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   HEEALS   IN  COLLABORATION  WITH     THE  ROYAL  CENTRAL  SCHOOL  OF   SPEECH  AND  DRAMA  

DRAMA CAMPAIGN  REPORT   (COMPREHENSIVE)

“Behaviour  Change  Towards  Sanitation  and  Education   Through  Art  &  Drama”        

OCTOBER –  DECEMBER  2012      

© Copyright 2012, All Rights Reserved HEEALS, Ghaziabad (UP) India

HEEALS Drama  Campaign  Report  2012  


TABLE OF  CONTENTS       INTRODUCTION   Rational                     Objectives                         METHODOLOGY   Phase  I:  Initial  Plans                 Phase  II:  Implementation  of  Drama  Programme  at  Bharti  Devi  Schools     Phase  III:  Revision  of  Plans  and  Drama  Programme  done       Phase  IV:  Implementation  of  Revised  Plans               RESULTS                     Interviews                     Feedback  Forms                                             DISCUSSION:  EVOLVING  THE  DRAMA-­‐  HOW     CAN  WE  MAKE  IT  MORE  CHALLENGING  AND  EFFECTIVE?       Limitations                     Future  Implications                     CONCLUSION                         APPENDICES                                                    

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INTRODUCTION   RATIONALE:     Sanitation  and  clean  water  has  a  direct  impact  in  providing  suitable  conducive   learning  environments  in  non-­‐government  schools  in  India.  As  a  result  of  the   lack  of  education  in  emphasizing  the  importance  of  hygienic  practices,  learning  is   affected  due  to  poor  sanitation,  non-­‐availability  of  girls’  toilets  and  safe  drinking   water  facilities.  Many  students    (especially  girls)  drop  out  of  school  after  a  few   years.  According  to  UNICEF  Water  &  Sanitation,  “Far  too  many  schools  are   woefully  lacking  hygienic  conditions  with  broken,  dirty  and  unsafe  water   supplies  and  toilets  or  latrines  not  adapted  to  children,  especially  girls.  Some   have  no  water  or  sanitation  facilities  at  all.  Too  often  schools  are  hazardous  to   children’s  health”.  The  motivation  of  this  project  is  to  acknowledge  these  critical   issues  and  find  practical  and  innovative  ways  to  educate  students  from  schools   in  urban  slums.   OBJECTIVES:     -­‐  Aim  was  to  inform,  impart,  educate  knowledge  on  5  different  topics  on   sanitation  and  education   -­‐  Creatively  engage  them  in  various  forms  such  as  collaborative  games,  drama   and  acting   -­‐  To  equip  them  with  performative  skills  such  as  voice  projection,  improvisation,   characterization  and  miming   -­‐  To  build  confidence  in  them  in  terms  of  having  the  courage  to  speak  up  and  out   on  what  they  have  learnt   -­‐  To  raise  awareness  and  interest  on  the  topics  through  performing  a  short  play   to  the  rest  of  the  schools    

METHODOLOGY   PLANNING  STAGES     Phase  I:  Initial  Plans     To  pilot  and  embark  on  a  full-­‐fledged  drama  campaign  on  the   theme  of  ‘Behaviour  Change  Towards  Sanitation  and  Education   Through  Art  and  Drama’,  targeted  at  students  from  schools  at   urban  slums  through  these  five  topics:     1.  Toilet  Use,  Open  Defecation  and  Encouraging  Toilets  for  Girls  in  Schools     2.  Encouraging  Girl  Child  Education     3.  Hygiene  Practices     4.  Motivational  Plays  to  decrease  drop  outs  in  schools     5.  Efficient  use  and  conservation  of  clean  water    

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Drama Campaign  Team  consisted  of  4  individuals:   1.  1  Supervisor   2.  1  Project  Manager/  Co-­‐Facilitator/  Translator   3.  2  Project  Coordinators   4.  1  Co-­‐Facilitator/  Translator     We  also  had  to  devise  and  visually  create  a  storybook  that  was  to  be  used  during   the  drama  workshops.  (E-­‐book  to  be  completed  and  published  online,  with   permission  from  HEEALS,  by  end  January  or  early  February  2013).         Schedule  of  Drama  Campaign  were  initially  planned  as  follows    

Drama Campaign  Project   Bharti  Devi  Public  School       Students:  10-­‐13  years  old   No.  of  students:  25  (5  for  each  topic)  

Bharti Devi  Public  School       Students:  5-­‐6  years  old   No.  of  students:  Performing  to  all   children     Week  2:  6th  –  9th  Nov     Performance  with  School     Topics  1,3,4  &  5      

Week 1:  Rehearsals  30th  –  2nd    Nov,   Performance  5th  Nov     Rehearsals  Topics  1  &  2     Week  2:  Rehearsals  6th  –  9th  Nov,   Performance  12th  Nov     Rehearsals  Topics  3,  4  &  5   Oxeus  Valley  School     Kaushambi  Public  School         Students:  11-­‐12  year  olds   Students:  14-­‐16  year  olds   No.  of  students:  25   No.  of  students:  25     Week  3:  Rehearsals  19th  –  22nd    Nov,   Week  3:  Rehearsals  19th  –  22nd  Nov,   rd Performance  23  Nov   Performance  23rd  Nov       Topics  1  &  2   Topics  1  &  2       Week  4:  Rehearsals  26th  –  29th  Nov,   Week  4:  Rehearsals  26th  –  29th  Nov,   Performance  30th  Nov   Performance  30th  Nov       Topics  3,4  &  5   Topics  3,4  &  5     The  Upper  and  Lower  standards  of  both  Bharti  Devi  schools  acted  as  the  starting   point  for  the  team  to  analyze  how  the  programme  would  be  received,  and  if  the   time  allocated  was  suitable.  The  team  was  expected  to  do  all  five  topics  with  all   schools,  over  the  span  of  two  weeks  with  each  school.  Each  drama  workshop  was   to  last  at  about  30-­‐45  minutes,  after  school  hours.  Below  the  table  describes  the   framework  of  the  project.       HEEALS  Drama  Campaign  Report  2012  

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No. Stage   1.   Induction  

2.

