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FOUND~TION

FOR IR~NI~N STUDIâ&#x201A;ŹS

OratO A Persian Journal of Iranian Studies

The Origins of Literary Persian Gilbert Lazar A Bridge Over the River Suren Nader Naderpour Race, Religion, Language: Three Conceptualizations of Collective Identity in Iran Ahmad Karimi-;Hakkak

The Main Themes in The Literature of the Constitutional Movement Mashallah Ajoudani The First Paper Money in Iran Ali Sharghi Civil Society, Democracy, and Colonialism: A query About Iran's Future Gholam Reza Afkhami

Vol. XI, No. 4, Fa1l1993


FOUND~TION

FOR IR~NI~N STUDIâ&#x201A;ŹS

OratO A Persian Journal of Iranian Studies

The Origins of Literary Persian Gilbert Lazar A Bridge Over the River Suren Nader Naderpour Race, Religion, Language: Three Conceptualizations of Collective Identity in Iran Ahmad Karimi-;Hakkak

The Main Themes in The Literature of the Constitutional Movement Mashallah Ajoudani The First Paper Money in Iran Ali Sharghi Civil Society, Democracy, and Colonialism: A query About Iran's Future Gholam Reza Afkhami

Vol. XI, No. 4, Fa1l1993


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Fascicle I (Coffee House -- Communism IV) Fascicle 2 (Communism IV -- Contracts II) Fascicle 3 (Contracts III -- Cotton II) Fascicle 4 (Cotton II -- Cub-Biiz])

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ENCYCLOPAEDIA IRANICA

~L~I Ml; ,7路 ;I~ Volume VI

Fascicle 1 (Coffee House -- Communism IV) Fascicle 2 (Communism IV -- Contracts II) Fascicle 3 (Contracts 1Il -- Cotton II) Fascicle 4 (Cotton II -- Cub-Ban)

Mazda Publishers P. O. Box 2603 Costa Mesa, CA 92626 U. S.A. Tel: (714) 751-5252

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Fascicle J (Coffee House -- Communism IV) Fascicle 2 (Communism IV -- Contracts H)

Fascicle 3 (Contracts III -- Cotton II) Fascicle 4 (Cotton II -- Ciib-Biizl)

Mazda Publishers P. O. Box 2603 Costa Mesa, CA 92626

U. S ..... Tel: (714) 751-5252


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ENCYCLOPAEDIA IRANICA

~ 1..r..1 A..4 L; ,7. ; I~ •• ..u... ,-.... Volume VI

Fascicle I (Coffee House -- Communism IV)

Fascicle 2 (Communism IV -- Contracts II) Fascicle 3 (Contracts III -- Cotton II) Fascicle 4 (Cotton II -- Ciib-Bazl)

Mazda Publishers P. O. Box 2603 Costa Mesa, CA 92626 U. S.A. Tel: (714) 751-5252

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ENCYCLOPAEDIA IRANICA

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Volume VI 1. ,

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Fascicle 1 (Coffee House -- Communism IV)

Fascicle 2 (Communism IV -- Contracts II) Fascicle 3 (Contracts III -- Cotton 11) Fascicle 4 (Cotton II -- Ciib-Biizl)

Mazda Publishers P. O. Box 2603 Costa Mesa, CA 92626

U. S.A. Tel: (714) 751-5252

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ENCYCLOPAEDIA IRANICA

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Volume Vl

Fascicle 1 (Coffee House -- Communism IV) Fascicle 2 (Communism IV -- Contracts II)

Fascicle 3 (Contracts III -- Cotton II) Fascicle 4 (Cotton II -- Ciib-Bazl)

Mazda Publishers P. O. Box 2603 CoSta Mesa, CA 92626

U. S.A. Tel: (714) 751-5252

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pp.22-49 .

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13, Mal}' Boyce, Zorourrianilm: 11$ Anliquity and CooJt.an1 Vi&OIIr, Cotta Meu, CA and New York, Muda., 1992. ":"':':;,)j

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L. Joocs, Thc European Miracle: Ellviromll"IIU. &ciIomic••ud' C1copolilic. in !he History of Europe and Asia, Dmbridgc, 1991.

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Volume VI

Fascicle J (Coffee House -- Communism IV) Fascicle 2 (Communism IV -- Contracts II) Fascicle 3 (Contracts III -- Cotton II) Fascicle 4 (Cotton 11-- Cul>-Biizl)

Mazda Publishers P. O. Box 2603 Costa Mesa, CA 92626 U. S.A. Tel: (714) 751-5252

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••• -Hamid Naficy, The Making of Exile Cultures: Iranian Television in Los Angeles, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1993.

