Page 1

L EXI CON


WORDS THAT

START WITH

A

THE LETTER


ARM Horizontal stroke that is free on one or both ends.

V


ALIGNMENT Having elements’ edge placement agree. Optical alignment is always more important than measurable alignment.


AMPERSAND The sign (&), Latin et, meaning “and.”

&


ASCENDER The part of the lowercase letters that extend above the median in b, d, f, h, k, l, t.

h


WORDS THAT

START WITH

B

THE LETTER


BASELINE Implied line on which letterforms sit.

x


BEARDLINE Invisible line that indicates the bottom of descenders.

p


BLACK Bolder than bold.

regular bold black


BLACKLETTER Heavy, angular types based on medieval script writing. The first metal type in Europe, and that used by Gutenberg. The five categories of blackletter are Bastarda, Fraktur, Quadrata, Rotunda, and Textura.

A


BODY COPY The primary text of a story. Usually identified by a medium weight and a body size of 8 to 12 points. As distinguished from headings, display type, captions, etc. Also called, Body matter.

Lorem Ipsum Dolor Mauris commodo lacus et mauris imperdiet porta. Curabitur luctus, nulla non faucibus hendrerit, risus urna dapibus ligula, vitae fermentum ante lorem in purus. Sed et turpis sem. Duis ornare arcu laoreet velit gravida sed gravida arcu tincidunt. Nulla facilisi. Aliquam purus libero, pretium sed eleifend eu, porttitor vitae augue. Pellentesque eget sagittis sem. Sed commodo aliquet lorem, accumsan convallis risus fermentum et.


BOLD A typeface that is heavier and eider than the roman style of the same typeface.

regular bold


BULLET A dot indicating items in a list. Mauris commodo lacus et mauris Imperdiet porta curabitur luctus nulla Non faucibus hendrerit risus urna Dapibus ligula vitae fermentum ante Lorem in purus. Sed et turpis sem


WORDS THAT

START WITH

C

THE LETTER


CAMELBACK A secondary capital letter in the middle of the word.

iPod


CAP HEIGHT The height of the capital letters, measured from baseline to top of the uppercase letterforms. Lowercase ascenders sometimes exceed the cap height.

N


CENTERED Alignment in which the midpoints of each element are positioned on a central axis. The ragged edges of such a column are mirror images.


COLOPHON Information at the end of a book and sometimes on Web sites that describes its production. The production of this lexicon is part of the academic curriculum in Central Piedmont Community College’s Advertising & Graphic Design program. The project was created for the Type I class of Spring 2012. The format and design was created by Nalee Thao while the book was printed and bound at a local print shop.


COLOR The lightness or darkness of an area of type. Typographic color is affected by the type’s size, posture, weight, and letter-, word, and linespacing.

LOREM IPSUM DOLOR SIT AMET CONSECTETUR adipiscing elit. Aenean vitae sem urna, eu tempor tortor. Quisque nec metus ac felis varius bibendum a ac quam. Donec malesuada urna in est molestie nec dictum leo tincidunt. Nam vitae arcu id justo sodales placerat. Nulla dignissim sollicit udin rhoncus. Nulla nec tortor.


CONDENSED A narrow version of a typeface that fits more characters into a given space.

Regular Oblique Expand Black Condensed


CONTRAST The amount of variation between thick and thin strokes of a letter.

Little:

Helvetica High:

Bodoni


COPYFITTING The fitting of a variable amount of copy within a specific and fixed amount of space.

Olore natusdae sum nonse veliquat. Obis eius ipsam exped moluptatur aut qui core con net faciis elitati ossequodi demporae molupta tisquistet molestio torporitas res event arum nonserit raeptas quia im quas duscil intecep eliquas reptia ditatur. Olore natusdae sum nonse veliquat. Obis eius ipsam exped moluptatur aut qui core con net faciis elitati ossequodi demporae molupta tisquistet molestio torporitas res event arum nonserit raeptas quia im quas duscil intecep eliquas reptia ditatur.


COUNTER The space, either completely or only partially closed, in letterforms like a, e, o, u, and A, B, C, S.

Q


CROSS-BAR A horizontal stroke connecting two stems, as in A and H. Also called Cross stroke.

H


WORDS THAT

START WITH

D

THE LETTER


DESCENDER The part of a lowercase letter that extends below the baseline in g, j, p, q, y.

y


DINGBAT Illustrative characters in a typeface. Also called Picture font and Flowers.

d.; gba vf4


DISPLAY TYPE A decorative typeface meant for larger sizes. Often illegible for long passages or at text sizes.

