Every day we are faced with an abundance of decisions to make and paths to choose. Our lives take us on a journey of continuous exploration, so we must be armed with the tools of logic and rationlism to thoroughly explore our world and answer all of our questions. So, in this LVVXHZHDLPWREULQJ\RXVFLHQWLĂ&#x;FWKLQNLQJ We're delivering it out of the stereotypical academic environment of the science world and into the real every-day world. We'll be telling \RX KRZ \RX FDQ WKLQN VFLHQWLĂ&#x;FDOO\ DERXW your business deals, how to judge content \RX Ă&#x;QG RQOLQH KRZ WR ZLQ DUJXPHQWV DQG so much more all using the careful tools of VFLHQWLĂ&#x;FWKLQNLQJ:HKRSH\RXHQMR\WKLVLVVXH
MEET THE AUTHORS
4 10 13 18 25
SALLY; I am a sophomore, majoring in business administration with
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NAHLA; Freshman, seventeen, and hoping to major in Art and minor
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BUSINESS A segment that will show you exactly how you can bridge the gap between cientific thinking & business
POLITICS ONLINE INTERVIEW
How can politicians utilize the tools of scientific and critical thinking in creating a constitution?
How are you judging evidents and events presented to you online? do you know how to evaluate online content? Here you will learn how.
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3URPRWLQJ6FLHQWLĂ&#x;F Thinking among Decision Makers
anagers and decision makers in any organization encounter FRQĂ LFWLQJVLWXDWLRQVZKHUHWKH\DUH required to choose from among different alternatives and implement decisions on this basis. These Decisions can be categorized as daily decisions or strategic ones; decisions that require long term plans. Desirable results are attainable if managers apply the core principles RIVFLHQWLĂ&#x;FWKLQNLQJDVDPDQDJHULDO tool to undo value in organizational and management decision making areas.
1) Before embarking on implementing a decision, managers need to collect data and information from reliable sources to explain and analyze the issue being studied.
Sources of Knowledge ÂĄ ÂŤĂĂśĂŠĂ§Ă¸ÂśĂŚĂˇĂŠĂśĂşĂĽĂ¸ĂĂłĂ˛ĂłĂŞĂ´ĂŹĂŠĂ˛ĂłĂąĂŠĂ˛ĂĽÂ† ÂĄ ÂšĂŠĂŞĂŠĂśĂśĂĂ˛ĂŤĂ¸ĂłĂ´ĂśĂĂłĂśĂśĂŠĂ§ĂłĂśĂ¨ĂŠĂ¨Ă¨ĂĽĂ¸ĂĽĂĽĂ˛Ă¨ profit. ÂĄ ÂŤĂŠĂ¨ĂšĂ§Ă¸ĂĂłĂ˛ĂłĂŞĂŻĂ˛ĂłĂťĂ°ĂŠĂ¨ĂŤĂŠĂŞĂśĂłĂą known laws or from market conditions Ĺ™Â— Â´ĂĽĂ˛ĂĽĂŤĂŠĂśĂˇĂ˛ĂŠĂŠĂ¨Ă¸ĂłĂ§ĂłĂąĂŠĂšĂ´ĂťĂĂ¸ĂŹ different hypotheses, exclude rival ones and choose the most testable, adequate for the purpose, attainable hypothesis.
The purpose of hypothesis
¡ ®ùíèé÷øìéèíöéçøíóòóêøìé÷øùèý ¡ ¹éçóëòíþé÷÷íëòíīçåòøíòêóöñåøíóò ¡ ¨íèíòçìóó÷íòëøìéñó÷ø÷ùíøåæðé plan. ¡ ·öé÷éòø÷åêöåñéûóöïêóö systematizing the conclusions that result. 3) It is crucial for decision makers to identify the variables (the possible threats and opportunities if a certain action/ decision is to be applied).
Identifying variables ¡ «éçí÷íóòñåïéö÷ñù÷øíèéòøíêý variables that influence the process of decision making, and variables that are influenced by the decision being made to conceptualize the overall effect of the decision. 4) After identifying the possible threats and opportunities of a certain decision, managers then plan on conveying a decision.
Ways of passing on decisions. ¡ ĥöóùëìèé÷çöíôøíúé÷øåøéñéòø÷ ¡ ĥöóùëìêóöñåð´ééøíòë÷øìåøåððóû arguments to elucidate, interpret, defend, challenge, and explore future and current implications of the decision. 5) Afterwards, managers should trace the end result consequences of the decision to enhance or modify their decision making system to get the desired results.
