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“hospitality industry development and management that meets the


needs of today’s guests, hoteliers and stakeholders without compromising the ability of future guests, hoteliers and stakeholders to enjoy the benefit from the same services, products and experiences” (Kirsche, 2010, Para.4).

Tourism today has become a huge industry all over the world. Countries try their best to satisfy tourist’s needs and requirements, either for tourists from the same country or for tourists coming from other countries. Throughout time tourism has always been about relaxation,

An environmental resort can be defined as the place where local people and guests can find suitable accommodation and leisure through various buildings and facilities that uses different tools and materials which have minimal impact on the environment and respect the surrounding culture.

amusement and exploring the culture and food of other countries. And architecture plays a very important role in fulfilling those aspirations, by conserving archeological and historical sites that


attracts tourists’ attention, and constructing recreational areas, hotels and resorts. However, during such process a huge impact has

What are the differences between resorts and environmental

How can we customize the meaning of environmental

been inflicted on the surrounding environment. As a result many

resorts into the local settings of Palestine to fulfill the needs

trends emerged seeking a balance between satisfying people’s needs

of our Palestinian community?

and protecting the environment such as environmental resorts, ecolodges and terms like sustainable hospitality which defines as

How can an environmental resort be of an added value to the historically rich area of Tal Sultan in Jericho?

2 This study aims to provide an understanding of tourism and focus on its major implementations; resorts. Also the research aims to

Since the Palestinian tourism sector is weak and lacks the required

understand the environmental approaches and their diverse terms, as

resources to face its adversary the Israeli tourism sector,

well as the architects who worked in that field. In addition since the

introducing such a touristic project in Jericho Tal Es Sultan can be

project is in Palestine and in Jericho, the study will investigate the

of a helpful step in enhancing our Palestinian tourism sector. Also

above mentioned points on a local level; in Palestine in general and

being under occupation, this has limited the amount of resources and

in Jericho in specific.

lands. Therefore the direction towards preserving the surrounding environment and being green is essential to meet the needs and


preserve the resources in hand.


Figure 1.1: Research objectives Source: Researchers, 2015

Figure 1.2: Jericho Source:


understanding of resorts in general and environmental resorts in What we seek in this project, is to provide a place that serves the


local people of Jericho during day time for recreational purposes as well as to provide job opportunities for them. Also this project tends to provide accommodations and various activities for tourists in a


green environment.

To achieve the desired objectives of the project, at first a literature review giving information about the concepts of tourism, resorts, environmental architecture as well as Jericho and Tel Es sultan


will be provided. In addition several interviews will be conducted for example interviews with the municipality of Jericho to discuss the project



with the decision makers to know how they see this kind of project in Palestine and how can it add value to the city of Jericho, also interviews with environmental professionals such as architect Dana Masad to help us formulate an idea where environmental architecture stands in Palestine. Also local, regional and international cases will be analyzed to provide us with a vivid

Figure 1.3: Research methodology Source: Researchers, 2015

4 At the end of this study, we expect a strong foundation and a clear perspective of how we can design an environmental resort which includes the necessary architectural requirements. Also we expect by the end of this study to have a clear understanding of local needs and conditions to be able to find the best method to apply this kind of projects in Palestine with complete respect to the Palestinian social and cultural life.



history, tourism has been the means for

humans to explore the world around them. Since the times of Classical Rome around 300 AD humans have traveled searching for amusement, experience and relaxation. The wealthy of the romans would seek relaxation at the seaside in the south and some would

And according to the United Nations world tourism organization in 2010 tourists can be defined as the people who travel and stay in places far from home for a period of less than one year for relaxation, business or any other activities that do not involve earning money.

even travel to the beaches in Egypt and Greece (Gyr, 2010). Tourism kept evolving with time until it is considered today as one of the world’s largest industries and ranked as one of the most important sectors for any country. Thus, the several impacts, classifications

The positive impacts of tourism can be sorted into three main categories; economic, environmental and social & cultural impacts.

and elements of tourism will be discussed as well as its strong

Economic impact: the economic impact involves increasing

connection with sustainability. Moreover, this chapter will elucidate

employment opportunities, by offering additional jobs with high

the term resort, which is one of the major applications of tourism.

salaries since tourism encourages investment development. Also tourism encourages spending over infrastructure especially transportation infrastructure, as well as public utilities such as

Tourism can be defined according to the International mountain

sidewalk, lighting, parking, public restroom and landscaping.

society in 2014 as the numerous relationships and processes

Environmental impact: Tourists and residents of any area tend to

interconnected with humans moving from home to another place

seek emotional and spiritual connection with nature, they value

within the country or abroad, given that the reason is not for

nature, thus tourism must help to preserve natural resources, protect

permanent accommodation or for trade.

selected natural environments and prevent ecological decline as well as improve the area’s appearance (visual and aesthetic). Tourism

compared to factories can be considered as a “clean industry “since

Nature tourism to enjoy a natural setting or wildlife, this type

it is based on hotels, restaurants, shops and attractions.

include ecotourism. Culture tourism to experience the history,

Social and cultural impact: Influxes of tourists bring diverse values to the community; they influence behaviors among the

folklore, and culture of the host people. Also there is adventure tourism Business and religious tourism (Baku, 2013).

community, promote cultural exchange, improve understanding of different communities also preserve cultural identity of host population (Kreag, 2001).

Since tourism depends immensely on natural resources as the main attractive factor for tourists, it has a large responsibility towards sustainable development. This can be done by making optimal use

Through the passing of time, tourism has developed and the need of tourists has changed as well. Thus today according to people movement tourism can be classified into three main types; domestic tourism, inbound and outbound tourisms. Domestic tourism involves residents of a given country traveling only within this country. Inbound tourism, involves non-residents traveling in the given country and Outbound tourism, involves residents traveling in another country (Kongalla, 2012). Tourism also can be classified according to trips activities and tourist’s experiences into many types which include: Pleasure tourism to improve the physical and spiritual condition of the tourists, e.g. yoga workshop and spas, etc.

of environmental resources, respect the culture of host communities and provide viable, long-term socio-economic benefits, in order to achieve the three main goals of sustainability which are; environmental protection, social equity and cohesion as well as economic prosperity (World Tourism Organization, 2011). The UNWTO has developed several policy guidelines and sustainable tourism indicators to integrate sustainability with the tourism sector. Also the organization defined sustainable tourism as: Tourism that takes full account of its current and future economic, social and environmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors , the industry , the environment and host communities (Paga.4).



Sustainable tourism is not classified as one of tourism’s forms,

purpose of the travel: relaxation, pleasure, culture experience,

since all tourism forms ought to be sustainable. In the meantime

adventure and other purposes as shown in the figure below (Ramesh,

sadly the Palestinian tourism sector hasn’t yet adopted such


practices. The major reason for tourists coming to Palestine is for religious Tourism is a service industry which has many tangible and

reasons, mostly interested in East Jerusalem and Bethlehem .Also



many tourists come intrigued and want to explore the multi-layered

transportation, accommodations, amenities and other Components

history of Palestine and visit the archaeological and historical

of hospitality industry, for intangible elements it’s related to the

heritage of this land (Sayre et al., 1997).






The Palestinian tourism sector a sinking ship due to challenges,

Tourism elements Accommodation



air, water, road and rail

Resorts Complexes

Heritage resorts

Amenities Natural Trekking Fishing

Manmade Entertainment Facilities

Sea bathing Beaches

Figure2.1: Tourism elements Source: Ramesh, 2013

and weaknesses. Attractions Natural



The Palestinian tourism sector faces a lot of challenges that require the collaboration of many sectors to overcome them. The continuous


branding of Palestinian territories as unsafe to visit by Israeli



authorities plays a big role in diminishing and decreasing any






revenue coming from tourism. Another challenge the sector faces is the lack of coordination between private and publisc sector. In addition the weak physical infrastructure still needs to be developed and improved (Neumann, 2013).In addition the sector lacks

multilingual maps and guides. Besides there are no clear way-

tourist’s experience. The Modern resort doesn't work only as a

finding singed maps required for tourists. Lack of adequate

place for service lodging facility, but it provides a wide range of

accommodations and no clear pricing policies and absence of hotel


rating system leaves tourists no option but to seek other alternatives

entertainment. According to Huffadine (1999) resort are defined as:

for accommodation (Rule, 2001). 2.6.1 What can be made to enhance our tourism sector? To enhance the sector it is a must to increase government investment in the tourism sector. The Working institutions must take the responsibility to develop and enhance historical and religious sites. Besides In order to increase performance of the sector without







A place to make social contacts, attend social occasions, and improve health and fitness. The social pursuits continues, and many other interests have been added; golf and theme parks especially have gained enormous popularity, while ski, beach and urban “historic” have also become favorites. The traditional social orientation has expanded to include the exploration of other cultures, with guests joining educational lectures and tours (p.1).

decreasing quality, the development of the infrastructure in Palestine must be considered a priority. Also the Media should work

2.7.1 Classifications of resorts

in parallel with tourism sector to create a better image of the

There are three principal classifications used by tourism industry:

Palestinian territories (Rule, 2001).

Market resort: it’s a town or a city consists of many hotels, these kind of resorts have a symbiotic relationship with the area surrounding them, it have many facilities such as: restaurants,

As stated earlier one of the major applications of Tourism are

entertainment, recreation, and retails stories and conferences .e.g.:

resorts. Resort’s various classifications, elements and categories,

Waikiki resort at Hawaii. Destination resort: this type has many

will be discussed here Resorts are considered as one of the main

guestrooms at least 500 room and provide several grades of

accommodations for tourists, it serves as the primary provider of the

accommodations .they have many amenities such as: restaurant and



retail areas, sport, spa and other entertainments, as well as conference facilities, this kind of resorts is what this project seeks. Winter resort this is a special type of vacation resort, has many entertainment and recreational opportunities to attract visitor’s .e.g.: Vail resort at Beaver Greek. Property resort: it is smaller than the other types and has one or two major amenities (Huffadine , 1999). 2.7.2 Elements of resorts

It is a tourist resort which environmentally goes hand-in-hand with luxurious comfort and superb service, its work for healthier world by reducing Carbone footprint and minimal impacts on environment. Resorts adopted sustainability to achieve many objectives, which include: 

reduce using it.

