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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫ א‬ ‫ א‬ ‫א‬ 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 127


 

 127

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 

 W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬        ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ، 

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  

? ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?? ‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 

 127

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ 

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ،‫א‬ ‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 .‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬        ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬ ‫א‬ AOAC ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬KAOCS‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ AACC‫א‬ 

    ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،  ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



 


‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 K٪90‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 4W‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ Introduction

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ Indreas Libavius‫א‬1616 J1546 J1  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1606

 ‫א‬    ‫א‬ Fransesco Redi    1697 J1626   J2  K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Leeuwendhock‫א‬1673 J3  K‫א‬‫א‬Lewis Lemery‫א‬1702 J4

 K‫א‬‫א‬Andreas Marggraf1735 J5

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1875 J1775 J6  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ Pearson‫א‬‫א‬  1795 J7

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬     Fredrick Acum ‫א‬ ‫א‬   1820   J8  K‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Dumas‫א‬1830 J9

‫א‬‫א‬ 1865 J1840 J10  Leibig‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ J11

‫א‬ ‫א‬

Electrophoresis ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  Colorimetry ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 Definition of food analysis ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Appliedsciences‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KPhysico- chemical properties of foods ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1  StructureK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 J  J JF ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J3  KE J

‫א‬F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ J4  KE‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5 Importance of food analysis‫א‬

 W‫א‬

E‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J1  KHuman nutrition ‫א‬‫א‬

     ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    J2  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3 -3-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J4  KFood safety‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬Quality grades‫א‬ J5  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J6

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 Analytical chemistry‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬    

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Nutrition‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J1  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬ J‫א‬  J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

Vegetarian‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2 ‫א‬   Nutritional value ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -4-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 Constituent of food materials‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬       

‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ …     ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬

    ‫א‬  ‫א‬     K  

 WE1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Macro components J1

‫א‬‫א‬ JWater‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 KProtein‫א‬Fats and oils‫א‬‫א‬ JCarbohydrates

 Micro components J2 ‫א‬    ،‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

‫א‬ ‫א‬ JPigments ‫א‬ JVitamins and minerals ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

Additives food ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ JHormones ‫א‬ JEnzymes ‫א‬ JOrganic acids  KPesticides residue‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬    ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

    ‫א‬       ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ J  K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬       ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J  K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  K‫א‬‫א‬

 

-5-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

Food constituents

Low level compounds

High level compounds H2O Carbohydrates Proteins Lipides

 

Organic compounds 1. Vitamins (fat and water soluble vitamins). 2. Enzymes. 3. Hormones. 4. Oxidants materials. 5. Antioxidants materials. 6. Pigments.

Inorganic compounds

Minerals such as Ca++, Mg++, K+, Na+, Fe++, P+++ … etc.

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 W

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J  W 

  J1

‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  J‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ JOxidants ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ JFlavor compounds ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ Pigments ‫א‬ JAntioxidants  K‫א‬

  J2

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Minerals‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬……

-6-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ J2  K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   K 

‫א‬       ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

    ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬

       ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬    

 K‫א‬

Preparation of the representative sample for chemical

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  analysis

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    -7-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬          ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  E‫א‬F  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬ Vitamin C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 K

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 Perfect sample‫א‬‫א‬ J1 ٪ 100 ‫א‬ Laboratory sample‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Composite sample‫א‬‫א‬ J2

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Laboratory sample‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬        ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Representative sample‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-8-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 Laboratory sample‫א‬ J3 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   

 ‫א‬    ‫א‬      K Duplicates or triplicates  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Random sample‫א‬  J1  KE‫א‬KKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬ J‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬      J2  Composite sample‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4  W

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬Metabolism reactions‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  K

 ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    J

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬  J6 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ J7 ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

  Composite sample ‫א‬ ‫א‬       ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ Blenders‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 Wiley mill    E F ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 KBall mill‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ -10-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬    ‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Invertase

‫א‬ Alcoholic extract‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬    ‫א‬              

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

   K       ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬     ‫א‬   ،‫א‬ … ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ٪10 J5 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪20 J10‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    Composite sample ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ -11-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Quartering‫א‬‫א‬ J1 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬    X    

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Divider‫א‬ J2

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Mincing‫א‬ J3

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬       ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  Mixing‫א‬ J4

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Milling‫א‬ J5

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬ -12-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬…‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Thief‫א‬ J1 3 J2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2F‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬

 

 Thief‫א‬E2F

 Sampling tube‫א‬ J2  1 J0.5  3 J2‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Slit ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE3F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   E‫א‬F ‫א‬ K‫א‬

-13-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 Sampling tube‫א‬E3F

 Trier‫א‬ J3 1 J0.753 J2‫א‬E4F‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 Trier‫א‬E4F