Research

3.  

Planning

4.  

Consolidating Project  Ideas  

5.  

Poster Making  

6.  

Finalizing Workshop   Session  Plans  

7.  

Gathering Logistical   Materials  

Activities Designing  drama  workshops  that  look  at  including   -­‐  games  and  energizers     -­‐  objects  and  pictures  for  ‘Mystery  Box’  activity   -­‐  ways  to  stimulate  discussion  through  individual   expression  and  teamwork     The  team  brainstormed  and  designed  a  drama  campaign   banner  to  be  brought  around  the  schools.  Secondary   research  included  examining  the  topics  through  reading   newspaper  articles,  published  materials,  looking  at   images,  going  to  areas  where  the  topics  were  targeted  at   (schools,  homes,  working  places  in  urban  slums)  and   studying  the  water,  sanitation  and  education  systems   available  at  these  places.  The  research  also  helped  us  in   deciding  which  topics  were  appropriate  for  the  relevant   age  groups.   Planning  consisted  mainly  on  designing  workshop   proposals  that  could  fit  with  the  schedule  of  the  schools   available,  material  and  school  resources  received  and  the   manpower  we  had.       Project  coordinators  devised  a  storybook  draft  that   would  help  us  visualize  what  the  stories  on  the  five   topics  would  be  about.  We  decided  to  take  photographs   instead  of  drawing,  to  provide  more  striking   interpretations  of  the  story.  These  pictures  would  then   be  used  as  the  template  in  creating  the  play  with  the   students.   Brainstormed  and  decided  specific  elements  of   inspiration  relevant  to  the  topics  (dirty  toilet  bowls,   open  defecation,  child  labourers  etc).  Drew  a  few  designs   and  finalized  design  for  the  posters  with  the  help  of  the   supervisor.   Project  Coordinators  created  a  detailed  lesson  plan  for   each  session,  indicating  activity  name,  timing  for  each   activity,  instructions,  facilitator’s  tasks  and  materials   needed.  The  lesson  plans  conceptualized  exactly  what   was  going  to  happen  and  was  to  be  used  as  a  constant   reference.       Printing  and  scanning  facilities  were  limited.  Proper  time   management  to  fulfill  logistical  tasks  had  to  be  adhered   to  diligently  so  as  to  keep  track  of  the  availability  of   materials,  and  get  them  ready  prior  to  the  programme.   Printing  of  drama  campaign  banner  was  done.  (See   below)  

      HEEALS  Drama  Campaign  Report  2012  

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Figure 1:  Drama  Campaign  Banner  at  Bharti  Devi  School  (Upper  Standard)       Phase  II:  Implementation  of  Drama  Workshops       Bharti  Devi  School  (Upper  Standard)     School  Liaison  Personnel:  Principal  and  Head  Teacher     • Decided  on  topics  of  ‘Hygiene  Practices’  and  ‘Encouraging  Girl  Child   Education’   • First  2  sessions,  exploring  topic.  Next  2  would  be  devising  and  rehearsing.   Last  day  performance.   • Workshops  consisted  of  thinking  of  simple  games  that  required  the  use  of   minimal  language   • Energizer  games,  introduction  of  topic  through  the  mystery  box,  used   pictures  and  objects  to  encourage  discussion  and  action   • Class  Decoration  Competition  on  the  theme  of  ‘Water’  to  be  done  in  a   week     Bharti  Devi  School  (Lower  Standard)   School  Liaison  Personnel:  Head  Teacher     • As  lower  standard  consisted  of  children  4-­‐6  year  olds,  we  decided  to  focus   on  doing  a  short  skit  which  included  miming  and  narration     (English  and  Hindi)   • A  brief  lesson  on  showing  them  how  to  wash  their  hands  correctly  after   the  skit.  Received  help  from  the  class  teachers  who  gave  clear   explanations  of  what  was  happening,  and  managed  to  actively  engage   them.     • Question  and  Answer  segment  that  encouraged  an  interactive  learning   session       HEEALS  Drama  Campaign  Report  2012  

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Phase III:  Revision  of  Bharti  Devi  (Upper  Standard)  to  discuss  areas  to   develop  for  next  two  schools     Activities   Worked   Did  Not  Work   Games   1.  Woosh   1.  Duck,  Duck  Goose   2.  Rubber  Chicken   2.  Name  Game  (no   3.  ‘Up  and  Down!’   variation,  difficult  to   4.  Splat!   communicate  the  idea)   Mystery  Box   Helped  to  break  the  ice   Materials  from  the  box   and  able  to  garner   could  be  changed,  more   responses  from  the   objects  than  pictures.   students.   Story  Drama  Pictures   A  good  hook  and   Interaction  using  the   managed  to  get  the   pictures  was  difficult  as   students  to  start  acting.   students  tend  to  imitate   exactly  what  the  picture   was  depicting  instead  of   getting  ideas  from  it.   Rehearsal   Got  the  students  to   Lack  of  time,  rehearsal   actively  participate.   environment  was  not   conducive  as  there  were  a   lot  of  distractions  around.   Performance   Students  got  to  perform,   Lack  of  preparation,  need   able  to  be  interactive   to  be  clearer  in  the   with  the  audience.  Pre   structure  of  the  show.   warm-­‐up  game  was  well   received  by  the   audience.  Good  response   for  the  show.                                           HEEALS  Drama  Campaign  Report  2012  

