ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO 3 : AIR
[CONTENTS] Part I. Expression of Interest I.1. Case for Innovation I.1.1. Architecture as a Discourse I.1.3. Parametric Modelling I.1.4. Case for Innovation : Conclusion I.2. Research Project I.2.1. Scope of Possibilities I.2.1.1. Input/Association/Output Matrix I.2.1.2. Reverse-Engineered Case-Study I.2.1.3. Material Effects I.2.1.4. Assembly Methods I.2.2. Research Project Conclusion I.3. Expression of Interest Conclusion: Competitive Advantage I.4. Learning Objectives and Outcomes: Interim Part II. Project Proposal II.1. Project Interpretation II.2. Project Delivery II.3. Project Presentation II.4. Project Proposal Conclusion Part III. Learning Objectives and Outcomes: Final III.1. Personal Background and Learning Objectives III.2. Learning Progress III.3. Learning Outcomes III.4. Future Work
Case for innovation
Our current society is one which celebrates individuality and art must follow suit. Architecture is no exception, and is currently entering a new age of parametricism. Mindless mass production is no longer desirable. Something unique, fresh and new to signal our development is required. Parametricism is the answer to this â€“ a revolutionary, progressive new style, seen as the first real movement since the advent of Post-modernism (Burry 2011, p. 18). Parametricism furthers the architectural discourse by challenging the traditional notion of built forms and the relationship between geometries (Menges 2006). Designing via scripting has led to the emergence of radically-shaped forms and cutting edge ornamentation. Parametric design also questions how ornamentation and forms are conceived â€“ what buildings and facades normally are and how they behave.
PART ONE : EXPRESSION OF INTEREST
“Any serious “rethinking” of architecture at the start of this century cannot be undertaken without upsetting the structure and emphases of the traditional profession, of traditional typologies, and of traditional modes of envisaging the architectural subject […].” - Anthony Vidler
A r c h i t e c t u r e As a
( PREVIOUS WORK )
In the Manner of Alvaro Siza
PROGRAM // TOILET
ORIGINAL SITE BAR
BOAT HIRE OFFICE
SHAPES EXTRUDED TO FOLLOW SITE CONTOURS, THUS FORMING A CONTINUOUS RAMP
SIDE EXTRUDED TO ALLOW FOR EASTERN VIEW OF RIVER
EXTRUDED WATER FEATURE REPRESENTING THE YARRA RIVER
CIRCULATION PATHS //
In this assignment, we were asked to design a boathouse in Yarra Bend Park, The challenge was to follow the style of 20th century master architects, and ours was Alvaro Siza. I tried to incoporate my own style with Siza’s, and in some way tried to further the architectural discourse in combining old and new.
TOWARDS CAFÉ & BAR
TOWARDS BOAT HIRE
View of the cafe overlooking the courtyard and the river
In designing my building, I have incorporated many of Alvaro Siza’s design elements, -taking into account his design philosophy of architecture as “a response to a concrete problem, a situation in transformation in which I participate “ In other words, I tried fitting my building into its site context and within the boundaries of its briefjust like how Siza would. I started by playing with the existing of contours of my site, to allow for a naturallyfacilitated ramp that goes all the way throughout the building, (thus making my building a huge ramp in itself). I wanted to use this great experiential quality of ramps to create a strong feeling for my visitors. This can be seen in the entrance ramp that eventually transforms into the roof of my building. When entering, visitors would have to go through a ramp which passes in-between two small waterfalls, thus giving a strong impact to visitors once they enter the inner courtyard space. Furthermore, Siza is all about giving an experience to people, and I loved this about his architecture. I have incorporated his use of courtyards into my design too, with the existence of a small courtyard in between the café and the restaurant.
[F ur t he ri n g A rc h itectu ral Di s cou rs e ] I think my building furthered the architectural discourse by reinterpreting the old through the new. In my design i tried to be as modern as possible, whilst trying to incorporate the essence of 20th cenury architecture. I believe this assignment further questions the current relevence of the modern period - as we might have more to learn from these masters of 20th century architecture rather than our current, contemporary buildings. The design principles, ideas, and attention to spatial quality in 20th century arhitecture created a discourse which made architecture livable, affordable, and most important of all human. The use of technology here was also relevant as a tool in helping us to convey spatial expriences and moods - especially through the rendering of interior voulmes using sketchup and V-ray.
A d v a n c i n g Architectural
( WEEK ONE )
Denmark Pavillion - BIG
“People always somehow misunderstand the light-heartedness of our discourse, the fact that we just play around. If you want to break the mould, if you want to do something surprising or different, [you need to do] three times the work to make it convincing. If you just follow the standard, you don’t need to make it up because it’s already done. You have to take the playfulness really seriously to get it to work.” - (Bjarke Ingels in Wired Magazine 2011)
architecture as an [ADVENTURE]
The element of adventure can be seen in BIG Architectâ€™s Denmark Pavillion (2010) in Shanghai, which allows for visitors to go around the pavillion and explore the building by themselves. Playfulness and practicality are combined - encouraging people to truly experience the pavillion by themselves, creating their own adventure. The creative use of ramps throughout the pavillion also redefined how people move and experience a building, furthering the architectural discourse by questioning the interactivity and role of buildings. Oftentimes the serious nature of built work prevents them from being enjoyed to the fullest, Nevertheless, BIG Architects have repeatedly and succesfully overcome the stoicity of buildings by providing the public with many architectural works which encourage playfulness and adventure.