 Drill‫א‬ J4  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K

 ‫א‬

   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬     ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -14-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٪0.1  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KMoisture proof‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 KGas proof‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2  K‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 K‫א‬ J4

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬F ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬         ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ -15-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ J1  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  J2  J‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬

 K،‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬     ‫א‬   

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

-16-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬



 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬ J1  W‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 W‫א‬‫א‬ J4

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 W‫א‬‫א‬ J5

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬ J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E×F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E√F J6  K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J7

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J -17-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 W‫א‬‫א‬ J8

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J9

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J10

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J11

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  

    -18-


‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

2


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬  K

 

 K٪90‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 4W‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

-19-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 Moisture in foods‫א‬‫א‬

  Introduction ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪6 J4 ،‫א‬‫א‬٪70‫א‬  ‫א‬    ٪95 J90 ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K٪60 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E1F  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  29.4  °105‫א‬  34.9  °105‫א‬  71.5  °105‫א‬  11.6  °105‫א‬  71.5

 °70‫א‬

 77.8

 °70‫א‬

 28

 °70‫א‬

 78.7

 °70‫א‬

 66.2

 °70‫א‬

 55.9

 °70‫א‬

 69.7

 °70‫א‬

 68.2

 °70‫א‬

 87

 °70‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   EF                      

Shelf life‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ،‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬        ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -20-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

   ‫א‬    ‫א‬       ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   J2

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J3

    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  J4  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 General properties of water‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  J1

   {(SO2) ‫א‬    ،(NH3) ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(H2S)‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬Dielectric constant‫א‬‫א‬ J2 ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ r‫א‬  C1،C2‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬D

C1 × C2 F = –––––––––– D × r2 Where: F – The force between C1 and C2 (charges). r2 – The square of distance between C1, C2. D – Dielectric constant = 78.5 for water.  C1 and C2 – The two charges in the media.

 F   D ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Polarity‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -21-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

+

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 H + OH H2O  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 D = C liquide / C air

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C liquidC air ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

Water        ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 

   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬   layers ‫א‬‫א‬ Hydration‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬       Ion charge density   K+ > Na+   ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4    ‫א‬‫א‬ J5 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Latent heat of fusion‫א‬

‫א‬  ،  L 80  ‫א‬     ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 

‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬   K    ‫א‬ ‫א‬       ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   

 K

Boiling point (BP)     Melting point (MP) ‫א‬   ‫א‬ J6 ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-22-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2F

Substances Methane Ammonia Water Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen sulfide Hydrogen chloride Oxygen Nitrogen

Molecular weight

Formula CH4 NH3 H2O HF H2S HCl O2 N2

MP (°C)

16 17 18 20 34 36 36 28

-184 -78 0.0 -83 -86 -115 – –

BP (°C) -161 -33 +100 +20 -61 -85 -183 -196

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

       ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬Hydrogen bonds

 7 J10C 1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J7  W‫א‬‫א‬55‫א‬  7 J

10C1

 ٪0.0000002Z–––––––––––––Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  55 ‫א‬‫א‬50‫א‬  K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Association‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J8

‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬E‫א‬ 72F Surface tension‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ {‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K°4‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ J9

‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ J‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    °50 ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬ -23-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

K‫א‬

 Water phases in foods‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Free water‫א‬‫א‬ J1  Dispersion ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬medium ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Bound water‫א‬‫א‬ J2        ‫א‬  Hydration water ‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Water of crystallization      ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Adsorption water‫א‬‫א‬ J3   ‫א‬   Hygroscopic water ‫א‬ ‫א‬     

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬٪15‫א‬٪70‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬Van der vals‫א‬‫א‬

 

 Hydrophilic colloids water‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ Colloidal gels Hydrophilic colloids  K‫א‬Emulsified water‫א‬ -24-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ (H2, O2)‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

Volatile  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬        Decomposition

 Ksubstances ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1  K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2

    ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J6

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J2

‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬   J3 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬°100‫א‬540‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -25-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬40‫א‬‫א‬ 500‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J1

Case hardening‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬        ‫א‬     ‫א‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬  

 °70 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬       ‫א‬

 K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ J4  K ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 General methods for moisture determination in foods‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Drying methods‫א‬W  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

-26-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Air-oven methods‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1 ‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Forced-Draft ovens J

   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ 

   ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 {Barbender semiautomatic moisture tester ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  1

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  KL°130‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 Carter-Simon oven J

15  °155    ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

K

  Chopin instrument J

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  °200    ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬   7  ‫א‬   5 ‫א‬  ،   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 Vacuum-oven methods‫א‬‫א‬ J2  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

°70 J60‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -27-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،L 25  KVacuum‫א‬‫א‬

 Other drying methods‫א‬‫א‬ J3  Infrared drying‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Penetration of heat‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 500 J250‫א‬