>>>7KHPHWKRGRORJ\RIDSSO\LQJVFLHQWLßFWKLQNLQJWRVROYHPDQDJHULDOSUREOHPVLQFOXGHV Analyzing the phenomena or the problem, collecting knowledge and information about the problem, coming up with alternative decisions, estimating the possible opportunities and threats of each course of action, applying a decision, and then observing its implications.
CONSTITUTIONAL THINKING Humankind favors order and structure. Societies, ancient and modern, strive to create strong civilizations based on unity & order. In order for them to do so, however; they need to lay down a code of law, seen in its earliest form in Hammurabiâ€™s code in ancient Mesopotamia and seen now in what is more modernly known as a constitution. A countryâ€™s constitution is its foundation; the rules, standards, and principles a countryâ€™s people believe in and
OLYHE\(VWDEOLVKHGĂ&#x;UVWZRUOGFRXQWULHV have equally powerful constitutions that guarantee their people's rights & the people take pride in. 2QO\Ă&#x;UVWZRUOGFRXQWULHVDUHQ WERUQZLWK that stature. They are given that ranking because of their overall condition, be it economic, social, or other. A powerful constitution is what allows for this. Fledgling third-world countries, much like
our very own Egypt, must recognize the importance of creating a strong constitution and must make it their priority. A nation will not survive without one. A strong constitution is created by laying effective and powerful foundations for the rules upon which the country must be governed. I believe that these foundations OLHLQWKHDPRXQWRIFULWLFDODQGVFLHQWLĂ&#x;F thinking that has gone into creating them. By following the methodical nature of VFLHQFHSUHFLVHVWHSVRIVFLHQWLĂ&#x;FWKLQNLQJ & rational conclusions that are yielded, debate about the validity, accuracy, & partiality is avoided all together. 'HOYLQJLQWRWKHIXQGDPHQWDOVRIVFLHQWLĂ&#x;F thinking and the nature of science would go far beyond this article. It is a subject deep enough that entire university courses are given to teach it and cultivate it. However, some of its key principles that can be utilized in the creation of a constitution FDQEHIRXQGLQNH\VFLHQWLĂ&#x;FDUWLFOHVOLNH An Introduction to Science by Dr. Steven Schafersman and The Nature of Science published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
included; none are segregated against and none enjoy more freedom than the rest. $OVRVFLHQWLĂ&#x;FWKLQNLQJHPSOR\VWKUHH PDLQFRPSRQHQWVHPSLULFLVPVNHSWLFLVP & rationalism. While Dr. Shcafersman H[SODLQVWKHLULPSRUWDQFHWRVFLHQWLĂ&#x;F inquiry in his article, I believe they can be just as fundamental when writing a strong constitution. Rationalism and Skepticism are two vital tools needed to create sound, logical, and reliable laws. People are more likely to abide by rules they can follow the reasoning behind. Also, these two tools allow law-makers to see any loopholes in their premises and proposed laws. Empiricism is also essential to the process because it dictates the type reasoning a lawmaker can suggest backing up a law.
A constitution created with these tools of VFLHQFHDQGVFLHQWLĂ&#x;FWKLQNLQJZLOOSURYLGH an effective and solid framework for a developing society like ours. It will ensure WKDWWKHSULQFLSOHVRIVFLHQWLĂ&#x;FWKLQNLQJDUH rooted deep into the peoplesâ€™ minds; people ZLOOQRWMXVWĂ&#x;QGUXOHVLQWKHFRQVWLWXWLRQ theyâ€™ll be able to analyze why they were put WKHUHLQWKHĂ&#x;UVWSODFHIROORZWKHUHDVRQLQJ EHKLQGWKHPDQGDUJXHIRUWKHLUHIĂ&#x;FDF\ Science looks to previously gathered data, Moreover, a constitution based on the previously conducted experiments for SULQFLSOHVRIVFLHQFHDQGVFLHQWLĂ&#x;FWKLQNLQJ previous knowledge, and a sound base to ZLOOQRWUHĂ HFWRUDIIHFWDQ\SDUWLFXODU formulate a hypothesis. Similarly, we can SROLWLFDOSDUW\PDNLQJLWWKHEHVWĂ&#x;UVWVWHS look to previously written constitutions for towards bringing our country forward into errors or corrections that can be made while WKHĂ&#x;UVWZRUOG writing a new one, for laws that have been PHWE\WKHELJJHVWFRQVHQVXVDQGĂ&#x;QDOO\ for a rubric or guide for the corners that must be covered by the law. Science is also, ideally, free of bias and does its utmost best to avoid it. When writing a constitution, we must take great care in making sure that all segmentsâ€™ and sectors of our societyâ€™s rights are protected and
