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STUDIO AIR ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO 3 _ UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE NADIAH HUSNA BINTI SAIFUL BAHRI 376193


_CONTENTS PART l : EXPRESSION OF INTEREST

1.0 _ Case For Innovation

1.1 _ Architecture as a Discourse 1.1.1 _ HEADSPACE 1.1.2 _ CONTINUUM - Mary Huang 1.1.3 _ DISORIENTING SPATIAL PROJECTIONS - Peter Koler 1.2 _ Computing in Architecture 1.2.1 _ CODA innovations 1.2.2 _ WORLD OF CHLOROPHYLL - IAMZ Studio 1.3 _ Parametric Modelling 1.3.1 _ HAESLEY NINE BRIDGES GOLF CLUBHOUSE - Shigeru Ban 1.4 _ Case For Innovation Conclusion

2.0 _ RESEARCH Project

2.1 _ Input/Association/Output Matrix 2.2 _ Reverse-Engineered Case-Study 2.2.1 _ Gantenbein Vineyard facade 2.3 _ Fabrication Methods 2.4 _ Material Effects 2.5 _ Research Project Conclusion

PART ll : PROJECT PROPOSAL

4.0 _ PROJECT : WYNDHAM CITY GATEWAY

5.1 _ Project Interpretation 5.2 _ Project Delivery 5.2.1 _ Concept & Design Development 5.2.2 _ Assembly Tectonics 5.2.3 _ Light study 5.2.4 _ Texture & Form 5.3 _ Presentation

PART lll : REFLECTION

5.0 _ Learning Objectives and Outcomes : Final

6.1 _ Personal Background and Learning Objectives 6.2 _ Learning Progress 6.3 _ Learning Outcomes


PART l : EXPRESSION OF INTEREST


PART ll : PROJECT PROPOSAL


1.1 ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE

headspace VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS SEM 1, 2010 BACHELOR OF ENVIRONMENTS UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE

This first-year subject was an introduction to the use of computation design and 3D modelling software. We were asked to explore what defines architecture and its parameters by exploring precedents, ranging from fashion designers, to musicians, artists and architects. Sourcing inspiration from a wide variety of sources was challenging especially when we had to translate the idea into a physical form. The objective was to design a headpiece to be worn by the designer at the end of semester, taking the ideas from inside their heads, outside. Forming a miniature version of the idea from clay, cut-sections were then drawn and translated to a 3D digital form. The idea of using technical help like computation softwares has indeed open new ways to design an idea, one that was thought to be unattainable by hand. Time is a contributing factor to development of architecture as discourse. We have the tools as a mean to speed up the process of realizing any limits on architecture, and as such, the faster we are to progressing further into new ideas and better tools. This project portrays the potential of prototyping through inexpensive means before it was adapted digitally, pushing forward the debate surrounding experimental design architecture. Meanwhile, the use of 3D modelling softwares (in this case, Sketchup) brings out the design challenges and potential of automatised design.

Coordinator _ Stanislav Roudavski Tutor _ Andrew Reynolds


The process of configuring the design in Sketchup. From line vectors traced from the miniature model, facets and triangulations are brought out to form the faces of the object. Basic tools are then used to push-pull the facets into the desired form. Below left: The form is then unfolded to allow for 2D printing.


CONTINUUM

Mary Huang

Continuum by Mary Huang attempted to blend interactive software, fast fabrication and accessability of the web. This design concept allowed direct individual participation in the production process. Processing developed a software which allows a user to ‘draw’ a dress, convert it into a 3D model, which is later flattened, cut out from fabric and later sewn. Computational couture aids in solving the persistent problem of standardized sizing of ready made clothes. With the design encompassing an engaging and continuous user experience, this design narrative inspire changing attitudes and behaviours of mass consumption. Based on Patrick Schumacher’s The Autopoiesis of Architecture (2011), the idea that architecture discourse not only revolve around built structures, but written works, knowledges and practices. I think CONTINUUM could be advancing architectural discourse, even if it was meant as a tool in the fashion industry, in the sense that the design concept could be seen adapted into the architecture field. Inspirations for architecture can come from anywhere, from the fashion or automobile industry. This circle of knowledge passed on from field to field could be understood as communications connecting each other in an ongoing recursive network. The idea of user-specific products could be well adapted into architectural works such as housing in the future.