 ‫א‬، 15 J10 Decomposition‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬10‫א‬25‫א‬20  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬10 J2.5‫א‬

 ‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬     Desiccator    E‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Distillation methodsE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬W 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  ،   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬        ‫א‬   

 KE JF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 °114   ‫א‬   Bidwell-Sterling     ‫א‬ 

 J200 Brown Duvel °139‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬     Thielepape-Flude   ،°205

  ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 KOverheating

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬E3L 1.62F‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K°121‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 40 J30‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 3  ‫א‬      ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

K‫א‬E5F‫א‬

   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Bidwell-SterlingE5F

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  K100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  K40 J30   J1

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 K‫א‬ J3

 K‫א‬ J4  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J7  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -29-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2  K‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5  K‫א‬‫א‬

 Chemical methods‫א‬‫א‬W   Karl Fischer reagent methods‫א‬ J1 ‫א‬        ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬       ‫א‬  ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 10 W3 W1  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬  ‫א‬     ‫א‬        

2HI + H2SO4

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 2H2O + I2 + SO2

SO2

I

I2 + SO2 + 3

+ H2O

H 2 + O   ‫א‬

H

SO2 O

 

 SO4CH3 -30-

+ CH3OH 


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

،‫א‬ 1 ‫א‬ 3‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

1 mole H2O Ξ 1 mole I2 + 3 mole 2

 J‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬     ‫א‬   ‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬،‫א‬  ‫א‬      ‫א‬     ‫א‬     

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬  K  ‫א‬    ‫א‬        ‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E6F       -31-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

Acetyl chloride methods J2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬ 1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬1‫א‬

COCH3 C Pyrodine acetate chloride

+ H2O

H

 

+ CH3 COOH

Cl Pyrodine hydrochloride

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Gas production methods‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  CaC2 + 2H2O

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

Ca (OH)2 + CH Ξ CH (Acetylene gase)

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬، 15 J10 ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬  W

‫א‬‫א‬ 1.5‫א‬1

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،0.4‫א‬2.5‫א‬

   

CaC2 + 2H2O

Ca (OH)2 + CH Ξ CH

2 mole H2O

1 mole CH Ξ CH

2 × 18

26 -32-

 W‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

0.4

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

×

0.4 × 36 Weight of water(×) = –––––––––––– = 0.56 gm 26 0.56 × 100 % Moisture = –––––––––––– = 56% 1

 Physical methods‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬  Electrical methods‫א‬‫א‬ J1  Electric conductivity‫א‬‫א‬ J

    ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  

‫א‬،٪13 ‫א‬  ،٪15   50٪14 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

،Tag-Happenstall meter‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،  ‫א‬        ‫א‬ ‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬

 K

 Dielectric constant‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2  Densimetric method‫א‬ J

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -33-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 Refractometric methods‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ JE‫א‬ J‫א‬F‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬

 Polarimetric method‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬          ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬

K‫…א‬‫א‬

 Relative viscosity‫א‬‫א‬ J

E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J

 JF  ‫א‬    ‫א‬    ‫א‬    ‫א‬  

٪1°0.005‫א‬‫א‬ E°0.55 T – T1 W = 100 × ––––––––––   T

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE°0.55 JF‫א‬ZT

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ZT1  K٪ZW

-34-

W 




 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ،   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬       ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬

  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ،‫א‬  °70   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   J ‫א‬       ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   2  °105   ٪13    ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،  K‫א‬ 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬      ،     ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

       

 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬



 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E×F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E√F J2  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J‫א‬ -37-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J6  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J7  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

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 

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J8

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  

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‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

3

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬  KpH‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 K٪90‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 2W‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 Organic acid and pH in foods‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬W

   ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ J1

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   J3  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4 ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    J5  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J6  K  

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ J7  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

        ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   J8  K‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J9  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J10  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬       

K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ J1  K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬W J

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬W J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2  K‫א‬ J‫א‬W J

 KCaffeic‫א‬ JQuinic‫א‬ J‫א‬WEF J

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J3  K‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬W‫א‬ J

 K J J‫א‬W‫א‬ J

 K J J‫א‬ J‫א‬W J

K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ H-COOH Formic

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

CH3-COOH Acetic

COOH

COOH

H-C-H

H-C-H

H-C-H

H-C-OH

COOH Succinic

CH3-CH2-COOH  Propionic COOH H-C-OH

H-C-H

HO-C-H

COOH COOH Malic Tartaric H

HO-C-COOH H-C-H 

Citric 

COOH

H

H

OH COOH

COOH

HO HO

CH=CH-COOH

H H

Benzoic

CH3-CHOH-COOH COOH Lactic Oxalic COOH COOH

H

D- Quinic

Caffeic

-41 -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3F  ‫א‬‫א‬  60.05

 ‫א‬‫א‬  60.05

 88.10

 88.10

 64.04

 192.12

 90.08

 90.08

 67.05

 134.09

 282.46

 282.46

 45.02

 90.04

 59.05

 118.09

 284.47

 284.47

 75.04

 150.08

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 Determination of organic acids in foods‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬         ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ J1  K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2  K‫א‬