HELLO.


DROP CAP A large initial set into the top left corner of body copy. A drop cap’s baseline must align with a text baseline.

D

onec malesuada urna in est molestie nec dictum leo tincidunt. Nam vitae arcu id justo sodales placerat. Nulla dignissim sollicitudin rhoncus. Nulla nec tortor neque. Ut nec magna neque, sit amet mattis justo. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Aenean vitae sem urna, eu tempor tortor. Quisque nec metus ac felis varius bibendum a ac quam.


DUMB QUOTES Quotes that are straight, not proper.

"dumb"


WORDS THAT

START WITH

E

THE LETTER


EAR Small strokes attached to some lowercase letters like the g and r.

g


ELLIPSIS A single character of three dots indicating an omission. The spacing of and ellipsis (...) is generally distinct from three periods in a row (...)

‌


EM DASH The longest dash in a typeface. The em dash separates thoughts within a sentence and should not have spaces added on either side.

I was given a sixtyfour-crayon Crayola Box—including the gold and silver crayons—and I abosoulety love them!


EN DASH The width of an en, the second longest dash in a typeface. The en dash separates numbers and should not have spaces added on either side.

I was given a sixty– four–crayon Crayola Box—including the gold and silver crayons—and I abosoulety love them!


WORDS THAT

START WITH

F

THE LETTER


FACING PAGES Pages that are across from each other in a multi-bound document.


FLUSH LEFT Type set even on the left and ragged on the right.


FLUSH RIGHT Type set even on the right and ragged on the left.


FOLIO A page number.

39


WORDS THAT

START WITH

G

THE LETTER


GLYPH A character in a font.

abcd efgh i j k l mnop


GREEKING Using dummy text to hold the place of where the text would go.

Dae sint. Ad quo vellat res disquo que doles maximil id enis aut asi as dis et rerovid que di aut quost atur audita dus. Nam qui derum non conseque etur as int harum dero endi doluptas dero te non nonsectur.


GRID A skeletal guide used to ensure design consistency. A grid should show type widths, image areas, margins and spaces to be left empty, and trim size.


GUTTER Space between columns and on either side of the bound inside margins of multiple-page documents.


WORDS THAT

START WITH

H

THE LETTER


HAIRLINE The thinnest strokes of a typeface. Also, the thinnest line which an output device can make, usually 1/4 point.

N


HANGING PUNCTUATION Allowing lines that begin or end with punctuation to extend a bit beyond the column width for optical alignment.

“ Tapping at my chamber dooronly this, and nothing more. ”


HEADLINE The title or primary type in a composition.

Lorem Ipsum Dolor Mauris commodo lacus et mauris imperdiet porta. Curabitur luctus, nulla non faucibus hendrerit, risus urna dapibus ligula, vitae fermentum ante lorem in purus. Sed et turpis sem. Duis ornare arcu laoreet velit gravida sed gravida arcu tincidunt. Nulla facilisi. Aliquam purus libero, pretium sed eleifend eu, porttitor vitae augue. Pellentesque eget sagittis sem. Sed commodo aliquet lorem, accumsan convallis risus fermentum et.


HUMANIST A class of sans serif that looks a bit like handwriting, or at least doesn’t look too mechanical or geometric.

Merely this, and nothing more.


WORDS THAT

START WITH

I

THE LETTER


ITALIC Types that slant to the right, based on the 15th century Italian Renaissance script.

regular italic bold


WORDS THAT

START WITH

J

THE LETTER


JUNCTION Point where two strokes intersect.

R


JUSTIFICATION Aligning both the left and right sides of a column of type by distributing space evenly between words and, if necessary, letters.


WORDS THAT

START WITH

K

THE LETTER


KERNING Removing space between specific letter pairs in order to achieve optically consistent letterspacing.

Raven Raven


WORDS THAT

START WITH

L

THE LETTER


LEADING Pronounced “ledding.” Space between lines of type that appears between the descenders of one line and the ascenders of the next.

x type


LEGIBILITY The ability to distinguish between letterforms.

Legible


LETTERSPACING Equivalent to tracking, letterspacing is used to describe general spacing between letterforms.

Nevermore

Nevermore Nevermore


LIGATURE Conjoined characters into a single one for consistent optical spacing.

Æ


LIGHT A lighter variation in the density if a typeface.

Regular Oblique Light Bold


LOREM IPSUM DOLOR Commonly used dummy text.

