Page 1


CONTENT 4

SITE ASSESSMET

14

SITE & SOLAR ASSESSMENT

22

DAYLIGHTING

30

FACADE INTEGRATION

38

58

ELETRICAL EQUIPMENT

62

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY

65

LIGHTING SYSTEM

FACADE MATERIALS PROPERTIES AND SELECTION

70

WATER & PLUMBING SYSTEM

45

PASSIVE AND ACTIVE COOLINGIHEATING SYSTEMS

75

LIFT SAFETY SYSTEM

51

SPACE AIR AND WATER DISTRIBUTION

82

SIMPLE PAYBACK ANALYSIS

86

CONCLUSION


SUMMARY The design of the building is aimJOH for energy efficiency and flexibility for future adjustment. Our first main focus is the design of facade, which JTcooperated with the functional scheme and asethetic purpose. It includes the following details: t The Ribbon-like facade coperated with efficent shading system reflect the natural light and block the unecassry glare. t The facade has WWR equals to 0.53 and has up to 70% transmittance of visible light. t The wall has R-value 17, and the collaboration with passive design is introduced to achieve a better thermal performance. The mechanical system is the other concern in our office design, which has the following qualities: t The docking system for space and air is categorized by the areas of smiliar usage, to achieve effiecient controls. t The electricity and lighting system design provides the flexibility to be controlled and used the minimum number of pole in order to prepare for furture use. t The water and plumbing system adapts the grey water recycling strategy for saving the use of water. The natural heating and cooling system of the building is efficient enough to cost down the annual electricity and gas comsuption. The payback will be reached in 33 years.

Last but not least, for the life safety system provided the egress layout meeting the requirement of building code, and there is not area left uncovered by the alaram or sprinking system. The overall layout of the office area still provides sufficent space for people to work.


PROJECT SITE: 610 BROADWAY, NEW YORK

The building is located on the corner of broadway and Houston street, and site is Noho area and close to Soho and New York University where there are many people West. Building is constructed in steel construction with column supports. daytime, and building is not occupied at the night. Temperature gets really hot in summer where temperature stays above 75F for almost a whole day. While in in the winter, because there is no control to the environment.


SITE ASSESSMENT

4


TRAFFIC AND PEDESTRIAN DESITY : CAR

: 2 PEOPLE

: TRUCK

: 4 PEOPLE

: BUS

: 6 PEOPLE

Images on site

5


M

M

TRAFFIC AND PEDESTRIAN PATTERN

Images on site

: MAIN ENTRANCE : TRAFFIC DIRECTION : PEDESTRIAN DIRECTION

: LOADING DOCK M

: SUBWAY

6


LOW

SOURCES OF AIR, NOISE AND ARTIFICIAL LIGHT POLLUTION AIR POLLUTION Vehicle Vendor / Construction Trash Collector at 11:30 am

NOISE POLLUTION Vehicle / Pedastrian / Construction Trash Collector at 11:30 am

HIGH

Images on site

ARTIFICIAL LIGHT POLLUTION Commercials Street Lights Construction Temperary Light

: CONSTRUCTION AREA

7


SOURCE OF GLARE

SOURCE OF GLARE

DESIRABLE VIEW

DESIRABLE VIEW

GLARE ISSUE, DESIRABLE VIEW, UNDESIRABLE VIEW : SOURCE OF GLARE AT 11:30 am

DESIRABLE VIEW

Images on site

: DESIRABLE VIEW : UNDESIRABLE VIEW

8


SOLAR PATH

HOURLY ILLUMINATION

The most houly illumination happens in June, which the average high gets up above 210 and the average low is around 20. The least happens in December, which the average low is about 40 more than in June, and the average hi gh is about 130.

Sun rises around 5am and sets after 7pm in summer. In the early morning, the site would get some north-eastern light, while in late afternoon, it would get north-western light. In winter, sun rises around 7:30am and sets around 4:30pm. The site gets south-eastern light from the morning, and south-western light in the afternoon.

9


SOLAR RADIATION

SOLAR PATH

Summer gets really hot. Temperature stays above 75F for almost a whole day. While in winter, temperature is always below 68F, which is too cold.

The temperature starts to rise around 6am, and gets hot around 8am until 7pm. And the sun would get almost perpendicular to the ground from 11am to 1pm. In winter, the temperature is a lot cooler than summer, and the sun would only get around 22 degrees above ground.

10


TEMPERATURE RANGE

GROUND TEMPERATURE

July has the highest temperature, which can get up to 85F. We prepare for the hot weather around May. The coldest month is January is the coldest, and we tend to prepare for a much colder condition. The annual average temperature is between 50F to 60F, and we tend to prepare for a much extreme temperature condition.

As the ground surface gets deeper, the temperature would swing less because the temperature inside the Earth is pretty stable.

DRY BULB X DEW POINT

DRY BULB X HUMIDITY

Dry bulb temperature would get close to comfort zone around May, and get above comfort zone in July until August. Then the temperature starts to drop until the next year. Dew Point temperature always

Huminity is pretty stable and swings a little bit below the comfort zone during winter. So it feels between dry bulb temperature and dew point temperature becomes smaller when huminity rises; and it becomes larger when huminity drops.

11


MONTHLY DIURNAL AVERAGES

The comfort zone is from 70F to 80F, with 0 to 0.012 humidity ratio. By adding ventilation, shadings, and other devices, the range of comfort zone can expend up to double of the original.

12


WIND ROSE DIAGRAM

In winter, we get strong north west wind. And in summer, most of the wind come from south. We get some north east wind and south west wind almost all year round.

13


SITE & SOLAR ASSESSMENT

14


EAST FACADE The facade is facing east; therefore, the most sunlight and heat that the building will have is in the morning. However, the angle of the sun in the morning is usually relatively small compared to the other hours in a day. Thus the design is focusing on series of horizontal windows to get heat.

WWR : GLAZING SYSTEM :

0.41

SHADING SYSTEM : WINDOWS DIMENSIONS :

RS-Exterior_Light-colored

SHADE DIMENSIONS : WITH NATURAL VENTILATION

Double High Performance (Argon)

W 11’ x H 1.5’ W 12’ x H 0.25’ x D 1’

WWR : GLAZING SYSTEM :

0.45

SHADING SYSTEM : WINDOWS DIMENSIONS :

RS-Exterior_Light-colored

SHADE DIMENSIONS :

Double High Performance (Argon)

W 7’ x H 1.5’ W 7’ x H 0.25’ x D 1’ W 6’ x H 0.25’ x D 1’

W 14’ x H 0.25’ x D 1’ W 3’ x H 0.25’ x D 1’

WITHOUT NATURAL VENTILATION

ANNUAL AVERAGE THERMAL COMFORT These two scenarios both have high percentage of the comfort, above 80%. However, the right scenario (scenario 4) has an annually better comfort than the left one (scenario 3). It could be considered with the engergy consumption diagram that the right scenario has more windows sunlight. Also, because of its narrow and horizontal windows design, the sunlight will not get into the interior so aggressivly.

15


ANNUAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION (EUI) mances. Scenario 3 needs more heating than cooling, while scenario 4 is the totally opposite. The need for cooling has more variation in the diagram of heating/cooling season. It could be observed that the possible lack of natural ventilation in the scenario 4 would cause the heat gain.

CARBORN EMISSIONS Considered together with energy consumption, the summation need for fans, cooling, and heating. Therefore, the estimated CO2 emissions is higher. Also, because of the higher demand of heating in scenario 3, the emission from gas is higher than that in scenario 4. HEATING

COOLING

MONTHLY AVG. WINDOW HEAT GAIN The horizontal design could greatly reduce the heat gain because the area, and arrangement between scenario 3 and 4 makes the letter has higher heat gain, especially in the summer time.

The total and peak heat gain are consistent with the average performance, based on the discussion above. The time of peak happens is assumed to happen during the summer time.

16


SOUTH FACADE Since we get plenty of sunlight during the day, the main purpose of south facade is to reduce direct sunlight hitting the interior in summer without blocking it in winter. Scenario 1 starts with large windows with additional shades, and scenario 2 contues the horizontal language from the previous east facade study. This es between these two strategies. WWR : GLAZING SYSTEM :

0.50

SHADING SYSTEM : WINDOWS DIMENSIONS :

RS-Exterior_Light-colored

SHADE DIMENSIONS :

Double Low Solar Low-E Clear (Air)

W 4’ x H 7’ W 4’ x H 0.25’ x D 2’

WITHOUT NATURAL VENTILATION

WWR : GLAZING SYSTEM :

0.49

SHADING SYSTEM : WINDOWS DIMENSIONS :

VB-Exterior-3” Slab (0 degree)

SHADE DIMENSIONS :

Quad Low Solar Low-E Clear (Air)

W 10’ x H 1’ , W 7’ x H 1’ , w 5’ x H 1’ N/A

WITHOUT NATURAL VENTILATION

ANNUAL AVERAGE THERMAL COMFORT Both scenarios can reach above 90% of comfort, which is pretty high. However, scenario 1 starts with a higher comfort percentage and drops after noon, whild scenario 2 remains pretty stable through out the rest of the day. This may due to additional shading system for scenario 1, which

17


ANNUAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION (EUI) In terms of energy consumption, these two scenarios are close, but scenario 2 consumes less cooling and about the same amount of fans and lighting comparing to scenario 1, with a little bit of extra heating. This is because the matierial I used for scenario 2 has better resistance of heat gain.

CARBORN EMISSIONS Since scenario 2 requires less energy than scenario 1, the amount of CO2 scenario 2 emits is than scenario 1. However, scenario 1 only has CO2 emits from electricity, while scenario 2 has some emits from gas due to the need of heating. HEATING

COOLING

MONTHLY AVG. WINDOW HEAT GAIN In general, windows gain the most heat in summer, and less in winter. Scenario 2 gains a lot less of the heat than scenario 1 becase of the material.

