibia.

The Go Green Fund has disbursed more than N$5 million to a host of conservation projects and initiatives.

Nedbank Namibia and the NNF initiated the Go Green Fund in 2001, with the aim to support individuals and organisations working towards a more sustainable future, covering a wide range of conservation activities. In recognition of the importance of the GoGreen fund and after 14 years in operation having disbursed over N$5 million, a special edition of Conservation and the Environment in Namibia was commissioned. This highlights the contribution of the GoGreen fund to conservation in Namibia, which has provided funding for a wide variety of innovative projects and environmental protection efforts, focussing on climate change, biodiversity, freshwater and coastal/marine programmes.


Social Ecosystems

Photo by Bruno Nepomuceno

The NNF recognises the similarities and differences between rural and urban societies and their reliance and impact on nature. We therefore place a thematic emphasis on work with rural communities, particularly through the Community Based Natural Resource Management Programme (CBNRM) and within this context endorse the NACSO Strategic Plan (2016-2021). We further recognise that the rapid urbanisation of Namibia is creating new challenges and opportunities and our collective response to these are fragmented. Feasibility Study: Expansion Katima Mulilo Campus, University of Namibia The Namibia Nature Foundation joined a consortium with a German consulting firm, Applicatio, to undertake a Feasibility study for the expansion of the University of Namibia (UNAM) has campus in Katima Mulilo (KMC) to strengthen the Department for Wildlife Management and Ecotourism (DWME). This study was funded by the German Government through its Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) via the German Development Bank (KfW). The study gave a general assessment of the need for the establishment of the DWME and the need for infrastructure development on UNAM KMC. The study indicated a need for training of new and practicing professionals in the area of Wildlife Management and Ecotourism for southern Africa. The feasibility study provides further infrastructural and training-related details and assessed the need for such a programme, the requirements for successful implementation thereof and developed a robust programme concept

that can be supported by German Financial Cooperation (FC).


Integrated Planning in Community Forests Muduva Nyangana is a Communal Conservancy and Community Forest comprising around 65 000 hectares and eight villages. It is made up of Kalahari Woodland vegetation and its forest provides resources such as firewood, timber for poles and thatching grass. The area also provides a habitat for some of Namibia’s flagship wildlife species, including elephants, kudu, oryx, giraffe, leopard, roan and impala. The people of Muduva Nyangana make a living largely from crop cultivation and livestock farming. Additional income and benefits (e.g. meat) are generated through trophy hunting, tourism, and from harvesting and marketing of natural resources like Devil’s Claw and thatching grass. The Community Forestry in Namibia Project is a development programme of the Republic of Namibia co-financed by the Federal Republic of Germany through KfW. The project-executing agency is the Ministry of Agriculture, Water & Forestry (MAWF) in Namibia, with the Directorate of Forestry (DoF) being responsible for project implementation. The Namibia Nature Foundation (NNF) facilitated the creation of the Integrated Forest Management Plan (IFMP), which started in June 2015. The community representatives and the Management Committee (MC) actively participated in the review of their existing documents as well as the development of the IFMP and activities to be implemented within its defined boundaries. This means that the Muduva Nyangana community has overall ownership of the plan. The Project objectives for the development and implementation of the IFMP are to: • Enable rural communities to acquire the rights, capacity and resource information for managing their forests and pasture in a sustainable manner and in collaboration with relevant authorities and stakeholders. • Enable residents of community forests to benefit economically from the sustainable use of their forestry and pasture resources, through the implementation of the IFMP. • Create an IFMP and poster that harmonize the existing management plans of Muduva Nyangana Conservancy and Community Forest (C/CF) in the Kavango region. Creating one integrated management plan for a community forest A final report was delivered regarding the mission, describing the activities and their outcomes. In detail, all observed obstacles on integration and harmonization of the two

entities were described, as well as options and measures to overcome these obstacles. Furthermore, the final report provided best practices recommendations that could be used by other Community Forests/Conservancies. Three workshops were held for the community of Muduva Nyangana with three aims and area of focus: fact finding, identify needs and the final integrated planning. The first workshop was oriented around the review of existing documents. The second workshop focused on analysing the current situation and requirements of the community regarding the conservation and use of their natural resources. Prior to the last workshop a series of stakeholder interviews were conducted, which subsequently fed into the final workshop. The last workshop included consultations with experts and the final planning exercises were carried out with the full participation of the community. In developing the IFMP, the principle approaches were to empower the community to participate and exercise the rights given to them so that the communities can make their own decisions. The IFMP therefore, concentrated on harmonizing the current management plans of Muduva Nyangana C/CF in the Kavango region, focusing on the needs of the community and their livelihood; the needs of the conservancy and prescribes how resources should be used. Not forgetting to respect the resources that are available, bearing in mind the future of these resources and its future users. Encompassing the management objectives, procedures, monitoring and the work plans, this included the harvesting of timber and non-timber forest products, grazing and rangeland management, management of the wild animals, habitat management and fire management. Furthermore, the IFMP also included the protection and development mechanisms for endangered resources and how rehabilitation of rare or endangered species or habitats can be achieved. The NNF now facilitates the developed IFMP for the Muduva Nyangana Community as a consultancy, which will run for five years, from January 1st, 2016 to end in December 2020. The implementation of the IFMP is to be done by the community, guided by the MC of the C/CF and the auspices of DoF/MAWF as well as MET, and should be done in accordance to annual and monthly workplans. Annual workplans are to be developed at the Annual General meeting and approved by the community.


Rhino rangers, tracking the local black rhino

Global Giving – Crowd Funding support for Rhino Ranagers Namibia has the world’s largest free-roaming population of the endangered black rhino in its remote and rugged north-west. That means these rhino are in the wild, not restricted to a specific park or reserve. The Namibia Nature Foundation (NNF) is working with local community-based conservancy organisations and Save the Rhino Trust to extend the Rhino Ranger program into an area not covered by regular rhino patrols. The goal was to fund a Rhino Ranger patrol in the field for a full year, which was achieved and now continuing. Late 2014 saw the submission of the first ‘crowd funding’ initiative at the NNF. Global Giving is a non-profit organization based in the United States that provides a global Black rhino spotted

crowd funding platform for grassroots charitable projects and it was decided to develop a straight forward fund-raising proposal for publication on the website. At the time, rhino poaching was almost daily headline news in Namibia and we thought it pertinent to use our expertise in fundraising to assist one of our NACSO partner organisations, Save the Rhino Trust, to raise funds during this critical time. The idea is straightforward; anyone from anywhere in the world is able to donate from as little as US$10 to upwards of US$10,00. Donors can remain anonymous if they wish and the NNF publishes a quarterly report on the project page. Despite an initial slow start to fundraising activity, the project has now raised over USD$17,000 which has gone directly to support the important work that Community Rhino Rangers are doing in the communal conservancies. Money raised through Global Giving is used to pay for rhino sighting bonuses, field rations, equipment and fuel for patrolling rhino range areas. Figure 1: The proportion of Community Rhino Ranger’s present on rhino sightings (green). Red illustrates other support group members primarily from Save the Rhino Trust.