TWITTER; Weâ€™re having trust issues! Almost everyone has integrated social media into their daily informationgathering routines; because as technology advances, newer and more unconventional methods of spreading news become more popular. Nowadays, the average individual is just as likely to open their internet browser and see WKHODWHVWKHDGOLQHVĂ DVKDWWKHPRUORJ onto their Twitter account and read othersâ€ş opinions on whatever is going on in the world, as they are to turn to the television or the radio for their daily dose of news. However, as the institutions and corners of news-making and news- reporting disseminate with the ever- advancing technology, problems arise for the independent consumer. The individual who, in the past, looked solely to the newspapers & television stations for reliable information is now bombarded with it from all corners on various social media platforms. This individual, who once believed in the credibility and reliability of the printed and documented word, is now left to sift through a mountain of images, headlines, & stories for what is really considered news. Furthermore, talk-show hosts often quote things being said on twitter. But ZK\GLGWKLVKDSSHQLQWKHĂ&#x;UVWSODFH"
Well actually, a number of reasons. Twitter is completely free & preys upon the natural human need to share information & whereabouts. It is one of the only social media platforms that allows content to be shared with anyone who wants to view it, eliminating limits such as ÂŤlikingÂť or ÂŤaddingÂť that other sites like Facebook impose. Also, Twitter provides ÂŤTrending TopicsÂť that one could choose to view by location or worldwide which tell us what the world is talking about. In addition, the -140character restriction compels people to be concise and express their QHZVDVEULHĂ \DVSRVVLEOHVRPHZKDW eliminating the capacity for overly decorative adjectives & hyperbole. Finally, Twitter is accessible from almost every mobile device because they have created applications with interfaces to suit every deviceâ€şs capabilities.
ÂŤBut with everyone tweeting and talking all at once. . . how do we extract the real deal from all the noise?Âť
7KDWVXUSULVLQJO\LVQRWDYHU\GLIĂ&#x;FXOW task when keeping in mind the basics of FULWLFDO VFLHQWLĂ&#x;FWKLQNLQJ-XVWIROORZ the steps below!
)LUVW IRUHPRVWORRNIRUWKHYHULĂ&#x;HGDFFRXQWVLJQ7KLVLFRQ means that the source is really who they say they are and not an imposter. This is particularly helpful when trying to sort through which celebrity news is gossip & which is real. Look for what comes straight from the horse's mouth!
Next, try to make sure that your source is unbiased. You can do this by scanning their previous tweets for particular preferences or clear attitudes against one side of an argument.
Follow retweets to the source! Believing a retweet blindly is exactly like believing in hearsay which is a HUGE error! Hearsay easily changes key words and key facts to bend an argument one direction or the other
Look for fallacies in argument & study the claims made in the tweets. They may be short, but that makes them more fallible. Sometimes, more words are needed to express a correct idea!
)LQDOO\IROORZDOOVKDUHGOLQNVEDFNWRWKHLURIĂ&#x;FLDOZHEVLWHV /LQNVDUHXVXDOO\VKRUWHQHGWRĂ&#x;WLQWKHWZHHWVVRGHVSLWHD tweet looking legitimate if it says "5 ways eating burgers helps \RXORVHZHLJKWKWWSWFRLWKHOLQNFRXOGWDNH\RXWR KWWSZZZHDWEURZQLHVGDLO\FRPWRDQDUWLFOHZULWWHQE\VRPH pseudo-doc.
The catastrophic hurricane â€œSandyâ€? hit the United States & the Caribbean in late October leaving massive destruction in its wake. It inarguably hit New York City the hardest on the American East Coast & left a bizarre trail of images in its wake. Now while in VRPHFDVHVIDFWFDQWUXO\EHVWUDQJHUWKDQĂ&#x;FWLRQZKHQSLFWXUHV of sharks swimming through the streets of NYC & snorkelers in the subway begin to emerge on the internet one begins to think
Ă˜:DLWĂžZKDW"Ă™ Hereâ€™s where your skepticism and critical thinking skills come in.
The fakes come in WZRFDWHJRULHV >> photos that have been entirely fabricated >>photos of previous storms or hurricanes that are being re-circulated as photos of Sandy. You must be able to look the fake pictures and think for yourself,Ă˜:DLWLVWKLVUHDO"Ă™ :KDWVKRXOGVHWWKHDODUPRIILQ\RXUKHDG" Well, a number of things ...