Again, these two diagrams show scenario 2 has much larger control than

18


WEST FACADE The facade is facing west; therefore, most of sunlight and heat gains in the evening. Long vertical windows are designed in two scenarios to have enough sunlight with heat gains. However, scenario 1 provides glazing, shading system and shade devices to compare to scenario 2 which has no shading system and shade devices, so this sunlight and heat gain respectively. WWR : GLAZING SYSTEM : SHADING SYSTEM : WINDOWS DIMENSIONS : SHADE DIMENSIONS :

0.5 Double Glazed Triple Silver Low-E Tint (Argon) VB-Interior_1” slat (45 deg) W 7’ x H 6’ & W 7’ x H 4’ W 8’ x H 2’ x D 0.3’

WITHOUT NATURAL VENTILATION

WWR : GLAZING SYSTEM : SHADING SYSTEM : WINDOWS DIMENSIONS : SHADE DIMENSIONS :

0.47

Double Low Solar Low-E Clear (Air) None W 5’.5 x H 12’ None

WITHOUT NATURAL VENTILATION

ANNUAL AVERAGE THERMAL COMFORT Due to windows facing west, both of scenarios have similar results in high average thermal comfort in daytime and night time. They reach about 90%, which makes feel comfortable throughout the year. However, annual average thermal comfort in scenario 1 has a little higher from 3:00pm to 5:00pm, because heat gains in scenario 1 are less than in scenario 2.

19


ANNUAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION (EUI) In two scenarios, mostly cooling systems are required to reduce temperascenario 2 get more sunlight, and it requires more cooling in summer. However, none of them need heating in winter.

CARBORN EMISSIONS Scenario 2 has resulted in more heat gains throughout the year, so it needs more uses of cooling by electricity in summer. With no use of gas, CO2 emissions were only resulted from the use of electricity in summer.

HEATING

COOLING

MONTHLY AVG. WINDOW HEAT GAIN Scenario 2 has more monthly heat gain through the windows, because the windows in scenario 2 are clear glass and have no shading devices. direct sunlight.

High heat gain in peak has close relation with high heat gain in annual, as shown with high value in the diagram of scenario 2.

20


BEST PERFORMANCE REASON: First of all, the thermal comfort percentage is close to 90%, which is pretty high. Following with the energy consumption, it could be observed that the cooling is even it gains really little heat from window, it stills does not require a lot of heat in winter. Last but not the least, the design of the facade is considered with aesthetics too; therefore, this option meets with all the requirement within our goal so far.

WWR : GLAZING SYSTEM :

0.49

SHADING SYSTEM : WINDOWS DIMENSIONS :

VB-Exterior-3” Slab (0 degree)

SHADE DIMENSIONS :

Quad Low Solar Low-E Clear (Air)

W 10’ x H 1’ , W 7’ x H 1’ , w 5’ x H 1’ N/A

WITHOUT NATURAL VENTILATION

21


DAYLIGHTING ASSESSMENT

22


EAST FACADE WWR : GLAZING SYSTEM :

0.41

SHADING SYSTEM : WINDOWS DIMENSIONS :

RS-Exterior_Light-colored

SHADE DIMENSIONS :

SCENARIO 1

Double High Performance (Argon)

9 AM

12PM

SCENARIO 2

3PM

9 AM

12PM

W 11’ x H 1.5’

WITH NATURAL VENTILATION *

SCENARIO 1 0.5

SHADING SYSTEM : WINDOWS DIMENSIONS :

RS-Exterior_Light-colored

SHADE DIMENSIONS :

SUMMER

Double High Performance (Argon)

W 7’ x H 1.5’

W 7’ x H 2’

W 7’ x H 0.25’ x D 1’ W 6’ x H 0.25’ x D 1’

W 14’ x H 0.25’ x D 1’ W 3’ x H 0.25’ x D 1’

From the color index, it could be seen that it is fall equinox which has the highest fc instead of winter solstice. During the equinox, the sun has higher angle, which leads to smaller lighting area. And therefore more concentrated illuminance compared with winter solstice. However, in summer solstice, because of the high angle of the sun, sunlight is mainly blocked by shadings.

WITHOUT NATURAL VENTILATION

SCENARIO 2 Following with the previous design, the adjustment is made to open up windows a little bit more so as to bring in more sunlight in scienario 2, which is expected to have better performance of optimizing the results.

PLAN ILLUMINANCE CONTOUR It could be observed that sun light can enter the interior consistantly in the morning in every season for both scenarios. The range of sunlight is especially wide in the winter because of the relativly low degree of sun angle, which can bring the light into the interior and also has the

W 12’ x H 0.25’ x D 1’

WWR : GLAZING SYSTEM :

3PM

EQUINOX

Results from each of tests are consistent overall. The scenario 2 has higher illuminance and glare value am) to noon (12:00 pm) and afternoon (3:00 pm) because of we are facing east. Including the can be seen that the light could reach almost the middle (30’) of the room. contour that the shadings do block some light. In contrast, the shadings work better of blocking light since the openness of the windows are relativly small in scenario 1. Nevertheless, scenario 1 could not be a preferrable design since the amount of light introduced into interior is very limited.

WINTER

SCENARIO 2

SCENARIO 1 9 AM

SUMMER

EQUINOX

WINTER

12PM

3PM

9 AM

12PM

3PM

3D ILLUMINANCE CONTOUR From the 3D contour, we could still see the consistency of the range of sunlight referring to plan contour. The horizontal design of windows clearly bring in a large amount of sunlight in the morning, and even some in scenario 2 at noon. It is interesting that it is clearer to see in the winter solstice from the perspective view, with the front corner near the windows has less sunlight than the equinox since the angle of sun is low.

23


SCENARIO 1 9 AM

12PM

SCENARIO 2 9 AM

3PM

12PM

3PM GLARE - CLEAR SKY & OVERCAST SKY From the results, the overcast sky condition has very similar performance; therefore we use the representative one - summertime - to do the comparision with clear sky.

SUMMER

general. First of all, there is no glare generated in the interior under the overcast sky condition probably building. Following, the level of lux in overcast images are in generally lower than the one under the clear sky, which is obviously consistent with our expectation. In clea sky condition, besides the galre created from direct sunlight, there is also the glare created from

EQUINOX

espeically in the scenario 2. Therefore, it is brighter interior of scenario 2 overall due to the higher WWR and condensed organization of windows.

WINTER

OVERCAST SKY

SCENARIO 1 9 AM

12PM

SCENARIO 2 3PM

9 AM

12PM

3PM

ILLUMINANCE MAP The illuminance map shows the distribution of the

SUMMER And because the windows are low and with not

EQUINOX WINTER

of course, the larger WWR for scenario may take a role as well. since we could see that in the scenario 1, the illuminance shift left and right regarding to the arrangement of windows; in the scenario 2, the patterns mainly show symmetrical characteristic, since the windows are designed symmetrical as well.

24


WEST FACADE WWR : GLAZING SYSTEM :

0.40

SHADING SYSTEM : WINDOWS DIMENSIONS :

VB-Exterior_3” slat (45 degree)

SHADE DIMENSIONS :

SCENARIO 1 9 AM

Double Low Solor Low-E Clear (Air)

12PM

SCENARIO 2

3PM

9 AM

12PM

VARIES (8 Windows)

WITH NATURAL VENTILATION

SCENARIO 1 0.42

SHADING SYSTEM : WINDOWS DIMENSIONS :

None

SHADE DIMENSIONS :

SUMMER

Double Low Solar Low-E Clear (Air)

PLAN CONTOUR In this plan contour, it is obvious that small amount of sunlight are coming into the interior from 9am to 3pm, because of its orientation of west direction. Scenario 1 and 2 have pretty much same results from 9am to 12pm where the amount of illuminance is pretty low, and

W 17’ x H 0.5’ x D 3’

WWR : GLAZING SYSTEM :

3PM

the interior brighter. However, the amount of sunlight is getting increased from 3pm on summer and Equinox. In winter, the amount of sunlight during the daytime is staying

VARIES (8 Windows) W 0.5’ x H 12’ x D 3’

WITHOUT NATURAL VENTILATION

SCENARIO 2 to test the amount of sunlight and glare in the window and the interior. Scenario 1 keeps horizontal location of windows and scenario 2 has verical location of windows in comparison. In addition, glazing systems in both scenarios are same as double low solar low-E clear, but only scenario 1 has

sunlight and heating system to make the interior comfortable in winter. In terms of the amount of illuminance from sunlight, scenario 2 has more intensity on the windows at 3pm in summer and Equinox. Venetian blinds in scenario 1 has soft sunlight in 3pm comparing to scenario 2 with no blinds.

EQUINOX

Through the tests, it is observed that venetian blinds on the exterior on horizontal windows are at 3pm, because the facade facing west does not have sunlight and glare during the daytime. With understanding the intensity of sunlight, illuminance and luminance, the facade facing west not to reduce luminance from 3pm where the interior and window have high intensity of sunlight. In addition, less amount of sunlight in the winter needs to have heating system to reach thermal comfort in the interior.

WINTER

SCENARIO 1 9 AM

SUMMER

EQUINOX

WINTER

12PM

SCENARIO 2 3PM

9 AM

12PM

3PM

3D CONTOUR In this illuminance map, the intensity of sunlight is pretty high in scenario 2 in summer and Equinox from 12pm to 3pm, because direct sunlight came to window and interior. With large amount of illuminance at that time, the interior is bright, but side wall has high intensity of illuminance especially with the vertical location of windows in scenario 2. However, it has low intensity of illuminance in scenario 1, because blinds would reduce illuminance.