As figure the graphic below illustrates, rhino sightings by community rhino rangers have dramatically increased since 2014, this is due in large part to an increase in available funds for community ranger teams to operate in conjunction with Save the Rhino Field teams. The fundraising project is helping to extend a permanent community game-guard presence (six Rhino Rangers) into an area used by the largest free-roaming black rhino population in the world. The patrols add to the information vital in ensuring the rhino’s continued existence and safety, working closely with the police and anti-poaching units. Experience in neighbouring areas shows that this has worked. The program also provides much needed income to community members in this remote region.

To read more detail on this program, please visit our Global Giving fundraising page here: https:// goto.gg/18671 and read the quarterly progress reports.

Black rhino

Rhino rangers marking the location of a rhino spotting

Detailed recording adds to rhino data


Conservancy training session

Institutional and Governance Capacity with additional funding provided by WWF in Namibia. The Building for Community Based Natural Resource Management The National CBNRM programme had recently agreed to use the proposed framework of the ‘Minimum Support Package’ (MSP) as a basis for providing CBNRM support to all conservancies country-wide. The MSP includes the basic minimal amount and types of support in which every Conservancy should be entitled to receive from government or NGO service providers. The overall objective of the MSP is to provide support to develop institutional capacity inside target conservancies. This support was provided by delivering targeted training modules based on the needs identified. The projects also aimed to deliver participatory natural resources (NR) assessment for each conservancy. The NR assessment looks at potential income generating options for the conservancy resulting in a report that is produced which provides clear actionable points that the conservancy can use to leverage funding or support. Technical assistance took place throughout the project in the form of follow up activities for trainings, development of key conservancy documentation as well as overall mentoring and support to conservancy committee members and staff. The MSP services cover the areas that conservancies will require in order to sustain themselves. A number of MSP projects were started in November 2014 and ran until November 2015. These were aimed at providing basic institutional support, technical assistance as well as a comprehensive natural resources assessment to nine conservancies in the Erongo, Otjozondjupa and Omaheke regions. The projects were funded by the European Union

combined estimated population for all nine targeted conservancies is around 25,000 people. NNF developed the project proposals, managed funds and was responsible for all technical assistance, training and mentoring support except in Otjozondjupa region where we partnered with the Namibia Development Trust as the field implementation agency. NNF produced all external reports and ensured collaboration with other MSP projects in a programmatic manner. Training and technical assistance was delivered using dedicated project vehicles, camping equipment and IT support package provided for by funding from WWF and EU/Civil Society Foundation of Namibia (CSFN) respectively. A number of consultants were used during implementation of the projects particularly for the NR assessments. Training activities were delivered by expert consultants and NNF field staff or a combination of the two. A locally based long-term consultant was hired to deliver technical assistance focused on trainee conservancy managers. Significant project achievements: • Otjituuo signed a joint partnership contract with a private sector company. The project staff facilitated a benefit distribution plan workshop as well as financial management training to help the conservancy prepare for the funds that they are set to receive from the new partnership. • In Erongo, NNF helped in the development and presentation of a grant proposal for game guard equipment. This proposal was presented by the conservancy chairpersons and trainee managers to the board of trustees of a large private sector mining company. This grant


was approved and both conservancies were beneficiaries of the grant to purchase game guard equipment. The equipment will help to strengthen monitoring of natural resources and has meant the creation of two new jobs for community game guards who have been hired from the conservancy area. • Another significant achievement in Erongo was the formation of the Erongo Regional Conservancy Association. As memWomen in conservation training session. Deputy bers of the association, all conservancies minister of gender equality and child welfare Lucia in Erongo should enjoy more effective Witbooi guest speaking communication inside the region, with In a bid to strengthen the role of women in the conseroutside institutions and also benefit from vancy management committee (CMC); a woman in conserpossible regional collaborative project applications. vation training was presented. All women serving on target • In Otjozondjupa technical assistance ensured that conservancy committees were invited to attend the trainvaluable collaborations took place between the con- ing which was held in Okahandja. Some of the main aims servancies, Cheetah Conservation Fund (CCF), Namibia of the training were to provide female CMC members with Protected Landscape Areas Initiative (NAMPLACE) and support in terms of public speaking, increase efficacy and NDT. Improved coordination of different projects in the participation in committee meetings as well as to assist in area was highlighted as a priority during the needs as- the development of leadership skills. A total of 29 female committee members from all nine targeted conservancies sessment meetings. attended the event. This event was recorded by the Na• All three Omaheke conservancies took part in an ex- mibia Broadcasting Corporation. posure trip to the Kunene region. The visit was timed to coincide with the AGM in June 2015 to provide The lessons learned from these projects were that flexibilmaximum exposure to real time events taking place ity and constant consultations during implementation is at one of the older, more established conservancies fundamental to gaining support from beneficiaries. Where in Namibia. As a result of the visit, participants have a possible, project work plans should be based on actual clearer understanding on how issues around land use needs as opposed to donor requirements. NNF also sugand private sector investment have played out in other gests that the implementation timeframe of 12 months should be lengthened to 18 months for these projects in conservancies. the future. This is in order to properly capitalise and con• A full Devil’s Claw natural resources inventory was con- solidate on positive interventions. ducted in each Omaheke conservancy It is felt that the MSP is a well-structured but Roles and Responsibilities workshop attendees necessarily flexible addition to CBNRM support services in Namibia. Additionally the possibility and need for replication across other similarly positioned conservancies warrants more attention and the release of funds for implementation.