“Continuum by Mary Huang attempted to blend interactive software, fast fabrication and accessability of the web. This design concept allowed direct individual participation in the production process�

http://vimeo.com/17253049 http://continuumfashion.com/


disorienting spatial projections Peter Koler

Artist Peter Koler draws his inspiration for this installation from watching movies such as “The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari” and “Metropolis”, where architecture cam be seen to play an important role in evoking emotions from its viewers. Koler wanted to evoke said emotions in a way that the spaces change before the viewer’s eyes. He uses large graphic projections, making the walls seem to shift, expand and move, all at once. This is another example of manipulative design in which it interacts engagingly with the user of the space. Architecture discourse could arise from this installation in which it provokes the use of space as an interactive, as well as functional space. Architectural discourse could start off from other fields outside of architecture, from fashion designs to artistic installations. This ongoing recursive network of knowledge and communication is vital to the birth of new ideas in architecture, even if its only contribution is to revoke thought-provoking questions, which are then further developed to form new ideas. I chose artistic installations and fashion design concepts because I think architecture will become obsolete without fresh interventions from design-focus fields.


Regina Silveira - Depth

Daniel Palacios - Waves

Above: Other artistic installations that provokes the role contemporary architecture play in society.


Andrei Hakhovich - Voricity

Elise Morin and ClĂŠmence Eliard - Waste Landscape


CODA 1.2

COMPUTING IN ARCHITECTURE

BCNoids 2009 “The public bicycle rental service was introduced into Barcelona in May 2007, and its gradual and successful implantation ever since has transformed the cityscape. With their displacements, users of this service generate information on their journeys, bicycles and stations which are then compiled in the central computer of BSM, the body managing the service, which then searches for mechanisms to optimise responses to imbalances in the use of its network. The information filters the valuable origindestination matrix of users, and only publishes the state of use of Bicings stations around Barcelona, This information is downloaded and stored using a scraper hosted on an independent server. Then, this database is later made accessible on the Internet, and through specific requests it visualises use patterns and behaviours of this service on an urban scale. The end result was fruit of the intense collaboration between various persons and the integration of the diverse tools they provided. Physicists and computer scientists materialised the ripper machine able to extract data and generate the database, while the city planning and design disciplines organised the overall data architecture and its visualisation. The Bicing webpage provides information on the service for users through Google Maps API. The map of Barcelona is dotted with signals indicating the location of stations, the number of bicycles available and the number of free spaces for parking at each station. The data is inserted on the map using a JavaScript code with a chain of characters that contains a KML geospatial annotation document. With the goal of analysing the dynamics of the use of the stations, KML documents have been accumulated every five minutes, cleaning them and storing them on a MySQL database.� http://coda-office.com

CODA is a mobile, shape-sifting, quality-driven and prob tures, and computer science, and they focus in the opt


blem solving design office. Their research fields are geometry, construction, structimization of processes: reduction of energy, material and time costs in design fields.

HoneyLight 2010 Honeylight is a concept project for an adaptive lighting system which consists of two pieces build in Corian: the emitter arms and the parabolic spreading base. Every lighting focus emitter is independently controlled allowing the system to adapt the lighting level. Honeylight received the first award in the Corian Dupont 2010 Competition .

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WORLD OF CHLOROPHYLL IAMZ Design Studio World of Chlorophyll features individual units stemming from central columns, imitating the ‘branch and leaf’ structure of a plant. This way, the building mimics nature, which also makes for an easy configuration. Similar to chlorophyll in plants would utilize sunlight for photosynthesis, this design concept would harness the elements to power this experimetal structure. The staggered, leaf-like orientation of the units would maximize exposure to sun and wind. Although still a design concept, it made sure to incorporate eco-friendly features like natural ventilation with the penetration of sunlight thorugh the units and the creation of indirect lighting. Passive solar design seeks to trap and use energy from the sun to heat and cool buildings without utilizing active mechanical systems.


1.3

PARAMETRIC MODELLING 1.3 PARAMETRIC MODELLING


HAESLEY NINE BRIDGES GOLF CLUBHOUSE Shigeru Ban The Nine Bridges Country Club-Clubhouse is a structure with three floors and an underground level. The atrium and the upper portion of the main building consist of timber columns and a glass curtain wall, while the base is of stone. Using advanced computer and cutting machine technology, the most efficient and suitable structural form was found which minimizes fabrication and the assembly process, as well reducing waste through the amount if timber used. Parametric modelling and digital fabrication technologies offer new ways of developing designs, and represent a working method based more on procedure than geometric form. Parametric modelling differs from standard CAD modelling principally in the way elements are related to one another. While a standard CAD model consists of geometric elements placed in a uniform, Cartesian space, a parametric model sets up a structure of relationships, or schema, that allows dimensions, and even quantities of elements to be deferred to a later point. With the addition of scripting and basic programming even non-geometric relationships can be incorporated, including structural and environmental considerations and abstract logic. This parametric approach entails a very different approach to design, more aligned to the idea of the architect as chief builder than the designer as the drawer of form.