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Suggestions and  Areas  for  Improvements     Workshop  Elements     1.  Check-­‐in  and  Check-­‐out:  It  is  important  to  know  how  the  students  are  feeling   before  and  after  each  workshop.   2.  Language  barrier:  Need  to  be  more  coordinated  with  translators,  and  plan   what  we  are  going  to  say  to  the  students,  so  there  would  be  no  confusion.   3.  Rules:  To  spend  some  time  on  the  first  day  to  discuss  on  what  rules  should  be   followed  throughout  the  workshops  would  aid  in  creating  a  structured  learning   space  where  students  can  adhere  to.     Planning     1.  Schedule:  Need  to  find  out  exactly  how  many  number  of  students  are   participating,  and  to  find  out  their  school  timetables  and  availabilities.   2.  Liasing  with  teachers:  Confirmation  of  workshop  schedule  to  be  confirmed   earlier,  possibly  a  week  before  the  actual  event.       Limitations     1.  Language:  Can  only  communicate  and  converse  simple  ideas  that  might  not   have  stretched  students  potential  in  exploring  the  topics.   2.  Space:  Space  was  right  outside  the  school  building.  Both  groups  were  sharing   the  same  space,  making  it  very  distracting.  Girls  were  hesitant  to  do  any  form  of   acting  in  the  presence  of  the  boys.    Also,  due  to  time  constrictions,  we  could  not   accommodate  to  the  overwhelming  responses  from  students  towards  the   programme,  which  gave  us  the  inopportune  task  of  choosing  students  at  random.   3.  Time:  Preparation  time  and  workshop  time  was  too  rushed,  were  unable  to   carry  out  remaining  two  workshops  that  could  have  ended  up  with  better  results   in  terms  of  student  interaction  and  performance.   4.  Feasibility:  Wanted  to  complete  5  topics  in  2  weeks  in  each  school.  It  was  an   impossible  task  considering  the  amount  of  time  and  number  of  schools.  We   decided  on  two  topics  for  each  school  in  each  week.     5.  Manpower:  Co-­‐facilitators  lacked  drama  and  teaching  experience,  hence  it  was   a  challenge  for  us  to  enhance  interaction  during  the  drama  activities.                                

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Class Decoration  Competition     All  students  and  teachers  were  enthusiastic  about  the  event  and  accomplished  in   keeping  their  classrooms  clean,  as  well  as  decorating  them  using  simple  green   materials  (twigs,  leaves,  flower  petals,  and  chalk  to  decorate  on  the  board).  We   encouraged  the  teachers  not  to  purchase  anything,  though  some  insisted  that   they  wanted  to  buy  decorative  materials.  (Picture  below)     Decision  for  the  best  classroom  was  judged  by  the  two  project  coordinators  and   two  co-­‐facilitators  and  was  determined  by,     1.  Cleanliness  of  classroom   2.  Class  teamwork   3.  Artistic  finish     We  gave  all  the  other  classes  a  class  photo  for  them  to  keep,  as  we  wanted  to   encourage  the  students  and  teachers  to  remember  to  keep  their  classrooms   clean  as  a  class  at  all  times.                                           Figure  2:  A  decorated  classroom,  using  garlands  of  flowers,  and  leaves.       Phase  IV:  Implementation  of  Revised  Plans     Referring  to  time  limitations,  the  structure  of  drama  programme  at  Oxeus  Valley   and  Kaushambi  Convent  Schools  had  to  be  critically  reassessed.  The  table  below   depicts  a  more  coherent  presentation  of  a  realistic  time  schedule  for  the   workshops.            

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School Liaison  Officer  for  both  schools:  Principals   REHEARSALS:  19TH  –  21ST  NOVEMBER   PERFORMANCE:  22ND  NOVEMBER       School   No.  of   Age   Duration   Students   Kaushambi   18   12  to  15  years  old   Rehearsal:  1   Convent   (7th  to  9th  Class)   Hr/Session   School   Show:   Approximately   2  Hrs     Oxeus   18   11  to  13  years  old   Rehearsals:  1   Valley   (6th  to  7th  Class)   Hr/Session   School   Show:  1  Hr  

Topics 1.  Encouraging  Girl  Child   Education   2.  Motivational  Play   3.  Water  Conservation   1.  Toilet  Use,  Stop  Open   Defecation  &  Encouraging   Girl  Toilets   2.  Motivational  Play  