INTEGRATION INTO THE EOI: The gateway should be something which engages with the local community ; one which encourages playfulness and interaction from the municipality. At the same time, it should further the architectural discourse of what a gateway should be - not only is it a static object untouched by the community - but a maleable, interactive sculpture which encourages play and personalisation by Wyndham citizens. This further fits into the brief, which calls for a design which could be the pride of Wyndham - something that residents can relate to, while consequently creating discourse and attention to the city.
A d v a n c i n g Architectural
[discourse] Isfahan Mosque
( WEEK ONE )
architecture as a
The Shah Mosque of Isfahan is an example of how architecture can be thought of as a representation of something else- in this case the geometric patterns on its walls and the domed ceilings symbolise the principles and qualities of the Islamic faith. The patterns are also one of the first examples of parametric ornamentation, amazingly done by hand using 16th century traditional tools.
INTEGRATION INTO THE EOI: Similarly, I plan to make the Gateway a symbolic gesture of progress and modernity in Wyndham. It should symbolise the new, improved Wyndham - one which embraces the arts while at the same time drives fast towards the future. The gateway should also be something not too literal - it must be quite abstract so as to generate further discourse and lasting attention on the built form.
PART ONE : EXPRESSION OF INTEREST
[ PA R A M E T R I C ] M o d e l i n g
WEEK 2 :
PARAMETRIC architecture i n n ova t i o n s
UK pavilli o n
[ H E AT H E R W I C K ] studios
The UK Pavillion exemplifies innovative usage of parametric design in architecture. The facade is incredibly beautiful as well as intriguing - it is not made of planar surfaces but rather from millions of LED rods individually screwed to the structure. This creates a vision of solidity but also transparency, as the building transforms into a permeable yet solid form. The interior of the building also boasts parametric qualities, with its curvilinear forms creating a uniquely experiential interior space. The building was exhibited in the 2010 Shanghai Expo, and opened new eyes into what digital architecture could bring forth into future buildings. The pavillion once again proves how architecture can double up as a work of art. It works as not only a pavillion but also a highly sculptural piece. The abstract quality of the structure creates discourse and forces people to come up with their own interpretations of it. The building’s other moniker, ‘the seed pavillion’ succinctly describes how the architects fused different types of seeds into the led lights - thus creating a connection between modernity and the essential character of the UK. INTEGRATION INTO THE EOI: This idea of doubling up functional values and sculptural aesthetics is what we wish to explore in the design of the gateway. The gateway should be something quite abstract, but still relatable to the people of Wyndham - in some way the essence of Wyndham must prevail - either subtly or conspicously through the gateway’s design. There should also be once again a discourse on the different meanings of the gateway - but a prevailing theme is that however parametric and cutting-edge it is; it must always be relatable to the citizens of Wyndham.
WEEK 2 :
PARAMETRIC architecture i n n ova t i o n s
YE O SU pavilli o n
[ KOKKUGIA] architecture + urbanism
The Yeosu Pavillion is an example of eye-catching parametric design applied to a seaside pavillion. It is planned to be the centrepiece of the Yeosu 2012 Expo, with the theme of ‘celebrating the ocean as a living organism’ and to celebrate “the co-existance of human culture and ocean system”. The building proves that no longer is Parametricism an incomprehensible style appreciated by a select few, it is now embraced as an emergent style gaining much recognition from the architectural realm. As the website states, “The Pavilion is intended to be the centrepiece for the Yeosu 2012 Expo”, and indeed it stands out as an eye-catching instalment of the event – merging the theme of ocean and architecture into a fine conglomeration of colour and form. This proves the acceptance of Parametricism as the way of the future, being heroic and cutting edge, so much that it is proudly showcased as the main attraction of the Expo. It became a symbol (Williams 2005) of progression; and this is exactly our aim with the design– it should not only be the welcome sign, but also an icon of progression and growth of Wyndham. Kokkugia’s quote on colour caught my interest, as it made me realise that I might just make colour a focus of the gateway design, as it is something quite unique and rarely explored in parametric design. “As much as the project is driven by mathematical hierachies, material logics, and ornamental sensibilties, it is also driven by color features. Color is used to visually intensify transformations in structural behaviour”…. “No longer secondary to form, color becomes critical in an overall ecology of features”. INTEGRATION INTO THE EOI: The fact that this pavillion will be the centrepiece of the 2012 Yeosu architectural expo proves that parametric architecture is more than able to become iconic and respected. The pavillion becomes an icon of modernity and cutting edge, one which we wish to integrate into the gateway’s design. This example further strengthens our argument that parametric design is the perfect tool for creating an iconic structure out of the gateway.
WEEK 3 :
PROGRAMMING C U LT U R E
CHROMAtex. me is an art installation by SOFTlab for the bridgegallery in Manhattan. It is designed to contextually fit into the gallery space, gathering a chroma of colours inside an organicly-shaped interior. Made up of laser cut panels of photo inkjet paper, it is a complex structure done by simple construction techniques - everything is simply put together with binder clips. The installation is a perfect example of what grasshopper scripting is capable of in terms of complex geometry and mass fabrication. Each individual panel piece is unique in shape, prefabricated in grasshopper and easily manufactured through laser cutting. It saves time and also preconfigures the construction process beforehand, thus saving time on any design alteration due to construction constraints. Chromatex.me by Softlab shows the success of the involvement of the community in a project. The sculpture was made possible through online donations, which allows funders to imprint their name and message on the back of each colour panel – making everybody an owner of the sculpture. Once the exhibition is done, each piece will be posted to these online funders as a keepsake. INTEGRATION INTO THE EOI : The scripting culture of grssshopper programming is very useful in easing fabrication and this will be highlighted in our EOI. The mass-fabrication aspect of this sculpture suggests that any complex structure can be viable through the resolving of construction specifications in digital form, while at the same time being economically practical as well. This idea of everyone contributing to the sculpture is one that we will explore in our gateway project – the gateway is to be something that Wyndham residents can relate to, a sculpture they will be proud of and which represents them in a proper way. The essence of Wyndham is important for us to incorporate into the project. Moreover, it also showcases the vibrant use of colour gradients manipulated through grasshopper scripting, highlighting colour as the focal point of the installation. Softlab’s theme for this project, “We Love Colours” succinctly suggests the firm’s outlook on colour as something playful and to be celebrated. Indeed the theme of colour resurfaces again as an essential tool in adding visual enhancement and emphasizing parametric forms.