Camp Kipwe Exterior from Afar. One of the lodges NNF works with. Credit: Camp Kipwe, Namibia

WWF Joint Venture Support In Namibia’s communal areas, Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) is promoted as a land use that outperforms and/or complements other livelihood practices. Wildlife, in particular charismatic species (e.g. elephant, black rhino, buffalo, large predators, etc.), can thrive because communities can increasingly benefit from wildlife-based tourism enterprises. This project looks at helping conservancies to unlock these benefits through tourism enterprises. A number of conservancies throughout Namibia have developed joint venture (JV) partnerships with private sector tour operators and investors. Partnership agreements are drawn up which stipulate conditions of operating a tourism enterprise in a given conservancy. Tourism joint venture activities contribute around 50% of overall income to conservancies country-wide. NNF was commissioned by NACSO on behalf of the Business Enterprise and Livelihoods Working Group (BELWG), to provide support for these JV relationships, look at new methods of collaboration between private sector and conservancies, and to provide a critical link between private sector and communal conservancies in our target area of Erongo and southern Kunene. Funding was provided by WWF-Netherlands via the WWF-Namibia office. In addition to providing support to existing JV operations and assisting conservancies and the private sector to identify new opportunities, the project looked at further strengthening linkages between the private sector and conservancies through the development of innovative tourism-based Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) schemes, which reward communities for tolerating problem species/animals, many of which are rare and endangered. They provide monetary and other incentives for local people to manage these species with positive conservation outcomes.

During the last 18 months, NNF has made good progress in relation to JV activities. Relationships between private sector and conservancies have improved significantly. This is mainly due to the introduction of the compliance framework which simplifies JV agreements and also provides good continuity during the meetings between conservancy and private sector partners. Additionally, the support has enabled NNF (with assistance from the WWF JV team) to facilitate the signature of two new conservancy/private sector agreements. A rhino tourism pilot activity and Joint Management landscape initiative between three conservancies in southern Kunene can also be highlighted as a major achievement for the project. This landscape management approach is unique in terms of its collaborative nature and its double impact of both conservation and financial benefits. Overall, the project has produced positive results and the willingness of various tourism operators to work with conservancies shows that there is great potential in the region for wider collaboration in terms of landscape management and high value species specific tourism. The integral role that the NNF has played in achieving these objectives has been acknowledged by both conservancies and private sector. The collaborative landscape tourism initiative driven by rhino tourism will require more attention and support moving forward into the immediate future. There are also a number of other activities which require ongoing support such as development of new JV agreements, the introduction of a PES scheme, and the application for exclusive tourism rights over an area rich in bio-diversity and iconic wildlife species. An extension of the project is currently being negotiated between NNF and WWF-Namibia.


Planning session for rhino tourism in the area Twyfelfontein Country Lodge by night. One of the lodges NNF works with. Credit: namibian.org

Rhino trackers reporting Rhino sighting and recording for research, before Rhino tourism kicks off in the area

Sorris Sorris Lodge. One of the lodges NNF works with. Credit: Africatravelresource.com


Productive land and seascapes

Photo by Bruno Nepomuceno

Our social ecosystems can only develop sustainably if we have productive land and seascapes that are managed within the bounds and limits of our natural ecosystems and their biodiversity. We work to ensure that our land and Seascapes are managed sustainably. In order to do so we work to advance sustainable production activities, including agriculture, forestry (including non-timber products), fisheries and wildlife, whilst minimising degradation of our environment. In addition we recognise the intrinsic value of ecosystems and biodiversity and consider these to be an integral part of productive ecosystems. mental well-being for current and future generations. In

Publication - Strengthening the Human Namibia the coastal and marine environment has long

Dimension of an Ecosystem Approach to been a source of important natural resources, most imporFisheries Management in the BCC Region – Final Report In 2015, the Namibia Nature Foundation (NNF) was involved in a number of prestigious publications that were of diverse focus, from conservation and the environment, to fisheries management and birds. The NNF, Benguela Current Commission (BCC), and Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF) formed a partnership to publish the technical report, Strengthening the Human Dimension of an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management in the Benguela Current Commission (BCC) Region, and implement the associated project. Safeguarding the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem (BCLME) is critical for sustaining human and environ-

tantly its fisheries, which are an important economic resource. But increasingly there is a growing coastal tourism industry and other human interactions that bring about economic and social services. The final publication Strengthening the human dimension of an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management in the BCC Region outlines key findings from an BCC/FAO Project (in partnership with the NNF) and makes recommendations on the collection and incorporation of such information into management decisions. Research on the human dimensions of coastal and marine conservation (such as HIV Aids, gender, poverty, and employment) focuses on how people’s knowledge, values, and behaviours influence and affect the conservation and management of our marine and coastal natural resources.


Hunting for Opportunities: Promoting Business and Employment for Communal Conservancies The Finnish Embassy in Namibia through its Fund for Local Cooperation have provided funding to the Namibia Nature Foundation to work with NACSO and its Members to look at ways of promoting non-trophy hunting specifically to the Finnish market, whilst at the same time promoting business opportunities. The project is working towards piloting 2 types of hunting which are non-trophy, target a group hunting experience and seek to further empower Conservancies through increased benefits and participation in hunting management. Currently the NNF are working with Estreux Safaris in Orupembe and Sanitatis Conservancies and also directly with Sorris Sorris Conservancy to implement this project. Together with the support of the Finnish Embassy and the Finnish Hunters Association, the Namibia Nature Foundation has thus far facilitated two successful pilot hunts at Sorris Sorris Conservancy and we have received strong interest from these hunters to return in 2017 with a bigger group. If successful it will unlock greater potential and beyond just hunting.

Oryx fight. Photo by Peter Tarr

Springbok in Tsiseb Conservancy. Photo by Bruno Nepomuceno


Community Conservation Fisheries In KAZA Project This fisheries project arose from a NNF programme that began in 2006 to empower communities to take responsibility for management of their fish resources to contribute to food security and local livelihoods. Initially, the programme concentrated on the Zambezi/Chobe rivers and floodplains, but EU funding for a 4-year project from 2013, under the Food Security Thematic Programme (FSTP), allowed for the expansion of project activities into the Kavango and Kwando systems. The project also received funding for research activities to obtain the necessary scientific information to underpin project extension messages for communities and fisheries regulations for government fisheries departments. This research was supported by SASSCAL (Southern African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adaptive Land Management) through a project component entitled “Improved knowledge of aquatic ecosystems supporting fisheries, development of integrated strategies for sustainable fisheries and improved fisheries management.” Research funding was also received from a NedBank Go Green project for “Assessment of offshore fisheries dynamics in Lake Liambezi: potential for development of an offshore fishery”. The project’s specific objective under the food security theme is: “Establishment of community-based, sustainable management systems for riverine/floodplain fisheries in the river basins of the project area”, with five Expected Results. Progress in 2015 in achieving these results is summarised here. Result 1: Effective communication channels (network platforms) established between all stakeholders, local, national and particularly international. The transboundary collaboration between the three governments’ fisheries departments for the Kavango river system is now well-established through implementation of the Kavango Transboundary Management Plan developed by SAREP and project collaboration. Stakeholder coordination in Namibia was initiated through a ‘focus group workshop’ in preparation for a full stakeholder workshop in early 2016. For the Zambezi/Chobe river/floodplain fishery, frequent transboundary fora meetings, where fisheries are the major topic of discussion, were held, coordinated by IRDNC. Following the two stakeholder workshops that were held for the Barotse floodplain fishery in 2014, the WorldFish/ AAS programme took the lead in 2015 in (a) promoting behavioural change by communities to ensure sustainable fisheries, (b) continuing sensitisation and awareness building, and (c) addressing the lack of knowledge that impedes