After  analyzing  and  making  close  examinations  on  the  activities  and  responses   we  got  from  the  students  from  Bharti  Devi  School,  the  team  discussed  further   about  the  kind  of  schools  Oxeus  Valley  and  Kaushambi  Convent  were-­‐  if  they  had   any  English  language  standard  and  if  the  students  received  holistic  learning   facilities,  so  as  to  estimate  the  adequacy  of  the  students’  receptiveness  towards   the  drama  programme.  Changes  had  to  be  made  both  to  the  development   process  as  well  as  its  implementation.  We  then  came  up  with  a  revised  structure   of  the  whole  process  again  that  could  help  us  visualize  the  events  that  would   happen  prior  to  the  actual  event  at  the  two  schools.       No.   Stage   Activities   1.   Induction   Conceptualizing  the  revised  plans  and  thinking  of   improved,  possible  alternatives   -­‐  better  games  and  energizers   -­‐  more  tangible  objects  than  pictures  for  ‘Mystery  Box’     -­‐  ways  to  encourage  discussion  (in  pairs  and  groups,   rather  than  individually  so  as  to  reduce  hesitation)   2.   Research   Visited  the  two  schools,  a  week  prior  to  the  event  to   speak  to  the  schools’  principals  so  as  to  get  a  better   understanding  of  the  students’  profiles,  in  areas  of   -­‐  English  proficiency   -­‐  any  involvement  in  aesthetic  activities   -­‐  environmental  educational  upbringings  they  received   On  the  topic,  we  further  read  resources*  [Appendix  A]   that  aided  us  in  making  selective  choices  on  which   factors  or  elements  of  the  topics  were  important  to   mention  through  the  workshops.  This  made  the   workshops  more  focused-­‐oriented,  and  helped  us  to  be   more  productive  with  the  time  we  were  given  with  the   students.         3.     Planning   Gathering  the  research  we  have  received  from  the   schools,  we  added  in  creating  a  project  plan  consisting  of   HEEALS  Drama  Campaign  Report  2012  

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a proper  structure  for  each  workshop  session,  classroom   decorations  and  a  poster  drawing  competition  on  the   theme  of  ‘Sanitation  and  Clean  Water’.  We  also  finalized   the  stories  for  the  storybook  and  took  pictures  for  it.     4.     Consolidating   Selected  pictures  used  for  the  storybook  now  played  a   Project  Ideas   pivotal  role  in  determining  what  the  play  was  going  to  be   about.  On  top  of  planning  the  structure  of  the   programme,  we  created  a  breakdown  of  tasks  for  pre-­‐ show  and  show  days  so  that  everyone  in  the  team  knows   exactly  what  to  do  and  when  it  is  to  be  done.       5.     Poster  Making   Ideas  for  the  workshop  as  well  as  inspirations  from  our   observations  at  the  school  were  the  main  influence  for   the  designs  and  captions  of  our  posters.  Final  edits  were   done.  (See  a  few  of  the  posters  below)   6.     Finalizing   Final  decisions  made  took  into  consideration  the   Workshop   feasibility  of  activities  in  terms  of  physical  execution,   Session  Plans   language  usage  and  time  requirements.  Incorporated   suggestions  and  areas  of  improvements  discussed   above.*  [Appendix  B]   7.     Gathering   After  the  project  plan  has  finalized,  we  proceeded  to   Logistical   attend  to  logistical  needs  (files,  props,  box,  mystery  box   Materials   materials,  pens,  papers,  certificates,  prizes).  All  lesson   plans  and  paper  materials  were  filed  according  to  the   various  topics,  for  easier  reference.     8.     Implementation   As  co-­‐facilitators  now  have  a  better  idea  of  what  to  do   at  Oxeus  Valley   during  the  drama  activities  (based  on  experience  at   School   Bharti  Devi  Schools),  they  have  become  more  active  by   participating  in  the  activities  through  translating  the   instructions  in  Hindi  in  a  more  engaging  manner,  and   taking  on  a  more  interactive  role.  These  truly  improved   the  whole  dynamics  of  the  drama  workshops  between   facilitators  and  students,  in  that  students  were  more   confident  to  express  themselves.     9.   Revision  of   Due  to  students’  low  English  proficiency,  interaction   Session  Plans   during  the  activities  was  still  monotonous  and  can  be   from  Oxeus   improved  further  with  the  help  of  the  class  teachers  and   Valley   co-­‐facilitators.  Discussion  activities  could  be  shared  in  a   more  active  and  demonstrative  manner.  Some  pictures   (stimuli)  are  unnecessary  and  can  be  left  out,  and  time   should  be  spent  focusing  on  only  a  few  stimuli.     10.   Changes  on   Facilitation  was  more  focused  and  cooperation  between   Session  Plans   facilitator  and  co-­‐facilitator  was  enhanced,  as  we  were   that  was   clearer  about  our  roles.  Discussion  activities  were  done   implemented  at   through  role-­‐play  and  tableaux,  both  through  pair  work   Kaushambi   and  in  groups.  There  was  less  pictures  used,  but  those   Convent  School   pictures  were  straightforward  and  encouraged  more   open-­‐ended  responses  with  no  right  or  wrong  answers.       HEEALS  Drama  Campaign  Report  2012  

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Figure 3:  Top,  “Let’s  Save  Clean  Water!  It  Starts  from  Home”.  Middle,  “Toilets:  A   Basic  Need  for  Everyone!”.  Bottom,  “Determination:  It  Leads  You  from  Dreams  to   Success!”  