IN N OVAT I O N
[ Conclusion ]
I have learned that architecture must create a discourse in order to move forward. It is only through the discourse - the interruption of norm- and constant discussion of them do innovative new styles emerge. Parametric design once again challanges the norms of architecture - changing the way architects think about construction methods, materiality, and free-form designs. It has also given much freedom to designers as digitisation and scripting cultures enable them to save time and money whilst making possible the fabrication of highly complex structures.
PART ONE : EXPRESSION OF INTEREST
[ R E S E AP Rr o Cj eHc ]t
WEEK 4 :
CUT / DEVELOP
[ MATRICES OF COMBINATIONS ] Attractor Curves
Attractor Curves allows for the formation of patterns based on a drawn curve. The curves will form a negative for the overall pattern. Thus the patterns (formed out of small simple gemoetries) will fill in the spaces where the attractor curves do not touch. Image Sampler allows for the formation of patterns based on an image uploaded into the image sampler component. The density and radius of the small geometries can be varied accordingly. The simple configuration of the Attractor Curve and Image Sampler Associations allowed for a lot of interesting experimentation with form and patterns. The Attractor Curve For the image samplers I tried using patterns from nature as I find them to be quite parametric in themselves.
[ EXPERIMENTING WITH PATTERNS FROM NATURE ]
WEEK 4 :
CUT / DEVELOP
[ MATRICES OF COMBINATIONS ] Attractor Curves Experimenting with the different geometries possible using the attractor curve.
Box Triangles Diamonds Pentagon Pentagon (Drip Pattern) Pentagon (slash pattern)
[ MATRICES OF COMBINATIONS ]
Data Driven Shading + Surface Extrude + Point Attractor
OMA: MC CORMICK TRIBUNE CAMPUS
WEEK 4 :
RESEARCH PROJECT : case study
I was very much interested in the formation of patterns through grasshopper scripting - as evidenced by my previous experiments with the CUT definitions. I find the generation of patterns from patterns something quite poignant and beautiful. In addition, this could bring more meaning to the making of the gateway later on, as it allows for deeper concepts relating to the city of Wyndham to be brought forth. I decided to try re-engineering the OMA Mc Cormick Tribune campus, as I found the project to be the most beautiful. The grasshopper definitions were at first difficult to define, but thanks to Gwyllâ€™s generous sharing of the OMA definition, I was able to easily recreate patterns from a pre-made script template.
WEEK 5 :
RESEARCH PROJECT : case study
At first I tried to do a rose motif, as it represented the prize-winning Rose Garden in Wyndham which is the pride of the municipality. If this worked, then it could be a good starting point for the design of the gateway. However, I failed. The picture I used of a black and white rose was too complicated, and it didnâ€™t translate into the parametric form I envisioned. Thus, I used a much simpler flower design, and changed the small patterns that made up this form into something more suitbale that will further emphasise the overall shape. I used an oval, a star, and a trapezium shape to make the final figure which i thought better-represented my initial vision.
WEEK 4 :
RESEARCH PROJECT : case study
REVERSE-ENGINEERING To k y o A i r S p a c e
Control Points Distribution
Degrees of Edge Fillet
[ Conclusion ]
It takes careful planning to design and fabricate a parametric facade, and this assignment proved that. Once done with the designing , there were also other things to think about - mainly the material use and fabrication. It was interesting to note that the more holes i wanted to laser cut, the more expensive the project is - therefore I had to make a comromise between aesthetics and monetary affordability. This presented me with the all-too-common problem faced by real-life designers : how much can I reduce from the design without stripping away its beauty? It showed me that certain sacrifices had to be made if a parametric design is to fit the budget but still be relatively attractive.
PART ONE : EXPRESSION OF INTEREST
E x p r e s s i o n Of
E x p r e s s i o n Of
( WEEK FOUR)
Site Context : Princess Highway
site A site B
The site is surrounded by vast agricultural land, and is intercepted by the Princess Highway. Sites A and B seem to have the most potential, as they boast more ground cover compared to the small patch that makes up site C. Site B however is backdropped by an information centre, while site A has a considerable amount of topography to deal with - or maybe we could take to our own advantage. The fact that the roads are straight and mostly uninterrupted, suggest that cars would accelerate at high speeds here. It is also important to note that there is no water or electrical supply near the site, thus the design should preferably be something simple and low-maintenance,
Wy ndha m G a t e way PROJECT
[ Brief Analysis ]
What do they want?