1.4 CASE FOR INNOVATION CONCLUSION The precedents adapted into this journal are to show projects or ideas that could be advancing architectural discourse, the innovations brought out by computational design techniques, as well the advantages of scripting or programming cultures in the areas of design and architecture. I concluded that precedents for architecture can come from a variety of sources, including those out of the field of architecture. Projects that uses contemporary computational design techniques, like scripting or parametric design are rather useful in terms of a more efficient production process. Trails and errors occured digitally, instead of constructing prototype models which will increase the cost of production and experimentation. The flexibility that is evident in programming softwares allows for a more efficient use of time and material. This is an example of how scripting or programming softwares helps reduce the time framework of the design process by making full use of what can be done just as efficiently in the software. Adapting this into the Wyndham Gateway project, I believe a parametric approach to desgning the gateway would a more efficient, less time-consuming event. Parametricism could pave a way into the future, which aligns with Wyndham’s ideals and its relationship the city of Melbourne.


2.1

INPUT/ASSOCIATION/OUTPUT MATRIX

As part of the research project, we were given a set of definitions comprising of inputs, associations and outputs. A matrix of diagrams is produced as a result of the experimentation with grasshopper components as part of the scripting program undertaken for the Wyndham City Gateway Project.


maths function

image sampler

curve attractor

attractor point

arbitrary points boolean curve intersect surface grid


overlap patterns explicit hexagonal

explicit circle

surface normal

attractor point curve attractor image sampler maths function


2.2 REVERSE-ENGINEERING CASE-STUDY The masonry buffers temperature and filters sunlight for the fermentation room behind it. The bricks are offset and rotated to allow light through the gaps, producing an amazing light pattern on the inside. The production method includes the use of a robotic arm which enabled each one of the 20,000 bricks to be places according to programmed parameters - at the desired angles and intervals allowing each wall to possess the optimal light and air permeability. There is a dramatic play between plasticity, depth and colour, which are dependent of the observer’s position and the angle of the sun. The three-dimensional depth of the facade forms the solidified dynamic form of the wall as well as encourages the eye to wander across the facade. The subtle deflection of the bricks further creates an appearance of plasticity that constantly changes, according to the movement of the viewer and the position of the sun. Likened to the similarity of pixels on a computer screen, the pattern also communicates a distinctive image and identity of the vineyard. The angle of rotation for each brick permits light to reflect differently and engage in different degree of lightness. The joints (gaps) between the bricks creates transparency, lessening the boundary between interior and exterior by allowing daylight to seep into the building. In order to make the pattern distinguishable from the interior, the bricks are laid close together as possible in order for the gap at full deflection are nearly closed. This generates a maximum contrast between the open and closed joint, allowing light to profoundly model the interior walls. The pictorial effect when seen from a distance is that of an enormous basket filled with grapes but at a closer view, the sensual, textile softness of the facade dissolves to portray rough materiality of the masonry; the gradual change from the soft, round forms to the composition of individual, hard bricks.

GANTEN VINEYAR


NBEIN RDFACADE

GRAMAZIO & KOHLER ZURICH, SWITZERLAND 2006


ASSOCIATION: image sampler OUTPUT: data driven rotation


“To create the façade, we designed a generation process. We

interpreted the concrete frame construction by Bearth & Deplazes as a basket and filled it with abstract, oversized grapes of varying diameters. We digitally simulated gravity to make the grapes fall into this virtual basket, until they were closely packed. Then we viewed the result from all four sides and transferred the digital image data to the rotation of the individual bricks.

Because each brick has a different rotation, every single brick has a different and unique overlap with the brick below it, and the one below that. A digital replica of the Vineyard’s facade was made in Rhinoceros and Grasshopper. The image sampler and the orient tool was found to be the most successful technique in producing the desired pattern. The image sampler component makes the design process more flexible and less restrictive in the sense that it borrows from another source, usually a .jpeg or .png file. This makes it easier to incorporate the desired pattern without the complex turns in grasshopper.


2.3 FABRICATION

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Sketch models are then produced based on the design techniques derived from the matrix and the reverse-engineering project. One of the ways to fabricate a digital model was through the use of unfolding the geometric facets, laying them out flat on a 2D planar surface. In this case, the models are flattened onto a flat plane, converted from Rhino to an Adobe Illustrator file, in which the data are sent to the laser printer.