-42 -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

   300 J200    ‫א‬   EF     J3  K‫א‬10

‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   J4  K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1010W  0.1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  300

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬  20‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬  E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬C‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬

 128Z64C0.1C20Z  128  ٪1.28Z100C–––––––––––––––––Z٪  1000C10

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W

 W‫א‬EpHF‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J2

‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   J3  K‫א‬

  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  J4

   ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  J5  K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J6

-43 -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 (pH)‫א‬

،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬

1 pH = – log [H ] = log –––––– [H+]   +

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬    ‫א‬  

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ H2SO4 HCl  KCH3-COOH‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   [H+] + [ŌH]   H2O [H+] ‫א‬ Kw°25 Equilibrium‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 14 J10C 1Z [ŌH] 7 J

10C1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬[ŌH]‫א‬[H+]  K

 Buffer solution‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬pH‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬       ‫א‬  

   ‫א‬     K ‫א‬            ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  

 K

 ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬      

‫א‬ Ka Equilibrium‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -44 -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   [Pka] ‫א‬ ‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬Handerson-Hasselbach

[Salt]  pH = Pka + log ––––––––– [Acid]

 W‫א‬‫א‬

Strong acid and basis:

H+ . Cl   Na+ . OH Weak acid: CH3 – COŌ . H+   A¯ . H+  

HCl NaOH 

AH

CH3 – COOH

[A¯] [H+] Ka = ––––––––– [AH] Ka [AH] = [A¯] [H+]

 

Ka [AH] [H ] = ––––––––– [A¯] +

[AH]  log [H ] = log Ka + log ––––––– [A¯] +

[AH]  – log [H ] = – log Ka – log ––––––– [A¯] [A¯]  pH = PKa + log ––––––– [AH] +

 (pH)‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬W   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  

  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  -45 -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

  ، ‫א‬   ‫א‬ Potentiometer ‫א‬   ‫א‬  

 W‫א‬،pH‫א‬

Calomel electrode‫א‬ J1

           ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Glass electrode‫א‬ J2

 ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬       

  10\1F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،  KE10\1H

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 K‫א‬pH‫א‬ J3  ‫א‬‫א‬W  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ٪50 ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K0.1H  

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E×F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E√F J1  K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

    ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  J  K

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬ J2  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK  W‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 W‫א‬‫א‬ J4

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J -47 -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKpH‫א‬ J5

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKW

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬ J6  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 W‫א‬pH‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J7

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  

 

 

-48 -


‫א‬

 ‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F ‫א‬

4


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬   ‫א‬  E‫א‬ ‫א‬F ‫א‬    ‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬    {   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 K٪90‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 2W‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

-49-


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 The ash (minerals) in foodsE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

°600 J500‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Evaporation Volatile compounds‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1  KVapors

CO2  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬     Organic matters ‫א‬ ‫א‬ J2  K‫א‬Oxides of nitrogen

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 Alkaline earth elements ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    J4  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5  W‫א‬

 KOxides‫א‬ J

 KSulfate‫א‬ J

 KPhosphate‫א‬ J  KSilicate‫א‬ J

 KChlorides‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ Incineration of ashing ‫א‬    

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ Ash‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬EFInorganic  Macroelements‫א‬ J1

 KMg‫א‬ JCa‫א‬ JNa‫א‬ JK‫א‬

 Microelements‫א‬ J2  KFl‫א‬ JZn‫א‬ JMn‫א‬ JCu‫א‬ JFe‫א‬ JAl‫א‬  -50-


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 KTraceelements ‫א‬ J3

  JCo‫א‬ JSe‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  Inorganic salts J1

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬

 Organic slats J2   Organic acids ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬     K‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬

  J3  J‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     K‫א‬‫א‬B12‫א‬،‫א‬ J‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   Mineral mixture  K‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 

Capsules or tablets‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Food ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    Essential amino acids ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KEnrichment or Food Fortification -51-


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E4F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٪  

 

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  3.2 J1.9 1.0 J0.8 10.1 J5.3 3.6 J2.0  4.7 J3.0 1.2 J1.0  2.4  1.0  1.9  4.1  2.2  3.2

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٪

 ‫א‬

   4.7 J2.6  2.6 J2.0  ‫א‬

 J0.34  0.8 J0.3  0.91  ‫ א‬ 4.5 J2.7  2.6 J1.6

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 5.4  0.7  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  0.3  ‫ א‬10.0 J2.0  6.0 J1.0  ‫א‬  0.6  2.1  0.8  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  1.8  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