Resorts are very important for tourist’s experience, thus the resort must offer a variety of amenities and facilities, which include:

Conserve and protect natural resources: energy and water by

Control and prevent pollution by using eco-friendly materials.

Signature Amenity: they are main amenities, attractions and geographically significant attributes, such as: ski, mountain, beach

Create environmental awareness to staff and guests.

and ocean, spa, marina, tennis, water park …etc. Recreation, leisure

Improving towards clean and green environment for the

and entertainment experiences: they are secondary amenities; they provide a range of activities for guests to participate in, for example:

future. 

kids’ activities, beach volleyball, cultural activities like museums

Comply with applicable legal requirements and strive to achieve international best practice.

and theatres, green spaces, water elements, etc... .Full-Service:

Resorts attempted to be environmental by using alternative solution

resorts must provide range of services which customers’ needs and

and followed sustainable practices in this resorts, these practices

want, such as meal daily services and room service, parking and


transportation, health units and other facilities (University of


Memphis, 2009).

Freshwater Management by minimizing consumption it and continue water saving practices and using technologies to

achieved this. Rainfall water is a clean water resources, so any resort must depended on harvested water instead of charging water from external polluted resources. -

Waste Water Management, instead of sending resort’s wastewater to landfills it is better to be collected and purified in a multi-stage treatment process consisting of carbon and sand filtration. This water could run in a compositing program to create natural fertilizers for the gardens and landscape irrigation.


Energy Saving lighting by using energy efficient light bulb,

10 There has been several attempts to create resorts in different areas in the west bank such as: Mintar Resort in Tulkarm, it is the first Palestinian attempt to create an environmental resort, the project of an area 14000 square meters. It is located on the Mount Mantar on the road to NablusTulkarem. The resort contains museum of Palestinian heritage, a park and guest rooms that are still under construction (

including fluorescent and compact fluorescent fixtures and motion sensors turned off and on light according to occupied

Jericho Resort Village it is located in the northern entrance to the


city of Jericho opposite to the archaeological site of Hisham Palace.

Recycling materials, using a clean friendly materials

The size of the investment is amounted to be about two million JD.

including hydrogen-peroxide-based products, after using

It is composed of 48 touristic chalets and a seven-storey hotel with

these materials resorts could recycling it and used it again.

an area of 1000 m2 of one hundred hotel rooms (shawamra, 2007).


Use local building material.

See images in Appendix A


Employing local labor in construction process (Sarvotham,





as mentioned earlier became an important

necessity for people, who seek relaxation and leisure through a set of activities. These activities in turn require an architect to design. Thus, architecture plays an important role to provide a wide range of experiences to satisfy peoples’ needs. However, architecture can leave a positive impact or inflict a negative one on the environment. Therefore, the designer should always try to find a balance between providing people with good accommodation and facilities and respecting the environment. Thus in this chapter the relation between environment and architecture will be discussed, as well as the various concepts of green approaches and their relation to architecture.

Figure 3.1: Primitive tent

Throughout history, architecture has always been connected with the environment, this relationship has evolved with time according to the development of peoples’ thoughts, behaviours and needs. At the beginning of time human beings were hunting and gathering thus settlements were occasional caves in winter and temporary tents were used in summer as shown in figure 5. Then, people began to settle down and use agriculture as a means for their need for food. Accordingly, they started to construct houses from mud and use local building materials. This stage had low impact on the environment. After that, massive architecture started to emerge,

Figure3.2: Greek temple Source:

Figure3.3: Ancient Chinese house Figure 3.4: Environmental pollution Source: Source:

constructed from great blocks of stone such as the pyramids of Egypt and Roman temples. As much as peoples’ impact till this point increased this didn’t inflict any harm towards the environment. See figure 6 (Bamber, 2001). In the Far East, Chinese used conservative architecture .Due to their spiritual beliefs they sought the architecture that is harmonious with nature, using different courts around buildings with special plants and trees see figure 7 (Wen, 2010). Consequently, by looking at these phases of history it is vivid that there is a reciprocal relationship between architecture and environment. However, in the modern world due to the development of industry and technology

12 Today in the 21st century, there are many complex crises threatening the biosphere around the world and the continuation of this process would be catastrophic; causing poverty and hunger, lack of health service and illiteracy. All of these are considered as the ecosystems of the human life (Barazesh, 2011). Therefore, this section will explore a number of approaches that support green concepts and how they are relevant to architecture. 3.2.1 Sustainable development

the environment has been severely affected as shown in figure 8.

New trends for environmentally friendly and green concepts began

The development of industry has increased pollution and depletion

to emerge such as the term “sustainable”. It was first introduced in

of natural resources. As a result, architecture today is to be blamed

the mid of 1700s by Mrs. Barbara Ward but the term officially was

since it is considered as one of the most disciplines affecting the

presented in 1987 in the report under the title “our common future”.

environment since it requires resources such as lands, materials and

This concept spoke of ethical principles relevant to human equality

energy to construct different buildings (Al Ghamidi, 2010). From

and emphasized on the circular process instead of linear one

here, a new approach emerged seeking a balance between satisfying

regarding the resources and their recycling. So that, According to

needs and preserving the environment. This approach became one

World Commission on Environment and Development the term

of the main priorities around the world also one of the most

Sustainable Development specifically defined as “The development

important challenges of 21st century (Barazesh, 2011).

which meets the needs of the present without compromising the


ability of future generation to meet their own needs” (Hui, 1996,

or energy pollution. This dimension is influenced by site,

P.2). This term was discussed regarding three dimensions;

climate and environmental control.

environment, economy and society as shown in figure 9 (Hui, 1996).

Economic dimension: the idea is to consume but also not to

And to achieve sustainability it is important to use the three

excessively consume as well as to preserve and manage the

dimensions together to create the human well-being.

operations of using the share capital. 

Social Dimension: the core of the idea is to understand people’s needs in order to develop their thoughts and improve their contributions in society though different sectors. Moreover, to formulate a good community that can live through its effective work and system. It also includes understanding the culture and ethical values for people to provide comfort and safe condition for them. (Al Ghamidi, 2010).

Figure 3.5: The three dimensions of sustainable development Source:

3.2.2 Sustainable Architecture The term “Sustainable Architecture” is the new term which

Environmental dimension: it emphasizes on the flexibility of

concentrates on designing and adopting systems that respect

using environmental resources to achieve balance, also to

environment and reduce resources consumption (Al Ghamidi,

concentrate on using renewable resources such as sun and

2010). Among that, many terms for sustainable architecture rose up

reduce using non-renewable such as fuel. As well as to

supporting the same idea such as Environmental design, Eco

reduce pollutions as much as possible whether its air, water

building, Green architecture, Eco System and Environmentally

friendly buildings. However, sustainable architecture aims to satisfy

Respect of users: the role of preserving energy and

a complete balance cycle in buildings' life by depending on six

environment is very necessary but the more important is to


care about humans who use the building whether they are

Resource efficiency: in this part, it is important to reduce the

users or workers. Hence, it is necessary to reduce unsafe

use of new resources in building and depends on ecosystem.

methods during construction, also provide bases that help

Also, reuse and recycle resources such as creating systems

preventing earthquakes and fire.

to recycle grey water and reuse it again in watering plants. 

Integrated and Systemic Approaches: all purposes of

Energy efficiency: it seeks to use and concentrate on natural

sustainable and green approaches must work together in

and renewable energy and reduce fossil fuel. In addition, to

order to satisfy suitable design. It may be hard at the

reduce using electricity by using new tools such as

beginning but it is not impossible if society is convinced .As

photovoltaic cells PVC to generate power.

a result sustainable design emphasis on the thoughtful

Pollution presentation: the idea here is to manage solid and

integration of architecture with electrical, mechanical, and

liquid waste by controlling the consumption of different

structural engineering as well as to consider the traditional

resources in order to reduce negative effects on human and

aesthetics of massing, proportion, scale, texture, shadow,


and light (Al Ghamidi, 2010).

Harmony with nature: this aim can be achieved by firstly respect the site and the surrounding environment. Secondly, adapt building with climate, because at the end of construction phase the building will become part of environment and is exposed to the same climatic effects.

These purposes represent the framework which lead us to sustainable architecture. Also, there are other concepts will be explained further in this chapter, that have similar approaches.



3.2.3 Green Architecture Is another trend that supports sustainability .It focuses on the concept that; all elements used in construction process such as materials, fuels and equipment must be green. Hence, the building must follow green building standards: 

Rationalization of energy consumption.

Reduce resource depletion.

Reaching to a minimum of pollution and damage to the external environment.

Reaching to a minimum of pollution and damage to the internal environment.

These standards give priority to health, protect environment and preserve resources which then combine along with other design considerations to achieve high quality buildings such as the Tokyo Gas Earth Port see figure10 (Al Ghamidi, 2010). 3.2.4 Environmental Architecture This concept seeks to improve the relation between environmental and technological issues. For example, the new research building in Garston in the United Kingdom figure11. The design process takes into consideration five principles to create a sustainable building which are healthful interior environment, energy efficiency, ecologically benign materials, environmental form and good design (Al Ghamidi, 2010).

Figure 3.6: Tokyo Gas Earth Port Source: Al Ghamidi, 2010

Figure 3.7: New research building Source:

16 The previous section talked about the concepts of being green. This section here will elucidate the implementations of green buildings and how we can apply the theoretical concepts in physical models that make building environmentally friendly. Also, this section will explore the work of some pioneers in environmental architecture.

Figure 3.8: The process of rehabilitation Source: www.

Moreover, the concept of rating system and some of its applications

3.3.2 Vernacular & Earthen Architecture

will be discussed.