MODEL 01 The earlier model was a simple model with the sole idea of experimenting with light and shadow against a basic pattern of circular and rectangle perforations. The idea was to acknowledge speed and movement as part of the design themes for the Wyndham gateway project. The change of pattern along the board signifies the changes of pattern the drivers will experience along the gateway.


MODEL 02 The second model was an attempt to replicate the ideas received from the Vineyard facade. The chaging facets are meant to dislplay the material tectonics of brick as a potential material used for the gateway. The difference of light and dark of this model adds depth to the facade, allowing for a very effective display of movement and colour, relative to the position of the viewer. The main idea of the changing tone and depth of the materials can prove to be quite engaging to the individuals experiencing the gateway.


MODEL 03 The final model is a developed design concept from the second model. By maintaining the changing facets as a theme for the project, we extended the form vertically, giving it a more renowned stand along the highway. Height can be quite receptive to viewers, allowing for a moment of awe at its vast scale. The movement along the model is from smooth to rough, representative of the cultural stereotype of Melbourne city and Wyndham.


The research project aided in the development of the ideas and themes we had in mind for the gateway project. Experimenting and exploring Rhino and grasshopper allowed for new ways of designing. The use of stereotypes to expand on the technicality of the project was rather useful in spotting what works and what doesn’t in determining a suitable form and design technique for the gateway project.


4.0 WYNDHAM CITY GA


ATEWAY PROPOSAL


PROJECT INTERPRETATION BRIEF

The project brief explicitly mentions criterias for the gateway design to be iconic and engaging. This element of identity must be the core element for the gateway project. The design are meant to be an indication of arrival into metropolitan Melbourne.

According to statictics, families with children as well as working adults and students comprised the resident population at Wyndham. It is important to note here that the gateway must neither be too literal nor too abstract, for the viewers to better understand the idea or message behind the design. A form that is too abstract might deter the response received by the drivers and passengers, forms that otherwise might be apprehended by architects and designers might not translate a similar notion to the wider public.

The gateway design has to have tectonic capabilities that allow both viewing during the daytime and at night. Ideas such as using reflective tape and light fixtures are then taken into account for consideration into the design.

A project meant to be viewed at a certain speed calls for certain characteristics of the design to comply with the features of fast architecture. Options to have the gateway to consist of multiple elements or a single form was apprehended. We decided to have a form that seems to follow the driver as he passes through the site became the initial idea for our proposal. Fast architecture also requires features of the project to be simple, yet effective in conveying change in motion.

abs.gov.au

INTERNAL MIGRATION 2006 CENSUS

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44.8 15.5 People who lived at different address 5 years ago

Folowing the aspect of prominency in the design was to encourage discussions and reflections according to the design methods and assembly tectonics. The use of parametric modelling are used as a generative method for the gateway project considering the trend of computing in architecture in order to minimise waste and maximise time and material efficiency.

People who lived at different address 1 years ago

People who lived at different address >5 years ago

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People who lived at same address >5 years ago

This census shows the rate which people are currently migrating to Wyndham, placing emphasis on the role of the gateway in making an identity for a fastgrowing new municipality.


“The Western Gateway Installation should provide an entry statement and arrival experience, and become a new identifier for the municipality�

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abs.gov.au POPULATION DENSITY [estimated resident population]

289 persons/sqkm

From this data, 24.1 % of the total resident population consist of children between the age of 0-14 years, followed by adults between 25 and 34 years of age. Families are assumed to make up a majority of the number of inhabitants in Wyndham,

MOTOR VEHICLE CENSUS [registered motor vehicles] {rate per 1000 population}

Passenger vehicles Campervans Light commercial vehicles Light rigid trucks Heavy rigid trucks Articulated trucks Buses Motorcycles Total registered motor vehicles

536 2 68 9 13 5 17 24 680

Passenger vehicles consisting the majority of vehicles passing through the site highlights the importance of the gateway in making an appearance or display to the viewers/users.


GETTING IDEAS 1

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A lot (if not all) architecture precedents originated from natural elements occuring in the environment. Washed up plankton on the shores of the beach displays the beauty of bioluminescence. The similarity to city lights at night can be seen as the rapid contrast between the dark setting and the glow of the algae. This plankton, known as dinoflagellates turns blue when it is agitated as a response mechanism, allowing them to be visible at night.