 0.8

 ‫א‬

23.0 J12.0 5.8 J2.4  10.2  0.6

 ‫א‬

 17.7

 1.7

 0.0

 0.0

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 2.7

 1.0

 ‫א‬

 7.5  3.9 J2.7 ‫א‬‫א‬  6.9  1.2  ‫א‬  10.3  2.0  ‫א‬  

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ NaCl H2O  NaOH

+

-

Na + OH H+ + -OH Na + +-OH

  

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬OH‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ pH‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -52-


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

Na2 SO4   H2 O

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

2 Na+ + SO–4 OH + H+

‫א‬

 

1 2



 Na2 SO4 + H2O 2 Na+ + SO4– – + H+ + –OH ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  Na2 CO3 + H2O 2 Na+ + CO3– – + H+ + –OH

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 J‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬…‫א‬ J‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J1  K‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ J3

 K‫א‬ J4

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J6

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 W‫א‬

 ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬     J1  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  J3  ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ E‫א‬ F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J4  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J5  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE…‫א‬ J J‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J6  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J7  K ‫א‬ J8

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J9  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J10

 Determination of ash‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 Dry ashing‫א‬‫א‬ J1  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 Total ash determination‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 Water soluble ash‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 Acid soluble ash‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 Alkalinity of ash determination‫א‬ J4  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ Muffle furnace ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 °600 J550‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬°1000

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Red dull temperature

 ‫א‬ ،Ashing crucible‫א‬‫א‬ J2  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬      ‫א‬   

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،Platinum crucible‫א‬‫א‬ J3  K‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ،Silica crucible ‫א‬ ‫א‬ J4 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

   K‫א‬‫א‬  25 ‫א‬ -54-


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬Rough‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،Nickel crucible‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5  ‫א‬‫א‬     Nickel carbonyl   ‫א‬   

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،Vycor glass J6

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬Resistant to most chemicals and acids‫א‬‫א‬°900  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 J ‫א‬   ‫א‬ Official methods ‫א‬ ‫א‬  AOAC

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    JAnalytical balance ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ JE‫א‬ F ‫א‬   

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  Dissicator   KAshless filter paper‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Preparation of the sample for ashing‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ AOAC‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬2

 K‫א‬‫א‬ JCereal foods‫א‬5 J3  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬10 J5  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬25

    Moisture free sample ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬Fresh sample

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

،Spices‫א‬‫א‬ Volatile compounds‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2  K‫א‬Fumes‫א‬‫א‬Condiments

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Rich in fat‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J3 ‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Excessive flaming

  ‫א‬       ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 KSmoking off the fat without burning‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬      ‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ J4  K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J5  K‫א‬‫א‬

E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Preliminary ashingInfrared lamps‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Period of ashing‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬   ‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 100C–––––––––––––––––––––Z٪  ‫א‬

Wet ashing‫א‬‫א‬ J2

،     ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬  5‫א‬‫א‬ 5  ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -56-


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     50         

 KAtomic absorption‫א‬

 Soluble and insoluble ash‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

KAsh insoluble in acid‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Water insoluble ash

 Water insoluble ash‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬25‫א‬Total ash‫א‬‫א‬ J1  K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ESpattering‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2  K‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ Ashless filter paper‫א‬ ‫א‬ J3  KEF55‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

AOAC 60E‫א‬‫א‬ F‫א‬‫א‬ J4  K‫א‬

‫א‬   Water insoluble ash ‫א‬  ‫א‬      ‫א‬   J5  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J6

 Water soluble ash = Total ash – Water insoluble ash

 Ash insoluble in acid‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ‫א‬‫א‬       ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   J‫א‬ ‫א‬ J‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

، KKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -57-


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬

Water‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Total ash‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Winsoluble ash

‫א‬F ٪10  ‫א‬    25 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   J1  KE1.050‫א‬

5    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬       ‫א‬  J2  K

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J3

‫א‬ E‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬F‫א‬ ‫א‬ J4  K

 KAsh insoluble in acid‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5  Alkalinity of ash‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Acid ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Alkaline in reaction‫א‬  in reaction

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬

Alkalinity of water ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ KKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬ J‫א‬

 ‫א‬   ‫א‬     ‫א‬      ،soluble ash ‫א‬ K2CO3‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 2 KH (C4 H4 O6) + 10 O2

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ∆H

K2 CO3 + 5 H2O + 7 CO2

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 KAdulteration‫א‬ J2

 KAcid/ Base balance of foods‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3  ‫א‬ K 100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   1‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 0.1‫א‬W‫א‬