Vernacular or traditional Architecture, is considered very efficient

3.3.1 Conservation

and useful since it tends to find environmental solutions that fit within the natural context; also, it is based on local needs and

The simplest way to be green is to reuse existing buildings instead

reflects the identity of local communities (Al Ghamidi, 2010).

of destroying and rebuilding. This is known as Conservation. Many

Dealing with the orientation of masses, topography, the best sizes

buildings can be maintained, rehabilitated or recycled and reused

for openings and using local materials like mud and wood is what

again. The most common examples are with the reuse historical

came to be known as earthen architecture (Al Ghamidi, 2010). This

buildings (Al Ghamidi, 2010) .This can be seen in the rehabilitation

architecture is considered as one of the most powerful expressions

of the old butter factory in Portugal figure 12.

used when creating our own built environment through using

This old building was rehabilitated by strengthening the structure of

available resources (World Heritage Earthen Architecture Program

the walls, repairing the roof, finishes, and rebuilding interior space

WHEAP, 2012).Consequently, most buildings in hot-arid climates

as shown in figure 14 (www.

are constructed from earthen materials, like in Arab countries


Ranging from simple houses to big palaces. As we see in figure 13,

vertical construction. The city of Shibam is constructed of stone

one of the most important examples of earthen architecture is

foundations and built entirely of adobe. Besides the floors and

Kasbah of Algiers. It shows outstanding authenticity through its

terraces are made of earthen materials along with palm wood

dense urban fabric and architectural forms. Besides, there are

structure (WHEAP, 2012).

different areas of commercial, residential and religious In addition, using construction materials such as adobe bricks, earthen, lime rendering as well as stone and wood (WHEAP, 2012).

Figure 3.10: The old walled city of Shibam Source:

As shown earlier earthen architecture has proven that it is possible Figure 3.9: Kasbah of Algiers Source:

Furthermore, figure 14 shows the old walled city of Shibam in Yemen, aka “The Manhattan of the desert�. It consists of high tower houses up to seven stories and nearly 30 meters high. Also it is considered as an important example regarding urban planning of

to find different solutions and techniques using natural materials that are affordable and widely available to satisfy local needs and requirements (WHEAP, 2012). This approach has been adopted by many architects such as Hassan Fathy, Nader Khalili and Rasem Badran. Here examples from their work will be given and explained.

3.3.3 Hassan Fathy “As an architect, as long as I am capable of providing thermal comfort ability to people through design, God will never forgive me if I raise the temperature inside the house by 17 degrees deliberately” (fathy, 1986, P.2)

and they cannot use wood, since it is expensive for them (Alsayd, 2010). Fathy also advocated to create a cooperative system among farmers to build houses together. He believed that one man cannot build one house alone but ten men can build ten houses. Fathy’s vernacular architecture uses Nubian houses building trends like interior courtyards, that provide privacy for people, natural

While most architects design to achieve modernity, an Egyptian

ventilation, lighting and protect the house from dust. Figure 15

architect had a different opinion. Hassan Fathy saw a true value in

shows Casaroni house in Giza, Cairo for Hassan Fathy (Alsayd,

natural building. He is well known for being the Middle East’s


father of sustainable architecture (Laylin, 2010).Fathy revived the traditional architecture of Nubia - a small provincial town in southern Egypt- by adopting mud walls and domes. His main purpose was to provide a low cost but high quality house for each farmer in rural areas. Consequently, mud buildings were the best solution for this approach, since mud building provides both aesthetics for architecture as well as economic and structural efficiency (Alsayd, 2010).Hasan Fathy was more interested in the poor and the unprivileged, thus “Architecture for the poor” was one of the most famous statements for him , he wanted to understand the conditions of low income farmers living in rural areas. Those people build using mud however they have problems with flat roofs

Figure 3.11: Casaroni house Source:

3.3.4 Nader Khalili Nader Khalili at the beginning he was a modernist but he did not proceed with modernist approaches. The turning point in his life was



when he went to the deserts of Iran, there he learned the traditional

images, see appandix2. (The Aga Khan Award for Architecture,

vernacular mud construction of Iran then tried to make earth as a


modern building material (The Aga Khan Award for Architecture,

Finally, Khalili achieved successful architecture and construction


techniques, which make several people, learn and train on earthen

Furthermore, Nader Khalili developed the concept of Ceramic

buildings then to carry these methods to different countries around

House, which is constructed from sun-dried mud and then fired. He

the world (The Aga Khan Award for Architecture, 2004).

also developed the structure called Superdobe, made from sandbags secured with barbed wire. Generally, the basic techniques for construction involves filling sandbags with earth and laying them in courses in a circular plan as shown in figure 16 (The Aga Khan Award for Architecture, 2004). Moreover, he considered four basic techniques for earthen construction which are explained in Appendix B. Khalili’s architecture depended on the principles of Iranian architecture and Sufi Philosophy, which unite the elements of earth, water, air and fire as well as harnessing sustainable energy; sun, shade, gravity, geometry and symmetry in addition to the unity of tension and compression. His system of earthen materials include clay, sand with straw and water is very flexible for mud bricks. Consequently, in his buildings, there is one major domed space with some ancillary spaces for sanitary services and cooking. For more

Figure 3.12: The process of building Sandbags Source: The Aga Khan Award for Architecture, 2004

3.3.5 Rasem Badran One of the most important contemporary architects locally and internationally. Badran in his projects tends to thoroughly study the surrounding environment and culture of the place (Alsayd, 2001).

Rasem Badran adopted many environmental solutions backed to

buildings. They include different systems and methods which

vernacular and traditional architecture; also, he was influenced by

depend mainly on a rating system.

Islamic architecture (Alsayd, 2001). Figure 17 shows one of Badran’s sketches which explains how he interacted with environmental elements as sun and wind to design his building.

3.3.6 Rating System Nowadays, one of the most common implementations to satisfy sustainable building is Rating System. This system is a method to measure the level of sustainability for buildings and provide bestpractice experience in their highest certification level. There are determined benchmarks for several aspects, which will be certified through design, construction and operation processes. The benchmarks will be verified to meet the requirements or obtain points; accordingly, individual points are either added up or initially weighted and then summed up to obtain result. Finally, the number of points is ranked in the rating scale with different levels and the better certification will be for the higher number of points. Several

Figure 3.13: Sketch explains the effects of sun and wind on building Source: Steele, 2005

Rating Systems were developed for different functions of buildings so that they are always based on the same methods but the measures

Those architects have proven that it is possible to build naturally and

distinguish between functions (Bauer et al., 2010).

gave us different ideologies, which seek to understand people and

As a result, many countries developed their own rating systems that

environment and how one can find balance between them. Also

work as framework for sustainable buildings. They differ from one

there are international implementations that lead to sustainable



county to another and classified as international, regional and local rating systems. There are many international examples like BRE Environmental Assessment Method BREEAM in Britain, Green Star in Austria and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design LEED in the United States of America (Bauer et al., 2010). Also there is the Certification of The Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN Tourism standards and finally there is the local system Green building Guidelines - State of Palestine. Hence, the last three

Figure 3.14: Structure of LEED Source: Bauer et al., 2010

examples mentioned will be explored here.

3.3.8 ASEAN Tourism standards

3.3.7 LEED

Another regional rating system is ASEAN Tourism standards.

LEED, is one of the most important international rating systems that is developed by the U.S. Green Building Council USGBC. It mainly aims to reduce or eliminate negative impacts toward environment and improve sustainable design, also to reduce operating costs, enhance building marketability, increase the productivity of staff and decrease potential liability resulting from indoor air quality problems. LEED is organized into five different environmental categories that must be certified to obtain LEED certification as shown in figure 18 (Bauer et al., 2010).

ASEAN is an association of member countries that aims to accelerate the economic growth, social and culture development of the member countries. ASEAN system put standards for green hotel that should satisfy environmental issues, which based on environmental actions for hotel operation, use of green products, collaboration with the community and local organizations, human resource development, solid waste management, energy and water efficiency, indoor and outdoor air quality management, noise pollution control, wastewater treatment and management and finally

toxic and chemical substance disposal management (ASEAN

Tourism Standard, 2007). 3.3.9 Green building Guidelines - State of Palestine. As local example on rating systems, it is important to talk about

To find a starting point for the preparation of a special quality green buildings in the state of Palestine buildings.








sustainable, deals with the cost and environmentally friendly (Green Buildings Guidelines – State of Palestine, 2013).

Green building Guidelines - State of Palestine. Lack of natural resources became one of the most essential issues in Palestine. It is

In conclusion, by looking into different systems it is clear that not

more critical with the resources of water and energy as they are main

all are actually efficient for instance advanced systems such as

requirements of life in Palestine. In Addition, Palestine faces

LEED depend on high tech solutions to satisfy sustainability;

environmental pollutions; pollution of air, water, noise, radiation as

however, this is very expensive and not appropriate for developing

well as contamination of soil. Consequently, Palestine Engineers

countries that need simplest and affordable tools. In addition, some

Association and Palestine Higher Green Building Council tended to

systems ignored the surrounding context of a building and

adopt green building in a way to find solutions for pollution

emphasized on the systems themselves, instead of benefiting from

problems. This system aims:


To reduce the amount of water, as there is no enough resources.

To reduce the amount of energy used in building occupancy.

To reduce materials consumption during construction and encourage recycling them.

To reduce the extent of the environmental impact of the buildings on the surrounding environment.