Research sampling on Lake Liambezi with Richard Peel, PhD student and Osbert Simataa, the project research assistant.

effective interventions. The NNF project played a key advisory role. The positioning of the project within the KAZA framework provides an opportunity for broader engagement with all fisheries initiatives in the KAZA region. Thus the concept of a more comprehensive KAZA-based body to coordinate all such activities was discussed in 2015, leading to a proposal, accepted in principle, for a KAZA Fisheries Working Group. Result 2: Capacity built in fisheries management, particularly at local community level but also at local government level and in fisheries departments at national level. Activities in 2015 included research programmes, with seven postgraduate degree studies underway, research and management presentations at a MFMR science forum at KIFI, and visits by supervising scientists from Norway and South Africa. Six scientific papers were published or in press by end-2015, plus two comprehensive research reports, one MSc thesis, three Honours theses, three information posters, and also popular articles and numerous conference/workshop presentations. Two PhD theses were nearing completion by end-2015. Ongoing activities included monitoring of fish catches conducted by community-appointed fish monitors and weekly survey of fish sales in Katima Mulilo urban market. This was extended in 2015 with a new programme to record fish exports to Zambia and DRC through the Wenela border post at Katima Mulilo. In Zambia, the project’s new Fisheries Development Officer (FDO), Ms M. Kalinda, began her community activities following the signing of an MoU with the Department of Fisheries in Zambia to allow for full cooperation and coordination of activities, particularly working closely with the DoF Sesheke office. Result 3. Improved aquatic habitat and fishery resulting from establishment of network of Fish Protection Areas and elimination of environmentally damaging fishing methods. Through engagement between community fishing committees and the project’s FDOs, communities are advised on the status of the fishery and the reasons for their decline, and are encouraged to set up Fish Protec-


Use of a sefa sefa in a floodplain lagoon. Nothing can escape the cloth lining.

tion Areas, a concept that is generating increasing interest throughout the project area. In a major step forward in 2015, the Sikunga and Kasaya Channels were officially designated as FPAs by Government. The project is mediating in discussions between conservancies, angling/tourism stakeholders and IRDNC to establish effective management systems for the FPAs. The project has advocated for the removal of destructive fishing gears from the fisheries throughout the project area, with good prospects for success. Result 4. Advocacy for harmonised fisheries legislation empowering local communities to manage own fisheries resources. The project continued to promote harmonisation of activities between the countries. The gazetted FPAs and closed season indicate the success of community motivation to MFMR and the FPA notice recognises the rights of the conservancies to manage these FPAs. In another major success, following several years of advocacy and strong motivation by the communities themselves, a harmonised closed season with Zambia was established. The Namibian MFMR held stakeholder meetings through 2015 to establish a coordinated fisheries policy for the country as a whole. The project made substantial inputs to the preparation of the document. Harmonisation between Namibia, Botswana and Angola for the Kavango River, to be established by the respective governments, is recognised in the Transboundary Management Plan, while harmonisation with Zambia for the Zambezi River can now go ahead through the DoF/project MoU and activities of the new FDO, Ms Kalinda. Result 5. Fish ranching established in existing natural water bodies. The severe drought in 2015 restricted the activities of the fish ranching programme promoted through KAZA and MFMR. Representations to KAZA and DoF by Zambian communities for assistance in fish ranching are

being followed up by the project. The inland fisheries of the Zambezi, Chobe, Kwando and Kavango river systems have been subjected to an unprecedented intensification of fishing pressure since the first decade of this century. Exponentially increasing human populations, improved regional communications including the establishment of a major trade link through to the DRC, and the introduction of more effective (and more destructive) fishing gears to compensate for declining catches, have combined to create a crisis in the region’s inland fisheries. Resolving these issues needs the concerted efforts of all stakeholders. Conservancies and other communities are seriously concerned about their declining catches and need the support of all authorities, government and traditional, if they are to reverse the current situation. Other stakeholders, including tourist lodges and conservation organisations are mobilising to provide support for management action. The NNF project has a major role to play in developing the science-based extension messages for dissemination to communities and to all stakeholders (government, private, NGOs, KAZA, etc.). Networking with all parties to ensure mobilisation of resources to reverse the current unsustainable trends, and to ensure such mobilisation continues beyond the end of the project, is the major task for this project in its final year. The Project is currently funded by the European Union with co-funding from a number of funding agencies and research institutions, including: SASSCAL, GoGreen/Nedbank, Millennium Challenge Account, NRF/SAIAB/Rhodes University, WWF and UNAM.


Bush encroachment over the horizon. Photo courtesy of MAWF/GIZ Support to De-bushing Project

Assessment of the Economics of Land Degradation related to Bush Encroachment in Namibia – GIZ/MAWF

Bush encroachment affects an estimated 26 to 30 million hectares of land in Namibia Bush encroachment has increased significantly in Namibia over past decades, largely as a result of habitat change. It affects an estimated 26 to 30 million hectares of land in Namibia, although this figure is currently under review. Bush encroachment has negative impacts on some of Namibia’s key ecosystem services, such as livestock production, groundwater recharge, and tourism, as well as biodiversity. This has given rise to calls for an extensive programme of de-bushing, to reduce bush encroachment and try to reverse some of these negative effects. De-bushing also offers economic opportunities for the utilisation of woody biomass via charcoal and firewood production, electricity generation, and other means. This study was commissioned by the Support to De-bushing Project, a bilateral cooperation between the Namibian Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry (MAWF) and the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation, implemented by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). It began in September 2015 and the final report was submitted in February 2016.