 K1‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ K2CO3‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 W  1 ml of 0.1 N acid ~ 0.00691 gm (K2CO3) Alkalinity number  ‫א‬    ‫א‬         ‫א‬     ‫א‬   ‫א‬ E 1F ‫א‬ ‫א‬  W  

 K1‫א‬

Al An = ––––––– A

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

An: The alkaline number Al: The alkalinity of ash sample A: % of ash content in the sample

 Determination of ash alkalinity‫א‬  Total ash‫א‬‫א‬ J E0.1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1  K10‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬  J2  KMethyl orange indicator‫א‬

-59-


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 0.1‫א‬‫א‬ J3  100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

+

 Numbers of H ~ Ash of 100 gm sample  KMethyl orange‫א‬Methyl purple‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Determination of water soluble ash alkalinity‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J     ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬ Methyl orange ‫א‬E 0.1F‫א‬ 100‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 0.1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 ml of H+ ~ Ash of 100 gm sample

 Determination of insoluble ash alkalinity‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  

 E 16 J10F  0.1 ‫א‬    ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬

‫א‬Methyl orange‫א‬0.1‫א‬‫א‬ +

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

ml of H ~ Ash of 100 gm sample

 Acid/ base balance‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Acid forming elements‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Base forming ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬elements

 1EF ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   1 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 Acid/ Base balance= Difference between the sum of the acid value and the sum of the base values

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬

    Pyrophosphate     Orthophosphate   

Acid/ Base balance ‫א‬‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KMetaphosphate  Kof some selected foods

-60-


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E5F  100L1-OHH+‫א‬  ‫א‬  3.76

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 

   7.47

 ‫א‬

 7.07 J3.36

 

 ‫א‬

 7.3 J5.5  5.6

 

 ‫א‬

   3.9

 ‫א‬

 5.56  10.86  10.82  5.45  7.37

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 11.61

   

 8 J7  11.1

 ‫א‬

 

 17.07 J11.8

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 

 13.9 J10.5  17.1

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 2.37 J1.26

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬Davidson & Leclerc Davidson &  1935 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  Direct titration of ash ‫א‬ ‫א‬    Leclerc  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -61-


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬°550‫א‬ J1

 K0.4‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 K0.1‫א‬Back titration‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4

  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  F ‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J5     ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   Normal acid value    K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Buffering action of blood ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

KKidney‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬CO2‫א‬

  Starvation ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

 0.2‫א‬pHNaHCO345‫א‬

 0.2‫א‬pHNH4Cl20 J15‫א‬  ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬

 2     4.5  pH  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    18 ‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬pH

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬   ‫א‬   

 K‫א‬  

-62-


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

°600 J500‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ J1  W‫א‬‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E×F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E√F J4

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J  K‫א‬‫א‬

 W J6

،     ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  J KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK     ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  J   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK   ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬ J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 W‫א‬‫א‬ J7

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  

   

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‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

5


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬  K

 

 K٪90‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 2W‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 Vitamins in foods‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬     ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  Classification of vitamins‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 Water soluble vitamins‫א‬‫א‬ J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ B-complex C

        ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬

 Fat soluble vitamins‫א‬‫א‬ J ،‫א‬   A  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   A, D, E, K    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2

‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  J3  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4  K‫א‬‫א‬ J5

International ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،Unit

‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 

 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -66-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 Determination methods of vitamins‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬

 Bioassay methods (Biological assays)‫א‬‫א‬W   W‫א‬ 

،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ J1  KC،A‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ J2   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬       ‫א‬    ‫א‬

 KD‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ED 

 K‫א‬

  ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬      ،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬     28 ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 Microbiological methods‫א‬‫א‬W    Lactobacillus arabinosus‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -67-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3  K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  Physical methods‫א‬‫א‬W  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

    ‫א‬ A  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬B‫א‬، 328 J325‫א‬  K450‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬  Fluorescence E‫א‬F ‫א‬ ‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬    ‫א‬       ،      ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   

K‫א‬

 Physiological methods‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬ -68-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬      ‫א‬        

   ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬   Availability

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬   ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  K

 Chemical methods‫א‬‫א‬W  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

    ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬        J1  KA‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

    C       ‫א‬ ‫א‬ J2  K2, 6 Dichlorophenol- endophenol

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬       J3

 ‫א‬ 1 Fluorescence ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Thiochrome

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ J1

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ J2  K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  J3  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KBlank‫א‬‫א‬ J4

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5  Vitamin C in foods‫א‬

  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  C   

       ‫א‬  C   ،

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1  K‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 K176‫א‬°192‫א‬ J3

 KPK1 = 4.2PK2 = 11.6 J4

 K‫א‬265‫א‬ J5

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J6  K‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬   L-Ascorbic ،Dehydroascorbic acid     J7

    ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ،E‫א‬ ‫א‬F ‫א‬  KL-Ascorbic‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬ (pH)    3‫א‬