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Structure of  the  workshops  remained  the  same,  as  it  was  favourable  with  the   limited  amount  of  time  we  have.  However,  the  choice  of  certain  activities  and   how  they  were  carried  out  differed.     Activities   Worked   Did  Not  Work   Games   1.  Splat!   None.  Children  responded   2.  Woosh!   very  well  to  the  games,  as   3.  Boom  Chicka  Boom!  (best   they  required  no  words,   response  from  this  game)   with  just  sounds  and   4.  Name  Game  (worked  as  we  used  a   movements.  During  check-­‐ proper  ball)   in  and  check-­‐out,  students   5.  ‘Up  and  Down!’   really  got  the  time  to  think   6.  Check-­‐in  and  Check-­‐out  using   through  lesson  points  they   numbers  1-­‐10  to  describe  how  they   have  learnt  and  shared  it   were  feeling,  1  being  the  ‘Lowest’   with  the  rest  of  their   and  10  being  the  ‘Highest’.  They  also   friends  before  and  after   shared  something  they  have  learnt   every  workshop.  The  rules   during  the  workshop.     helped  children  to  keep   7.  Established  rules     track  of  their  own   behaviours  and   contributions.   Mystery  Box   Used  more  objects  instead  of   Activity  was  executed  very   pictures,  which  provided  students  a   well.  Students  understood   springboard  to  the  introduction  to   and  responded  with  great   the  topic.  Students  were  able  to  use   enthusiasm  as  they  could   the  objects  to  interact  with  one   easily  relate  to  the  objects,   another,  and  to  create  short  scenes   hence  giving  lots  of  ideas.   and  tableaux,  which  were  going  to   be  part  of  the  performance.       Story  Drama   Introduced  a  structure  (beginning,   None.  Visuals  helped  as   Pictures   middle-­‐conflict,  ending)  and   they  were  easily  relatable,   encouraged  students  to  think  of   and  students  created  ideas   solutions  as  part  of  the  ending.     quickly  as  they  kept   (See  below)   referring  to  the  stimuli.     Rehearsal   More  productive  as  students  had  a   More  time  would  really   better  idea  of  what  their  stories   help,  and  fixed  timing.     were  about.  A  lot  of  the  materials  of   the  script  came  from  them.*   [Appendix  C]   Performance   Students  were  confident  in  their   Better  liaising  with  the   performance.  They  got  the  chance  to   school  heads  in  deciding   communicate  how  they  felt  about   what  time  the  performance   the  idea  of  ‘Education’.  Gave  the   was  to  commence.     performance  a  personal  element.  A   quiz  was  incorporated  to  make  the   show  more  interactive  and  thought   provoking.         HEEALS  Drama  Campaign  Report  2012  

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Questions:     Why  is  he  looking  at  the  picture?     What   d o  you  think  he’s  thinking  of  when  he’s       looking  at  those  people?     How   does  that  make  him  feel?                                                           Questions:       What   d o   y ou   t hink   h e   w ill   d o  now  after  looking  at  those  people?     How  will  he  do  it?     Who   would  help  him?         Figure  4:  Example  of  how  using  pictures  was  a  form  of  stimulus  for  discussion  and   drama  work.          

BEFORE

AFTER

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Class Decoration  and  Poster-­‐Making  Competitions     The  class  decoration  competition’s  structure  remained  the  same,  as  it  still   required  the  teachers’  cooperation  in  carrying  out  the  activity.  However,  in  order   to  enhance  engagement  with  the  students  in  the  upper  standard  of  Kaushambi   Convent,  we  integrated  the  poster-­‐making  competition.  The  theme  for  both   competitions  was  changed  to  ‘Sanitation  and  Safe  Drinking  Water’.  Students  had   the  liberty  to  draw  anything  they  thought  was  a  good  example  of  a  clean  or  dirty   place,  and  what  clean  water  meant  to  them.  Both  competitions  were  very  well   received.  Prizes  were  distributed  for  the  top  three  best-­‐drawn  posters,  and  one   best  decorated  classroom.       Judgments  were  by  the  two  drama  coordinators  and  two  co-­‐facilitators.  Final   decisions  for  the  classroom  were  determined  by  the  same  criteria  of,   1.  Cleanliness  of  classroom   2.  Class  teamwork   3.  Artistic  finish     while  for  the  poster-­‐drawing  competition,  decisions  followed  the  criteria  of     1.  Originality   2.  Message  of  the  poster   3.  Drawing  and  colouring  skills       Prize-­‐Giving   Students  from  Oxeus  Valley  and  Kaushambi  Convent  who  participated  in  the   drama  programme  received  a  certificate  of  achievement  and  a  picture  of   themselves  as  a  group.  First,  second  and  third  prizewinners  of  the  poster  making   and  class-­‐decoration  competition  also  won  certificates  of  achievement  and  prizes   (badminton  racquet,  tumbler,  colouring  set  respectively).  They  all  also  received  a   small  gift  from  HEEALS.  Awarding  students  with  prizes  is  a  way  for  students  to   remember  their  accomplishments  during  the  entire  programme.  The  team  hopes   that  these  items  would  encourage  students  to  continue  to  strive  for  success,  as   they  have  very  well  done  for  the  drama  programme.    

                     

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Figure 5:  One  of  the  winning  entries  for  the  poster-­‐drawing  competition  on  the   theme  of  “Sanitation  and  Clean  Water”.  

RESULTS    

A  notable  measure  of  success  of  our  programme  was  when  Dainik  Jagran,  a  local   Indian  newspaper,  featured  our  students  and  the  work  they  were  doing  on  the   24th  of  November  2012.  It  was  a  great  milestone  for  HEEALS  as  the  drama   campaign  was  a  mark  of  success  in  establishing  themselves  as  an  NGO   committed  to  serving  the  community  in  raising  awareness  on  issues  about  water,   sanitation  and  education.  The  entire  school  very  well  received  the  final   performance  by  the  students  at  Kaushambi  Convent.  The  India  Water  Portal,  a   national  platform  for  information  and  research  focusing  on  clean  water   expressed  interest  in  supporting  the  campaign  as  well,  through  covering  the   event  and  making  it  public  on  their  website.                                                                    Figure  6:  HEEALS’  Drama  Campaign  feature  on  Dainik  Jagran  