Look for corroborating evidence! Videos DUHPXFKPRUHGLIĂ&#x;FXOWWRIDEULFDWHVRLIDQHYHQWLV documented on video as well as through pictures, the pictures are probably real. Also, if multiple credible sources are circulating the image, it is probably true.
,ILWGRHVQĂ–WĂ&#x;WZLWKWKH way the world works or seems too out of place, it is probably fabricated. A seal on dry land IDFLQJDFDU" Really?
Can you follow the OHDGEDFNWRWKHSKRWRJUDSKHU" What are other people saying DERXWWKHLPDJH"*DWKHUWKLV information and never be afraid to be speculative of really strange images.
Most fabrications involve image editing software such as Photoshop, so look for tell tale signs that the images MXVWGRQĂ–WĂ&#x;W,IWKHVWDWLRQ UHDOO\ZHUHĂ RRGHGZLWKZDWHU ZRXOGQĂ–WLWEHPRUHRIDPHVV" :RXOGQĂ–WVRPHLWHPVEHĂ RDWLQJ LQWKHZDWHU"Think critically when analyzing pictures!
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:KDWLV\RXU favorite aspect of science"
My favorite aspect of science would probably be the way it continually generates something new and surprising. The day to day grind of science, if youâ€™re working in a lab, may seem kind of boring or tedious, as any job doesyou know, one more pie-chart, one more calculation, one more this. But the way science as a whole works, itâ€™s always showing us things about the world, about the universe that we never expected before.
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I think one of the most fundamental skills related WRVFLHQWLĂ&#x;FWKLQNLQJLV learning how to deal with uncertainty, because the popular stereotype of scientists is usually related WRVFLHQWLĂ&#x;FODZ\RXNQRZ the speed of light or the
I am, but I have to learn åöð ®åððé ½í÷íøíòë ¨÷÷í÷øåòø how to manage it, I have to çíéòçé÷åòè¬òëíòééöíòëìéöé learn how certain is certain w he views scientific thinking enough.
cable to our day-to-day lives. like. It’s the law not just a good idea or it’s the geeky guys in white coats who are saying I haven’t seen another human being in three years but I’ve done a lot of calculations and this is the way nature works. But in practice one of the most important things DERXWVFLHQWLßFWKLQNLQJ is ßJXULQJRXWKRZWRGHDO with results that give you a range of estimates, I have to estimate how uncertain
Are there times ZKHQ\RXVWUXJJOH WRDSSO\VFLHQWLßF WKLQNLQJ"
There are always things that you get emotional about in terms of their ethical principles, or their political principles. On the one hand that doesn’t mean \RXGLVUHJDUGVFLHQWLßF thinking, anything related to ethics or politics you can still collect data, look
at how good it is, and let LWLQIRUP\RX6FLHQWLĂ&#x;F thinking can inform a lot of your decisions but at the end it still leaves you with the choice; you do this or you do something else and some of the reasoning behind that choice is going to relate to your politics your ethics your family and whatever sort of you know your psychology you know
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and technological understanding in many ways is getting more important. So even with like a lot of manufacturing jobs, so manufacturing in the past used to be yâ€™know, a bunch of people in a line & you pick up one part and you put it into this place here and you pass it onto the next person. So on the employment and job side, ,Ă–GVD\VFLHQWLĂ&#x;FWKLQNLQJLV becoming more important over time in a lot of sectors anyways. But the other thing is, in terms of if we all have calculators or GPS devices, do we not need to learn to do math anymore RUGRZHJHWOD]\DERXWLW" Um, thatâ€™s possible. & one of the examples would be that up until recent times, everyone would have known something about the movement of the stars because you need it too in
order to keep up with how you knew what time it was. Nobody does that any more but that’s not always a bad thing. We all specialize. And as a teaching method I think it’s still useful to try to learn what goes on underneath because you understand it more. There’s skills to be maintained by doing that but technology moves on and I don’t need to understand how my toaster works before I eat breakfast.