22 and edited by the researcher for analysis purposes. Location: Dana Biosphere Reserve Jordan Client name: The Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature Floor Area: 2,100 m² (22,604 sq ft) Accessibility: Open to the public 24 hours/day Architects: Khammash Architects “I wanted a very humble place, where people can retire like a monastery ...” (Ammar Khammash, 2012, Para.1) Feynan Eco-Lodge was built in the Wadi Araba, where an old campsite used to exist in the 1960s. The project aimed to use the

Figure 4.1: Jordan map Source:

exact location of the previous campsite so as not to extend the area of intervention at the reserve and has 23 rooms. The project has won several international awards including being selected by National Geographic Adventure as one of the top 50 ecolodges in the world. (Khammash, 2012). Why this case: This case presents an example of an ecolodge and how various environmental systems can be used at hot dry areas. All plans









Figure 4.2: Sketch of the project Source:




Figure 4.3: Front view of the project

Figure 4.4: Court inside the eco-lodge

Figure 4.5: pathway overlooking the courtyard




Figure 2 Front view of the project

Figure 1 Front view of the project

Figure 3 pathway overlooking the courtyard






Figure 4.6: Guest room Source:

Figure 4 Guest room Source:

Figure4.7: Path illuminated by candles Source:

Figure 4.8: Guest room Source:

Figure 5 Guest room Source:


Figure 4.9: rooftop of the lodge Source:

Figure 6 rooftop of the lodge Source :

Figure 4.10: Restaurant Area

Figure 4.11: Front elevation



In this project there are several techniques used to lower energy consumption and leave a positive footprint on the existing environment. The diagram below shows the use of the courtyard which acts as a passive cooling system, allowing the hot air to escape upwards from the lodge as illustrated by the red arrows. Electricity in the project is generated by photovoltaic panels placed at the roof, electricity is used at the kitchen and washrooms and during the night all rooms and corridors are illuminated by candles made onsite by Bedouin women. Thick walls in rooms are used to

Minimize energy use (Khammash, 2012). Water is provided on site from a natural aquifer located in one of the nearby mountains. Minimal water is used in cleaning, and biodegradable cleaning products are used. Regarding waste disposal, the lodge has installed composting facility where all excess food and waste is transformed into fertilizer and minimal amount of plastics and paper is used. Besides this project directly supports 34 Bedouin families. Bedouins work in cooking vegetarian cuisine from local desert vegetation (Tradwick, 2008)

Figure 4.12: Illustrative section Source: Researchers, 2015

Figure 7 illustrative section done by the researcher


28 Stone chips are used in this project as sun-breakers in the southern and western elevations. During summertime, the stones shade the walls from vertical sun, and during winter time the sun is lower and the shade is shallower, thus heat is kept within the walls warming the interior of the building. Concrete blocks are used in the construction of Feynan Eco-lodge walls. The problem with using

this material is the poor insulation, thus to overcome that: a double layer of blocks were used with an air gap in the middle. Regarding roofs, two layers of Ferro-cement sandwiching straw bales inbetween are used to ensure low thermal bridging. The domes built do not follow any specific geometry; they are built from 3-4cm of plastered chicken wire. These domes face the sun from one side, and shade the other (Khammash, 2014).

Figure 4.13: image showing building materials used altered by the researcher Source: Figure 8 image showing building materials used altered by the researcher Source:

plan shown below in colour beige and reception area shown as The major advantage of this project is the large amount of awareness regarding the existing environment and the environmental techniques. The architect has been able to employ a lot of environmental techniques within the design so as to lower cost for energy consumption and avoid disruption to the existing environment. Also this project helped in providing many job opportunities for local

colour pink, the circulation and movement between them must be clearer and directly connected together. Also there is a problem with the main faรงade and another faรงade shown in the figures below no.1 & no. 2. The other faรงade is given much more hierarchy than the main faรงade. As the figure below shows the entrance is not given the major focus and the restaurant area seems more like as if it is the entrance area.

people. Yet there are still problems with circulation within the spaces of the project, for example at the entrance in ground floor

Figure 4.15: Functions of the project Source:

Figure 4.14: ground floor plan




material etc. Plans and sections used in this case are retrieved from and edited by the researcher for analysis purposes. Location: at siwa oasis, 50 km east of the Libyan border. Nature of land: desert land of rock and sand. The ancient sawn houses have been restored and renovated so as to create the hotel through the usage of traditional indigenous ways .The environmental quality international (EQI) renovated the site. (Hikal, 2013). This oasis is one of the last remaining pristine oases in the world. Siwa is home to many ancient historical ruins and unique cultural traditions. Also it is the place for the location for the famous Oracle of Amon, who Alexander consulted before continuing his conquests

Figure 4.16: Egypt map Source:

(Staudt, 2014). Adrère Amellal hosts 40 rooms; all the rooms are built in the traditional Siwan style, of salt-rock, and palm used for the roofs. The earthen buildings of the project tend to blend naturally into the landscape and all furniture and crafts are handmade by locals. (Tradwick, 2008). Why this case: This case presents a good example of how an environmental project functions. Analyzing this project provides us with necessary information about spatial distribution, building

Figure 4.17: Front View Source:




Figure 4.18: Panoramic view Source:


Figure 4.19: Reception area

Figure 4.20: Guest rooms area

Figure 4.21: Interior lounge area





Figure 4.22: Restaurant area during daytime

Figure 4.23: Restaurant area during night time

Figure 4.24: Seating area






Figure 4.25: Guest room

Figure 4.26: oil lamp illuminated path

Figure 4.27: seating area




35 This project doesn’t operate on electricity at all, only oil lamps and candles are used for lighting and during cold nights, coal-filled braziers are used for heating. (Tradwick, 2008) Besides there are several environmental techniques used in this project in order reduce the heat of the desert and for natural ventilation illustrated by the researcher through the drawing of sections. Also there are other techniques used for waste disposal and water consumption.

Figure4.29: sections showing two scenarios at restaurant area Source: Researchers, 2015

Also at terraces for guestrooms, wooden sun breakers have been used with small openings between each beam which helps with the circulation of air as illustrated with the figure below:

The first technique used is the usage of small openings in guest rooms have been used, to reduce the amount of sunlight radiation entering the room. Thus in order to compensate for the usage of small openings, each room has been designed to overlook a courtyard which provides illumination for the room and beneficial for circulation of air as illustrated below:

Figure 4.30: section shows the use of wooden sun breakers. Source: Researchers, 2015

Regarding water consumption, the no. of rooms are limited to the amount of water available from a natural spring found onsite. Figure 4.28: section showing the use of courts Source:


Wastewater is recycled in this project. At first, it is settled in self-

The images below show the different uses of wood in this project:

contained sedimentation tanks to allow the supernatant to flow through perforated pipes into a constructed wetland where indigenous







biodegradation and waste reduction process and this area is completely sealed from the surrounding environment in order to prevent any contamination of surface and ground water resources.

Figure 4.31: wood used as a substructure Source:

Food waste is composted on site since most items are biodegradable organic materials, and very few are non-degradable. (Tradwick, 2008)

The structure for building this project is mainly made of a combination of kershef which is a traditional building material made of mud, sand, and sun-dried salt harvested from the Siwa’s salt

Figure 4.32: wood used for staircase and furniture Source:

lakes. Also Rock salt has been used to give strength and different kinds of clay have been used as a natural cement. Wood has been used in various purposes; as a substructure, for staircases, for furniture and as sun breakers (Hikal, 2013). Figure 4.33: sun breakers of wood Source:


The project also has an excellent amount of awareness regarding

37 The uniqueness of this project comes from how the whole project is brilliantly integrated within the existing environment. As the image

environmental issues, introducing many techniques for many environmental concerns.

below shows how well the project it integrated with the mountain behind .This has been successfully achieved mainly because of the

Besides such project provides a great deal of tranquility for its

use of local materials.

guests, that today in our modern life it is becoming a rare thing to find! Yet such amount can also be discouraging for some, since no electronic gadgets will work there, which means only certain people will find such resort inviting and fulfilling for their needs. Regarding plans and special distribution, the project offers a great deal of privacy for its guests as well as several areas for meeting and socializing with other guests.

Figure 4.34: front view Source:

However, the distance between restaurant area and guest rooms could have been reduced especially guests have to walk under the scorching sun to move around. This can be seen by looking at the site plan shown.

Figure 4.35: Site plan Source:



39 Location: is situated on 600 acres in Canyon Point, Southern Utah, close to the border with Arizona, USA. Architects: Adrian Zecha, Marwan Al-Sayed, Wendell Burnette and Rick Joy. Year: 2009 Nature of land: desert land of cliffs and rock.

Figure 4.36: Image of the resort Source:

Depending on the deep understanding for the three architects of this

Concept: created settlement that celebrates the magic and mystery

desert they create a place of authentic experience, not one based on

of southern Utah's majestic cliffs and rock formations, and respect

simplistic cultural appropriations, they focus on the landscape,

the region’s ancient Navajo heritage.

water and the light.

Aim of project: “to build something that was a contemporary interpretation of native Indian architecture. Not perfectly adapted, but hopefully generating a sense and spirit of it. Also, that it would respect the natural environment” (Zecha, 2009). Why this case: this case represented an elegant integration between design and landscape, it's show respect to site's culture and importance without ignore design criteria and the image of the project.

Figure 4.37: swimming pool Source:

Figure4.38: terrace Source:


Amangiri “peaceful mountain” the 34 room luxury hotel is tucked

The hotel was designed to look like a massive block of rock that

into a protected valley with sweeping views over colorful, stratified

have emerged from the earth through natural erosion by the

rock towards the Grand Staircase – Escalante National Monument.

elements (Amangiri resort, 2009).

Figure 4.39: Site plan Source:



Figure 4.40: Front view

Figure 4.41: Living room / spa



Figure 4.42: Desert lounge Source:



Figure 4.43: Piazza landscape Source:

Figure 4.44: Piazza Source:


Figure4.46: View from the living room Source:

Figure4.45: Swimming Pool Source:

Figure 4.47: spa beauty salon Source:

Figure 4.48: spa outdoor treatment pavilion Source:

Figure 4.49: Reflecting pool Source:

Figure 4.50: fitness and gym Source:

walls with small opening , to minimize heat transfer into and out


the building This resort has minimal impacts on the surrounding environment and it had been designed to blend into the landscape with natural hues, materials and textures as a feature of the design. Resort form of concrete geometric walls, which had been painted with pink, ocher, and light yellow, this light colour prevented heat transform into the resort so no need for mechanichal cooling , thick walls is Figure 4.52: small opening Source:

Piazza zone which considered one of the smart solution in this project, it has two dimensions, the first one is social dimension by working as common area for suites which allows the guest’s to set Figure 4.51: Thick wall works as vertical sun breakers Source:

in and communicate together, the second one is environmental

another teqnique used for cooling and also works as vertical

designed a water channels in this zone for irrigation and cooling

sunbreakers. The desert hard conditions is one of the main

purpose. They used a different kinds materials for coverage purpose

challenges for the designers, so they used many teqnique and

such as fabric. All the terraces had been coverage with timbers so

principles to fit with these conditions. For examples: they designed

it’s works as movable louver .

dimension by using falling water from the piazza wall and they


Figure 4.53: falling water from the wall of piazza for cooling Source:

Figure 4.54: water channels Source:

Figure4.55: using candles for night lighting and using timber as movable louver Source:

Figure 4.56: using fabric for covering the corridor which lead to the living area Source:

At night the resort lighted only by candles. They focus on the green element , so all corridors and piazza zone planted with tree, which helps in cooling too.