‫א‬ K ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬     -70-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 O=C

 O=C

  

+ H2

 O=C

O=C

– H2

 O=C

O=C

H – C – OH

HO – C

HO – C O  H–C

 H–C

HO – C – H CH2OH L-Ascorbic acid

‫א‬

HO – C – H  CH2OH  Dehydro-L-Ascorbic acid

+ H2O

O = C – OH

 

 HO – C – H  CH2OH Diketo-L-Gluconic acid

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 3،2‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  J1  K

        ‫א‬ ‫א‬    J2  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

    ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   J3  K‫א‬‫א‬2‫א‬

‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬   J4

‫א‬‫א‬   2‫א‬‫א‬ 3  K‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 2, 6 dichlorophenol endophenol‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1 ‫א‬  Pink  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬     Leuco form‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ -71-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 15 ‫א‬ Pink‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

O=C

O

HO-C

Cl

OH

O=C Cl

Cl

O =C

Cl

O HO-C

O

O =C +

H-C

N

H-C-OH CH2OH L. Ascorbic (Reduced form)

H-C

NH

H-C-OH OH 2, 6 DCPI (oxidized form) (Blue color)

CH2OH Dehydro ascorbic acid (Oxidized form)

OH 2, 6 DCPI reduced form (Purple color)

 W‫א‬‫א‬ J2 2, 6 dichlorophenol-endophenol‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 4 J3 pH‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ pH‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬

 ،‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   4  pH ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

 K3.5‫א‬pH‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F

 Di-nitrophenylhydrazine‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬   Diketogluconic    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ Dehydro ascorbic Diketogluconic acidDehydro ascorbic acid  2, 4 dinitrophenylhydrazine ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 2,4 dinitrophenylhydrazine‫א‬ -72-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

  ٪85 ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   3  ‫א‬  2 

Highly stable Molecular rearrangement ‫א‬‫א‬

 550 J500    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ Reddish brown      ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬ J4 ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬       ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬       ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬       ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬              ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent‫א‬C J4 ‫א‬ Folin‫א‬‫א‬     760     ‫א‬      ‫א‬

   ‫א‬  ‫א‬   KC     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬ 5F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

……‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ،Trichloroacetic acid  ‫א‬  

KDehydro-L-AscorbicL-Ascorbic acid‫א‬

 Vitamin A

  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬

   ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 W‫א‬Carotenoids

 β-carotein J1

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 Kα-carotein J2  Kγ-carotein J3

 K J4

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 K‫א‬ J2

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬λmax J4  Determination of vitamin A  ‫א‬E3F‫א‬

‫א‬K 620‫א‬ ‫א‬  

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬

 ‫א‬  W‫א‬ 

    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬  J1  KE5–3F‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬    J2  K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ J3

   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   J4  K ‫א‬ ‫א‬         -74-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬  W‫א‬

 Saponification stage‫א‬ J1

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 25‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Extraction of vitamin‫א‬ J2

    ‫א‬     ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Removal of solvent‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬           ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 Determination of vitamin‫א‬ J4

‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬ 

       ‫א‬ ‫א‬  Chromatography ‫א‬‫א‬  KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 :‫א‬ J1

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 W‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK JKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK JKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J6

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   J7  W

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J -76-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J8

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J9

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J10

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK JKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK JKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 W‫א‬ J11

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 ‫א‬2,6-Dichlorophenolendophenol J12    

 

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‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

6

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 K٪90‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 2W‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

     

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 Pigments in foods‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ،‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  F ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬ J2  KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬    ‫א‬       ‫א‬   ‫א‬  J3  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬   ‫א‬        ‫א‬  J4  K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J6  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Carotenoides‫א‬‫א‬ J1  Chlorophylls‫א‬ J2

 Anthoxanthins‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 Anthocyanins‫א‬ J4 -79 -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 KCarotenoids‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  Carotene pigment‫א‬

γ-β-α-     3      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

 KC40H56‫א‬Carotene

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬      

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

‫א‬ ‫א‬       ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬ ‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬F ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ 40‫א‬       ‫א‬  ‫א‬        ‫א‬

 ‫א‬      ‫א‬          ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

β-  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬

KCarotene and lycopene

 

Kβ-Carotene   -80 -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

Lycopene

 W

‫א‬     13 9  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  –CH3   J1  K‫א‬

 K15‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2

‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ J3  K‫א‬‫א‬  

 

α-Carotene

 

γ-Carotene

 W

 K‫א‬‫א‬γ-Carotene and α-Carotene ‫א‬ J1

 ‫א‬‫א‬ γ-Carotene  J2  KLycopene‫א‬‫א‬β-Carotene

Kγ-Carotene‫א‬γ-Carotene and α-Carotene J3

-81 -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J   50    ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   12 J10   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Polar and nonpolar‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  W