25


SCENARIO 1 9 AM

12PM

SCENARIO 2 9 AM

3PM

12PM

3PM GLARE - CLEAR & OVERCAST SKY In the clear sky condition, these 3d maps indicate the amount of luminance on the window and in the interior. High luminance in 3pm on summer has discomfort glare which reaches 4750 cd/m2, because of no blinds to reduce sunlight coming in the interior. Especially, windows and some portion of

SUMMER

discomfort glare to people. However, the intensity of glare is not too high in the interior, so it does not cause discomfort glare from the interior wall, and ceiling. Scenario 1 in Equinox has high intensity of glare on

EQUINOX

of windows. Scenario 2 has high glare in summer and Equinox through the daytime, because of the vertical location of windows and no blinds on the window. to sunlight before reaching to the facade, so it has low intensity of glare in scenario 1 and it has less intensity of glare in summer in comparison to clear sky.

WINTER

OVERCAST SKY

SCENARIO 1 9 AM SUMMER EQUINOX WINTER

12PM

SCENARIO 2 3PM

9 AM

12PM

3PM

ILLUMINANCE MAP In these illuminance map, it can predict that the interior does not have enough illumination for visual and thermal comfort. In scenario 1, illuminance is pretty low throughout the year and daytime. However, scenario 2 has high intensity near to window at 3pm in summer and Equinox, and this result came from vertical location of windows and no blinds on the windows. However, this scenario also has low intensity of illuminace in the winter. The facade facing west do not have sunlight and thermal energy during the day, in the winter.

26


SOUTH FACADE

SCENARIO 1

WWR : 0.50 GLAZING SYSTEM : Double Low Solar Low-E Clear (Air) SHADING SYSTEM : RS-Exterior_Light-colored WINDOWS DIMENSIONS : W 4’ x H 7’ SHADE DIMENSIONS : W 4’ x H 0.25’ x D 2’ WITHOUT NATURAL VENTILATION

9 AM

12PM

SCENARIO 2

3PM

9 AM

12PM

SCENARIO 2 Continuing studying the two design scenarios from previous, this analysis is focused on the quality of daylight and glare of those two facades. Both scenarios are performing well in general. They both can block the direct sunlight in summer, and allow the sunlight pass through in winter. Scenario 1 works because of its external shading devices, while scenario 2 uses wall thickness as shading for the horizonal window strips. Even though they both provide a lot of daylight to the interior, they do not create a lot of glare issues for most of the time. Especially for scenario 2, glare only happens around noon time in

PLAN ILLUMINANCE CONTOUR Bothe of the scenarios can bring light all the way in to the back wall from noon till the afternoon. Scenario 2 can almost hit the back wall in the morning, while scenario 1 connot quite get it. For scenario 1, thereis relatively intense spot light hitting both sides of the walls during the equinox and winter and difuse further into the interior. This may because of the lack of vertical vertical shading. And Scenario 2 has more intense but larger spread of light on the wall during equinox, which is expected because of the window shape and lack of external shading devices.

SCENARIO 1 WWR : 0.49 GLAZING SYSTEM : Quad Low Solar Low-E Clear (Air) SHADING SYSTEM : VB-Exterior-3” Slab (0 degree) WINDOWS DIMENSIONS : W 10’ x H 1’ , W 7’ x H 1’ , w 5’ x H 1’ SHADE DIMENSIONS : N/A WITHOUT NATURAL VENTILATION

3PM

SUMMER

EQUINOX

WINTER

SCENARIO 1 9 AM

SUMMER

12PM

SCENARIO 2 3PM

9 AM

12PM

3PM

3D ILLUMINANCE CONTOUR This diagram shows more of evidence from previous diagram thaat the interior of scenario 2 brings more light to the interior than scenario 1. However, even though it seems that scenario 2 has more it is actually not that bad when we look at 3 dimensionally. Because of the shape of the windows, the total area of this kind of light is actually smaller than scenario 1.

EQUINOX

WINTER

27


SCENARIO 1 9 AM

12PM

SCENARIO 2 9 AM

3PM

12PM

3PM

GLARE - CLEAR SKY & OVERCAST SKY Just by looking at the light intensity on the facade during clear days, it is obvious that scenario 2 has better performance throught out the year. The worst day for both scenarios is in equinox, for which scenario

SUMMER

than scenario 2. Also, because of the lack of vertical shading, it would have some glare spots in scenario 1 in summer from noon. In the days with clouds, both of the scenarios has much less intensity of light through them with no exception. before it enters the building. Taking summer as an example, the performance of the two scenarios are really similar as shown in the last row of diagram.

EQUINOX

WINTER

OVERCAST SKY

SCENARIO 1 9 AM SUMMER EQUINOX WINTER

12PM

SCENARIO 2 3PM

9 AM

12PM

ILLUMINANCE MAP 3PM

From previous study, both scenarios have potential to for scenario 2. Scenario 1 has some areas along the windows to have high intensity of light almost everyday from noon. And these spots are more or less the same as the locations of the windows, especially the lower ones. Which draws another conclusion that the height of windows would there needs to have low windows, additional shading is required. Scenario 2 has absolutely nothing in this case. It may

28


BEST PERFORMANCE

REASON: After adjusting from last time, this design scenario is performing much better than expect. Especially for a facade that is on east, which only has direct sun light in the morning. This scenario allows light in to almost the back wall in the morning, and can up to 1/3 in the afternoon for every season. And all the light except the very front along the windows. But it should not be a problem becuase the light in morning is not harsh enough to become an issue. And the glare created by the window glass is relatively less intense.

WWR : GLAZING SYSTEM :

0.5

SHADING SYSTEM : WINDOWS DIMENSIONS :

RS-Exterior_Light-colored

SHADE DIMENSIONS :

Double High Performance (Argon)

W 7’ x H 1.5’

W 7’ x H 2’

W 7’ x H 0.25’ x D 1’ W 6’ x H 0.25’ x D 1’

W 14’ x H 0.25’ x D 1’ W 3’ x H 0.25’ x D 1’

WITHOUT NATURAL VENTILATION

29


FACADE INTERGRATION

30


PLAN & SECTION 1

Reception Area Lunch Room Restrooms Copy Rooms IT/Server Room Conference Rooms

2

Level 7 1/32" = 1'-0"

Section 1

1

Section 2

2

31


LAYOUT

Dry Bulb Temperature: 74 F Relative Humidity: 45%

places that people would stay for most of the time. Therefore, they are placed near the windows to gain more sunlight and providing a better working condition for the workers. On the other hand, the rooms such as conference rooms, are the space that people will spend relatively less time in, which would have less need for HVAC systems. We would leave the room temperature adjustable, so people can turn the AC on whenever strategy is applied on the lunch room as well, as the peak time for lunch room will be about one hour in a day and mostly at noon or afternoon. It is located at North-West so to reduce the use of light and AC.

UP

74F OFFICE 74F LIBRARY VARY CONFERENCE 74F RECEPTION 74F PRINTING 68F KITCHEN 68F IT CIRCULATION CORE BATHROOM

/

45% HUMIDITY

/

45% HUMIDITY

/

45% HUMIDITY

/ /

45% HUMIDITY 40% HUMIDITY

/

40% HUMIDITY

32


FACADE DESIGN - EAST The design follows the main idea of horizontal windows from previous studies.

WWR : GLAZING SYSTEM :

0.49 Double Low Solar Low-E Clear (Air)

Therefore, the shades are desinged with a ribbon-like pattern, which not only

SHADING SYSTEM : WINDOWS DIMENSIONS :

None

glazing, and also give the sense of the continuity of asethetics.

SHADE DIMENSIONS :

W 12’ x H 2.25’ W 12’ x H 1.5’

W 11.25’ x H 2.25’ W 11.25’ x H 1.5’

W 12’ x H 0.25’ x D 2’ W 0.25’ x H 1.5’ x D 2’ W 0.25’ x H 2.75’ x D 2’

W 11.25’ x H 0.25’ x D 2’ W 0.25’ x H 2’ x D 2’

Summer Solstice 9:00 am

Winter Solstice 9:00 am

The design is reasonable since the glare spot on floor is less 40% even in the morning in winter solstice. However, this is not much of a concern because the sun in winter is softer. Also, it could be seen from the contour images that even at noon, the sunlight could reach to 30’ or even more, which is more than enough for the east side.

WITH NATURAL VENTILATION (AWING FOR TOP WINDOWS)

2’

INTERIOR Winter Solstice 12:00 pm 2’

SOLAR SHADES WINDOW H1.5’

15’ LIGHT SHELF WINDOW H2.25’

24’

The section shows the scheme of how the sunlight goes into the interior: the light shelf sunlight from creating potential glare. Since we open the middle portion of the facade, so people can have actually see the outside. The larger windows set on the top and the bottom of the wall to allow more light into the space and the maybe some heat especially in winter.

33


FACADE DESIGN - WEST WWR : GLAZING SYSTEM :

0.64

SHADING SYSTEM : WINDOWS DIMENSIONS :

VB-Interior- I” slat 45 Degree

SHADE DIMENSIONS :

Double Low Solar Low-E Clear (Air)

placed in the middle of ribbon frame which is 2’-0” deep and venetian blinds are located on the interior as 1” slat 45 degree to reduce sunlight on summer at 3:00pm, when sunlight is maxium amount in the west facade.

W 12’ x H 3.0’ W 12’ x H 2.0’

W 12’ x H 2.5’ W 12’ x H 1.5’

W 12’ x H 0.25’ x D 2’ W 0.25’ x H 3.0’ x D 2’ W 0.25’ x H 2.5’ x D 2’

W 0.25’ x H 2.0’ x D 2’ W 0.25’ x H 1.5’ x D 2’

Summer Solstice 3:00 pm

Winter Solstice3:00 pm

In the illumination map and contour map in summer and winter, sunlight does

WITH NATURAL VENTILATION (AWING FOR TOP WINDOWS)

below. Venetian blinds not only will reduce sunlight in summer after 3pm, but also block unnecessary glare in winter around 3pm. There is no enough sunlight winter for thermal comfort.