At night tempreture decreasing at desert and instead of using a modern mechanical heating system they used fireplace at each suites


and at the main living area where all guests gather and set for eating and enjoying desert views.

The architects of this resort focus on providing high luxury, they choose to design the resort in a way it seems like a part of the surrounding by unifying with the desert scenery through its colors, materials, textures and size. The finishing and the image of the resort is very important so the architects used concrete walls facing with frozen sand and also used timber furnishings which strain the usual

Figure4.57: fireplace at suites Source:

Figure4.58: Out side terrace with vernacular fearnitures Source:

limits of minimalism. (Smith, 2014).

It’s worth to mintion that all the interior elements designed with local vernacular materials and reflect the simplisity of the desert . Figure 4.61: The visual contrast between smooth concrete wall and timber Source:

Figure 4.59: luxuries vernacular elements Source:

Figure4.60: Masa suites Source:

The resort has a long menu of adventure experiences which includes: hot air ballooning, helicopter rides, equestrian excursions, as well as a guide service, Adventure Partners, hiking and rock

climbing and biking. This resort surrounding with many attractive

35 37

natural elements such as: Colorado River which is a peaceful river and very useful for relaxation. (Smith, 2014)


47 This resort has many advantages, from the smart location to the elegant design, the most impressive thing is how the architects deal with the protected valley and integrated it with the design without affecting the desert scenery. However this resort has many disadvantages. First, it didn’t fulfill the truth of material criteria, the building materials weren’t environmental at all, and also they used concrete walls. Secondly, the plentifully use of water and timbers

Figure 4.62: Hikng near by the resort Source:

elements which are not available in the desert landscape. Finally, this resort is well design as a five stars resort and their no problems in design criteria or image, and the figure below show the resort

Lake Powell is the third attractive element, this lake is the best place

rating by the tourists who visit it.

for boating trip and fishing for many hours.

Figure 4.63: Amangiri Lake Powell Source:

Figure 4.64: Resort rating Source

experience and focus on: views, topography, unique features and


existing structures.

For creating a successful environmental resort, there are


several considerations to be taken into account; Site

Guests usually at resorts tend to spend most of their time on-site,

Considerations, Design Considerations and Environmental

thus views play a big role in guest’s experience. As a result, the

Considerations. Working on the three considerations in parallel is

architect must pay attention to the orientation of guest rooms as

essential in this project. Considerations in this chapter are

well as other facilities that should be facing interesting views as

illustrated by sketches done by the researcher.

shown in the figure below. Also, Views can be either natural or

Site and Design Considerations

artificial created within the spaces of the resort.

According to the book Hospitality Facilities (2001) by Stephen A. Kliment, resorts must follow certain site planning and architectural design considerations which will be explained here in this section.

Since resorts often depend on the site itself to provide the needed services and recreational areas for guests, the architect must take advantage of the existing features in the site to create the desired atmosphere so as to provide guest with a positive pleasant

Figure 5.1: Views and orientation sketch

5.1.2 Topography

5.1.3 Unique Features

Topography is an essential aspect for architects for manipulating

Site can have a natural or a historical feature like a very old tree or

levels so as to give hierarchy to a certain function. As the sketch

a historical building as shown below which gives the site its

below shows, a sloped site can be used to separate public and staff

uniqueness. Such features can provide a unique space within the

areas of a resort. The accessibility towards service areas can be

resort if the architect chooses to integrate it with the project. Also

placed at a lower level which doesn’t need an interesting view, and

unique features can offer inspiration for the design and provide the

public areas located above to provide a better location for

feeling of authenticity for the project.

interesting views.

Figure 5.3: Unique features sketch

5.1.4 Existing Structures Figure 5.2: Topography sketch

When it comes to existing structures the architect is faced with two options; either integrate it with the design or demolish the structure if proves to be inefficient and has no historical value.


circulation. Thus parking structures must be designed that the


access is clear for the public but no movement of cars is allowed within the spaces of the resort. Also service areas must be designed in a way that they are hidden from guest’s sight - as shown belowbut at the same time highly efficient for the staff and delivery cars to circulate.

Figure5.4: Existing structures sketch

Design considertions include circulation between guests and staff , amenity differentiation and the three main zones that any resort

Figure 5.5: Guest vs worker sketch

must have which are : public areas , guest room areas and staff areas.(see appendix D) 5.2.1 Circulation The resort experience can be severely affected if cars are heard or seen within the resort and if service circulation intrudes on guest

Pedestrian routes can be designed as the sketch shows below either as long straight corridors which is most common however least preferable, the other option is to design a path overlooking dramatic vistas and not simply moving from point A to point B.

5.2.3 Public Areas vs Guest Room Areas vs Staff Areas There is a strong connection between the three areas shown in the sketch below , and each should be designed carefully .

Figure 5.7: Public Areas vs Guest Room Areas vs Staff Areas sketch

5.2.4 Public Areas Figure 5.6: Pedestrian routes sketches


Reception Area Lobby area can have a dramatic view to produce a cetain

5.2.2 Amenity Differentiation

impact on the guest , or the view can be barely visible and ready to

Linking similar areas together can enrich the project by creating a

unfold to a more sophisticated approach later on. Reception area

communal feelng for different amenities like swimming pool and a

must be open 24/7 . It is used by guests for arrival , gathering for

tennis court.



excursions and at check out .Also this area must include baggage storage . 

Lobby Lounge Area

The lobby lounge is considered as th living room of the resort, since it is the gathering point for all sorts of activities . Guests usually sit at the lounge to relax after a long day of activities or even to watch the sunset ! Also it has a limited dining function. 

Food and beverage Area

Recreational Areas

These areas provide a wide range of activities for guests at a resort. These areas include : spa, gym,swimming pools..etc 5.2.5 Guest Room Areas 

Guest Rooms

The design of guest rooms can be either a cluster bungalow type or multi storey building as shown below .The multi storey buildig can be used to maximize the number of guest room with direct views.

The size of food areas depend mainly on the size of the resort . Large resorts can have put to three restaurants . In favourable climate outdoor seating can be privided .Traditional restaurant ar epositioned near the main kitchen for the ease of circulation of the staff. 

Function and Meeting Area

Figure 5.8: Guest Room Areas sketch

Meeting areas are areas usually used by groups for different

Usually resort guest rooms range from 3-4m in width and from

activities as well as for coporations meetings. Most resorts are able

8.5-9.5 in length.Usually the average stay at a resort is longer than

to host two groups at a time and remain separate from each other.

in a hotel , thus space for baggage and closet must be bigger.


Outdoor Environments

Guests most of the time prefer having rooms with outdoor balconies and terraces . These spaces can be used for a private breakfast or dinner along with a view. 


53 The architect when designing in hot dry areas always faces two dilemmas; how to provide protection against heat and how to maintain enough cooling within the spaces created. Thus in order to overcome such obstacles, the architect needs to thoroughly study

Corridors for guest rooms are usually 1.5-1.8 m. It is the most

certain factors; sun factor, wind factor and building materials.

heavily used circulation route , thus it has to be clear and have visual

Solutions to those factors can be either through the use of passive or

distractions like vases or portraites . To enhace the flow at corridors

active systems. At this section passive systems and factors are

elevators must be installed also it is preferable to provide exterior

explained and elaborated through the use of sketches by the

path system that can lead to individual rooms or bungalows.


5.2.6 Staff Areas Staff Areas must be hidden from public view and accessible only by service and delivery vehicles . It is essential to preserve tranquillity and maintain a quiet atmosphere at a resort for guests yet service circulation must be carefully planned with maximum efficiency. A spatial diagram is provided at the appendix.

5.3.1 Sun factor The sun is the main source of heat on our planet and in any design studying sun’s location at day and night time and through different seasons is essential. There are also many aspects that should be considered regarding the sun when designing; orientation, shading, openings, and the roof (fathy,1986). Also, there are several techniques that can be used to either reduce or absorb heat energy from sunlight radiation (Mansour et al., 2014).



Sun’s location is very essential when it comes to finding the best

less shading , thus the more complex the shape of the design the more shading there is as shown in the sketch below (fathy,1986).

orientation of a project. Sun’s location can be found by knowing

Also creating interior courts increase the amount of shading as

the angles of declination and altitude at 21th of June, December,

shown the sketch below (Fathy, 1986).

September and March (Fathy, 1986).

Figure 5.10: Shading sketch

Figure 5.9: Orientation sketch


The shape of the design and mass plays a big role regarding the amount of shading there is, such as cubic buildings tend to have

Figure 5.11: Interior court sketch



Windows usually have three functions; allow light directly and indirectly into the room , allow air to enter and finally provide a view. In moderate temperature areas those three functions work all in parralel together, yet in dry hot areas the situation is different and certain techniques are used to reduce sunlight from entering the room like Venetian Blinds, sun breakers and mashrabiya

Besides there is a technique for the roof illustrated by the sketch below , which is to build the roof of a material that transfer heat , fill it with water and create a movable lid made of an insulator . During winter time at day time the water is exposed to the sun to heat up and during night time the roof is covered with the insulated lid and the heat is transferred into the room , during summer time the opposite happens (Hafez et al., 2014).

(Fathy, 1986). 

The roof

When the temperature of air outside is higher than the inside , the outer roof exposed to sunlight heats up and heat is transferred into the inside .Thus to understand the amount of heat entered there are two factors that should be calculated; reflectivitiy and thermal resistivity (Fathy,1986). Figure 5.12: technique for the roof sketch

Also the architect must use materials to insulate the roof such materials can be fiber glass or orstyrofoam or the roof can be made of double layers with air filled between them.


Techniques to reduce heat energy from sunlight radiation



Use Ever green Trees

sketch the highest amount of water evaporates and the second less and the last sketch shows the form form which the least amount of

Surrouding the building with evergreen trees can reduce

water evaporates (Hafez et al., 2014).

sunlight reaching facades of a building thus reducing heat energy reaching interior spaces as shown below (Hafez et al., 2014).

Figure 5.14: sketches for different versions of water surfaces

Two courts theory

The idea is to create two courts , one bigger than the other . When sunlight falls into them , the bigger court will heat up more And the warm air will rise upwards and the cooler air will enter the Figure 5.13: Use evergreen trees sketch

smaller court and during this circulation of air the cooler air will enter the the interior of the building. The sketch below shows the

Use of water surfaces

process (Hafez et al., 2014).