The city of Wyndham aspires to break away from its stagnant past. It wants to be the Arts Hub of Victoria harbouring a progressive arts community. Gateway Project must be an ebodimentof this aspiration The Municipality also wants : -something ICONIC -original and enagaging EXCITING, EYE-CATCHING - but do not distract drivers too much - dialogue between sculpture and landscape -something EXPERIENTIAL -something NEW, CUTTING-EDGE, and PROGRESSIVE -something to REPRESENT WYNDHAM – connectivity to melb – essence of Wnydham AIR Aerodynamic Expression of ‘lightness’, fluidity
CUT / DEVELOP / FABRICATE
I was assigned by my group to study pattern forms, therefore I decided to fabricate my previous experimentations, and experiment with them in real life. We had this idea of weathering - we wished to let the parametric design slowly uncover itself through time, and this could be helped by natural processes - the wind, the weather or maybe birds - which could somehow eat away at our sculpture thus revealing a parametric pattern underneath, Mother nature could be mainuplated to form her own patterns on our sculpture. I chose these designs as I thought they best represents the theme of â€œprogressionâ€? which we were also exploring at the time.
The shadows formed could create interesting experiences for the driver. In this experiment’s case, a ‘W’ shape was used to create its pattern, symbolising Wyndham,
WEEK 7 :
CUT / DEVELOP / FABRICATE
PLAYING WITH TIME : Weathering and stop-motion : Patterns
PLAYING WITH TIME : Weathering and stop-motion : Colours
WEEK 7 :
CUT / DEVELOP / FABRICATE
RESULTS : This is the result of my groupmateâ€™s experimentation with weathering - and which we found most interesting. It integrated colour with parametrics, and the results of the experiment were quite fascinating. We had this idea of maybe combining my pattern design into the basic form of this sculpture, and then covering them with a material that slowly rots away - thus revealing something beautiful underneath. The vibrant use of colour was also something weâ€™ll include in our final project, as it offers a lot of potentialin terms of engaging with citizens and being iconic and eye-catching. There was also an interesting element of impermenance attached to weathering, creating more possibilities of maybe inviting Wyndham residents or artists to constantly decorate the sculpture with their own identity.
E x p r e s s i o n O f
EXPRESSION expression of interest of INTEREST// Gateway to Wyndham
byElsa Marcella Christian | 377955 Nadira Jeannot | 376188 Jinn Jyh Leow | 376016 Mohamad Izzat Mohamad Nazri | 376055
Tutors Chris Loren Adams Lecturer Stanislav Roudavski
architecture design studio 3 : AIR | semester 1, 2012
Introduction “We all come from the school of something”
Throughout history, art has been interpreted through various schools of thought– there was classicism, modernism, and post-modernism (to name a few).
What’s timeless here is that architecture never fails to reinvent itself, and every age has a new idea of what beauty is, what it represents, and what it should be. Our current society hitherto is one which celebrates individuality – and art must follow suit. Mass production is no longer desirable. Something unique, fresh and new to signal our development is required. Parametricism is the answer to this – a revolutionary, progressive new style, seen as the first real movement since the advent of Post-modernism (Burry 2011, p. 18). We believe that through parametric design, we will bring Wyndham to a new level of sophistication and have it recognised as a forward-looking city with much to offer and be proud of.
The Future of
WYNDHAM -to become a cultural city enriched by art -break away from the â€˜stagnant pastâ€™ of its history. -the Arts Hub of Victoria -a progressive arts community. -Gateway Project -Parametrically designed -a catalyst -pull the city forward by creating an identity as well as a sense of space. -The progression of Wyndham will take the form of parametric design, and that is how we would design the Gateway project. The city of Wyndham aspires to break away from its stagnant past. It wants to be the Arts Hub of Victoria harbouring a progressive arts community. We will achieve this via parametric design, with the Gateway project as the starting point of that future we envision. The following precedents further emphasize the advantages and promises of parametric design.
-merges theme of ocean and architecture into a fine conglomeration of colour and form. -a symbol (Williams 2005) of progression; our aim with the design–not only be the welcome sign, but also an icon of progression and of growth of Wyndham. -colour as a primary player in expressing design intent and providing experiential qualities. -large amount of freedom associated with parametric design – open ended and flexible This pavilion will be the centerpiece of the Yeosu Expo 2012, and this shows how parametric design can create an iconic piece of architecture. It also demonstrates that parametric design has gained much respect from the architectural realm, so much so that it is being highlighted as the centerpiece of the Yeosu Expo 2012. This directly relates to the brief’s call for an iconic sculpture.
Beijing Olympic Stadium by Herzog & De Meuron
-An icon that expresses progression and modernity through parametric design, but still rich in traditional influence. (with the birdâ€™s nest form) -Designing parametrically does not mean that local culture would be forgone -The Gateway project design should ultimately be a community art project that represents the people and the city, rather than a standalone structure. We hope that this will foster community pride as the brief calls for.
Modern + Traditional
The Lego Towers by BIG Architects
“People always somehow misunderstand the light-heartedness of our discourse, the fact that we just play around. If you want to break the mould, if you want to do something surprising or different, [you need to do] three times the work to make it convincing. If you just follow the standard, you don’t need to make it up because it’s already done. You have to take the playfulness really seriously to get it to work.” (Bjarke Ingels in Wired Magazine 2011) -parametric architecture in playful exploration and expression -emphasises on the exploration of the form -light-hearted design needs to be thought through and it is perfectly capable to produce something mindblowing and strong to influence others. The Lego Towers shows how parametric design can be playful and whimsical, but still meets its basic functional requirement. We want to be playful in our design as well so as to create an “original and engaging” form as aspired by Wyndham.