-Mehdi Marashi, ed .• Persian Studies in North America: Studies in Honoraf Mohanunad Ali Jazayery, Wash. DC, lranbooks, 1994 .

.. John Foran, Fragile Resistance; Social Transformation in Iran from 1500 to the Revolution, Boulder, Westview Press, 1993 . .. Tim McDaniel. Autocracy, Modernization. and Revolution in Russia and

Iran, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1991 . .. Srudia lranica, tome 21. fascicule I, 1992 . .. Perioclica lslarruca, Vol. 2, No. I, 1992.


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Ketab, Chief Editor M. Ajoudanl

P O. Box 387. London W5 3UG England. U.K


CALENDAR CONVERSION TABLES Hijri Shamsi (Solar)-Hijri Qamari (Lunar)-A.D. Gregorian Shamsi 1250-1400/Qamari 1288-14431 A.D. 1871-2020 With a Supplement Hijri Qamari (Lunar)-Gregorian Hijra 1-1288/ A.D 622-1871

--

BY -

Ibrahim v. Pourhadi New Edition

Foundation for Iranian Studies

1993


Contents Iran Nameh VoL XI, No.4, Fall 1993

Persian: Aritcles Book Reviews

English: The Origins of Literary Persian Gilbert Lazar A Bridge Over the River Suren

Nader Naderpour Race, Religion, Language: Three Conceptualizations of Collective Identity in Iran

Ahmad Karimi- Hakkak The Main Themes in The Literature of the Constitutional Movement

Masha1lah Ajoudani The First Paper Money in Iran

Ali Sharghi Civil Society, Democracy, and Colonialism: A query About Iran's Future

Gholam Reza Afkhami


The Origins of Literary Persian* Gilbert Lazard It has been known for more than a hundred years that New Persian is the direct continuation of Darius's Old Persian through Middle Persian, whose main representative is Pahlavi. Originally the Persian language was the language of Fars, in south-west Iran. However, it was in the extreme north-east, in Transoxiana, that new Persian first appeared as the language of literature, with the brilliant poetry of Rudaki and the succeeding poets. It is obvious that during the Sasanian era, Persian both as a colloquial language and as the language of religion, literature, government, and all official activities, rapidly spread toward the North and East of Iran. Following the Arab conquest, it continued to spread out as the main colloquial language of the Muslim conquerors. Thus in most of the Northern provinces of Iran, Persian superseded Parthian, the former language of those regions. At the same time it borrowed many words from Parthian and was also strongly influenced by Soghdian language. Eventually, therefore, the Persian language used in the North was perceived as being somewhat different from the original language which remained in use in the South, and was thus given a new name. As this language was used in the Sasanian capital, it was named dari, or the language of the court, or parsi dari [court Persian], in contradistinction to the Persian of Fars. Literary new Persian, in its outset, was Northern Persian, or dari Persian, as it was commonly called in the tenth and eleventh centuries. Thus, the new Persian language is heir to both Old Persian (through Pahlavi) and Parthian, just as the great Persian literature is heir to both Pahlavi literature and Parthian poetry.

* Abstracts marked by an asterisk have been prepared by the author. Others have been prepared by Iran Nameh.


32

A Bridge Over the River Suren

Nader Naderpour Hedayat's inimitable influence on Iran's literati has remained unaffected over the years. The reason is his complex personality and extraordinary effect on the structure and direction of literary thought in modem Iran. Although there are many ways in which his personality and his work may be studied, this essay focuses on Hedayat's "national feeling" : his attitude toward Iran and the Persian language. Iranian (and perhaps all) writers and poets, including those who constitute the highest peaks of our literary achievement, fall in three categories: those who articulate the present (Sa'di, Hafez), those who forego the present in favor of the future or the past (Ferdowsi), and those whose trek is timeless (Khayyam, Nezami, and Riimi). For most Iranian writers, the past has been the favorite intellectual abode. They denigrate the present in order to prepare the ground for eulogizing the past. Their motive seems to be nationalism. Hedayat is the example par excellence of this genre. There are two reasons for this attitude. The first is a profound antiArabism that goes back to the 2nd century AH and has remained one of the strongest national forces throughout the Iranian history. The second is a propensity toward the West, which, at least since the Constitutional Revolution, has been a force propelling the "Aryan Iran of yesterday" toward a "European Iran of tomorrow." The divide between the pre-Muslim and Muslim Iran in Hedayat's writings is symbolized by the River Suren. In Parvin Daughter of Sasan a fateful combat between Arabs and Iranians is enacted on a bank of the Suren, which ends in Arab victory, signaling the fall of Iran. In Bilf-e Kilr, the ethereal girl in pre-Islamic Iran turns into the Lakkateh as soon as she crosses the river to the Islamic period. Interestingly, Hedayat's anti-Arab disposition does not spill over to his language. He was never a "purifier" of Persian. Rather, he saw the Persian language as the common heritage of all Iranians regardless of national boundaries. For him, the water that passed through the Suren was also a symbol of this language, carrying the glory of Iranian culture for the ages that lay ahead in the future. In the light of his intransigeance toward the Arabs, on one hand, and his liberal attitude toward Persian, on the other, the question remains: Is it possible to consider Hedayat a "fanatic nationalist"?