Water surfaces are open surfaces with water , in which water evaporates raising up air’s humidity and cooling down the surrounding hot dry atmosphere. The sketches below show that the form and amount of evaporation are connected. At the first

Figure5.15: two courts theory sketch

5.3.3 Techniques to absorb heat energy from sunlight radiation 

Solar heater


Wind factor

In architctural design there are two concepts that can be followed

Sun light radiation is absorbed by a black surface placed under the

to maintain circulation of air ; either by creating difference in air

glass , changing solar radiation into heat energy then a liquid

pressure which causes air to move from high to low pressure area

transfers the heat inside the pipes shown in the sketch below

or by convection which means the hot air moves upwards and

(Hafez et al., 2014).

cooler downwards. These two concepts has been used in many methods to control circulation of air that favours the design . These methods are; use of trees, salsabel, courtyard,malkaf,eiwan, mashrabiyeh and kamariyeh (Fatty, 1986). 

Use of Trees

Trees can be used to distribute air into several directions and slow Figure 5.16: Solar heater sketch


Photovoltic cells

down its speed. The location of trees is also important. As the sketch below shows that keeping a distance between trees and building will allow wind to move upwards rather than into the

A photovoltaic cell is a semiconductor diode that changes visible

building , but when trees are placed very close to the building as

light into direct current (Hafez et al., 2014).

shown in the other sketch , the wind is pushed into the building (Mansour et al., 2014).



Figure 5.19: Wind filtrated

Figure 5.17: location of trees sketch

Also the form and shape of the tree either blocks the wind, filtrates it or redirects it , these three scenarios are shown in sketches below repectively (Mansour et al., 2014).

Figure 5.20: wind redirected


Use of palm trees

Palm trees are very helpful in slowing down wind speed , Figure 5.18: Wind blocked

increasing humidity and reducing heat.

Also as the sketch below shows palm trees when used with


considerable space between each of them , wind tends to move in an organized direction (Mansour et al., 2014).

Figure 5.22: Court sketch



Malkaf is an openning at the top of the building oriented with the direction of common wind , this allows air at high altitude which tends to be colder to be pushed into the building.Also this Figure 5.21: Palm trees sketch



technique filtres air from dust expecially at hot areas .The sketch here shows how air circulates in and out of a malkaf (Mansour et al., 2014).

Courts are very beneficial for ventilation and heat loss. If courts are planted and a water surface is installed , humid air is created which can circulate easily in and out of the building as shown below (Mansour et al., 2014).

Figure 5.23: Malkaf sketch



It is a hall roofed from three sides and the fourth is completely open and without any doors and overlooks a court . the sketch below shows how air circulates at an eiwan (Mansour et al., 2014).


The mashrabiyah allows cold air to enter n interior space through small opennings at the bottom of the mashrabiyah and hot air through large opennings placed at the top of the mashrabiyah. (Mansour et al., 2014). 


It is an openning in the wall covered with colored glass , the concept of it is to allow natural illumination into the room without allowing hot air to enter the room(Mansour et al., 2014).

Figure 5.24: Eiwan sketch


Is used as a cooling system to reduce the temperature of air . Usually made of marble and water flows at various heights to increase evaporation (Mansour et al., 2014).

Figure 5.25: kamariyah sketch

5.3.5 Building material Choosing building material is very beneficial for heating and cooling. Each material has its specific thermal resistivity and conductivity and the architect must be aware of both when choosing the right building material (Fathy, 1986). Criteria for choosing sustainable building material: -

Use Materials that do not produce gases during or after instillation


Use building products that are biodegradable , which means have less harmful chemicals


Try to blend the use of steel and wood, since steel can withstand load but causes pollution and wood is environmentally friendly but cannot withstand much loads as steel.


Use local materials which are most adequate with the existing environment (Mansour et al., 2014).

5.3.6 Examples of Environmental Materials 


Well-known for being an environmental low cost building material. Mud is used as a natural cement and as an insulator, as well as keeping a steady temperature of the interior. However, mud needs constant maintenance as well as a structural structure along with it. 


Wood has high stamina, doesn’t corrode and is not affected by high temperature. Also wood is considered as a light material especially when dry. However, wood exposed to water can rot (Shukri, 2014).


The project is an environmental resort in Tel Sultan, Jericho. The


site for the project is given by the Municipality of Jericho. The program calculated here is based on the book “Hospitality Facilities�. Municipality suggestions retrieved by conducting an interview with them are taken into account as well .Also the site capacity is taken into consideration. The built up area in the site will be 43% from the total site area.

The project will have many facilities to attract both local people and tourists, it is proposed to accommodate 150 person, each person has 200 m2 from the total area, and this area includes bedroom, service, entertainment, recreational and educational facilities and green spaces. The resort consists of main functions: Administration, chalet, recreational services and educational services. The figure below shows the function distribution and the percentage of each function with a total area of 29000m^2.

Figure 6.1: Program Source: Researchers, 2015



new settlers came to live in Tal as Sultan. Then came the Hyksos

65 Jericho city has been known for its rich history, warm dry climate and its mud building. This chapter here will talk about various aspects regarding this city; history, attractions, climate, mud building and the modern city of Jericho.

(1750-1580) BC, they covered the whole hill of Tal Es Sultan with well-built houses. Then came Canaanite (1406) BC, Canaanite tend to build close to water springs and the city was fortified of 21 feet of height. Also Canaanite perfected the use of pottery. The city then fell in the hands of Israelites according to Torah. In 852-874 BC the King Hae’l Bente’li restored the destroyed city and fortified it. The city blossomed during the times of romans. During Constantinople

Naming Jericho

During the times of Cleopatra, the Palestinian coast and Jericho were the gardens for Cleopatra, and Jericho was named then as the

times Christianity spread widely and many churches were built at the outskirts of Jericho. Then came the Islamic era. (Shhadeh, 1985). The figure illustrates those multi eras that Jericho passed through.

valley of Saysaban. Canaanite named it Areha meaning the moon. (Shhadeh, 1985) 

Jericho an eight thousand years old city

Dr Kathelin Kenyon, the excavation expert (1952 -1961) has named Jericho as “Jericho the First” referring to the city as being the first city ever existed .According to excavations Jericho dates back to the Neolithic age, then came the bronze age (4000 BC) where defensive barracks were built and Housing was concentrated at the hill which is known today as Tal Es Sultan. After the Bronze Age (2300 BC)

Figure 7.1: Jericho Timeline Source: Researcher



St. George’s Monastery dates back to the 1901 restoration by the

Tel al-Sultan is the first human settlement known so far on the face

Greek Orthodox Church. Then there is Jericho Téléphérique the

of earth. And this place marks the first stages of creating a stable life

famous cable cars providing visitors a short scenic ride towards the

in Jericho. (Alnjoom, 2006).

Mount of Temptation (Jericho Attractions, 2014)

Ein al-Sultan (Spring of Elisha) The spring still provides an important water source for the people of Jericho and their farmlands today, for it provides 700 m3 of water per hour (mir’i, 1990).

Attractions of Jericho

There are numerous attractions for tourists to see in, each tells a story and unfolds a specific era in the history of Jericho. Beginning with Hisham’s Palace (Khirbet al-Mafjar) a palace which was one Figure 7.2: Attractions of Jericho Source: Researchers

of the most impressive residences of the Omayyad period. Then there is the tree of Zacchaeus which is a holy tree to Christians. Also another significant place is the Mount of Temptation, on this mountain Jesus fasted for 40 days and was tempted by the devil. Then there is Nabi Musa, a sanctuary in the desert erected under Mameluke sultan Baybar (turathuna, 2009). Then there is Tulul Abul-Alayeq found at the southern entrance of the city of Jericho. In addition there is St. George’s Monastery & Wadi Qelt .Most of

Climate of Jericho

The subtropical climate of Jericho makes it ideal for winter vacation. Jericho’s high temperatures goes back to being below sea level. The maximum annual temperature rate was 30-31.4 and the minimum annual temperature was 16.17.7 C (mir’i , 1990).



Agricultural Jericho

71 Jericho has a total area of around 58,701 dunums, where 31,483 dunums are ‘arable’ land, and 4,195 are labelled as ‘residential’. (Arij institute, 2012) 

Mud Building in Jericho

The residential typologies that are found in Jericho using mud are; house with corbelled domes, one level courted house and two level villa as the colonial style. (alfityani et al., 2009). 

Citizens of Jericho

Citizens of Jericho are divided into four types. Bedouins they are


City of the Moon Project

Ammar Real Estate Group is working on the implementation of the project (City of the Moon) north of the city of Jericho. The project will include a number of residential and commercial areas tourist resorts and recreation centres in addition to agricultural area. (ma’an news,2013) 

The industrial city of Jericho agricultural project JAIP

Prico, a real estate development company is working on the followup project of the development of agro-industrial city of Jericho. (padico, 2012).

dark skinned people settled in Jericho. There are also landlords like al Husseini family. Besides there are people from the city who have a population of 3,000 working in trade, agriculture..etc and they started settling down in Jericho at the beginnings of the twentieth century. And there are Palestinian Refugees (mir’i , 1990)

 Shams Ard Started in 2012, where three architectural engineering graduates from Birzeit University decided to work as freelancers. Dana masaad, Lina Saleh and Rami Ksebre created their design studio called “Shams Arad” meaning the sun and the earth in Ramallah.Their main aim is to revive traditional environmental

Today most residents of Jericho prefer to build their houses with

building techniques used back in the day in Palestinian villages

stone and concrete rather than mud. Building villas has increased

and towns.

lately and there are several investments in Jericho are emerging.


The site of the resort has many attractive elements which made


it a very potential site for touristic purpose .This site located in a very calm zone far away from the noise of the city, it will take only 5 min from the city center to the site by car and nearly 7 min walk from the site to reach the historical site of Tel Sultan.