INTERIOR

2’

LIGHT SHELF

The section shows how to bring sunlight and block sunlight and glare with the condition of light shelf and interior blinds. 2’ deep light shelve will block sunlight in summer and

WINDOW H3.0’

manage the amount of sunlight and glare in certain time. The awing window at the top will VB-INTERIOR-1” 45 DEGREE WINDOW H2.0’

24’

bring out hot air in summer and circulation of air thoughout the year.

34


FACADE DESIGN - SOUTH WWR : GLAZING SYSTEM :

0.53

SHADING SYSTEM : WINDOWS DIMENSIONS :

RS - exterior - light - colored

SHADE DIMENSIONS :

Continuing the ribbon language from east facade, the south facade is the unwanted sunlight in summer and extend natural lighting in winter.

Quad Low Solar Low-E Clear (Air)

W 8’ / 16’ x H 1.5‘/ 2’ / 2.5’ Summer Solstice 12:00 pm

W 0.2’ / 24’ x H 0.2’ / 0.5‘/ 1.5’/ 2‘ x D 0.75’

Winter Solstice 12:00 pm

bringing natural light in without extra heat is critical to this side. The ribbon design is actually doing good for such purpose. Since it uses deep

WITHOUT NATURAL VENTILATION the way to the end of 60’ range, which would get to the library in reality.

1.75’ INTERIOR

2’

2.5’

1.5’

15’

Winter Solstice 12:00 pm

The whole facade is devided into sections of ribbons, so that the sides of these ribbons can provide some shades for the east or west sunlight in the morning or afternoon. And there are four sections of window strips with windows are taller on the very top and bottom, because they are the main

2.0’

24’

The middle two are mainly for views from inside out. However, because of the short windows, light would be soft enough when they enter the building. 35


FACADE DESIGN Dry Bulb Temperature: 74 F Relative Humidity: 45%

250 110

76Fx110 + 82Fx250 360 = 80F

TMRT =

bulb temperature of 74F and humidity of 45% as an example for this analysis. First of all is to calculate the Mean Radiant Temperature of other datas into this chart to get the psychrometric chart for range of comfort zone, which is good. However, it is on the border. So we may let our users to lower the humidity or temperature by themselves.

36


FACADE DESIGN

ELEVATION-MAIN FACADE DESIGN

South

37


FACADE MATERIALS PROPERTIES & SELECTION

38


WALL DESIGNS

1’ 8 3/8”

1’ 5 3/4”

1’ 3 1/8”

1” Limestone panel

3 5/8” Common brick

3 5/8” Common brick

4” Air cavity

6” Concrete masonry units

8” Concrete masonry units

3/4” Plywood, sheathing grade

4” Air cavity

2” Polystyrene rigid insulation 6” Steel stud with batt insulation

6” Steel stud with batt insulation

Vapor barrier 6” Steel stud with batt insulation 3/4” Gypsum Wall Board

Vapor barrier

Vapor barrier

3/4” Gypsum Wall Board 3/4” Gypsum wall Board

EXTERIOR

1

INTERIOR

Section 1 1/2" = 1'-0"

EXTERIOR

1

INTERIOR

Section 1 1/2" = 1'-0"

EXTERIOR

3

INTERIOR

Section 3 1/2" = 1'-0"

TYPE 1

TYPE 2

TYPE 3

Type 1 wall is a typical brick and CMU on metal stud wall system. Thicker CMU and air gap are used to increase thermal insulation. However, the wall thickness is increased to almost 20.5”.

Type 2 is a typical brick on metal stud wall system. Plywood is added to this wall since it is much thinner than type one, which is only about 15”.

Instead of having brick as facade cladding, type 3 has 1” limestone panels. And 2” thick rigid insulation is used to replace the 4” air gap. The goal is to have different combination of materials.

39


WALL DESIGN 3 - BEST PERFORMANCE 1’ 5 3/4”

1” Limestone panel

8” Concrete masonry units

2” Polystyrene rigid insulation

R-VALUE

U-VALUE

RA: 0.08 RB : 1.11 RC: 10 RD : 6* RE: 0.675

UA : 12.5 UB : 0.9 UC :0.1 UD : 0.167 UE : 1.48

Rtotal = 17.865

Utotal = 0.056

6” Steel stud with batt insulation

3/4” Gypsum wall Board

3

*1 : Solidgrouted / lightweight CMU *2 : Mineral Fiber with Steel Stud *3 : Metal stud would have half of the nominal R-Value

Section 3 1/2" = 1'-0"

A: 1” limestone panel B: 8” cocrete masonry units C: 2“ polystyrene rigid insulation D: 6” batt insulation in steel stud E: 3/4” Gypsum board

The total area is calculated based on the design of previous assingment. However, it could be analyzed the temperature behavior throuhg unit area. Therefore the calculation for each layer is based on unit area. 40


EXTERIOR = 15F

INTERIOR = 68F

Qtotal = UT x A x (Toutside - Tinside) = 0.056 x Atotal x (15-68) = -2.968A Value of Q =-17564.50 Therefore the direction of heat will be from the interior to the exterior.

68

Temperature (F)

65.987

Value of Q = 2.968 for unit area

48.215

18.535 15.237 15

A

B

EXTERIOR = 95F

C

D

E

LayerAB

TAB - Texterior =

LayerBC

TBC - TAB =

LayerCD

TCD - TBC=

LayerDE

TDE - TCD =

→ TAB = 15°F +

2.968 12.5

= 15.237°F

Q

→ TBC =15.237°F +

2.968 0.9

= 18.535°F

Q

→ TCD = 18.535°F +

2.968 0.1

= 48.215°F

Q

→ TDE = 48.215°F +

2.968 0.167

= 65.987°F

Q

UA A

UB A UC A UD A

Qtotal = UT x A x (Toutside - Tinside) = 0.056 x Atotal x (95-78) =0.952A Value of Q =5633.90 Therefore the direction of heat will be from the exterior to the interior.

INTERIOR = 78F

Value of Q = 0.952A for unit area

95 94.924

Temperature (F)

93.867

84.347

LayerAB

TAB - Texterior =

LayerBC

TBC - TAB =

LayerCD

TCD - TBC=

LayerDE

TDE - TCD =

78.646 78

A

B

C

D

E

→ TAB = 95°F -

0.952 12.5

= 94.924°F

Q

→ TBC = 94.924°F -

0.952 0.9

= 93.867°F

Q

→ TCD = 93.867°F -

0.952 0.1

= 84.347°F

Q

→ TDE = 84.347°F -

0.952 0.167

= 78.646°F

Q

UA A

UB A UC A UD A

41


EXTERIOR GLAZING

The selection is controlled under the condition of 1” insulating, without silk-screening and no argon.

The selection will be VE1-2M, which is based on the evaluation of U-Value for both summer and winter. The lower the U-Value is, the better performance it has for thermal transfer. So that it wil prevent heat from going into the building in summer, and vice versa in winter. Therefore, we have VE1-2M U-Value 0.3 for summer and 0.26 for winter, and they are both the lowest value compared with the others. Also, considering the visible and solar transmittance is relativly high, while the reflectance for exterior and interior is lower, so as to lead to low-glazing for both the outter and inner space.

VE1-2M 1” NSULATING PROFILE :

A: 1/4” clear VE1-2M #2 B: 1/2“ air space C: 1/4“ clear glass 42


WINTER EXTERIOR = 15F

INTERIOR = 68F

Temperature (F)

68

53.52

R-VALUE

U-VALUE

RA: 1.423 RB : 1.0 RC: 0.91

UA: 0.703 UB: 1.0 UC: 1.1

Rtotal = 3.33

Utotal = 0.3

Taking 1 sqft as a unit area,

37.62

Qtotal = UT x A x (Toutside - Tinside) = 0.3 x Atotal x (15 - 68) = -15.9A = -94096.2 15

A

B

C

Therefore the direction of heat will be from the interior to the exterior.

SUMMER EXTERIOR = 95F

INTERIOR = 78F

Temperature (F)

95

86.44

R-VALUE

U-VALUE

RA: 1.936 RB : 1.0 RC: 0.91

UA: 0.516 UB: 1.0 UC: 1.1

Rtotal = 3.846

Utotal = 0.26

Qtotal = UT x A x (Toutside - Tinside) = 0.26 x Atotal x (95 - 78) = 4.42A = 26157.56

82.02

78

A

B

C

B&C:

A&B:

Therefore the direction of heat will be from the exterior to the interior. 43


FINAL ASSEMBLY

EXTERIOR

INTERIOR

Line of ceiling

After calculating the thermal transmittance and temperature change between each material in wall assemblies, type 3 wall has the best performance in all aspects. It is about 18” thick, which is still less than our solar shades. It has the largest R value, so the total heat lost by wall is the least in both summer and winter. The section is combining with this wall with VE1-2M glazing into ribbon shading design from previous assignment.