Lorem Ipsum Dolor Mauris commodo lacus et mauris imperdiet porta. Curabitur luctus, nulla non faucibus hendrerit, risus urna dapibus ligula, vitae fermentum ante lorem in purus. Sed et turpis sem. Duis ornare arcu laoreet velit gravida sed gravida arcu tincidunt. Nulla facilisi. Aliquam purus libero, pretium sed eleifend eu, porttitor vitae augue. Pellentesque eget sagittis sem. Sed commodo aliquet lorem, accumsan convallis risus fermentum et.


LOWERCASE Noncapital letters like a, b, c, etc.

Rr


WORDS THAT

START WITH

M

THE LETTER


MARGIN The space at the four edges of a page. There are four margins: head margin, foot margin, side margin, and gutter margin.


MASTER PAGE A template to set up a multi-page document.


MEASURE The width in picas of a line or column of type.

Loris alique volor ib usciendant qui tent qui consequodis reicia quis 10 picas


MODERN A type face with vertical stress, strong stroke contrast and unbracketed serifs.

BODONI


MONOSPACED Typefaces in which each character occupies the same horizontal space.

FIXED SPACE


WORDS THAT

START WITH

N

THE LETTER


WORDS THAT

START WITH

O

THE LETTER


OBLIQUE An angled typeface in which the roman characters have been slanted to the right, not redrawn.

Regular Oblique Expand Black Condensed


OLDSTYLE Type originating in the 15th and 16th centuries.

Goudy Times Garamond


OPTICAL ALIGNMENT Adjusting elements or letterforms so they appear aligned, which is more important than actually being aligned.

The Raven The Raven


ORPHAN A word or word fragment at the top of a column. A sign of ultimate carelessness.

To mollab ipsanihil. consequidit exceari bea iusdant. Bus nosa dit ut eatest moleniam, soluptat. Ur aut earum untorrum voluptur officia. Que id que voloremo moditat mo blaccab is ea a sitia sam dusae exerionsequi cusciis quodigent qui rest exernat maio eos eatius magnatur

dolore? Senihic tem neces eum vent aut qui to mi, ut dolori ut dunto qui id utate sa volum dolorerit ant alitissus eossequ iaerum id quidiam voluptus iduntibus et. quam eaquia volupta tusdae serci cuptatquamus cuscipsant quia sapelicietur volupt.


WORDS THAT

START WITH

P

THE LETTER


PARAGRAPH RULE Rules/strokes above and/or below a paragraph that will format into the running text.

Âś


PICA One-sixth of an inch, or 12 points. Because it is divisible by points, and thus perfectly accommodates type measurement, it is useful to use the pica as the default for planning design space.

INCHES 0

1

2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 1112

PICAS


POINT One-seventy-second of an inch, or one-twelfth of a pica. The basic unit of vertical measurement of type.

PICA 0

1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 1112

POINTS


PRINTERS’S SPREADS Page configuration used by printers.

1 2

7

3

4

5

8

6


WORDS THAT

START WITH

Q

THE LETTER


WORDS THAT

START WITH

R

THE LETTER


RAGGED Type that is set with one edge rough: flush left/ragged right or flush right/ragged left.


RAISED CAP A large initial set at the top left corner of body copy. The raised cap baseline must align with the first text baseline.

P

a volecabo. Esenisim pore core vendam, qui net velit aspernat quatusaerio explitaquam arciatur apel moloriam la voluptaque sum quianda que volupti blacea ipid quodia quamet earum quam sectaqui omnihit pero ipid maiorum dolo.


READABILITY The quality of reading, determined by letterspacing, linespacing, paper-and-ink contrast, among other factors.

Legible


READER’S SPREADS What the reader sees as opposed to the printer.

1 2

3

6

4

5

8

7


RECTO Any right-hand page in a bound document. Always odd numbered.


ROMAN An upright, medium weight typeface style, based on the classical lettering found on the Trajan Column in Rome and later humanistic writing of Italian Renaissance.

B


RULE A line.


RUNAROUND Type set around an image or element. The ideal distance is one pica, or enough space to separate, but not enough to disassociate, the type and image from each other.

Ehentest et harchit inusant quis plique vit, sam con ped molupta tionsequatem que nihitat ionsequam deni dolorep udicaes ditiore ilitat pe venlorep ereptur molorec uptatiam im quis.


RUNNING HEADER/FOOTER A line of type that repeats on every page, usually near the page number at the top/bottom.


WORDS THAT

START WITH

S

THE LETTER


SANS SERIF From the Latin “without serifs.” Type without cross strokes at the ends of their limbs. Usually have consistent stroke weight.