As mentioned before the site has been chosen by the Municipality and they didn’t chose it based on any criteria, they chose it only because it’s the largest land that they owned. Our mission was to study if the site could accommodate resort

Figure 7.3: Site location Source: Google Earth, Edited by Researchers, 2015

project or not, and that by calculating the standard areas for

This touristic site has veriety of potential elements, such as:

resort and taking into account the municipality requirements

Water resources, vegetation, climate, history, aesthetic and rout

then decide if the site acceptable or not, and according to that

networks. This site surrounding by cultivated land, so any

calculation the site is acceptable.

development in this area shouldn’t contain any negative impact and tourism development is a good development because it’s a clean industry and should be located in such these sites to protect it. The figure below show how the site integrated with the road network and related to the cultivated areas.


Figure 7.4: Site location Source: Google Earth, Edited by Researchers, 2015


Figure 7.5: Site Accessibility Source: Researchers, 2015


Figure 7.6: Sctions Source: Researchers, 2015

This research has enriched our knowledge regarding two major aspects for this project; resorts and environmental issues. Conducting this research has given us a vivid understanding for what it takes to design an environmental resort within the local settings of Palestine. As a result of this study a clear vision was developed, thus our environmental resort will be: A resort at the heart of Jericho that serves the local people and provides accommodation and activities for tourists in a green sustainable environment that leaves minimal footprint on the existing environment. The design process later on will transpose this research paper into an actual realistic project. This will include the definition of an environmental resort, as well as the numerous approaches of sustainable architecture. Also the various ideologies of pioneers in sustainable architecture discussed earlier will be taken into consideration.


Figure 1 Mintar resort Source:

Figure 3: in the rehabilitation of the old butter factory in Portugal Source: www.

Conceptual sketches for Rasim Badran Source: Steele, 2005

Figure 2 Jericho Resort Village Source Source: A1


University of Memphis. (2009). a Summary Report to Research Participants: Resort Definition & Classifications. Memphis, Eric T. Brey. Australia government. (2012). Sustainable island resorts. Australia : Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Steele, J. (2005). The Architecture of Rasim Badran Narrative on people and place. London: Thames and Hudson.

United Nation World tourism organization UNWTO. (2011).Tourism and sustainability. Retrieved January 1,2015 from

Bauer, M., Mösle, P., & Schwarz, M. (2007). Green Building- Guidebook for Sustainable Architecture. Munich: Callwey Verlag.


Sargentisi, G. F., Kapsalis, V. C., & Symeonidis, N. (2009, September 5). Earth building, models, technical aspect, tests and environmental evaluation. Paper presented at Title of Conference: 11th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology, Greece. Kliment,S.(2001).Hospitality Facilities. United States of America: John Wiley & Sons. Khano,M. & Sayre,E.(1997).The Palestinian Tourism Sector : Present State and Future Prospects. Jerusalem: Palestine Economic Policy research Institute. Rule,D.(2001).Palestinian Tourism Development Strategy. Palestine:Pecdar. Huffadine.M. (1999). Resort Design: Planning, Architecture and Interiors (1st ed ) .Retrieved January 1, 2015, from

REPORTS Alfityani, R ., Zhoor ,M ., Abed Rabbo , G., Mecca ,S., Lorusso , F ., Baplioni , S.,…, Vitalle ,J.(2009).A proposal by Jericho architectural design workshop. Jericho: Publication unknown Jericho City Profile.(2012).Jerusalem: The Applied Research Institution. Neumann, S.(2013).Palestine Tourism Sector.Jerusalem: Publication house unknown

ArchDaily. (2010, November). Rehabilitation of the Old Butter Factory / M.S.B Architects. Retrieved January 1, 2015, from ArchDaily. (2014, December). Where is LEED Leading Us?. Retrieved January 1, 2015, from World Heritage Earthen Architecture Program WHEAP. (2012, April). World Heritage Inventory of Earthen Architecture. Retrieved January 1, 2015, from The Aga Khan Award for Architecture. (2004). Sandbag Shelter Prototypes Various locations worldwide. Retrieved January 1, 2015, from Laylin, T. (2010). Hassan Fathy is The Middle East’s Father of Sustainable Architecture. Retrieved January 1, 2015, from Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASAEN. (2014). Retrieved January 1, 2015, from

Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN Tourism Standard. (2007). Retrieved January 1, 2015, from dards_book.pdf Green Buildings Guidelines – State of Palestine. (2013). Retrieved January 1, 2015, from Graci, S., & Kuehnel, J. (2010). How to increase your bottom line by going green. . Retrieved January 1, 2015, from -hotelwhitepaper.pdf Gyr.U. (2010). The History of Tourism: Structures on the Path to Modernity. European History Online. Retrieved January 2, 2015 from: Sarvotham.S. (2010). Environmental & Social Sustainability Policy. Retrieved January 8, 2015 from: Padico. (2012). Padico Firm for Real Estate Development. Retrieved November 2014: Khammash , A.(2012). Project Brief. Retrieved November 2014: Hikal , O.(2013) Adrere Amellal indigenous eco hotel in Egypt. Retrieved November 2014: Staudt,S.(2014).The Story of Siwa Oasis. Retrieved December 2014: Tradwick ,J.(2008). 5 Green Stars. Retrieved December 2014: Al hayat el jadede. (2014). Made from mud. Retrieved December 2014:


Kongalla.R. (2012).Tourism introduction. Retrieved January 1,2015 from Kreag.G. (2001).The impacts of tourism. Minnesota Sea Grant, T13. Baku.S. (2013). The different type of tourism. Retrieved January 1, 2015 from Ramesh. A. (2013).Components of tourism. Retrieved January 1, 2015 from

Websites (Retrieved November, 2014) )Retrieved December, 2014) ) Retrieved December, 2014) November, 2014) (Retrieved November, 2014) November, 2014) November, 2014)

‫‪ARABIC RESOURCES‬‬ ‫‪BOOKS‬‬ ‫مرعي‪,‬توفيق‪.)0991(.‬قصة مدينة أريحا‪.‬فلسطين‪ :‬دائرة الثقافة لمنظمة التحرير الفلسطسنينية‬

‫الشوامرة‪,‬سرين‪.)7112(.‬التحليل المكاني للوظيفة السياحية في منطقة تل السلطان – دير قرنطل في محافظة‬ ‫أريحا‪.‬رسالة ماجستير منشورة‪.‬جامعة بيرزيت‪.‬فلسطين‬ ‫شحادة‪,‬فوزية‪.)0991 (.‬أريحا دراسة حضارية‪.‬رسالة ماجستير منشورة‪ .‬جامعة بيت لحم‪ .‬فلسطين‬ ‫النجوم‪,‬محمد‪.)7112(.‬تحليل و تقييم استعماالت األراضي في مدينة أريحا‪.‬رسالة ماجستير منشورة‪.‬جامعة‬ ‫النجاح‪.‬فلسطين‬ ‫فتحي‪,‬حسن‪.)0992(.‬الطاقة الطبيعية و العمارة التقليدية‪.‬بيروت‪:‬المؤسسة العربية للدراسات و النشر‬

‫‪REPORTS‬‬ ‫حافظ ‪,‬أ‪ ,.‬زعرب‪,‬ت‪,.‬مصطفى‪,‬ر‪,.‬الشيخ‪,‬محمود‪,.‬أحمد‪,‬أ‪ .‬مبارك‪,‬م‪......,.‬سيد‪,‬أ‪.‬عناصر التصميم البيئي‪.‬‬ ‫جامعة حلوان‪.‬مصر‬ ‫منصور‪,‬م‪ ,.‬محمد‪,‬م‪,.‬محمد‪,‬أ‪ ,.‬معوض‪,‬م‪,.‬مصطفى‪,‬م‪,.‬علي‪,‬م‪ ....,.‬رياض‪,‬م‪ .‬التصميم البيئي و تحليل المبنى‪.‬‬ ‫جامعة حلوان‪.‬مصر‬ ‫شكري‪,‬م‪ .‬و أبراهيم‪,‬و‪.‬عناصر التصميم المستدام‪ .‬جامعة حلوان‪.‬مصر‬

‫‪Articles‬‬ ‫السيد‪ ،‬وليد‪ .)7110( .‬راسم بدران‪ ..‬أصولية فكرية تضبط مفهوم المسكن المعاصر‪ .‬استرجاع كانون‬ ‫الثاني‪ ،7101 ،0‬من‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫السيد‪ ،‬وليد‪ .)7101( .‬التراث المف ّكر فيه قراءات في فلسفة التراث في فكر حسن فتحي استرجاع كانون‬ ‫الثاني‪ ،7101 ،0‬من‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫الغامدي‪ ،‬أحمد‪ .)7107( .‬دور االستدامة على التصميم المعماري للمباني بالمملكة العربية السعودية‪ .‬رسالة‬ ‫ماجستير غير منشورة‪ ،‬جامعة أم القرى‪ ،‬المملكة العربية السعودية‪.‬‬

dike building methods. The technique requires very basic construction materials: sturdy sacks, filled with inorganic Materials and technique

material usually available on site. Walls are gradually built

There are four basic techniques to make this construction: adobe,

up by laying the bags in courses forming a staggered pattern

cob, rammed earth and earth-bug:

similar to bricklaying. (Sargentisi et al., 2009)

1. Adobe is a natural building material made from sand, clay, and water, with some kind of fibrous organic material (i.e. sticks, straw, dung), which is shaped into bricks using frames and dried in the sun. 2. Cob is a building material consisting of clay, sand, straw, water, and earth, similar to adobe. Cob is formed on the house itself by hand and is dried on site as a monolithic shell. 3. Rammed earth is a process of compressing a damp mixture of earth that has suitable proportions of sand, gravel and clay (sometimes adding a stabilizer) into an externally supported frame that moulds the shape of a wall section creating a solid wall of earth. 4. Earth-bag construction is a method to create structures which are both strong and can be quickly built. It is a natural building technique that evolved from historic

Figure 2 Plan of Mud house for Nadir Khalili Source: Sargentisi et al., 2009


bunker construction techniques and temporary flood-control


According to, a website for rating hotels according to guest’s experience in the hotel and below figures shows the results for rating Feynan Eco lodge and Adrere Amelal.