1” Limestone panel 8” Concrete masonry units

1” VE1-2M glass window 2’ deep solar shades 2” Polystyrene rigid insulation 6” Steel stud with batt insulation

Vapor barrier 3/4” Gypsum wall Board

Solar shades beyond

Line of floor

44


PASSIVE AND ACTIVE COOLING I HEATING SYSTEMS

45


SUMMER MASS FLOW RATE: Reception Area # of occupants * CFM *60 * 1/specific volume Lunch Room = 40 * 15 * 60 * 1/ specific volume Restrooms = 36000/ s.v Copy Rooms = 36000/14.2 IT/Server Room = 2535.21 lb/hr Conference Rooms

OUTDOOR AIR POINT 1

Energy Rate (Q) : INDOOR AIR POINT 3 SUPPLY CONDITION 2

mass flow rate * change in enthalpy = 2535.32 x (37.8 - 22.6) = 38536.86 btu/hr

1 OUTDOOR AIR POINT RH: 50% SPECIFIC VOLUME : 14.2 FT3/LBM ENTHALPY : 37.8 BTU/LBM

2 SUPPLY CONDITION RH: 82% SPECIFIC VOLUME : 13.2 FT3/LBM ENTHALPY : 22.6 BTU/LBM

3 INDOOR AIR POINT : RH: 50% SPECIFIC VOLUME : 13.7 FT3/LBM ENTHALPY : 28 BTU/LBM

46


WINTER MASS FLOW RATE: # of occupants * CFM *60 * 1/specific volume = 40 * 15 * 60 *1/ specific volume = 36000/ s.v = 36000/11.75 = 3063.83 lb/hr

Energy Rate (Q) : mass flow rate * change in enthalpy = 3063.83 x (3.5 - 23.5) = -61276.6 but/hr

INDOOR AIR POINT 3

SUPPLY CONDITION 2

OUTDOOR AIR POINT 1

1 OUTDOOR AIR POINT RH: 50% SPECIFIC VOLUME : 11.75FT3/LBM ENTHALPY : 3.5 BTU/LBM

2 SUPPLY CONDITION RH: 40% SPECIFIC VOLUME : 13.5 FT3/LBM ENTHALPY : 22.6 BTU/LBM

3 INDOOR AIR POINT : RH: 50% SPECIFIC VOLUME : 13.7 FT3/LBM ENTHALPY : 28.2 BTU/LBM

47


FACADE:

SUMMER :

QSUMMER = U X A X T = UWALL X AOPAQUE X T +UGLASS X AGLASS X T = 0.056 X 5920 X ( 89 - 55 ) + 0.3 X 3758 X ( 89 - 55 ) = 11271.68 +38331.6 = 49603.28btu/hr = 14533.76W

WINTER :

QWINTER = U X A X T = UWALL X AOPAQUE X T +UGLASS X AGLASS X T = 0.056 X 5920 X ( 13-70 ) + 0.26 X 3758 X ( 13-70 ) = -18896.64 -55693.56 = -74590.2btu/hr = -21845.93W (Since exterior temperature is lower than interior, heat lost would be 21845.93W.)

SUMMER : WINTER :

PEOPLE:

SOLAR GAINSUMMER : QSUMMER X 130% = 64484.264btu/hr SOLAR GAINWINTER : QWINTER X 100% = 74590.2btu/hr

250btu/hr X 40 = 10000btu/hr =2930W ( SENSIBEL HEAT ) 250btu/hr X 40 = 10000btu/hr = 2930W ( LATENT HEAT )

2

2

2

LIGHTING:

1.5 W/ft X ATOTAL = 1.5 W/ft X 18300ft = 27450 W

EQUIPMENT:

2.0 W/ft X [(120 X 20) + 4570] = 13940 W

2

2

6.0 W/ft X (500 X 2) = 6000 W 2

1.5 W/ft X (1200 X 2) = 3600 W 2

5.0 W/ft X 2000 = 10000 W 2

2.0 W/ft X (18300 - 6970 - 1000 - 2400 - 2000) = 11860 W

No. of occupants = 40 2 TOTAL AREA = 18300 ft 1 btu/hr = 0.293W

TOTAL: 13940 W + 6000 W + 3600 W + 10000 W + 11860 W = 45400 W

INFILTRATION = 0 48


TOTAL COOLING LOAD: SENSIBLE:

LATENT: TOTAL:

TOTAL HEATING LOAD:

TOTAL SENSIBLE SPACE LOAD (Q):

REQUIRED COOLER AIRFLOW:

QSUMMER + STEP1SUMMER + LIGHTING + EQUIPMENT +PEOPEL SENSIBLE = 14533.76W + 11291.3W + 27450W + 45400W + 2930W = 101605.06W PEOPELLATENT = 2930W SENSIBLE + LATENT = 101605.06W + 2930W = 104535.06W

QWINTER + STEP1WINTER = 21845.93W + 17954.04W = 39799.97W

QSUMMER + LIGHTING + EQUIPMENT +PEOPELSENSIBLE = 14533.76W + 27450W + 45400W + 2930W = 90313.76W

Q =90313.76W = 308163.34 btu/hr Q / [1.08 X (75 - 55)] = 308163.34btu/hr x (1hr/60min) / [1.08 X (75 - 55)] = 237.78CFM

49


PASSIVE SYSTEM: EXTERIOR In addition to shading devices, trombe wall is introduced to the south and west side of facade system because these two sides are exposed to the sun in a longer time.

INTERIOR Line of ceiling

Instead of leaving typical walls in between the ribbons, 18” thick thermal mass is used to filled up the gap. Thus, the greenhouse affect would store the solar radiation. Black coating is used on the outter side of the thermal mass, so that it could absorb more radiation. During the night, these thermal mass would release heat into the colder interior like a radiant heater.

DIRECT GAIN FROM GLASS WINDOW (FROM PREVIOUS) 18” THERMAL MASS TO RESTORE HEAT COATING SURFACE

TRANSLUCENT GLASS

Line of floor 50


SPACE AIR AND WATER DISTRIBUTION

51


MECHANICAL SYSTEM DESIGN PUMP BOILER COOLING TOWER CHILLER

RETURN AIR LOUVER

AIR CONDITIONED ROOM

SUPPLY AIR

LOUVER AHU

CIRCULATION DETAILS

The AHU will be designed as decentralized since it could

The central chiller plant is selected because the central system comfort condition. It could serve several space, which means

4’ 14’

the rooftop for the central control.

52


MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOMS

SUPPLY DUCT RETURN DUCT

RETURN HOT WATER PIPE SUPPLY HOT WATER PIPE RETURN CONDENSER WATER PIPE SUPPLY CONSDENSER WATER PIPE AIR HANDLING UNIT

LOUVER

MECHANICAL ROOM

The mechanical room is designed to be in the east since there is ventilation on that side. Also, placing in the corner and next to the copy room will possibly reduce the noise coming from mechanical room to working area. 53


ROOM SENSIBLE COOLING LOAD

NORTH ZONE (1)

1800 500

300 300

WEST ZONE (1.5) 300

430

115

300 300

600

1500

300

400

875

CENTER ZONE (1)

300

725 75

625

300

600

100

75

400

2250

100

280

500

CALCULATION : AREA x PEAK SPACE ARIFLOW PER AREA Offices 1 (WEST) : 200 ft2 x 1.5 CFM/ft2 = 300 CFM Offices 2 (SOUTH): 200 ft2 x 2 CFM/ft2 = 400 CFM Offices 3 (EAST): 200 ft2 x 2.5 CFM/ft2 = 500 CFM Offices 4 (CENTER): 150 ft2 x 0.5 CFM/ft2 = 75 CFM / 200 ft2 x 0.5 CFM/ft2 = 100 CFM Open Office : 4500 ft2 x 0.5 CFM/ft2 = 2,250 CFM Library and Open Are : 3000 ft2 x 0.5 CFM/ft2 = 1,500 CFM

500 500

EAST ZONE (2.5)

450

SOUTH ZONE (2)

400

Conference Room 1: 1200 ft x 0.5 CFM/ft = 600 CFM Conference Toom 2: 500 ft2 x 1.0 CFM/ft2 + 750 ft2 x 0.5 CFM/ft2 = 875 CFM Lunch Room: 600ft2 x 1.0 CFM/ft2 + 500 ft2 x 1.5 CFM/ft2 + 900 ft2 x 0.5 CFM/ft2 = 1,800 CFM Copy Room 1: 350 ft2 x 0.5 CFM/ft2 + 225 ft2 x 2.0 CFM/ft2 = 625 CFM Copy Room 2: 375 ft2 x 1 CFM/ft2 + 175 ft2 x 2.0 CFM/ft2 = 725 CFM IT Room: 360 ft2 x 1.0 CFM/ft2 + 280 ft2 x 0.5 CFM/ft2 = 500 CFM Restrooms: 230 ft2 x 0.5 CFM/ft2 = 115 CFM Reception Area: 430 ft2 x 1.0 CFM/ft2 = 430 CFM 2

2

54


DUCT SIZING - THERMAL ZONE

DUCT SYSTEM

SERVICE AREA VAV BOX GRILLE MAIN DUCT RETURN SUPPY

OFFICE AREA B

2

3

MECHANICAL ROOM

1 4

The overall layout of ductwork is divided in four choose ML-37 as linear supply grilles and 350FL as returns. Especially, supply grilles are designed for cold

OFFICE AREA A OFFICE AREA C

and returns are located according to the layout of desk, so that people would have fresh and cold air near their desk. 55


DUCT SIZEING - CALCULATION

CFM

NC

Supply FPM

WIDTH = (CFM / FPM ) x 144 / DESIRED HEIGHT

Return FPM

Supply Duct Width

Return Duct Width

Main Supply Duct Width Main Return Duct Witdth Desired Height

Office Area A Conference Room

875

35

600

700

26.25

22.5

8

Copy Room

600

40

720

840

20

17.14285714

6

Closed Office

500

35

600

700

20

17.14285714

6

Closed Office

500

35

600

700

20

17.14285714

6

Closed Office

500

35

600

700

20

17.14285714

6

Closed Office

450

35

600

700

18

15.42857143

6

Closed Office

400

35

600

700

16

13.71428571

6

Closed Office

100

35

600

700

6

3.428571429

4

Closed Office

100

35

600

700

6

3.428571429

Total

4025

1250

1300

4 38.64

37.15384615

12

1

Service Area Reception

430

35

600

700

17.2

14.74285714

6

RestRoom

115

40

720

840

3.833333333

3.285714286

4

IT Room

500

40

720

840

16.66666667

14.28571429

Restaurant

1800

40

720

840

Total

5070

1200

1380

6 14 43.5175

37.84130435

14

Extension of Main Duct

2

Office Area B Closed Office

300

35

600

700

12

10.28571429

6

Closed Office

300

35

600

700

12

10.28571429

6

Closed Office

300

35

600

700

12

10.28571429

6

Closed Office

300

35

600

700

12

10.28571429

6

Closed Office

300

35

600

700

12

10.28571429

6

Closed Office

300

35

600

700

12

10.28571429

6

Closed Office

300

35

600

700

12

10.28571429

6

Closed Office

300

35

600

700

12

10.28571429

6

Closed Office

400

35

600

700

16

13.71428571

6

Closed Office

400

35

600

700

16

13.71428571

6

Closed Office

280

35

600

700

11.2

9.6

6

Closed Office

75

35

600

700

3

2.571428571

4

Closed Office

75

35

600

700

3

2.571428571

4

Conference Room

600

35

600

700

24

20.57142857

6

Copy Room

625

40

720

840

20.83333333

17.85714286

Total

4855

1250

1300

6 46.608

44.81538462

12

36

34.61538462

12

3

Office Area C Open Office

2250

35

600

700

Library

1500

30

500

600

Grille

288.46

35

600

700

Total

3750

1250

1300

11.5384

9.890057143

6

4

UNIT : INCHES

56


FROM FLOOR TO FLOOR Using 12’ as typical ceiling height for this building, we have approximately 4’ for structures and duct works and ceiling construction package.