The Lunar House by David Clover
-ornamentation is different from decoration, where ornamentation is something carved out of a surface and decoration is something put on to a surface (moussavi 2006) -parametrically generated ornamentation is the key point of this building. -careful assemblies and choices of materials results in ornaments (Moussavi 2011), a building cannot be separated from ornamentation as ornamentation essentially makes up the whole idea of architecture. In other words, it can be said that the buildings themselves are ornaments that composed a city. It can be observed that ornamentation is the path where architecture has been walking for the last few years and this is how we conceive the Gateway project: an ornament that represents Wyndham Parametricism enables architects to further explore architectural ornaments, especially in making its details. We see the Gateway project as an ornament which marks the city. Immuring shows the successful use of parametrically generated ornaments that works in both daylight and at night. Since the Gateway project requires us to consider the day/night views, this is a good precedent for us.
by Room 11 -multi-faceted -colour as the artistic solution -Strong contrast with the surrounding context creates a strong â€œsense of presenceâ€?. -enhance the experience of the drivers -Becomes the focal point of the Gateway. -Parametric design could bring this colur change effect to a whole new level. -Integrating parametrically designed forms with colour to produce a state of the art sculpture for Wyndham. -The Gateway project is a way of representing art and also an invitation for people to drive through the Gateway in order to experience the effect the sculpture would
Chromatex by Softlab -highlights colour as the focal point of the installation -colour as something playful and to be celebrated -adding visual enhancement and emphasizing parametric forms. -systematic and easy fabrication of a complex sculpture that is economically viable -the gateway is to be something that Wyndham residents can relate to, a sculpture they will be proud of and which represents them in a proper way. The essence of Wyndham is important to be incorporated into the project. The colour of this sculpture is manipulated through Grasshopper scripting and is produced economically and quickly - it saves time and cost. Likewise, we would like to use colours to emphasize the parametric forms in our design to enhance the experience of the drivers.
FORM COLOURS PATTERNS MATERIALITY
Blur Building by Diller Scofidio + Renfro -architecture as a special effects machine (Diller 2008) -capture attention, and the uniqueness of the building makes it memorable -key: to be memorable via the special effects -permanence of structure is secondary -low definition (no details) -By applying this principle to the project, the form precedes the details â€“ a suitable form to highlight the motion is more important than intricate details.
De Young Museum by Herzog & De Meuron -Weather adds another layer to the depth of parametric designs -two very different looks in dry and wet weather, changes with the season (encourages multiple views) -important choice of material -material deterioration as part of the design -Weathering stretches the time scale -Minimised maintenance -â€œStains on the building are evidence of its capacity for resistance.â€?
MATRICES of COMBINATIONS/
Pattern Colour Form Weathering
We started by exploring the moirĂŠ patterns but it was too shallow and we wanted something deeper with more substance behind the rationale. Hence, we decided to use the image sampler on patterns in nature, inspired by the Victoria State Rose Garden in Wyndham. The Rose Garden is the pride of the city as it won the International Garden of Excellence by the World Federation of Rose Societies in 2003 with the care of only volunteers. Then, we went on to explore patterns in nature â€“ zebra, cheetah and fish scales. However, we still feel that those inspired by the Rose Garden are the best ones as it has a strong link back to the city and may make the citizens feel more attached to the sculpture. The idea of progression was also considered and explored through more abstract patterns by the means of dynamic attractor curves.
As we see the gateway project as an ornament, we decided to explore the Voronoi pattern, inspired by the skin of Airspace Tokyo in our reverse engineering case study. They could be easily generated with many variations. Voronoi patterns were laser cut on polypropylene sheets and then wrapped and stacked into a tower form to see how the webs interact in complex manners. The layering added complexity to the patterns, and the translucence of the polypropylene sheets created interesting light effects, which might be useful in night conditions. As most people focuses on the web of the Voronoi, we are interested in the negative spaces of the voronoi too. With the leftover cutouts, we recreated the Voronoi pattern. Since colour will play an important role in our design, we experimented with different colours on the leftover cutouts to make it more interesting. To be more playful, we hung the cutouts and observed the motion and colour changes created by the wind. Together with a reflective voronoi, the effects of the colours are quite astonishing. Vibrant colours were chosen because, again, they are inspired by the vibrant colours of the roses in the Rose Garden.
The form that we found through Grasshopper is the one that is the most dynamic and best highlights the motion of the highway. The dynamism of the form also highlights the theme of progression â€“ the aspiration of Wyndham as called for in the brief foe the Gateway Project. In order to put motion and colour together, we have explored another two forms that has multiple view points, in which the colour changes as one moves along. The first design uses the angles the small panels sit to show the colour of the underside from behind and the colour of the top side from the front. With only two views, we feel that we need more viewpoints as the GASP! Project managed to produce multiple viewpoints without the help of digital tools. Hence, the second form is very angular with multiple surfaces created by breaking a large surface into smaller surfaces. Different colour could be applied to each surface and each side so that the sculpture changes more as one moves along the highway.
Here, we explored two different ways to use weathering to create interest: weathering to show patterns and weathering of colour. Pattern weathering combines the previous exploration of patterns with time. The patterns are generated parametrically and the panel will be allowed to weather. In the stop-motion video, we can see that the pattern only reveals itself through time as the weak spots are weathered away. The colour weathering examples below are inspired by the changing colour of de Young Museum.
Weathering Base forms
Basic forms used for the weathering experimentation. Enclaves and hard edges are made in order to bring out the most interesting weathering patterns and effects. The dripping and direction of water along the sharp vertices was also pre-planned.