The key objectives of this study were: • To provide initial economic valuations to guide policy development and processes • To provide a framework that can be used and iterated upon when analysing particular policy options or actions to assess the most suitable approach to managing bush encroachment. The total potential benefits for ecosystem services as a result of de-bushing were estimated at N$76.1 billion (2015 prices, discounted) over 25 years. Additional groundwater recharge accounted for the majority of this value, but there would also be benefits for livestock production, tourism, charcoal production, biomass-powered electricity generation (and associated carbon offsets), and firewood production.

Analysis resulted in an estimated net benefit of N$48.0 billion The total costs were estimated at N$28.1 billion. These included the direct costs of de-bushing, loss of soil carbon, and additional greenhouse gas emissions from livestock. This analysis resulted in an estimated net benefit of N$48.0 billion (2015 prices, discounted) over 25 years. In other


words, if the investment required to unlock potential ecosystem service benefits (e.g. purchasing more cattle) is less than N$48.0 billion, de-bushing would generate a positive Net Present Value (NPV). Scenario analysis indicates that the net benefit could range from N$24.9 billion to N$111.9 billion. The report was well-received and was presented at the 6th De-bushing Steering Committee Meeting in February 2016 as part of a supporting strategy for the implementation of a De-bushing Programme. MAWF has allocated around N$400m to a De-bushing Programme for the period 2016-2019, with N$100m allocated for 2016-17.

The study will run from May until September 2016 and will contribute to the LDN (Land Degradation Neutrality) pilot project in Otjozondjupa and complement the IRLUP, particularly with regard to the related strategic environmental assessment (SEA).Â

Bush encroachment clearing. Photo courtesy of MAWF/GIZ Support to De-bushing Project

The successful completion of this study has also led to follow-up work. ELD (Economics of Land Degradation) has commissioned the NNF to carry out an assessment of the economics of land degradation related to bush encroachment in Otjozondjupa.

Bush encroachment clearing. Photo courtesy of MAWF/ GIZ Support to De-bushing Project


Kavango Indigenous Natural Product (INP) - Devil’s Claw Namibia is currently the largest exporter of Devil’s Claw (DC) in the world, with up to 1 000 tons being harvested, dried and exported annually. Devil’s Claw is an indigenous natural product (INP) and is a traditional southern African medicine that has been used throughout Namibia for centuries in herbal medicine to reduce pain and fever, and to stimulate digestion to name a few.

Devil’s Claw Harvesting: Improving Rural Livelihoods – Kavango East It is widely distributed in the Kavango region, but organized harvesting only occurs in donor supported areas, with the Namibia Nature Foundation (NNF) assisting technically. Around these supported villages there are adjacent communities with Devil’s Claw resources. Many communities have approached NNF over the years to ask how they can also be involved, which has resulted in an expansion in the project’s original scope. Coordination discussions were held in 2015 with Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET), Community Forestry in Namibia II (CFN), Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) and Directorate of Forestry (DoF) to define which organization supports which community, in order to avoid double up and harmonize the support provided for the expanded programme.

communities received support and training and were introduced to the Devil’s Claw market, however, only seven communities managed to harvest that year. Two of the communities could not harvest due to a number of significant detrimental factors such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and uncontrolled widespread veld fires. Despite these challenges, there were significant achievements, a total of 946 harvesters were registered compared to the baseline of 393, equivalent to an additional 553 harvesters, of which 56% were female. The overall objective of our Devil’s Claw interventions are to improve the income, and subsequently living conditions, of people living in rural areas, particularly women of the Kavango West region, through increased sustainable harvesting and sales of Devil’s Claw. However other project objectives include: • Producers are well trained in sustainable harvesting methods and resource mapping. Also receiving training and support in contract negotiations, pricing, cost management and to manage a buying point • Increase number of well-trained harvesters, especially the number of women trained in the Kavango region (east and west) • Sustainable increase in harvesting volumes (kg) from current harvesters and target achieved for the new harvesters

• Increase in income (sales) from Devil’s Claw harvestOur Devil’s Claw interventions started in 2010 in the Kavaning through better product handling and price negotiago West region, and have been supported by the Millennitions um Challenge Account, Global Environmental Facility Small Grants Programme, the Southern African Regional EnvironThe NNF organised training workshops through the INP Comental Program (SAREP), Gesellschaft fuer Internationale ordinator (Fidelis Mpofu), Training of Trainers (ToT) workZusammenarshop on Sustainable beit (GIZ) and Devil’s Claw Devil’s Claw Harthe European vesting and Devil’s Union (EU) Claw MET policy was via the Civil held in Rundu with Society Founeight representadation of Natives from Kavango mibia and the West. The workshop From the latter was well-attended we were able and received by to scale up participants, and and support they were also keen nine Kavango to implement the communities. knowledge gained. These Following the train-


ing, it was anticipated that participants would be fully conversant in: training harvesters in Devil’s Claw harvesting, monitoring, processing and storing as well as organizing harvesters, monitoring and evaluating all harvesting and sale activities. These training workshops were aimed at helping them to become self-dependent and not on the Devil’s Claw project.

Negotiations resulted in a 30% price increase for Devil’s Claw in 2016

Moving into 2016, the project has expanded Devil’s Claw activities to new areas in Kavango East and West. The Devil’s Claw Baseline Assessment and the resource inventory were repeated during the months of March and April in all six new community clusters following their implementation in 2015. The Baseline Assessment sought to clarify the historical involvement and current capacity regarding DC harvesting levels in each area. The purpose of the DC inventory is to assess how much DC resource, measured by the number of individual plants, is available to be sustainably harvested. This information is used to set an annual harvesting quota for these areas for 2016. The resource surveys are intended to be used as a management tool to ensure sustainable off-take levels, but also to inform contract negotiations with buyers when setting purchase amounts. Consequent negotiations resulted in an agreed price of N$ 33 per kg (N$ 28 for the harvesters and N$ 5 for the management) of Devil’s Claw in 2016. This is the highest price ever achieved for the communities. This price is due to a new buyer who requests GACP (Good agricultural and wild collection practices for medicinal aromatic plants) standards to be fulfilled, in return for a premium on the price that was previously paid.