6”CONCRETE SLAB WITH METAL DECKING W14 BEAM SPRAY ON FIREPROOFING SUPPLY DUCT

RETURN DUCT SPACE FOR ELECTRICAL WIRING & OTHERS 2’ x 2’ STUD MOUNTED DRYWALL

TIE TO BEAM LIGHT FIXTURE

57


ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

58


PANEL 1 COVERAGE

POLE LAYOUT PP-1 /12

12

FOR OVEN PP-1 /10

FOR TOASTER & COFFEE MAKER FOR REFRIGERATOR

PP-1 /6,8

12

GF

CI

GF CI

CI

PP-1 /2

GF

CI

PP-1 /1

The main wires would run in the ceiling, and run through solid walls to reach out the receptacles. For the conferences, wires would run from ceiling to floor through a solid wall, then run under floor finish to reach the receptacles in the middle of the room.

PP-1 /14

12

1

FOR MICROWAVE

PP-1 /4

GF

Each color code typically represents load of each pole. And if there are poles have the same load and serve the same programs, they would have the same color code. For instance, three poles are used to serve 9 offices on the west side of the building; and two poles are needed for the center open office areas.

14 12

1

14

PP-1 /3

2

14

1

1

GF CI

1

SECURITY PANEL 120V

14

3 3 3

11 PANEL 1

PP-1 /16,18,20 CPU-1 208V 3P3W

LINE OF CLEARANCE 11

PP-2 /2

2

GF CI

11

2

MECHANICAL / ELECTRICAL ROOM AHU-1 208V 3P3W PP-2 /6,8,10 VAVCONTROL PANEL 120V

2 2

4

11 4

2 3 PP-1 /5

4

3 5

11

13

PP-1 /7 7

5

13 7

9

5

9 9 9 9

4 7

PP-1 /11

7

5

11

PP-1 /9

PP-2 /11

PANEL 2

1

5

5

5

PP-2 /7

1

11 11 PP-2 /5 3

9

3

9 9

500W X 3 = 1500W

KITCHEN (6 POLES TOTAL): 1 FOR EACH APPLIANCE + 1 FOR RECEPTICLES

ONE OFFICE + ONE PRINTING ROOM:

360W X 5 = 1800W

CONFERENCE ROOM:

IT ROOM (3 POLES TOTAL): 3 FOR UPS + 1 FOR RECEPTICLES

PP-2 /1 PP-2 /3

3

PP-2 /9

THREE OFFICES:

PANEL 2 COVERAGE

1

5

13 5

11

4

7

LINE OF CLEARANCE

13

11

PP-2 /4 7

PP-2 /13

13

7

5

7

3 3 9

9

500W + 250W X 2 + 250W X 2 = 1500W

180W X 2 + 360W X 4 = 1800W

6 OPEN OFFICE STATION:

360W X 5 = 1800W

2 OFFICE + 2 WALL OUTLETS FOR HALLWAY :

BATHROOM + HALLWAY+ RECEPTION + SECURITY:

1 OFFICE + 4 OPEN OFFICE STATION :

MECHANICAL/ ELECTRICAL ROOM (4 POLES TOTAL) : 3 FOR AHU + 1 FOR VAV AND RECEPTICLES

(360W + 180W) X 6 = 1920W

500W X 2 + 360W X 2 = 1720W

500W + (360W + 180W) X 4 = 1780W

360W X 4 + 180W X 2 + 100W = 1860W

100W + 360W X 5 = 1900W

59


PANEL 1 SCHEDULE SHEET The values in the sheets are organized based on the pole layout.

PANELBOARD:

PP-#

LOCATION:

X SURFACE

MAINS:

MCB

VOLTAGE:

208

ENCL. NEMA: CB

NONE

MCB:

1

AMPS:

125

GROUNDS?

BRANCH CIRCUIT

225

PHASE:

Y

MIN. A.I.C.: 10,000

3

WIRES:

4

CU

NOTES: X CB

BRANCH CIRCUIT

EQ. CON. No.

--

0

1.5

1

2

1

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

1

A

2

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

1.6

1

2

6

0

KITCHEN - MICROWAVE

--

WORKSTATION - RECEPTACLE

--

0

1.5

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

3

B

4

2#1

1#6

1-1/4"

125

9.9

1

2

7

0

KITCHEN - RECEPTACLE

--

WORKSTATION - RECEPTACLE

--

0

1.5

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

5

C

6

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

---

--

WORKSTATION - RECEPTACLE

--

0

1.5

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

7

A

8

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

---

--

WORKSTATION - RECEPTACLE

--

0

1.5

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

9

B

10

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

---

--

WORKSTATION - RECEPTACLE

--

0

1.8

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

11

C

12

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

---

--

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

13

A

14

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

1.8

1

2

7

0

IT ROOM - RECEPTACLE

--

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

15

B

16

3#10

1#10

3/4"

30

7.5

3

3

7

0

UPS

--

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

17

C

18

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7

0

---

--

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

19

A

20

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7

0

---

--

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

21

B

22

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

23

C

24

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

25

A

26

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

27

B

28

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

29

C

30

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

31

A

32

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

33

B

34

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

35

C

36

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

37

A

38

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

39

B

40

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

41

C

42

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

SPARE

A

kW

P W

TA

WIRE

GRD

C.

GRD

C.

TA

kW

P W

TYPE

WORKSTATION - RECEPTACLE

ALERTS

POLE

WIRE

ELECTRICAL LOAD

TYPE

POLE

EQ. CON. No.

XFMR:

PHASE

MOUNTING:

3

ELECTRICAL LOAD A

ALERTS

--

SPARE

---

60


PANEL 2 SCHEDULE SHEET

PANELBOARD:

PP-#

LOCATION:

X SURFACE

MCB 208

ENCL. NEMA:

NONE

MCB:

1

AMPS:

60

GROUNDS?

Y

100

MIN. A.I.C.: 10,000

3

WIRES:

4

CB

EQ. CON. No.

TA

WORKSTATION - RECEPTACLE

--

0

1.5

1

2

1

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

1

A

2

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

1.9

1

2

6

0

SERVICE AREA - RECEPTACLE

--

WORKSTATION - RECEPTACLE

--

0

1.5

1

2

1

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

3

B

4

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

1.9

1

2

7

0

MECHANICAL - RECEPTACLE

--

WORKSTATION - RECEPTACLE

--

0

1.7

1

2

1

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

5

C

6

3#12

1#12

3/4"

20

1.6

3

3

4

0

AHU

--

WORKSTATION - RECEPTACLE

--

0

1.8

1

2

1

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

7

A

8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

0

---

--

WORKSTATION - RECEPTACLE

--

0

1.8

1

2

1

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

9

B

10

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

0

---

--

WORKSTATION - RECEPTACLE

--

0

1.9

1

2

1

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

11

C

12

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

WORKSTATION - RECEPTACLE

--

0

1.9

1

2

1

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

13

A

14

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

1.8

1

2

7

0

X

--

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

15

B

16

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

7.5

1

2

7

0

X

--

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

17

C

18

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

19

A

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

21

B

22

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

23

C

24

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

25

A

26

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

27

B

28

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

29

C

30

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

31

A

32

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

33

B

34

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

35

C

36

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

37

A

38

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

39

B

40

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

--

0

0.0

1

2

7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

41

C

42

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1

2

7

0

X

--

ELECTRICAL LOAD

SPARE

ALERTS

A

kW

P W

WIRE

GRD

C.

CU

NOTES: X

BRANCH CIRCUIT POLE

BRANCH CIRCUIT

PHASE:

PHASE

CB

XFMR:

POLE

EQ. CON. No.

MAINS: VOLTAGE:

TYPE

MOUNTING:

3

ELECTRICAL LOAD

A

SPARE

ALERTS

---

61


ALTERNATIVE ENERGY

62


!"#$%&

New York : Zone 4 Floor Area : 18,580 sqft

EUI

: 69.3 kBTU/sqft-year : 1,287,594 kBTU/year : 377,265 kWh/year (1BTU = 0.293 Wh)

63


Capacity : (5000 / 377) * 4k = 53.05 kW Annual Energy Production : 71,428 kWh

Annual Energy Productio n - PV Array Provides :(71,428 / 377.265 ) * 100% = 18.9% CBECS 100% - 18.9% = 81.1% to reach the 100% of annual energy demand

productivity. Additionally, the installation of this PV array takes large area which is 5,000 sf in this exercise and it is not recommended to install this in the New York area, because New York is occupied with buildings densely and it can cost high to install it in New York. 64


LIGHTING SYSTEM

65


LIGHTING SYSTEM LAYOUT

PANEL 1 COVERAGE

Reflective light always works better in office area. So 202 2XT8 WHITE PERFED BAFFLE 0UP1D -PHOT is used over all working stations. 2T8TOPBLANK is used in “hallway” in between these stations to give a more spot light effect, as well as break down the space into smaller segments visually. Since the lights are grouped accroding to the working stations below, each group of them is controlled by the same switch. So that no extra light would be wasted if not everybody is in the room.