Experiment 1 The first colour weathering example draws its colour (red and blue) from the logo of Wyndham City Council. As one of the quotes states that stains on a building show its capacity for resistance, we decided to stain a bottom sculpture with the â€œweatheredâ€? colours from the first. The staining did not work out as well, probably because we did not wait for the paint to dry before adding more water. However, the mix of reds and blues on the base created a very interesting pool/river of colour, something we will explore further with the site contours.
The experiment initially went very well, however during the last few minutes the strings holding the floating model collapsed under the weight of water.
The second colour weathering example explores the effects of double-layered colours. As the purple washes away, the yellow beneath reveals itself, and finally the translucent polypropylene sheets. In the process, the colour themselves created interesting patterns on the parametrically designed form.
References ARUP (2011). Beijing National Stadium (Bird’s Nest), <http://www.arup.com/Projects/Chinese_National_Stadium. aspx> [accessed 3 April 2012] Burry, Mark (2011). Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming (Chichester: Wiley). Diller, L (2008). Liz Diller plays with architecture [video recording] < http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/liz_diller_ plays_with_architecture.html> [viewed 19 April 2012] Kolarevic, B (2003). Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York: Spon Press), pp. 3 – 62 Kolarevic, B and Malkawi, A (2005). Performative Architecture: Beyond Instrumentality (New York: Spon Press) Menges, A (2006). ‘Instrumental Geometry’, in Architectural Design, vol. 76 (2), pp. 42 – 53 Moussavi, F (2011). Form and Ornament [video recording] < http://www.iaac.net/lectures/farshid-moussavi-155> [viewed 12 April 2012] Room 11, 2012, GASP, viewed on 22 April 2012, <http://room11.com.au/project/gasp> Williams, Richard (2005) Architecture and Visual Culture Wired Magazine (2011). Open Source Architect: Meet the maestro of ‘hedonistic sustainability’ <http://www.wired. co.uk/magazine/archive/2011/07/features/open-source-architect?page=1> [accessed 15 April 2012] Wyndham City Council (2012). Make Your Mark on Wyndham’s Art <http://www.wyndham.vic.gov.au/aboutwyndham/ pubmedia/media/2012mediareleases/april_2012/indooroutdoor> [accessed 19 April 2012] Zaera-Polo, A (2009). ‘Patterns, Fabrics, Prototypes, Tessellations’, in Architectural Design, vol. 76 (6), pp. 18 – 27
[ Conclusion ]
Before doing this studio, I had no idea what an Expression of Interest is. However, now Iâ€™ve learned that basically the EOI is a sales pitch, meant to convince potential clients that our design is the best, most logical, and economically viable solution to their briefs. The EOI is all about selling yourself - through your previous work, your design philosophy, and the overall way in which you present your designs. You are also promoting your practice - which in this case is represented by you and your groupmates. It is a lesson in working together and forming a coherent, efficient team thatmakes the basis of all successful firms. In the EOI it is important to show eagerness to the clients, hence the showing of experimentations, design thought, and some initial protoype models. This is why we did the research projects and exploration experiments in the first place - we want to give a range of possibilities to the clients, and make them excited about the possibilities of parametric design. Through the group presentations, I have realised that models communicate most strongly to the clients, as they depict our designs most realisticly - the client can touch, tweak, and play around with models - sometimes the models speak louder than our presentation panels. The EOI hence must leave the client wanting more, and is an attempt at getting the client to fall in love with the basic concept the designer proposes.
PART TWO : PROJECT PROPOSAL
Part 2 :
P r o j e c t
P r o j e c t
[ I N T E R P R E TAT I O N ]
( WEEK TWELVE)
W e a t h e r i n g To w e r
We decided to pursue the weathering effects we discovered in our EOI, as this was an aspect with much potential and complexity to it, which we could explore and take to a deeper level. Thus, our main focus was on how to showcase the beauty of weathering in the most interesting and eye-catching fashion - at the same time being abstract and iconic, in line with the wants of the brief. We started off with the idea of a monumental tower, one which could be seen from afar and would mark the beacon towards Wyndham. We played with the idea of two converging lines, meeting together to form a tower. At first we based these two strips from the property value and population of Wyndham. However, they did not come out as aesthetically pleasing as we hoped, so we changed our form but retained the idea of two lines meeting.
“Stains on a building are evidence of its capacity for resistance” – Kolarevic and Malkawi, 2005
We finally decided to take inspiration from the two adjacent highways surrounding the site (Site A), and extend them towards the middle, forming a 30 meter tower. In a larger context, this symbolises Wyndham as the midpoint between Melbourne and Geelong. Placing a landmark in the middle would finally put Wyndham on the map and commands attention
[ d esign p ro c e ss]
[ ve il s ] The veils surrounding the tower was made to also weather and disintegrate over time, and takes inspiration once again from the lines of the highway. The veils direct the eye towards the tower, creating an elegant introduction to the main centrepiece. It also partially hides the tower to add an element of mystery and slowly reveals the sculpture once a driver passes by.
P r o j e c t
[ I N T E R P R E TAT I O N ]
( WEEK TWELVE)
Pattern - finding
[ Init ia l Pa t t e rn St ri ati on s ] Essentially we searched for the best patterns which could enhance and take our weathering idea to the next level. At first we experimented with little round indents - which could act like shallow water catchments. These would increase weathering and create interesting patterns when the catchments overflow. However, we thought that they werenâ€™t interesting enough, and they also looked like bulletholes when the rust bleeds, therefore we scrapped that idea. The second pattern was a combination of drip lines which extended from the top to become something complicated at the bottom. We thought it would be interesting to control the weathering flow of the tower until it reaches the ground. However, the gothic-like patterns do not relate at all to the city of Wyndham, and neither did it exhibit much interesting qualities that could take weathering to the next level. The fine patterns were too close together and subtle that it is not realistic to expect drivers to pass by and appreciate them.