K K


SERIF A small terminal at the end of a stroke or arm of a letterform.

K K


SET SOLID Type set without additional linespacing.

Lorionetur restiatemqui tore, ad expeditat dolorum hicius et aut rem voloriatur, solo voluptus. Lorionetur restiatemqui tore, ad expeditat dolorum hicius et aut rem voloriatur, solo voluptus.


SHOULDER In metal type, the nonprinting surface of type or a slug.

h


SLAB SERIF Type with especially thick serifs. All Egyptian typefaces are slab serifs.

THICK


SMALL CAPS Capital letters that are about the size of the x-height of lowercase letters of the same typeface.

mm


SMART QUOTES Curly quotes. Proper quotes.

“smart”


STEM The main straight stroke of a letter.

h


STRESS The general direction of a letter, whether vertical for romans, or diagonal for italics.

b


SUBHEAD Lorem Ipsum Dolor Secondary type that explains the headline and leads to the text.

Mauris commodo lacus et mauris imperdiet porta. Curabitur luctus, nulla non faucibus hendrerit. Risus urna dapibus ligula, vitae fermentum ante lorem in purus. Sed et turpis sem. Duis ornare arcu laoreet velit gravida sed gravida arcu tincidunt. Nulla facilisi. Aliquam purus libero, pretium sed eleifend eu, porttitor vitae augue. Pellentesque eget sagittis sem. Sed commodo aliquet lorem, accumsan convallis risus fermentum et.


WORDS THAT

START WITH

T

THE LETTER


TERMINAL The hanging stroke of letters like a, c, and f. There are five styles of terminal: ball, beak, finial, half-serif, and teardrop.

t


TEXT The main portion of a story.

Lorem Ipsum Dolor Mauris commodo lacus et mauris imperdiet porta. Curabitur luctus, nulla non faucibus hendrerit, risus urna dapibus ligula, vitae fermentum ante lorem in purus. Sed et turpis sem. Duis ornare arcu laoreet velit gravida sed gravida arcu tincidunt. Nulla facilisi. Aliquam purus libero, pretium sed eleifend eu, porttitor vitae augue. Pellentesque eget sagittis sem. Sed commodo aliquet lorem, accumsan convallis risus fermentum et.


TRACKING Adjusting overall letter and word space in a line or paragraph.

raven raven raven


TYPE FAMILY All styles and variations of a single typeface. May include italic, bold, small caps, etc.

Walkway Walkway Walkway Walkway Walkway


TYPEFACE A set of characters of a certain design and bearing its own name. Usually includes alphanumeric figures (letters and numerals), punctuation, accents, and symbols.

Round SlabSerif


WORDS THAT

START WITH

U

THE LETTER


U&lc (Upper & lower case) Typesetting using upper and lowercase letters. The normal setting for the bicameral Latin alphabet.

Qq


UPPERCASE Capital letters like A, B, C, etc The term comes from the placement of the typecase relative to the lowercase (a, b, c, etc.) characters.

Qq


WORDS THAT

START WITH

V

THE LETTER


VARIABLE SPACED Type in which each character is assigned it’s own width as determined by the character’s inherent width.

Vari able


VERSO Any left-hand page in a bound document. Always even numbered.


WORDS THAT

START WITH

W

THE LETTER


WEIGHT The lightness or darkness of a typeface.

LIGHT MEDIUM HEAVY


WIDOW A word or word fragment at the end of a paragraph. While words are okay, but word fragments are careless and must be corrected.

To mollab ipsanihil. consequidit exceari bea iusdant. Bus nosa dit ut eatest moleniam, soluptat. Ur aut earum untorrum voluptur officia. Que id que voloremo moditat mo blaccab is ea a sitia sam dusae exerionsequi cusciis quodigent qui rest exernat maio eos eatius magnatur

dolore? Senihic tem neces eum vent aut qui to mi, ut dolori ut dunto qui id utate sa volum dolorerit ant alitissus eossequ iaerum id quidiam voluptus iduntibus et. quam eaquia volupta tusdae serci cuptatquamus cuscipsant quia sapelicietur volupt.


WORD SPACING Space between words. Proportional to letterspacing: if one is open, both must be open.

word space


WORDS THAT

START WITH

X

THE LETTER


X-HEIGHT The distance from the baseline to the median in lowercase letters.

n


WORDS THAT

START WITH

Y

THE LETTER


WORDS THAT

START WITH

Z

THE LETTER


Nalee Thao GRD110 Spring 2012

Typographic Lexicon  

Lexicon of typographic terms created for Type 1 class.