The NNF collects socioeconomic information and data to analyse how the target communities sustain their livelihood, the income they generate from Devil’s Claw harvesting and other sources, and the contribution of income from Devil’s Claw harvesting to total income. For example the annual income is on average N$ 14 699 per household, varying between N$ 5 733 and N$ 22 014. The evaluation of income of Devil’s Claw harvesters compared to nonDevil’s Claw harvesters shows there is a significant differDevil’s Claw ence, whereby the individual Devil’s Claw harvesters had an average income of N$ 5 361, while the individuals that did not harvest Devil’s Claw only had an average of N$ 2 560. Most of the economic activities are related to the traditional livelihood such as subsistence farming. People used to depend on selling livestock once or twice a year for cash income. Devils claw is nowadays contributing a significant 51% to the communities’ cash income. However, this varies strongly between the communities – in some clusters it contributes only 9%, in others it is the only source of income, especially for young people who left the parental household and who do not have access to pension funds. A positive result of the project was the producers’, management committees’ and the traditional leaders’ appreciation of Devil’s Claw being bagged and enthusiasm for the project. The income received from the DC project represented a tangible benefit to the harvesters and their communities and had a positive impact on their livelihood, particularly given the serious drought conditions that were faced in the region. The income from the DC helped the most vulnerable people in the communities to sustain themselves instead of solely depending on government food aid.


Conservation Agriculture (CA) Farmers’ Club with Climate-Smart Agriculture for Improved Resilience and Livelihoods of Small-Scale Farmers in Kavango promotes Conservation Agriculture (CA). It targets the Kavango West Constituencies of Kapako and Kahenge, and the Kavango East Constituencies of Mashare, Ndiona and Mukwe. The project is sponsored by European Union through UFreshly plowed field, ready for sowing. Photo by Bruno Nepomuceno landshjälp från Folk till Folk (UFF) Finland and implemented by Development Aid from People to People (DAPP) and NNF. on recruiting and training farming instructors, with supThe NNF is additionally supported by the Pupkewitz Foun- port from authorities at different levels and the headmen/ dation. headwomen in all implementation areas. Targeted communities were selected, and 1003 members (83% women) Climate change is predicted to have negative impacts on enrolled to form 20 farmers clubs. In addition, suitable agricultural yields and water availability in Namibia, due demonstration plots were secured to provide inputs and to droughts and increased temperatures. Although Agri- irrigation equipment for horticulture gardens, establish culture contributes to less than 10% of GDP, an estimated nurseries, and prepare garden plots and conservation agri70% of the population, concentrated in rural areas, de- culture fields for the 2015-16 season. pends on agrarian production for a portion of their income and livelihoods. The first CA harvesting was done in May 2015 by those farmers carried over from NNF’s previous project, supportThe Farmers’ Club project objective is to build resilience ed by USAID through the Southern African Regional Enviand facilitate climate change adaptation. It strives to im- ronmental Programme and the Pupkewitz Foundation. Due prove the food security and livelihood of 1,000 small- to the drought conditions in the Kavango regions, the harscale farmers and their families via improved agricultural vest in general was, as expected, very poor, especially for productivity, improved and sustainable access to water the maize crop. However, the yields harvested were conthrough rainwater harvesting and micro-drip irrigation sys- siderably higher for the few CA farmers under the project tems, and community and farm-level resilience through (farmers that NNF has already supported) with an average institutional strengthening, community awareness, and yield between 1.1 – 2.2 tons/ha millet and 0.6 – 1.2 tons/ capacity building. ha maize. This means that the average yields harvested using CA techniques were significantly higher for millet (between 10 and 18 times higher) compared with the national average. The maize harvest was between 25% and 200% 70% of the population, higher than the national average of harvested yields. This concentrated in rural shows that supported farmers are able to increase their yields using CA techniques.

areas depend on agrarian production for a portion of their incomes and livelihoods

Due to severe drought experienced in the last three years, the promotion of Conservation Agriculture (CA), water harvesting techniques and food security measures amongst these communities is of paramount importance. During the first year of the project, the implementation focused

A baseline study was undertaken among project participants using conventional methods. Results showed that the crop production for the previous 12 months averaged 0.14 tons/ha of millet and 0.11 tons/ha of maize. This means that the farmers in the target region using CA techniques harvested 8 to 15 times more millet and 5 to 11 times more maize than the new members of the farmers’ clubs, who mostly used conventional methods. The results also showed an increase in the number of farmers with regular access to water for irrigation, with irrigation systems installed in the horticulture gardens of the Farmers' Clubs. Training sessions on different subjects covering both


conservation agriculture and horticulture production have been given to the Farmers' Clubs by the farming instructors. The lead farmers have received more intensive training. Meanwhile, expectations have been set for the end of the project. These include creating awareness of the adverse effects of climate change and building capacity to take appropriate action to prevent or minimize the potential impacts. Currently only 60% of the target communites are aware of these impacts.

The maize harvest was between 25% and 200% higher than the national average of harvested yields

technical expertise on conservation agriculture and knowledge on the conditions in the region. The NNF provides on-the-job training and technical assistance to develop instructors and lead farmers, as well as advising on land preparation, such as ripping and the use of manure, planting, maintenance (top dressing and weeding), harvesting and post-harvest assessment. Both partners are extremely important for achieving the expected results of the project.

CA principals being taught first hand

Soil samples were taken from all 18 established sites and are being tested, with another set of samples to be taken at the end of the project in order to compare the soil quality and the success of implementing the CA techniques. The results will be communicated to the farmers’ clubs and stakeholders. Technical advice will be given on site, specifically how the soil quality can be improved. Other aims include an improvement in the Household Hunger Scale of FC Farmers and their families. This achievement is possible only when the farmers have learnt the CA techniques in the demonstration fields and started applying these in their own fields. A 20% increase in household income from sale of cereal and horticulture products among FC farmers by season three is also targeted. The implementing partners, DAPP and NNF, enjoy a good working relationship and joint planning exercises are being undertaken in order to ensure efficient and effective implementation of the project. The two entities complement each other very well – DAPP has experience in community mobilisation and recruiting employees from the target communities, whereas NNF has strong

Pilot plot Pilot plot yield


Bio Trade - Indigenous Natural Products (INP)

Great Potential for development- Ohangwena and Kavango East The Biodiversity Management and Climate Change (BMCC) Project was implemented through the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET) and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). It was commissioned by the Namibia Nature Foundation (NNF) and the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). The BMCC Project was initiated in 2014 and concluded in 2015 and aimed to secure and diversify the livelihoods of communities based on the integrated use of natural resources in a changing climate, complemented by adequate governance framework. The NNF provided expertise and consultancy for the project. The project was divided into three components: • Capacity development for environmental policy development and implementation; • Capacity development for community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) in a selected pilot regions; and • Cross-sectoral mainstreaming of biodiversity, adaptation to climate change and a green economy. The project was conducted within the context of Namibia’s CBNRM programme, which targets the Communal Conservancies and Community Forests (CFs), for capacity development in the Kavango East Region. By focusing on Biotrade opportunities in the area, particularly for diversifying the income situation of local communities, the project helped build the capacities of communities and create further business opportunities based on indigenous plants and other natural products. The Okongo integrated CF received considerable support from the NNF, both financial and technical, to initiate various natural resource-based initiatives. The Okongo Complex Producer and Processor Organization (PPOs) has around 5 000 members. Meanwhile the Muduva Nyangana and George Mukova Conservancies are joint venture partners in tourism development and adjacent to the Khaudum National Park. Their situation is slightly different to that of the Okongo CF as they mostly focus on wildlife management, deriving much of their income from trophy hunting.