[ Pa t t e rn I t e ra ti on s ]
These patterns seemed more promising, as they are simple enough to be seen from afar, and complex enough to effectively enhance the effects of weathering. These patterns were made simply using several combinations of grasshopper graph curves (bezier, sine, etc).
[ Final Pa t t e rn - m aki n g]
UCTION METHOD +
combined surface striations steel cover copper underlay
cop precas (cnc m
= combined surface striations
combined surface striations precast concrete panel
The final patterns were finally decided upon based on their proper amount of density and attractive (cnc shape. We have milled formwork) // looking back (newly built) Towards Geelong for // driverâ€™s view (20 years late decided to cover a few striations with reactive metal and leaveTowards the Geelong others exposed on the tower surface, thus allowing rust/weathering deposits from the covered striations to drip through this pattern. The element of uncertainty is also being played with, as we are never sure which way the water will flow, and whether or not they will even completely follow the ready-made striations we made. There are a lot of interesting possibilities coming from this pattern - the idea of one metal striation corroding and exposing another (and this exposed metal will also weather eventually), the idea of one material staining another, the idea of random patterns emerging from water flow, and the idea of continuous weathering and thus continuous interest towards the sculpture.
[ Rus t & Wa t e r f low di agram ] Towards Geelong // looking back (newly built)
Towards Geelong // driverâ€™s view (20 years later)
[ Tw ist E xp e ri m en ts ]
The twist of the tower was formed in accordance with the direction of the wind in the area, which corresponds with the theme of air in this studio. It was also made in order to enhance weathering effects, allowing for water to flow all around the form and interact with the wind. The twist is also a dynamic form, which changes shape when one passes by it - giving an opportunity for viewers to see all facets of the tower whilst creating a dynamic spiraling effect.
[ Final Tw i st Fo rm ] 55
P r o j e c t
( MODEL - MAKING)
We started thinking of various methods to deliver our project in the best possible manner. This first started with the all-important model. We had hoped for a high-quality model made by 3D printing, but this wasnâ€™t possible until the day before presentation, so we were forced to improvise by experimenting with two methods: paper folding and DAS form-making.
PAPER - FOLDING Paper folding was made possible by a plugin called Pepakura, and we were able to print out unfolded templates that would enable us to fold the model into shape. However, this proved unsuccessful, as the integrity of paper (even a thick, high-quality one) could not withstand the twisting and tall tower shape we envisioned.
DAS CLAY DAS clay was slightly better, but resulted in quite a messy model, as the wires and geometry were difficult to manipulate into shape. However, the twisted form of the tower was definitely more visible and effectively shown with this material. Reinforcement from satay sticks were inserted into the clay so as to provide more support for the tower.
1 : 100 DAS clay model.
1 : 250 DAS clay model.
We went on to make two models of our tower â€“ one in 1:100 and the other in 1:250. The smaller model will serve in the stop-motion videos, and be put into context within our site model.
1 : 250 stereolitograph model
The 3D printed model finally arrived on the day before final presentation, however the lines were too thin and it turned out transparent, thus we decided to only use it for exhibition purposes rather than in the stopmotion video. It did however portray our model in its accurate dynamic geometry.
PLASTER We then went on to make detailed models of our tower faรงade, emphasizing on the striations and bolts on its surface, bringing out the different textures and materials present in the model. This also helped us greatly in experimenting with water flow along the striations, and in predicting which way the water flows and how rust colour spreads on such a surface. We used plaster poured on cardboard formwork for this experiment.
[electrolysis] This was done in order to speed up weathering effects, and demonstrate the colour changes which metal and copper will go through. We had to revise our forgotten Chemistry knowledge to set up this experiment, but eventually it worked. Copper was attached to the anode and steel was attached to the cathode, producing reactions on the copper (weathering the copper) consequently colouring the water blue. After a while we took out the weathered copper and left it to dry,further disintegrating by itself. This resulted in patina being formed on the surface of the copper, giving us exactly what we wanted. The electrolysis was then reversed, which saw the alternate rusting and corrosion of steel.
[construction] Looking at the technical details, we have decided on making the tower out of precast concrete, whilst the filled striations made up of copper covered with steel. The steel will react with the copper, causing the steel to slowly rust away over time. This will create interesting rusting patterns and colours, which will change through the years. Once the steel has completely rusted away, it will reveal the copper underneath and it will also in turn weather and change colour. These transformations will span decades, creating a lasting interest towards the tower. Brass nails are then used to attach the two pieces of metals together, since it will not rust away and wonâ€™t react with the two metals. The two reactive metals are formed like half-tubes, so as to encourage water to fill in-between them, further encouraging the weathering process. Several steel bolts are also added to the towerâ€™s ornamentation, embedded in the precast concrete so as to rust over time. Form afar, these tiny bolts create a paramteric gradient stemming from each corners of the striation - enhancing the verticality of the tower. The veil will be made out of 1mm thin sheets of degradable steel. It will be embedded into the ground tied with bolts down below.