Figure 1 Feynan Eco lodge Hotel rating Source:


Design Standards 

Functions relationship Standards



Guest Rooms Standards



Kitchen Area Standards


‫سمر زينة ‪ :‬رئيسة قسم التخطيط والمشاريع في بلدية أريحا‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫استغالل جو أريحا بحيث تسمح بتوافر منتجات زراعية غير‬ ‫موجودة في مكان آخر كما أن هذه المنتجات بفعل المناخ تنضج قبل‬


‫التركيز على فكرة أن المشروع سياحي الهدف وليس استثماري‬


‫وجود بئر ماء في األرض "بئر صامد "‬


‫وجود مسار سياحي بحيث يكون المنتجع مقصد للسياح في نهاية‬ ‫المسار للمبيت فيه واالستمتاع بخدماته‪ ،‬كما أن هذا المسار يشمل‬

‫أوانها مثل الهندباء ‪،‬الحويرنة ‪،‬النعنع ‪،‬الباباي والملوخية المشهورة‬ ‫في أريحا وعرضها في البازارات المرفقة ضمن خطة المشروع ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫جذب السياح إلى الجو التقليدي في أريحا ولكن مع عدم إهمال جودة‬ ‫التصميم‪.‬‬


‫يجب أن يحتوي المشروع على عدة مناطق مقررة من البلدية أهمها‬

‫تل السلطان ودير قرنطل وغيرها من معالم أريحا السياحية ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫هنالك إقتراح تم تقديمه للبلدية من قبل المكتب الهندسي "شمس‬ ‫أرض " كفكرة للمنتجع السياحي البيئي‬


‫استيعاب المشروع لمبيت حوالي ‪ 120‬سائح أو أكثر‬

‫‪ :‬منطقة للتخييم ‪ ،‬منطقة نزل ‪ ،‬برك سباحة ‪ ،‬منطقة زراعية‬ ‫بإضافة إلى قنوات مياه تتصل بالبئر الرئيسي " بئر صامد " وهو‬ ‫بئر يغذي منطقة تل السلطان ‪،‬في المساء يجب أن تتوافر اإلضاءة‬ ‫المناسبة باإلضافة إلى وجود ممرات للمشاة على جانبي الممرات‬

‫عماد سلمان ‪ :‬عضو مجلس بلدية ورئيس لجنة االستثمار‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫المائية "‪ .‬توافر خدمات مختلفة أهمها مطعم يحتوي على قسم‬ ‫للتحضير الذاتي وطبيعة الطعام الذي يقدم واألواني المستخدمة‬

‫عوائد المشروع تكون كافية لتشغيله أي أن يكون للجانب‬ ‫االستثماري حصة من المشروع كافية لتشغيله‬


‫االهتمام بذوي االحتياجات الخاصة بشكل كبير وتوفير كافة الوسائل‬

‫جميعها تعبر عن ثقافة وتراث أريحا ‪.‬‬

‫التي تسهل حركتهم في المشروع واستفادتهم من الخدمات التي‬


‫التعبير عن بساطة أريحا من خالل المواد وغيرها من التراث‬



‫تحتوي األرض على ‪ 6‬دونمات زراعية‬


‫الدخول في المنتجات الزراعية إن أمكن باللجوء إلى أشخاص‬

‫التصور من خالل المقترح الذي قدمه مكتب شمس أرض وتوكيل‬

‫مختصين بالنباتات ‪.‬‬

‫مهمة التأكد من قدرة األرض على استيعاب المشروع من خالل‬

‫االتفاق مع جمعيات تقوم بالتسويق داخل المشروع‬

‫التحليل الذي سنقوم فيه ‪.‬‬



‫هناك فكرة أولية لدى البلدية عن المشروع وخدماته وقد تكون هذا‬

‫دانا مسعد‬

‫سماكة الحوائط تعتمد على التصميم فمثال البيوت المصنوعة من األكياس‬

‫تحدثت دانا مسعد عن مشاريعها البيئية المنتشرة في الضفة الغربية وأهمها ‪:‬‬ ‫حديقة القيقب في رام هللا ‪ ،‬بيت للضيافة في مخيم عقبة جبر بالتعاون مع‬ ‫اليونيسكو ‪ ،‬مطعم المركز النسوي في قرية الديوك‪ ،‬و بيت من األكياس الطينية‬ ‫في أريحا وغيرها من المشاريع التي ساهمت على إحياء العمارة الطينية في‬ ‫فلسطين ‪ .‬وخالل المقابلة أجابت المهندسة دانا مسعد عن عدة أسئلة أهمها ‪:‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫الطينية تصل سماكتها إلى متر أما في حالة البناء بلوكات من الطين‬ ‫تتراوح السماكة من ‪ 90-30‬سم وكلما زادت سماكة الحائط ازداد‬ ‫‪ . thermal mass‬في منطقة أريحا التقليدي هو اللبن ويوضع في‬ ‫صناديق ويضاف اليه القش ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫المباني التي يصممها مكتب شمس أرض ال تمت لعمارة أريحا‬

‫س ‪:‬البناء بالطين وعالقته بمناخ أريحا وتأثيره على البيئة الداخلية‬

‫بصلة ؟‬

‫للمبنى ؟‬ ‫ج ‪ :‬البناء الطيني واحد من الطرق البناء التقليدي في فلسطين خصوصا‬ ‫في منطقة األغوار ‪ ،‬و البناء بالطين هو الطريقة األكثر مالئمة لطقس‬ ‫المنطقة ‪ ،‬في فصل الصيف تعطي المباني الطينية البرودة للمبنى دون‬ ‫الحاجة إلى اللجوء إلى المكيفات وغيرها أما في الشتاء فإن اريحا ال‬ ‫تتعرض إلى ألمطار بشكل كبير فبتالي ال يؤثر المناخ على فعالية الطين‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ما مدى إقبال الناس في فلسطين تجاه العمارة الطينية ؟‬

‫ال يوجد إقبال من الناس على العمارة الطينية إال بأعداد قليلة وذلك بسبب‬ ‫قلة وعي الناس ألهمية البناء بالطين والتوجه نوح اإلسمنت كبديل عنه‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫تبني مكتب شمس أرض أفكار نادر خليلي ومن وجهة نظرنا أشكال‬

‫لم تكن هدف المكتب تقليد عمارة نادر خليلي واألشكال التي قاموا‬ ‫بتصميمها كانت من وحي العمارة الطينية القديمة في منطقة مرج نعجة‬ ‫باألغوار و التي تشبه إلى حد ماعمارة نادر خليلي ‪.‬وتمتاز العمارة في‬ ‫منطقة مرج نعجة باألقواس والقباب وأجابت باإلمكان عمل أسقف‬ ‫مستوية لكنها بحاجة إلى صيانة مستمرة كل سنة مما يجعل الناس‬ ‫ينفرون من العمارة الطينية لذلك كان توجه المكتب لعمارة القباب‬ ‫لتخفيف عبء الصيانة قدر اإلمكان وحتى يتمكن الناس من استبدال‬ ‫اإلسمنت بالطين ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ما هي المواد البمستخدمة في خلطة الطوب الطيني ؟‬

‫هل يختلف البناء بالطين في منطقة أريحا عن غيره من المناطق من‬

‫هي خلطة من الصلصال والرمل والطمي " هي مادة توجد في قاع األنهر وتستخدم هذه‬

‫حيث طبيعة الخلطة الطينية وسماكة الحوائط ؟‬

‫المادة بنسبة قليلة ال تتجاوز ‪ " %15‬يتم فحص‬

‫التربة في الموقع للتأكد من نسبة المواد لبعضها في التربة ومدى‬ ‫صالبتها ‪ .‬والنسبة األكثر مالئمة هي ‪ % 70‬صلصال و ‪ %30‬رمل ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ما هي قدرة الطين الستيعاب البناء العمودي " من ناحية عدد‬ ‫طوابق" ؟‬ ‫يمكن الوصول إلى ‪ 7-6‬طوابق ولكن نحن نفتقر إلى المعرفة‬ ‫وخبرة العمالة في هذا المجال ‪ ،‬مكتب شمس أرض يتوكل مهمة‬ ‫تعليم العمال لطريقة البناء ولكن ال تتجاوز المباني التي‬ ‫صمموها طابق واحد فهم يعجزون عن زيادة عدد الطوابق‬


‫مكتب شمس أرض بيئي فقط في أسلوب البناء أو حاولو استخدام‬ ‫اساليب لتوفير الطاقة وغيرها ؟‬

‫استخدم مكتب شمس ارض العديد من الحلول البيئية منها ‪ :‬نظام كامل‬ ‫إلعادة تكرير المياه في مبنى سكني تم بناؤه من أكياس الطينية و‬ ‫مشروع ‪ landscaping‬أيضا اعادة تكرير مياه الحديقة ‪.‬‬

Project requirement 12345678-

Eco lodge Swimming pool Traditional cooking space Picnic areas Water channel Parking Children’s play space Water well

used by families or two couple’s travelling to gather (20% of the ecotourism market) Area: 36-40 sqm Note: if the kitchen is added another 30% of room size is added to total area

Ratio of function per room: Entry and storage Living area Sleeping area Bathroom / dressing area Total furniture Another


Space requirement: Room sizes for Eco lodge: Standard 26-30 sqm Deluxe 36-39 sqm Eco lodge suites: two bedrooms and shares a common area with a larger salon and balcony. They are frequently


15-20% 30-40% 20-40% 15-20% 33% 30%

Office Hallways Lobby Storage Retail space Restaurant and lounge Resource center Reading room Health center : sauna , massage and skin care , exercise room

Note: approximately 45 to 60 m2 per room should be considered for all these service facilities.

Other facilities: -


Saltwater swimming pool : to minimize the environmental effects of filtration and pump (half Olympic pool 25m*50m ) Hot tub for 6-8 people

Rooms and suites m2 Standard rooms Suites Total area

240 200 1180

Massing of main building Massing is planned to achieve the most sun exposure in the winter time while creating outdoor/indoor spaces that are the most efficient for both eco lodge and the public park area.

Program: Main building m2 Reception Administration offices / WC Sleeping room WCs Kitchen Bakery Restaurant CafĂŠ Gift shop Storage Hall (dining room) Changing room / showers/ WCs Circulation 20% Total area

50 30 9 48 60 30 60 60 40 40 100 90 123 617


Children’s play area Under tree picnic Eating area Public pool Main building : this building style depending on traditional Jericho architecture , it contains many facilities - Reception - Administration - Restaurant - Kitchen - Pool showers and WCs

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