33

Race, Religion, Language: Three Conceptualization of Collective Identity in Iran* Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak Based on literary evidence, this essay surveys the emergence and transformations of the concept of ethnic identity in Iranian culture since the advent of Islam. It focuses on three originary moments in the process of group identity formation, and argues that, once more in the last decades of the twentieth century, that concept is being rethought. The first historical moment occurred in the Iranian plateau during the early centuries of the Islamic era. Following the Sho'ubiyyeh movement, Iranians reconstructed their sense of ethnic belonging with an appeal to the Persian language, the primary distinction between them and their Arab overlords. The text that both reflects and fosters that conceptualization is the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, a work in which two concepts of ethnic identity--a racial one belonging to the kings and heroes of ancient Iran, and a linguistic one proposed and promoted by the poet himself--are juxtaposed and contrasted. The linguistic identity eventually goes beyond defining the Ajam in contradistinction from the Arab, and helps transform Islam into a transnational belief system capable of accommodating plurality and propagating interethnic tolerance. A second conceptualization of collective identity begins with the official adoption of Shi'ism as the national religion of Iran in the sixteenth century. Faced with Sunni Turks of Central Asia and of the Ottoman empire as an ascending "other," the Safavids forge and foster a religion-based concept of collective identity which integrates and/or subordinates language and race in a new and primarily religious system of conceptualizing its distinctness. While solidifying the basis of the Safavid state, this new identity separates Iranians from other speakers of Persian in India, in Afghanistan, and in Central Asia. This sense of ethnic identity is most evident in the texts of the ta'zieh and the popular tales woven around the stories of the Shahnameh or in imitation of its epic style. Finally, with the penetration of the European idea of the nation-state into the Persian-speaking world, a modem way of conceptualizing collective identity emerges in Iran. Patriotic nationalism, replacing the earlier systems of conceptualizing collective identity, is essentially an amalgam of discordant elements in a precarious balance. As a part of its discourse, this new system tries to appropriate the cultural and literary heritage of all the speakers of Persian, including the Persian language itself, in the name of the modem country of Iran. The text that best illustrates this effort is Jamalzadeh's famous short story, "Persian is Sweet." The essay argues at its close that in the aftermath of the dissolution of the Soviet empire, new efforts at identity formation appear to be underway, efforts which may well give rise to a new ascendance of the language component in the concept of ethnic identity among Iranians, Afghans and Tajiks.


34

The Main Themes in the Literature of the Constitutional Movement Mashallah Ajoudani Discussing the main themes and subjects recurring in the literature of the period during and immediately following the Iranian constitutional movement, the author refers to a number of well-known Iranian poets and provides, in some detail, the socio-political imperatives that led to the salient themes in some of their poetry. Beginning with the theme of "motherland," the author suggests that the new concept of Iran as a distinct national entity entered into Iranian consciousness during the latter part of the Qajar period and particularly during the constitutional movement. The Iranian awareness of the interrelated concepts of "motherland," "patriotism," and "nationalism" was partly a consequence of the increasing contact with the west and partly the result of the growing anti-colonial feelings among the Iranian intellectual and political elite. "Motherland" thus became the most prevalent theme in the poetry of this period, albeit with different connotations for different poets, all of whom shared the desire to arouse the nationalistic feelings of their compatriots. In this context, Iran's political impotence, its social and cultural decay, and its degradation in the hands of foreign powers were constantly compared to its glorious past. References to the pre-Islamic history of Iran, its epic heroes, and victorious kings and conquerors abounded in the poetry of this period. The themes of "Popular sovereignty," "democracy," "rule of law," and "freedom" also dominated the works of such poets as Aref, Eshqi, Bahar and Farrokhi. For them, according to the author, the struggle against foreign domination and control could not be successfully waged until Iran's despotic political system was replaced by democratic institutions similar to those in the Western world. The rights of Iranian women, particularly their right to education and to the abandoning of the traditional veil, were also taken up by some of the more enlightened of these poets. The necessity to acquire and adopt advanced Western scientific and technological know-how was another major theme pursued by these poets. In most cases this theme was accompanied by broad and at times satiric comparisons between Iranian and Western societies, which inevitably involved references to political and social issues.