Starry Night - Lee Eunyeol Eunyeol’s stunning LED llight landscape is a photography inspired project meant reflect the starry sky a little bit closer to home and to the ground, causing the sky and the earth to seem to switched places. The artist states “A statement from the artist, “Starry night expresses private spaces given by night and various emotions that are not able to be defined and described in the space” . By capturing the essence of light and dark and the sharp contrast between them, a texture characteric was incorporated into the design.


4 3 SAHRDC - Anagram architects This buidling in India is an example of a design that are able to generate further reflection and analysis pro-construction. The porosity of the walls maintains a degree of privacy as well as allowing the facade to “converse’ with external aspects of the building. Through computer modeling, the architects realized that a simple rotating module of bricks would create the kind of visual and textural complexity need to achieve the design objective of engaging the street corner. A six brick module is laid in staggered courses that create twirling vertical stacks and an undulating surface. For proper alignment (prevention of corbelling), all the centres of the modules in a vertical stack had to fall on one perfectly vertical axis around which the module would rotate.

Untitled #158 - Aeneas Wilder Untitled # 158, is an architectural construction consisting of a 360° wooden chamber projecting horizontally from the side of a small valley in the province of Limburg. Passers-by can observe the surrounding landscape and undergo a contemplative experience. The round construction offers a 360º view and is aligned with uniform vertical wooden slats. This installation inspired the gateway design for its capabilities of procuring an emotional experience by walking through it. Shards of light entering the space aided the feeling of speed and motion as one progress in a space.


The first section is open on the west side, giving the driver a glimpse of Wydham before entering the gateway

WALL

An overhead roof in the middle section to intensify the experience of the gateway through encapsulation

ROOF

The third section opens up the driver as he approaches Wyndham/Melbourne

WINGS


Grasshopper definitions are then used to generate jagged iterations onn the form. Moving the slider changes the number of rectangles per panel and the number of panels per ground area.


The form is twisted in earlier processes to experiment with the fluidity of the form

The middle section is then further manipulated to form a section roof over the highway

The third section are lifted vertically to form the starter wings greeting drivers into the municipality


The single element is then split into two, further twisting and manipulating to get the ideal shape. The southern wing are reduced in length to minimize intrusion to the middle section.


Similar to techniques applied in the research project, elements of the design are disintegrated to form separate objects, which are then laid out in Illustrator and sent for laser printing. Numbering and labelling are crucial in this process in order to maximise time efficiency during the assembly process.

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ASSEMBLY TECTONICS

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panel-to-panel joinery detail LED LIGHT

(for the 1:50 model, LED lights are used. for 1.1 construction,type of light to be advised)

GALVANIZED STEEL ANGLE WITH THREADED BOLT

NOTE: 100 mm steel bar will run through along each longitudinal panel, welded to a steel plate in the foundation, embedded in a strip concrete footing.

METAL PANEL


The progression of the form follows the concept of open-close-open.

Light receds as driver exits the gateway, signifying the end of the hateway experience

PANEL 231 Light reflected on nearby metal panel reduces glare

PANEL 131 PANEL 197 WING

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Panels of different numbers shows the changing shapes of the form as one progresses along the gateway. The position and affect of lights depends on the form of the panel.

Direct light facing the driver

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ROOF

LIGHT STUDY


Different coloured lights gives a different ambient of experiencing the gateway.


An impression of seeing the lights in high speed at night


Pools of light reflected onto the road from overhead light (middle section of the gateway)


SITE PLAN


NIGHT VIEW


TEXTURE & FORM


Drawbacks of the design include the complexity in building it in real-life situations, given the excessive number of panels generated. Nevertheless, such shortcomings are evident in a student’s work and one can’t help but learn from mistakes and shortcomings. The design process was also a vague moment for me to understand as parametric design is definitely a new way of designing instead of the usual pencil-paper type.


I have to say that this subject definitely provided the time (and excuse) to learn new software crucial for architecture. Learning Rhinoceros and Grasshopper are an upgrade to the usual Sketch-up for me, allowing for more freedom in generating ideas and making forms. The required submission standards of the subject allows for a better understanding of the usage of more professional editing softwares, like the whole range of Adobe Design Suite (ai.,ps., id., after effects, etc...) I can’t honestly express how grateful I am that I had a chance to start working like a professional, instead of tiptoe-ing around a student’s cyclical norms.

Following that, The subject’s extensive reading list shows a whole different way of understanding design. I started to see that design must always start from having precedents, and one folllows on through from that. Reading turns out to be very helpful in grasping ideas from contemporary architects, in order to help with the designing process. Using a web interface like Issuu.com and the exposure to arhitecture-related videos on vimeo was also exciting new features I apprehended in this course.



Nadiah Husna_376193_Journal