PANEL 2 COVERAGE

63 Pieces

PROJECT: 202 2XT8 WHITE PERFED BAFFLE 0UP1D -PHOT Article No.: Luminous flux (Luminaire): 4529 lm Luminous flux (Lamps): 5800 lm Luminaire Wattage: 78.0 W Luminaire classification according to CIE: 27 CIE flux code: 61 86 97 27 78 Fitting: 2 x User defined (Correction Factor 1.000).

66


Sa

Sb

LP-2-2

LP-1-1 L-1

L-1

1a L-1 1 a

L-1 1 a L-1

L-1 L-1 1 a

L-1 1 a L-1

L-1

1a L-1 1 a

L-1 1 a L-1

L-1 L-1 1 a

L-1 1 a L-1

1a

1a L-1 1 a

L-2 4 d

L-1 1 a

L-2 2c

L-2 2 c

L-2 6e

L-2 2 c L-2 2c L-2 4d

L-2 4 d L-1

d e

L-2 2 c

1a

1a

c

L-2 2c

1a

L-2 6 e

L-2 2c

L-2 2 c

1a

1a

LP-1-3

L-2 2c

1a

LP-2-6

6e L-2 4 d L-2

L-2

L-2

L-2 6 e

L-2

L-2 2c

4d

L-2 6 e

6e

L-2 6 e L-2 6 e

L-2 4 d

4d LP-2-4

67


LIGHTING DIAGRAM

Room 1 / Workplane / Greyscale (E)

Scale 1 : 245 Height of Room: 10.000 ft, Mounting Height: 9.000 ft, Light loss factor: 0.80 Values in Footcandles,

Workplane: Height: 3.000 ft Grid: 128 x 128 Points Boundary Zone: 0.000 ft Illuminance Quotient (according to LG7): Walls /Working Plane: 0.661, Ceiling / Working Plane: 1.065.

p[%]

Eav[fc]

Emin[fc]

Emax[fc]

u0

/

33

17

45

0.510

Floor

20

31

19

38

0.610

Ceiling

80

35

6.02

293

0.173

Walls(8)

50

20

11

689

/

Surface Workplane

68


PANELBOARD:

LP-1

LOCATION:

X

MAINS: MCB 3Φ VOLTAGE:

MOUNTING:

SURFACE

MCB:

1

60

GROUNDS?

Y

100

PHASE:

3

MIN. A.I.C.: 10,000 WIRES:

4

CB

PHASE

WIRE

TYPE

EQ. CON. No.

TA

A

WORKSPACE - OPEN OFFICE

--

0

0.8

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

1

A

2

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

x

--

WORKSPACE - OPEN OFFICE

--

0

0.8

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

3

B

4

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

5

C

6

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

7

A

8

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

9

B

10

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

11

C

12

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

13

A

14

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

15

B

16

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

17

C

18

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

19

A

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

21

B

22

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

23

C

24

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

25

A

26

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

27

B

28

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

29

C

30

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

31

A

32

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

33

B

34

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

35

C

36

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

37

A

38

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

39

B

40

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

41

C

42

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

AMPS:

100

PHASE:

3

MOUNTING:

ELECTRICAL LOAD

GRD

C.

MAINS: MCB 3Φ VOLTAGE:

SURFACE EQ. CON. No.

WIRE

ENCL. NEMA: CB

ALERTS

A

kW

P W

TA

XFMR:

208

GROUNDS?

GRD

C.

TA

kW

P W

60

BRANCH CIRCUIT WIRE

C.

NONE

MCB:

1

GRD

PANEL LOAD

Y

ALERTS

Panel 1

WIRES:

4

CU

NOTES: X

BRANCH CIRCUIT WIRE

ELECTRICAL LOAD

MIN. A.I.C.: 10,000

GRD

C.

CB TA

kW

P W

TYPE

X

P W

POLE

LOCATION:

kW

PHASE

LP-2

A

POLE

PANELBOARD:

ALERTS

TYPE

ELECTRICAL LOAD

CU

NOTES: X

BRANCH CIRCUIT POLE

BRANCH CIRCUIT

AMPS:

POLE

CB

208

NONE

TYPE

EQ. CON. No.

ENCL. NEMA:

XFMR:

ELECTRICAL LOAD

A

EQ. CON. No.

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

1

A

2

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.8

1 2 7

0

WORKSPACE - OPEN OFFICE

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

3

B

4

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.5

1 2 7

0

WORKSPACE - OPEN OFFICE

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

5

C

6

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.6

1 2 7

0

WORKSPACE - OPEN OFFICE

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

7

A

8

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

9

B

10

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

11

C

12

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

13

A

14

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

15

B

16

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

17

C

18

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

19

A

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

21

B

22

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

23

C

24

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

---

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

25

A

26

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

27

B

28

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

29

C

30

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

31

A

32

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

33

B

34

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

35

C

36

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

37

A

38

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

39

B

40

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

X

--

0

0.0

1 2 7

20

2#12

1#12

3/4"

41

C

42

2#12

1#12

3/4"

20

0.0

1 2 7

0

X

--

ALERTS

69

Panel 2


WATER MANAGEMENT AND PLUMBING SYSTEM

70


ROOF PLAN

MAIN WHOLE FROM STREET

This roof is large in size, so it is divided into six areas to drain storm water more effectively. Elevator bulkhead is sloped toward one side to take storm water to the main roof.

OVER FLOW GOING TO STREET FROM GREY WATER FILTER SYSTEM

The drains are mainly located along the south and north sides of the building, while there is only one exterior solid wall on the north. So pipes are needed to connect these drains and direct them all the north side. All of the water would be directed to a greywater filter system in basement. And in case of extra runoff during rain season or so, there is a Overflow pipe which could bring such runoff to the city sewer from this system directly.

SL

OP

SL

E

OP

SLOPE DOWN

E

SL

OP

OP E

E

SL

OP

SL

E

SL

OP

ELEVATOR AND STAIR BULKHEAD

E

SL

OP

E

E

PIPES TO GREYWATER FILTER SYSTEM OP

SL

SL

OP

E

SL

OP

E

SL

OP

E

SL

OP

E

E

OP

E E

SL

SL

OP

OP

SL

SL

OP

E

SL

OP

E

SL

OP

OP

SL

SL

E

E

PE OP

SL O

SL

OP

E

E

SL

OP

SL

OP

E

SL O

PE

SL

OP

E

E

SL

OP

SL

OP

E

E

ROOF DRAIN AND OVERFLOW DRAIN

71


PLUMBING PLAN BATHROOM Since there were less than 50 people occupying the floor, only two water closets and one lavatories are required. However, considering for the different uses between man vs. female and ADAs, we offer two water closets and two lavatories for both men’s bathroom and female’s bathroom. All the main pipes are running along the north wall as the roof drainage pipes, and then split into branches and run along the back of circulation core to serve the bathrooms.

FILTERED WATER GREY WATER BLACK WATER

RE

F.

72


WALL DEPTH ANALYSIS Single Water Closet in Stud Wall : Typical depth of the wall = 15” - 16”, assuming 15.75” with the clear space = 8.5”

15.75”

RESTROOM

8.5”

from wall face to face

clear space

15.75”

8.5” nipple coupling

GFCI

15.75” From the research, the diameter for a typical pipe would be estimated as 4”, and we cluster them together. Therefore, the clear space is assumed to be 8.5” for a bigger pipe to go through but still leave a reasonable space in case there is other needs. We add a stud wall next to the wall of elevator, and apply the same strategies also into the kitchen. The sink in kitchen is modified into the place next to the north wall, so the pipe could be installed inside the wall instead.

RESTAURANT

8.5” 73


ELEVATIONPIPING DETAIL Facing North

Facing West

The rooftop is designed with curverture for water to flow into the drain.

N

E

Incoming Portable Water

The elevation shows the pipeing layout of the sink, toilet and the drains from the roof top. The route will start from the fresh water provided by the city, and then used for the sinks. The rain water and grey water will be processed by the grey water filter system for toilets. The black water will then flow into the city sewer system.

This elevation mainly focuses on the layout of the drains from rooftop all the way to the ground. Each drain set would join together into a bigger pipe on the roof level, and then run in to the north wall, and then they travel down to the grey water filter system in basement.

The pipes that are travelled horizontally are designed with a slope.

The reason of offsetting to the north wall is that it is the only wall that is not curtain wall. Therefore, we could install the pipes inside the north wall for aesthetic reason, and also easy for later maintainence.

Sewer to the street 1’

Grey Water Filter System Black Water Tank

1/2�

74


EGRESS, LIFE SAFETY SYSTEMS AND FIRE PROTECTION

75


STAIRWAY DESIGN

WALKABLE DISTANCE

56” 48” min

48” min

96

” 40’-0 B=1

De = 3 ad E 3’- nd 0” B

Trave l Dista nce

Tra ve l

Di

sta

nc eA

=1

30

’-0

De = 2 ad E 4’- nd 0” A

60

48” min

3’4”

30” x 48”min

According to IBC, at least two means of egress are needed for our building with the there was only one existing in the building, another stair well is introduced to meet the requirement.

Stairs are designed to meet the minimum requirement of the code, with extra care of being ADA accessable.