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Summary of  Data  Collection     1.  INTERVIEW:  INDIVIDUAL  OBSERVATIONS     QUESTION  1     How  well  was  the  drama  campaign  executed  at  the  end?     Supervisor:  The  drama  campaign  was  a  great  initiative  to  solve  the  sanitation  &   water  crisis.  The  campaign  was  nicely  drafted  and  perfectly  implemented.    It  is  a   new  approach  to  bring  out  the  untouched  issues  of  sanitation  and  education.  The   drama  approach  is  very  useful  for  those  section  of  population  in  India  and  other   least  developing  countries  who  could  and  could  not  read  and  write.  Through  the   drama  campaign  we  can  spread  our  message  to  them  as  it  can  make  a  great   impact  on  them  about  safe  drinking  water,  sanitation  practice  and  hygiene   behavior  through  organising  drama  workshops  according  to  different  age  groups   to  reach  every  section  of  the  Indian  population.     Project  Manager:  The  drama  campaign  was  executed  very  well  according  to  the   plan,  procedure  and  prescribed  format,  which  we  have  marked.     Project  Coordinators:  Considering  that  all  students  in  Oxeus  Valley  and   Kaushambi  Convent  had  no  prior  drama  experience,  the  project  achieved  its   objectives  beyond  expectations.  Students  constantly  displayed  their  creativity   and  learning  potentials  and  were  not  hesitant  about  sharing  their  thoughts.           QUESTION  2   Areas  of  improvements  that  were  met?     Supervisor:     •  Communication  through  outreach  programme  was  effective  in  its  approaches   •  Interaction  with  students  were  simple,  friendly  and  open     •  There  was  a  two-­‐way  communication  learning  environment   •  Good  coordination  between  student,  team  members  and  supervisor     •  Good  follow-­‐ups  on  supervisor’s  orders   •  Applied  motivation  techniques  in  an  effective  manner     •  Good  organisational  and  event  management  skills     Project  Manager:  Areas  of  improvements  that  were  met  is  the  right  approach  for   communicating  sanitation,  hygiene  practices  and  girl  education  through  Art  and   Drama.     Project  Coordinators:  With  the  revised  workshop  plans  focusing  on  improving   communication  between  facilitators  and  students,  that  primary  element   managed  to  increase  workshop  productivity  and  encouraged  more  enthusiastic   involvements  from  the  students.    

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QUESTION 3   How  do  you  think  the  project  could  be  sustained?       Supervisor:  The  project  is  aiming  and  looking  towards  PPP  (Public  Private   Partnership)  to  involve  corporations  to  finance  and  sponsor  upcoming  projects.   We  are  in  the  planning  mode  to  start  SHG  (Self  Help  Groups)  consisting  of   women  from  all  sections,  religions  and  fields  of  work  to  participate  in  making   sanitary  napkins  for  schoolgirls  and  selling  them  at  a  very  convenient  and  cheap   price.  This  is  through  making  recycled  paper  products  such  as  Greeting  Cards,   Paper  Boxes,  pen  stand  etc  to  get  revenue.  We  would  like  to  share  the  revenue   with  SHG  women  and  using  a  part  of  it  for  sustainability  of  project  and   programmes.  We  need  support  from  international  bodies,  government,   corporate  companies,  individual  funders  and  philanthropists.     Project  Manager:  The  project  could  be  sustained  through  individual,  corporate   and  volunteer  funding  and  in  terms  of  organization  is  also  planning  some  micro   finance  models  in  the  near  future,  infrastructure  cost  that  has  already  been   provided  by  the  organization  including  the  permanent  office  site  (point  of   operations).     Project  Coordinators:  The  drama  workshops  could  be  carried  out  on  a  regular   basis,  given  training  with  the  teachers  and  proper  workshop  framework  that   could  easily  be  followed  by  teachers  who  have  minimum  drama  teaching   experiences.     2.  INTERVIEW:  ABSTRACT  OF  VERBAL  FEEDBACK  FROM  BHARTI  DEVI   TEACHERS  (UPPER  STANDARD)   Teachers  were  all  supportive  of  the  entire  programme,  from  the  drama   workshops  to  the  class  decoration  competition.  They  actively  participated  in   class  teamwork  to  carry  out  the  decorative  tasks.  Teachers  also  mentioned  that   they  were  very  pleased  to  have  us  initiate  and  conduct  the  programme  that  had   improved  the  children’s  understandings  on  important  basic  knowledge  on   hygiene  and  on  girl  child  education  (a  topic  that  is  rarely  discussed  upon  in   schools),  as  these  are  things  they  do  not  learn  at  home.     3.  INTERVIEW  (VIDEO  DOCUMENTATION):  VERBAL  FEEDBACK  FROM   BHARTI  DEVI  STUDENTS  (UPPER  STANDARD)  ON  WHAT  THEY  HAVE   LEARNT     On  Encouraging  Girl  Child  Education:   1.  Girls  need  to  be  educated  if  they  want  to  succeed  in  their  life  and  only   education  is  the  tool  by  which  they  can  do  this.   2.  Education  for  girls  is  also  very  important  because  only  education  can  change   their  dreams  into  reality.   On  Hygiene  Practices:   1.  We  should  always  keep  our  homes  and  neighbourhoods  clean  and  hygienic,   and  inform  others  to  do  the  same.   2.  We  should  always  drink  clean  and  purified  water.  We  should  always  clean  our   teeth  too.    