35

The First Paper Money in Iran Ali Sharghi Despite the commonly-held belief among many Westerners, paper money was not first introduced in a European country but in elsewhere in the world. Indeed, it was introduced in Iran almost 700 years ago. The first known reference to this event, in a Persian document, is found in a historical account written by the famous Persian historian Vassaf, and the first such reference in English is in Sir John Malkolm's History of Persia published in 1815. More specifically, and in an article published in 1892, entitled "Banking in Persia," Joseph Robino, the president of the Imperial Bank of Persia, stated that as early as the 13th century, and "long before they [paper money] were thought of in Europe," Iranians had attempted to introduce bank notes in their country. In fact, it was in 1294 A.D., in the midst of a serious financial crisis during the reign of Kaikhatu of the Ilkhanid dynasty, when "nothing in the shape of gold or silver remained in the treasury of the Shah," that the idea of issuing chaw or paper money was proposed by one of the advisors to Kaikhatu's grand vizier. A yerligh, imperial command, was issued in the same year, which ordered all the gold and silver smiths to close up their shops, prohibited the manufacture of gold or silver items and their use in all transactions, and declared that chaw would henceforth be the legal tender in the country. According to Tarikh-e Vassaf [History of Vassaf], the bank note or chaw, for which all gold and silver had to be exchanged, was a rectangular piece of paper, made of the inner bark of the Mulberry tree, on whose top side appeared the names of God, the Prophet and the emperor. The date of the issue and the value of the note appeared in a circle at the center of the note. A note warning all would-be counterfeiters of the dire consequences of their act appeared at the bottom of the note. Tabriz, where the main chaw house was established, was the first city to print these notes which were also printed in a number of other Iranian cities and towns. The popular reaction to the new tender was less than enthusiastic. Many shopkeepers and artisans closed their businesses rather than accept the notes. The notes, therefore, were immediately depreciated and fell to one tenth of their face value. Within days, fearing a full-fledged public revolt and further deterioration of the economy, the royal edict was rescinded and the chaw houses closed down. However, Iran's revolutionary innovation, which did not come to fruition seven centuries ago, eventually helped change the whole concept of banking and commerce of the world.


36

Civil Society, Democracy, and Colonialism: A Query About Iran's Political future* Gholam Reza Afkhami The article discusses the genealogy of civil society and democracy within the nation-state frame of reference and suggests the following: 1. The development of civil society has been a precondition of Western democracy. 2. Civil society came into existence, among other things, as a result of processes that led to the subjective and objective precedence of the social system over the political system. 3. Colonial conditions (whether direct or indirect) invariably causes the precedence of the political system over the social system, thus reversing the democratic process. 4. Colonialism is the natural state of relations among high-tech and lowtech countries under conditions of relatively advanced technology. Hence, neither revolutions nor political positioning change the essentials of colonial relations. 5. The historical context for the political imposition of colonial relations is the nation-state. Concurrently, nation-state is the framework for fighting against colonialism. All Third World countries, including Iran, have gone through several historically determined stages of anti-colonial struggle. 6. Recently, technological requirements in the developed countries have come into conflict with nation-state's traditional economic, cultural, and political boundaries. Since major concepts dealing with political structure and process in the Third World are results of the colonial experience, it is likely that the weakening of the aforementioned boundaries in the West will lead to their weakening in the Third World as well. Given the demise of Marxism-Leninism and historical alienation of various types of religious fundamentalism, the (perhaps mandatory) weakening of nation-state problematizes the theoretical bases of many concepts that in recent times have been developed and materialized within the nation-state framework, including freedom, equality, justice, social welfare, human rights, and the like. Furthermore, the possible weakening of nation-state may cast serious doubt on the efficacy of anti-colonial struggle. 7. Any serious analysis of the political future of Iran (and perhaps other Third World countries) should at least consider the implications of these questions critically.

Iran Nameh, Vol. 11, No. 4, (Fall 1993)  

سال یازدهم، شماره ۴، پاییز ۱۳۷۲ Published regularly since 1982 Editor-in-Chief: Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi Foundation for Iranian Studies...

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