D r i v i n g To w a r d s G e e l o n g
( WEEK TWELVE)
As the driver approaches the tower, the veils direct the viewerâ€™s eyes towards the main tower on top of the hill. It then slowly reveals the tower once the driver passes by it. The shape of the twisted tower is also ever-changing; creating a dynamic form which is visible on all facades as the viewers moves past it.
[video] Sun Paths
towards | melbourne
towards | geelong
( WEEK TWELVE)
The tower on this side of the road gets the best lighting, and is exposed to more sunlight. It is most prominent duirng the afternoon, when all the sunlight focuses on the tower, creating a glowing beacon towards Wyndham.
Long and interesting shadows are visible on this side of the road. It especially gets more attractive during the evenings, where the shadows from the tower crosses the road, and the veils cast a sleek shadow. that rides from the bottom of the hill to the top.
( WEEK TWELVE)
This short movie showed how we perceived the tower would be in years and millenias to come. We had a little fun with it and imagined alienstaking over and stealing the tower for themselves. The weathering patterns and colour changes were done based on our research of copper and steel aging.
[ CONCLUSION] The final presentation is definitely the most important thing an architect must focus on to sell her designs. Good images is of utmost importance, and they are the strongest selling-points of your idea. The organisation of images and diagrams must also be concise and simple enough to understand, as I learned from the comments made by my tutor. More diagrams and less text. Renderings are also effective if done in a proper way - in our case it was definitely helpful to show our rendered weathering images of the tower, because it helped to show the tower come alive, and let the audience see what weâ€™ve seen all along in our design. Iâ€™ve also learned a little of Flamingo (which is a plugin for grasshopper), through my attempts at rendering the tower. This final project was the first one in which I did it with a group. It definitely taught me the ups and downs of working with four different people. It is definitely not easy to please everyone - as they have their own unique tastes and ideas for the design. It taught me compromise, and in the end it is important that everybody believes in our design, because if we donâ€™t like it, then how are we supposed to sell it? Thus a lot of our decisions about the designs were made by achieving a middle ground of what everybody wants. This also reflects the environment of a firm, as you will always have to work in a team and be professional in getting things done. All in all I had a very good experience with my team, we are all different people but we worked well together and learned a lot from each other.
PART III: [LEARNING OBJECTIVES] AND OUTCOMES
[LEARNING OBJECTIVES] Before entering this course, I had little expectation â€“ I just wanted to pass, as I was quite intimidated by the idea of parametric design. I didnâ€™t even know what it really was, but I was keen to learn, it seemed like something new and never offered before. I expected just to learn rhino and grasshopper by the end of this course.
[LEARNING OUTCOMES] I had no previous experience working with any form of advanced digital modeling, and at the beginning I was quite anxious to enter this course, knowing that I may be well left behind by my inexperience. I have only experimented a little with Rhino previously, and I did not like it very much. I had always preferred traditional methods of designing (sketching, drawing, model-making), rather than 3D modeling, as I felt it prevented me from truly expressing what I envisioned. This is of course due to lack of skill. The first few weeks of rhino tutorials by EXLAB were quite easy to understand, and this reassured me that I was going to be fine. However, the following tutorials about Grasshopper scripting completely baffled me. I quickly decided that I hated parametric design. However, during these last few weeks, I discovered how extremely important it is to learn Grasshopper, as it made my life a lot easier when it came to generating my ideas in 3D. During the making of the final design, grasshopper was essential in bringing out my ideas and helping me find forms. It was in these last few weeks where I realized that I could actually understand Grasshopper and create my own definitions. It was true what my tutors said â€“ Grasshopper has a steep learning curve but once you get there, it will all make sense. The reverse-engineering also helped me quite a lot in understanding Grasshopper scripting, by figuring it out myself how to reconstruct the building faĂ§ade. I also learned that about Flamingo, which is a Grasshopper plugin and used for better renderings. It was interesting to experiment with the program. I learned a lot of other softwares as well. I had no skills in Adobe Illustrator and Adobe InDesign before this, but after this course they become second nature to me. It is now easier to make diagrams and arrange layouts, saving me time in completing my work â€“ definitely better than solely relying on Photoshop. All of this will be especially helpful for my future projects to come. I also learned about Pepakura, an unfolding tool used to make paper models from digital ones. In terms of fabrication, this is actually the first time I tried laser-cutting. It was a new experience it did prove a lot easier than manual model-making. I have now learned all the procedures and am not intimidated to use the laser cutter again next time. 3D printing was also something completely new to me, but when our group decided to do one, I learned which kinds of 3D printings are available and what files they wnt (mainly autoCAD) and what the procedures are.
[FUTURE WORK] In the end, though this is arguably the toughest course I have been in, it has taught me an invaluable amount of knowledge and gave me new experiences which will prove useful for future projects to come. I am still not too sure about what my thoughts are on parametric design - I think it is indeed a new and interesting way to approach design, but I do not know whether I like it that much. However, I am hopeful that I will apply it to my future projects, as Grasshopper is a very helpful tool in generating complex 3D models.
I would like to thank my tutors, Loren and Chris, for being the friendliest tutors I have ever had. Thank you for always being so enthusiastic! Lastly to my dedicated groupmates, Jinn Jyh, Elsa, and Izzat Thank you for suffering together with me. It was a blast working with you all
references// Images of the Danish Pavillion by BIG Architects, accessed 7th March 2012 at : http://www.big.dk/projects/xpo/ http://www.heatherwick.com/uk-pavilion/ http://www.kokkugia.com/ http://www.softlabnyc.com/work/ http://www.softlabnyc.com/portfolio/chromatex-me-gh-definition/