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4. FEEDBACK  FORM  FROM  STUDENTS  AT  OXEUS  VALLEY  AND  KAUSHAMBI   CONVENT  SCHOOLS*  [Appendix  D]     36  students  did  a  short  feedback  consisting  of  6  close-­‐ended  questions,  which   used  smiley  faces,  to  symbolize  how  they  felt  about  the  programme.  Co-­‐ facilitators  went  through  the  feedback  forms  with  the  students,  so  that  each   question  could  be  explained  clearly  to  the  students  and  ensured  that  all  students   understood  the  questions  before  circling  the  faces.       Did  you  like  the  drama   programme?   Did  you  enjoy  the  drama  games   and  activities?   Do  you  feel  you  have  learnt  more   about  the  topic?  

:) YES   :|  NEUTRAL  

Do you  feel  more  conqident  to  act   on  stage?  

:( NO  

Would you  participate  in  this   workshop  again?   Is  Drama  useful  in  helping  you   learn?   0%  

20% 40%   60%   80%   100%  

  Figure  7:  Feedback  form  responses  from  students  at  Oxeus  Valley  and  Kaushambi   Convent  Schools         This  data,  although  displaying  excellent  overall  feedback,  also  acknowledges  the   minority  of  students  who  disagreed,  or  felt  neutral  towards  certain  questions.  It   is  crucial  that  it  is  taken  note  of,  as  they  would  be  points  for  future  drama   workshops  to  look  over  and  improve  on.  Some  students  might  have  felt  unclear   about  what  they  were  doing,  and  felt  hesitant  to  ask  and  clarify  what  they  learnt   or  thought  about  the  activities.  Hence,  every  workshop  should  look  at  how  every   student’s  interests  and  understandings  could  be  monitored  closely  (e.g.  Q&A   segment  after  every  workshop  to  evaluate  what  students  have  learnt).  It  was  all   of  the  students’  first  time  acting  in  front  of  their  whole  school,  and  it  is  expected   that  not  all  students  would  feel  confident  of  acting  on  stage,  though  most  of  them   responded  that  they  did.  If  this  is  the  case,  the  facilitator  and  his  or  her  peers   should  give  words  of  encouragement  and  give  him  or  her  more  opportunities  to   speak  up  during  the  workshops  to  build  his  or  her  confidence.    

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Students also  included  short  notes  at  the  bottom  of  the  form,  stating  how  they   really  felt  about  the  programme.  Below  are  a  few  responses.                     “I  enjoyed  by  being  part  of  this  drama.  We  should  do  more  of  such  things.”                                 “I  feel  very  good  because  by  this  we  came  to  know  a  lot  about  the  importance  of   girl  education.  We  should  try  to  educate  more  and  more  girls.”                                 “I  think  that  both  girls  &  boys  should  be  educated  so  that  our  country  (India)  will   progress  more.”  

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DISCUSSION: EVOLVING  THE  DRAMA-­‐  HOW  CAN  WE   MAKE  IT  MORE  CHALLENGING  AND  EFFECTIVE?  

With  proper  research,  sufficient  planning  and  significant  support,  the  drama   campaign  was  a  great  success.  However,  there  are  many  areas  of  work,  which   could  be  further  developed  in  order  to  make  it  more  challenging  and  effective.   Following  the  SMART  objectives,  here  are  the  explicit  details  of  how  the  drama   campaign  could  progress  further.  

SPECIFIC

Focus  on  developing  the  quality  of  the  topics  discussed.  For  example,  ‘Water   Conservation’  could  be  the  only  topic  done  across  students  from  all  levels  in  a   single  school,  and  the  programme  could  be  tailored  according  to  the  specific   age  groups.  Expect  to  garner  various  responses,  and  enhance  those  responses   to  deepen  students’  understandings  on  the  topic.  Follow-­‐ups  are  integral  in   maturing  students’  learning  in  the  topic.  Hence,  being  focused  in  a  single   specific  topic  could  greatly  help  in  being  the  start  of  making  real  change  in   education  happen.  

MEASURABLE   The  methods  of  evaluation  should  be  able  to  clearly  express  students’  and   teachers’  comprehension  towards  the  programme.  This  could  be  done   through  one-­‐page  journal  writings  after  every  session,  where  students  are   able  to  completely  reflect  on  their  experiences  and  learning  points.  Drama   facilitators  could  do  reports  on  each  session  and  share  this  with  the  school   teachers,  who  could  give  substantial  feedback  on  what  might  work  and  what   could  be  improved  on.    These  reports  should  be  given  to  the  teachers  for   future  non-­‐academic  pedagogical  use.  

ACHIEVABLE

The  time  scheduled  and  the  space  in  which  the  workshops  would  be   conducted  should  be  suitable  enough  in  achieving  the  expected  the  goals.  For   example,  if  the  time  given  to  conduct  the  workshop  is  an  hour,  and  there  are   goals  to  be  met  (group  work  in  devising  and  improvising  the  topic  of  ‘Water   Conservation’)  then  the  space  used  (an  empty  classroom,  with  no  tables  and   chairs)  should  easily  give  the  students  and  facilitators  the  opportunity  for   these  goals  to  be  met.  Teachers  are  also  encouraged  to  sit  in  the  drama   workshops,  and  try  out  certain  drama  conventions  for  experience  and   training  and  familiarizing  themselves  with  more  interesting  teaching   techniques  that  she  could  use  again.  An  organization’s  personnel  could  do   monthly  visits  to  find  out  how  the  teachers  and  students  are  doing  with  their   independent  follow-­‐ups  on  the  drama  campaign.  

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RELEVANT

Topics  chosen  for  the  various  age  groups  should  present  concepts  that  are   easy  to  grasp,  and  is  suited  to  their  level  of  understandings.  Keep  the   participants  in  mind  when  writing  the  lesson  plan,  so  as  to  keep  the  real   nature  and  focus  for  the  lesson  plan.  