These conservancies and CF were the focus of this project. Fieldwork and desktop studies were conducted to identify potential Biotrade products in the targeted Conservancies and Community Forests. During the studies, the project also focused on the main challenges existing in Biotrade products within Namibia. These include market access, supply reliability, quality issues, high regulatory barriers for new products, lack of in-house technical capacity, financial resources to support necessary research and development activities, and unclear regulatory procedures. The desktop studies initially identified twelve INPs as potential Biotrade products. All INPs were scrutinized against criteria such as environmental, economic and social viability, as well as potential for “pro poor growth” (PPG) and poverty alleviation. The nine INPs that were identified were Manketti, Devil’s Claw, Thatching grass, Monkey Orange, Kalahari Melon Seed, Hibiscus, Jackalberry, Caterpillars and edible seeds. Marula, Mopane and Ximenia dropped out due to the lack of a sufficient resource base in the target areas. Further scoping workshops were undertaken with the communities to confirm the abundance of these species in the area and to discuss traditional and commercial uses. These workshops were also used to understand and assess the interest of the communities in developing additional value chains using these identified INPs. Devil’s Claw, Thatching grass and Manketti were identified as having the greatest potential for poverty alleviation in the target PPOs: The Manketti tree, with distinctive hand-shaped leaves and its

Devil’s Claw, Thatching grass and Manketti were identified as having the greatest potential for poverty alleviation in the target PPOs pale yellow wood similar to balsa, being both lightweight and strong was identified as having the most significant opportunity for the development of a new Biotrade value chain for all 3 CFs targeted in the two areas. It is valuable to the market because of its good taste, content of


eleostearic acid and vitamin E. Manketti nut oil is at present traded in small quantities but at least three international commercial operations are researching industrial product applications of Manketti nut oil. There is also growing interest in using Manketti oil as a feed ingredient for animals and in the cosmetic market. Discussions held at the community meetings confirmed that in both regions, a lot of Manketti trees occur and during the fruit harvest season there is more available than can be used for own-use or sold locally. This resource base could easily be increased through enrichment planting of truncheons. Manketti has potential to offer a considerable opportunity for rural inhabitants to further diversify their potential income generation streams in the future. This would require investment in developing and promoting a Manketti value chain. Thatching grass was another INP that was identified as having the potential to contribute to poverty alleviation.

Thatching Grass harvester

The thatching grass sector is an example of an INP that has become an important export commodity in recent years, earning the region several million dollars each year. It therefore contributes significantly to household income in the region. Two major companies in Namibia currently use approximately 500,000 bundles each per year, meaning that income generated for harvesters from each of these two companies could be between N$ 500,000 and N$ 750,000 per annum. In some areas, grass cutters can earn up to N$12,000/year. However, the distribution of benefits to grass cutters and community members can be uneven, for example, due to a limited resource base in some areas. Consequently, there is potential to strengthen the value chain in the thatching grass sector.

Thatching Grass bundles


Global Environmental Issues

Earth. CC Photo by Kevin Gill

Nature and biodiversity concerns are global and in an increasingly interlinked world so are our actions. The NNF as a global citizen works to ensure that global environmental issues are mainstreamed into our work but also that our concerns are fed into global processes. We work on national policies to advocate their alignment with sustainable development objectives and best practices, which is also informed by our work. In all of our work on global environmental issues and policies we uphold the principles of sustainable development as enshrined in the Namibian constitution and sustainableuse as promoted in National plans and policies. Baseline Assessment of Economic Instruments for Biodiversity Conservation in Namibia – MET/ResMob/GIZ/Linkd Namibia launched its first National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP1) in 2001 as part of its efforts to conserve biodiversity. Although this acted as an important tool for biodiversity financing, the NBSAP1 review found that implementation had been limited in some areas due to funding constraints. The Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET), in partnership with GIZ commissioned by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB), is currently implementing the Resource Mobilisation for Biodiversity Conservation (ResMob) Project. ResMob’s overarching project goal is to improve Namibia’s capacity to mobilise resources for biodiversity conservation, specifically to enable it to implement the objectives outlined in NBSAP2. In support of this,

there was a need to identify the range of economic instruments and policy options, such as payments for ecosystem services (PES) and environmental fiscal reform, which are available to Namibia to support the conservation of biodiversity. The resulting project, the Baseline Assessment of Economic Instruments for Biodiversity Conservation in Namibia, was led by Linkd Environmental Services, a sustainable development consultancy in South Africa, in association with NNF. NNF provided legal, policy, and regulatory advice and stakeholder liaison. The final report is yet to be submitted by Linkd but NNF has fulfilled all its obligations with regard to the study.


The key objectives of the study were to: • Identify the existing economic instruments that impact on biodiversity conservation in Namibia, • Determine the options available to Namibia to introduce further economic instruments for biodiversity protection • Present recommendations for the adoption of new, or adjustment of existing, economic instruments to support biodiversity conservation in Namibia, and • Improve the capacities of MET staff and selected environmental economists. The report identified several instruments across four categories: direct market instruments (e.g. PES, direct biodiversity fees, biodiversity offsets); indirect market instruments (e.g. environmental standards and certification); market regulation and environmental fiscal reform (e.g. environmental taxes and levies, fiscal incentives and subsidies); and philanthropy and Official Development Assistance (ODA).

Sustainable Devil’s Claw harvesting could be enhanced by an environmental certification scheme

A framework for evaluating economic instruments in the Namibian context was also developed. Evaluation criteria were grouped according to the following four themes: governance; social receptiveness and impact; environmental impact; and economic development impact. Based on these criteria, a number of economic instruments for biodiversity have been flagged for further investigation, including PES, biodiversity offsets, park fees, and plastic bag levies. Matthew Gaylard, the project manager from Linkd, conducted a training session for MET staff in April 2016. Angus Middleton, Executive Director of NNF, was a key facilitator. This training session aimed to increase the knowledge and understanding of economic instruments in the context of biodiversity protection.