of organized skepticism, that is, not just skepticism in terms of “I don’t believe what anyone else is telling PHÙGRJPDWLVP<RX can take skepticism to “I will never believe what anyone else is telling me and therefore my opinion is as good as anyone else because you can’t prove that that’s true, therefore you can’t prove that I’m wrong, so I’m going to keep believing the things I already believe”. We have to distinguish between skepticism based on data, experience, and asking YHU\VSHFLßFTXHVWLRQV 'R\RXEHOLHYH WKDWSHRSOHQRZDGD\V and skepticism for the sake of not believing. It’s DUHWRRVNHSWLFDORU always good to keep asking QRWVNHSWLFDOHQRXJK" questions but there’s a I think people are too difference between asking skeptical in many ways. questions and nihilism, Which is not to say that denying that anything is skepticism is bad, but true or worth changing my what we’ve lost is a sense own opinion about
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The voice is often distinguished from other talent seeking shows in that its judges are turned around in their seats when contestants step in to sing. The judges then try to recruit contestants to be on their individual competing teams. The elimination of the visual aspect is meant as a means of reducing H[WHUQDOYDULDEOHVWKDWFDQLQĂ XHQFH judgesâ€™ opinions. However, is a singerâ€™s appearance truly the most important independent YDULDEOH" 2U DUH RWKHU YDULDEOHV such as which song is sung, more LPSRUWDQW" $IWHU DOO MXGJHV PD\
be more open to picking a person purely out of song choice. Another problem lies in that some songs can demonstrate singing ability more so than others. Choice of song, therefore, plays a far more important role, as appearance only matters if the judges are biased, which they are not. That the judges try to form a team of the PRVWWDOHQWHGVLQJHUVWKH\FDQĂ&#x;QG eliminates their allowing factors RWKHUWKDQWDOHQWWRLQĂ XHQFHWKHP The chosen song is therefore far more important than the singersâ€™ appearances.
HOW TO WIN AN ARGUMENT Use scientific thinking to your advantage
e all get into arguments. Some we win. Others we lose. Nothing is more frustrating than losing an argument simply because one couldn’t deal properly with another person’s illogical thinking. This can easily be remedied however, through the use of scientific thinking. Using scientific thinking, one can successfully root out logical errors and fallacies present in the other person’s argument. All one needs to do is go over the steps of the scientific method. The other person will probably not have employed very many (if any at all) of the steps required of the scientific method.
Ask your opponent what evidence they have to support their claim. Do they have any? Most people make the most absurd claims with absolutely no evidence whatsoever.
-Question your opponent on their sources. Do they have any? Are they reliable ones? Remember, there are no absolute authorities in science. Use this to your advantage.
-State your own claim. Back it up with evidence. Make sure your sources are reliable. If you want to be extremely thorough, be prepared to prove their reliability.
-Enjoy crushing your opponents’ arguments and imposing your views on them!
6SRWOLJKWRQ$ SCIENTIFIC 7+,1.(5(LQVWHLQ(G I Was born with a Gigantic Head My mother, Pauline Einstein, thought that she gave birth to a deformed child due to my big malformed head I experienced speech problems in my early childhood
At the age of five, I was inspired by a compass that was shown to me by my father when I was sick in bed
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Caught in the Skepticism
Afterword & References In light of recent events taking place around the world, and in considering the itense societal demand for us to be betterinformed intellectuals, scientific thinking is a skill that must æéôöóôåëåøéèåòèéòçóùöåëéè¶ĳéòùôóòìéåöíòëøìéûóöè "science", individuals shrink back and decide to leave the matter to the specialists. In this issue, we wanted to demonstrate that "scientific thinking" isn't even purely scientific. It is a concept that is taken out of the meticulous nature of science, but one that can be applied, with practice, to almost every area of our lives. As students at the American University in Cairo and as individuals who hold valuable knowledge, we feel that it is our duty to share it, as a form of civic engagement if you may. We want to show the readers of this pubilication the spark, and leave them interested to continue to develop this skill. This publication was made to be submitted for Dr. Sawsan El-Gogary of The American University in Cairo. All content is original but created with knowledge from previous in-class GLVFXVVLRQVDQGWDNHKRPHUHDGLQJV7KHVHUHDGLQJVZHUH $Q ,QWURGXFWLRQ WR 6FLHQFH 6FLHQWLßF 7KLQNLQJ DQG WKH 6FLHQWLßF 0HWKRGE\6WHYHQ'6FKDIHUVPDQ 6FLHQFH DV )DOVLßFDWLRQ RULJLQDOO\ SXEOLVKHG LQ &RQMHFWXUHV DQG 5HIXWDWLRQV E\.DUO53RSSHU 722/6 )25 6.(37,&$/ 7+,1.,1* IURP 7KH )LQH $UW RI %DORQH\'HWHFWLRQE\&DUO6DJDQ 7KH1DWXUHRI6FLHQFH
Published on Dec 9, 2012
A publication on the applications of scientific thinking in the real world created by Sally Abdelaal, Nahla Hambazaza, & Nadine Awadalla, st...