TIME

Time  that  is  scheduled  for  the  drama  workshops  should  be  practical  and   followed  through  as  closely  as  possible.  Timetable  for  the  workshops  should   be  planned  on  paper,  presented  and  briefed  to  the  school’s  principal,   teachers-­‐in-­‐charge  and  students.  An  agreement  to  comply  with  keeping  to  the   time  should  be  made  prior  to  the  workshops  itself.  Time  planned  is  a   significant  element  in  producing  the  quality  of  work  done  by  the  students  and   thus,  has  to  be  strictly  abided  by.           LIMITATIONS   As  the  drama  workshops  was  conducted  both  in  English  and  Hindi,  students   were  hesitant  to  speak  English  most  of  the  time  and  preferred  speaking  in  Hindi.   Language  usage  here  could  limit  or  interrupt  the  flow  of  discussions,  and  might   end  up  obstructing  ideas  presented.  However,  with  proper  preparations  and   support  from  Hindi-­‐speaking  co-­‐facilitators,  activities  done  during  the  drama   workshops  could  progress  much  further  and  deeper  in  developing  students’   comprehension  on  the  topics.       It  is  a  habitual  occurrence  that  time  consistency  is  a  major  problem  when   working  in  the  schools  in  urban  slums.  This  should  not  deter  maximizing  the   time  spent  with  the  students  in  the  schools.  Administrative  duties  should  be   briefed  a  week  or  two  with  the  schools  prior  to  the  event,  to  avoid  confusions.     Limited  manpower  and  material  resources  could  be  a  challenge  to  overcome  at   the  beginning,  especially  with  insufficient  support  from  schools.  There  is  a  major   lack  of  experience  by  the  teachers  in  conducting  drama  or  non-­‐curricular   activities.  Teachers  might  be  unwilling  to  get  involved  and  help  out,  limiting   facilitation  of  activities  to  reap  the  best  results  during  the  workshops.  With  time   and  better  communication  between  drama  facilitators  and  teachers  in  the  school,   there  would  be  increasing  collaboration  in  order  to  take  the  drama  programme   to  greater  heights.  We  would  have  to  explore  our  options  with  the  little   resources  we  have  and  learn  to  expand  on  it.  There  even  might  be  a  chance  to   work  together  with  teachers  to  create  a  drama  campaign  teaching  pack  on   sanitation  that  could  be  circulated  around  schools  for  use.  

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FUTURE IMPLICATIONS     Sustaining  the  drama  programme  and  having  follow-­‐ups  would  seek  to  develop   students’  intellectual  and  emotional  growth,  through  expressive  and  creative   means.  Monitoring  character  development  is  crucial  in  maturing  their  holistic   educational  experiences.  The  ultimate  objective  here  is  to  know  that  students  are   really  learning.  And  what  students  really  learn  in  school,  they  would  practice  at   home.       Teachers  involved  in  upcoming  educational  programmes  through  drama  and  art   should  be  trained  to  take  more  initiative  in  being  more  innovative  with  their   teaching  methods,  which  would  create  livelier  and  more  engaging  classroom   environments.  Using  drama  often  finds  the  need  to  have  stories.  Stories  are  a   very  powerful  device  for  education,  as  it  an  effective  communicative  tool  to   address  important  issues  in  a  relatable  manner.       Continuous  and  sustained  involvements  in  doing  drama  for  education  could   “demonstrate  the  theatre’s  effectiveness  in  altering  people’s  attitudes  and/or   changing  their  behaviours”  (Taylor  2003:  104).  The  successes  of  the  drama   programme  in  one  school  can  be  brought  to  other  schools,  and  perhaps  even   train  older  students  and  teachers  to  facilitate  the  drama  workshops  on  their   own,  to  the  younger  students.  This  would  inculcate  skills  and  qualities  such  as   leadership,  communication,  teamwork,  confidence,  organization,  perseverance   and  critical  thinking  that  would  enhance  educational  resources  in  the  schools.      

CONCLUSION   The  drama  campaign  has  truly  accomplished  its  objectives,  and  has  added  a  new   dimension  in  the  area  of  non-­‐academic  learning  curriculum  amongst  students  in   the  schools  from  urban  slums.  The  experiences  and  exposure  students  got  from   the  drama  campaign  has  proved  to  be  a  positive  one,  and  one  that  touched  on  life   skills  that  looked  at  the  importance  of  being  independent  in  looking  after  one’s   own  hygiene  that  in  turn  affects  taking  care  of  their  emotional  wellbeing  in   school  and  at  home,  when  given  clean  and  hospitable  living  conditions.   Confidence  in  sharing  life  experiences  through  the  workshops  gave  students  the   ownership  in  the  learning  space,  which  made  them  responsible  for  their  own   learning  involvements.       The  drama  campaign  in  sanitation  and  education  hopes  to  pursue  progression  in   the  future  in  terms  of  its  topic  and  drama  teaching  methodologies  to  be   recognized  and  established  in  schools  across  urban  slums  as  an  important  part  of   their  non-­‐academic  curriculum.  With  more  projects  done  on  the  importance  of   sanitation  and  education  with  the  community  at  grassroots  level,  HEEALS  would   hopefully  gain  an  advantage  in  garnering  beneficial  support  from  government,   companies  and  bigger  NGOs  that  would  help  the  cause  both  financially  and   collaboratively  by  providing  other  resources  as  well.           HEEALS  Drama  Campaign  Report  2012  

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HEEALS and RCSSD Drama Campaign Report 2012  

A detailed and comprehensive of using Applied Theatre in social and community work in India.

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