Elephant embrace. CC Photo by Adrien Sifre

Corporate Sponsorship

The NNF would like to thank all corporate members for their support and contributions over the years, making NNF what it is today – a true conservation leader in Namibia. The NNF would not be possible if it were not for the generous support of our sponsors. We are extremely grateful for their support in making the NNF a success!

Diamond Sponsors 2015/16


Gold Sponsors 2015/16

Corporate Sponsors 2014/15 DIAMOND - Ohlthaver & List, Nedbank GOLD - Pupkewitz Foundation, Marsh Africa/Namibia, Bank Windhoek, CYMOT, De Beers Namibia, NamibRand Nature Reserve, Sense of Africa, Standard Bank Namibia, SWA Safaris, SWACO Industries Namibia and Namdeb Diamond Corporation SILVER - Karibu Safari and Swart, Grant, Angula



Lionel Matthews | Managing Director | Nedbank

Namibia’s exceptional efforts to conserve and nurture its biodiversity have received worldwide acclaim, and the country has played a major role in bringing together key stakeholders at global environmental summits. Nedbank actively supports Namibia’s efforts to conserve and nurture biodiversity. The acclaim that Namibia receives underscores its reputation as one of the leading countries on the continent with regard to wildlife conservation and environmental protection. In fact, our country has made the concept of sustainable development the cornerstone on which to base environmental work. It has endorsed this approach in our National Constitution and committed itself internationally to investing in a sustainable future. At Nedbank Namibia, we appreciate that finance for biodiversity is an investment that must be shared between the Government and the Namibian private sector. Funding from the private sector is an absolute imperative to sustain the commitments made towards environmental conservation and protection. At Nedbank, we recognise that biodiversity contributes to the socio-economic prosperity of the nation, communities, families and individuals. This shared wealth contributes to the prosperity of all, so we take active measures to preserve and nurture biodiversity In 2001, Nedbank Namibia recognised that conservation was no longer a choice. It was a responsibility – one that we took very seriously. As a result, Nedbank and the Namibia Nature Foundation founded the Go Green Fund, which supports individuals and organisations that actively work towards a more sustainable future for Namibia’s people, endemic species and habitats. The importance of the unique Go Green Fund is becoming even more pronounced as a contributor to the triple bottom-line effect of people, endemic species and habitats. The Go Green Fund supports individuals and organisations working towards a more sustainable future. It promotes conservation, protection and wise management of Namibian habitats, indigenous plant and animal species. It also disseminates information on environmental issues and parameters among communities. Nedbank and Namibia Nature Foundation aims to make the Go Green Fund a proudly Namibian brand to remind Namibians that we are blessed with an extremely rich natural heritage and to show the world that we are leaders in conservation.

the Five of t of ecen most r bank d 40 Ne Fund en Go Gre ives initiat


ACROSS NAMIBIA Namibia Giraffe Conservation Status Assessment Project The project undertook the firstever countrywide assessment of the conservation status of giraffe species.

UNAM Masters Student conducted research on tree abundance, structure and uses of Baobab populations in the Omusati region. Faith Chambara rutendomunyebvu@yahoo.com

Giraffe Conservation Foundation info@giraffeconservation.org

WALVIS BAY Namibian Dolphin Project The results of the survey conducted by the Namibian Dolphin Project in conjunction with Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources, represent the first systematic combined visual & acoustic surveys for cetaceans in Namibian waters. Namibian Dolphin Project nam.dolphin.project@gmail.com

LUDERITZ Brown Hyena Project The project conducted a study on the human wildlife conflict issues on commercial farm land boarding Sperrgebiet & Namib-Naukluft National Park. Information collected contributes to understanding of human wildlife conflict in one of Namibia’s most unique biomes. Dr. Ingrid Wiesel strandwolf@iway.na

Community Conservation Fisheries Project The project worked towards developing a management system, to enable the community to fish more sustainably and also looked at the potential for offshore fishing. Richard Peel richpeel1@gmail.com


Nedbank understands that, by supporting conservation programs such as the ones sponsored through our vehicle and home loan products, we are ensuring that natural assets can deliver their full economic, social and environmental potential. The partnership between Nedbank and our Go Green Fund managing partner - Namibia Nature Foundation, serves as a good example of how civil society and the private sector can work together to make a meaningful contribution to conservation efforts in Namibia. Through our Go Green Fund we are increasing public awareness and the case for conserving our precious resources for future generations.

For more information on The Go Green Fund or how you can apply for funding send an email to Namibia Nature Foundation - NNF1@nnf.org.na


Financial Statements The Namibia Nature Foundation runs a core set of accounts as well as interlinked project accounts, particularly when required to do so by our donors. The core accounts are subjected to an annual external audit, whist the project accounts are audited according to the rules of the donor. The Board of Trustees of the NNF are responsible for the choice of auditor and ensure that the accounts are presented in accordance with the Namibian Statement of Generally Accepted Accounting Practice - NAC001: Financial Reporting for Small and Medium Sized Entities. In the periods presented below the NNF Board appointed SGA: Chartered Accountants and Auditors (Namibia) as our external auditors. As an entity working for the public good and entrusted with public finances we aim uphold the principles of financial transparency. The full results are available on request and as we continue to enhance our financial disclosure will also be made available on our website.




Operating Income




Operating Expenses




N$ (1,255,008)

N$ (81,701)

N$ 777,995




N$ (1,344,878)

N$ (161,696)

N$ 753,770

Interest received




Interest paid




N$ (1,360,572)

N$ (156,832)

N$ 762,305







N$ 4,320,281

N$ 19,264,841

N$ 19,332,828







Cash and cash equivalents





N$ 2,944,275

N$ 3,115,601

N$ 3,197,213


N$ 7,264,556

N$ 22,380,442

N$ 22,530,041

Operating (deficit)/surplus before contributions to projects Contributtions to Projects Operating (deficit)/surplus before interest

(deficit)/surplus for the year

ASSETS Property and equipment TOTAL NON-CURRENT ASSETS Inventories Accounts receivable



76 - 78 Frans Indongo Street Windhoek, Namibia P.O. Box 245 Windhoek, Namibia Tel: + 264 61 248345 Fax: + 264 61 248344 E: info@nnf.org.na

This report was printed with the support of Nedbank.

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