REFERENCE : IBC 2015, SECTION 1007.6, 1005 & 1104.7

76


WALL SECTION typical interior wall is not required instead. Therefore we assume the use of three layers (both sides) of gypsum board for stair wall and two layers for interior wall.

4 7/8”

5 1/2”

3 5/8” STEEL STUD

3 5/8” STEEL STUD

2 LAYERS 5/8” FIRE-SHIELD

3 LAYERS 5/8” FIRE-SHIELD

GYPSUM BOARD

GYPSUM BOARD

SCALE 11/2” = 1’ - 0”

SCALE 11/2” = 1’ - 0”

TYPICAL INTERIOR WALL SECTION (2 HOURS FIRE PROOF RATING)

EMERGENCY STAIR WALL SECTION (3 HOURS FIRE PROOF RATING) 77


FIRE ALARM SYSTEM located right next to the entrances of the stair wells.

en, and bathrooms. And the ones in printing room, IT room, and MEP room are 96” AFF for more clearance from the machines.

alarms to free up the space. Since we have 11’ ceiling height, all the ceiling mounted alarms have to be the ones designed for 20’ maximum ceiling height.

60 95

15

15

15

30 15

15 80

45

80

30

15 80 15 15

80

30

15 30

60 15

15

15

80

15

15

60

15

15 11

5

GRADIENT GUIDE

78


SPRINKLER SYSTEM Basically, there two sprinkler systems applied to this

and the pipes are spreading out from these two places. Pipes get smaller and smaller from the start to the end of each run. And horizontal extensions are needed sometimes for more coverage.

light hazard sprinkler system, and the MEP room requires ordinary hazard sprinkler system. And their 1”

1” 1 1/2”

1”

2”

1”

1”

1”

1”

1”

1”

2” 1 1/2”

1 1/2”

1 1/2” 3”

2” 2”

2”

2”

2”

2 1/2”

2 1/2”

3”

2 1/2” 1 1/2”

1”

2 1/2”

2 1/2”

1”

2 1/2”

1 1/2”

1” 2 1/2”

2 1/2”

2 1/2”

2”

2”

1 1/2”

1”

2 1/2” 2 1/2”

3”

2”

3 1/2”

1”

1 1/2”

2 1/2”

2”

1 1/2”

1”

2” FIRE PUMP

1” 1 1/2” 1”

LIGHT HAZARD SPRINKLER SYSTEM ORDINARY HAZARD SPRINKLER SYSTEM

79


FROM FLOOR TO FLOOR All the pipes for sprinklers are running above ceiling, in between the ducts and drop ceiling

alarm for more clearance underneath.

achieve a better look from underneath.

5’

CEILING MOUNTED FIRE SPRINKLER FIRE ALARM HOURN/ STROBE COMBINATION

1”D PIPE

F I R E

11’

FIRE SPRINKLER

3”D PIPE

WALL MOUNTED FIRE ALARM HOURN/ STROBE COMBINATION

ELECTRICAL WIRING INSIDE WALL

80”

80


FROM FLOOR TO FLOOR Some sprinklers are connected to the main pipes directly without any horrizontal extensions in the

to achieve a better look.

2”D PIPE

CEILING MOUNTED FIRE ALARM HOURN/ STROBE COMBINATION

FIRE SPRINKLER

11’

RECEPTACLES ON PARTITION WALL

81 ELECTRICAL WIRING INSIDE FLOORING


SIMPLE PAYBACK ANALYSIS

82


FACADE INFORMATION DESIGNED WALL

1’ 5 3/4”

1’ 1” Limestone panel

2.5’ 8” Concrete masonry units

2” Polystyrene rigid insulation

15’

1.5’

6” Steel stud with batt insulation

2.0’

3/4” Gypsum wall Board

Facade

shade sqft

24’

Facade

shade

ft

East

1457

1283.1

West

2223

908.6

South

3063

588

Total

6743

2779.7

1" limeston panel

59.46

8" CMU

34.83

East

1457

1283.1

2" polystyrene rigid insulation

32.33

West

2223

908.6

6" batt insulation in steel stud

34.23

South

3063

588

Total

6743

2779.7

sqft

ft

3/4" gypsum board

23.5 184.35

1" limeston panel

59.46

8" CMU

34.83

opqaue

3371.5

3169.21

2" polystyrene rigid insulation

32.33

glazed

3371.5

3573.79

6" batt insulation in steel stud

34.23

322483.975

584243.8635

60687

64328.22

3/4" gypsum board

CONSTRUCTOR

23.5

step 1

184.35

opqaue glazed

CONSTRUCTOR

ECO GO!

ECO GO!

opqaue

3371.5

3169.21

glazed

3371.5

3573.79

shade 1'

208477 383170.975

857049.0835

83


sqft

ft

East

1457

1283.1

West

2223

908.6

South COST OF FACADE ASSEMBLY 3063 588COST THE AND ENERGY Total 6743 2779.7 CAMPARISON 1" limeston panel

59.46

8" CMU

34.83

6" batt insulation in steel stud

34.23

For constructor’s proposal 1, the valid facade area is32.33 : 2" polystyrene rigid insulation Opaque Area: 6743 * 0.5 = 3371.5 sqft 3/4" gypsum board Glazed Area: 6743 * 0.5 = 3371.5 sqft CONSTRUCTOR

23.5 184.35 ECO GO!

opqaue

3371.5

3169.21

glazed

3371.5

3573.79

322483.975

584243.8635

60687

64328.22

step 1 opqaue glazed shade 1'

Formular: area of opaque x $95.65 = construction cost area of glazed x $18 = construction cost

208477 383170.975

857049.0835

step 2 CONSTRUCTOR summer

ECO GO!

225823.07

42486.83384

winter

378585.735

63079.68612

Summer: U value (walls) x area of opaque x (temperature changes) + U value (windows) x area of windows x (temperature changes)

annual - cooling

270987684

50984200.61

Winter: U value (walls) x area of opaque x (temperature changes) + U value (windows) x area of opaque x (temperature changes)

annual -heating

454302882

75695623.34

Annual heating load: peak heating load (btu/h) in winter* 8 hours (h)* 150 days Annual cooling load: peak cooling load (btu/h) in summer* 8 hours (h)* 150 days Heating energy cost = ( annual heating load / million btu ) x $2.50 Cooling energy cost = (annual cooling load / 3,4112 btu) x $0.21

84


step 2 glazed

60687

64328.22

383170.975

857049.0835

shade 1'

CONSTRUCTOR

208477

ENERGY PAYBACK CALCULATION

summer

ECO GO!

225823.07

42486.83384

winter

378585.735

63079.68612

annual - cooling

270987684

Facade

annual -heating

sqft 50984200.61 East

454302882

West

step 2 CONSTRUCTOR summer winter annual - cooling annual -heating

ECO GO!

225823.07

42486.83384

378585.735

63079.68612

270987684 454302882

50984200.61 75695623.34

Facade

2223

South

3063

Total

6743

1" limeston panel

shade sqft

1457

75695623.34

8" CMU

ft

East

1457

1283.1

2" polystyrene rigid insulation

West

2223

908.6

6" batt insulation in steel stud

South

3063

588

Total

6743

2779.7

3/4" gypsum board

1" limeston panel

59.46

8" CMU

34.83

opqaue

3371.5

2" polystyrene rigid insulation

32.33

glazed

3371.5

6" batt insulation in steel stud

34.23

3/4" gypsum board

CONSTRUCTOR

23.5

step 1

184.35

opqaue

322483.975

glazed CONSTRUCTOR

ECO GO!

opqaue

3371.5

3169.21

glazed

3371.5

3573.79

322483.975

584243.8635

60687

64328.22

60687

shade 1' 383170.975

step 1 opqaue glazed shade 1'

208477

383170.975 DISCUSSION OF ADDITIONAL POINTS857049.0835

step 2 CONSTRUCTOR summer winter annual - cooling

-heatingto our wall The constructution cost in walls is lower in the proposal by the contractor annual comparing stepbecause 2 system, our wall has high cost in the materials. However, low U value of walls in the contracCONSTRUCTOR

summer

225823.07

225823.07 378585.735 270987684 454302882

ECO GO!

42486.83384

winter helps us to understand 378585.735 This excise the cost of construction of63079.68612 walls ,and our design is really high price annual - cooling 270987684 50984200.61 the contractor. So we also think to subtitute some construction materials like limestone panels to annual -heating 454302882 75695623.34 reduce construction cost. Even though U value will be increaseing, but it would not be less than 33 years to have payback in energy cost.

Additional approach is to use our wall systems, because construction cost is rising year by year. So it future. Also it would be good idea to save energy and protect environment.

85


CONCLUSION

Following step by step to design a building from the exterior facade all the way to the various systems embeded in the building, we learnt and practice to design a green building. and compare the performance of them. After we picked the one with the best performance, we apply the design into the actual building. And then, we start to design the layout of the for the interior by various passive strategies. Ribbon like shading and trombe wall were introduced to the exterior walls to achieve our goal. As we move to the MEP systems, we learnt the amount of space these systems need to keep the building running. And since we use decentralized systems with local controls for almost every system, installation and maintenance fee are expected to be really high. However, because they would save money, we will have our pay back in about 30 years. One thing we regret that we did not plan ahead was the egress. We were given one stair well problem when we install another stair well into the project. They were either too close, or did hallways ahead before planning for rooms and programs. After all, we learn that it is not easy to make a building green. Every little change may create more expensive then the regular ones. And this is not the only part. However, it is still worth in a long term, but also help to save the world environment. For which, made this project successful.

86

Profile for naihua.chen

ECO GO_Environmental Control Systems  

Environmental control systems focus on MEP of an office building. The layout design is closely associated the overall performance in office...

ECO GO_Environmental Control Systems  

Environmental control systems focus on MEP of an office building. The layout design is closely associated the overall performance in office...