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬   J2

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬     3    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   J2 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

H 2 500 ‫א‬‫א‬ J3  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 3  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 50‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  J4  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4 J2‫א‬‫א‬

100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬°40‫א‬‫א‬  15 J10 ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬  Al2O3 ‫א‬ 

  ‫א‬      ‫א‬    ‫א‬ Eº 10 J5F  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 20 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬     ‫א‬    9 W1 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 100  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 H  E9 W1F ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬  440‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  KColorimeter‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬β-Carotene‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   E9 W1F  H 

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ELF ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K100β-Carotene‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  Melting point‫א‬ J1  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬°187.5 J181‫א‬‫א‬   Solubility‫א‬ J2 ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Color reactions‫א‬ J3  ‫א‬  β-Carotene ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J4 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ β-Carotene ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،β-Carotene‫א‬  Vitamin A  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Vitamin Aβ-Carotene‫א‬  

 

Kβ-Carotene

+2H2O

 

2

 

Vitamin A

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ β-Carotene  W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،٪80 J70‫א‬‫א‬

 Vitamin A

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬   Vitamin A   ‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2

    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Vitamin A 

α and γ Carotene  Vitamin A‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬

Vitamin A β-Carotene ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    Kβ-Carotene‫א‬‫א‬

                                           

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1   J 

  J 

  J   J 

KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬ J2  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬

Lycopeneβ-Carotene‫א‬‫א‬ J3   J 

  J 

  J

 Wγ-Carotene and α-Carotene ‫א‬‫א‬ J4   J 

  J 

  J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E×F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E√F J5  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ‫א‬    ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬    J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  K

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 Vitamin A ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ β-Carotene J

 Kβ-Carotene‫א‬

 

  -86 -


‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

7


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

 

 K٪90‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 4W‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

     

-87-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 Proteins in foods‫א‬‫א‬

    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    

‫א‬    K   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬E6F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E6F  ٪

 22

 ‫א‬

 ٪

 ‫א‬

 3 J0.5

 ‫א‬

 

 

 16  50  7

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

Essential and non ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  J1

 Kessential amino acids

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4  K‫א‬‫א‬ J5

‫א‬ Enzymes‫א‬ Biocatalysts‫א‬‫א‬ J6  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Hormones

‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  J7  K‫א‬

Antibodies‫א‬‫א‬Immunological reaction‫א‬ J8

 ‫א‬       ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -88-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Food allergy‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J9  K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬     

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ K‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   

 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E7F ‫א‬‫א‬L  2.2  2.0

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 3 J1

 ‫א‬

 12 J6

 1.8  1.5  1.2

 6 J4

 10 J7

 1.0  0.9

 14 J11

 ‫א‬

 0.8

 19

 ‫א‬

 18 J15

 ‫א‬    Amino acids ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬

‫א‬   E JF  ‫א‬      Peptide bounds  α- amino acid  ‫א‬   α

‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   -89-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

FCitrullinesOrnithine‫א‬  50‫א‬

 Prolin،Pantothenic acid  ‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬ 

‫א‬  (– NH2) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Amino acids Hydroxy prolin  K‫א‬(– NH) imino‫א‬‫א‬Imino acids

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1 ‫א‬‫א‬  α-amino acids  E–COOH‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬R-Group

 Nonpolar or hydrophobic‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬ ‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬

 K(R)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F

Polar or hydrophilic uncharged  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  side chains

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ (–OH) ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   K ‫א‬

‫א‬  (–CO–NH2)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،(–SH) ‫א‬   

      ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬KpH 7‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

     ‫א‬ ‫א‬       ‫א‬ ‫א‬ Disulfide  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،cross-link  K‫א‬‫א‬

Amino acids with positively charged side        J  chains -90-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬   pH 7  R-group       

α-   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ε-NH2‫א‬‫א‬NH2

‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬ ٪50 pH 6‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬٪10pH 7

Amino acids with negatively charged side        J

 chains

    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ pH 7،

 K

 ‫א‬ J2  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  Asymmetric   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬   KGlycine  ‫א‬‫א‬ J3 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Optically active ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   KSymmetric‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4   ‫א‬   (–NH2) ‫א‬     L- Amino acids    ‫א‬ D- Glutamic،D- Alanine D      

H

COOH

COOH

C

NH2

C

CH3 L- Alanine

NH2

CH3 D- Alanine

-91-

H

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 Acidobasic properties of amino acids Ionization‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬   

   ،‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ 

 KZwitterion‫א‬‫א‬

H R – C – COO¯

  NH+3 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ Iso-electric point ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ H H+ + R – C – COO¯ NH+3

H

 ‫א‬‫א‬Proton

R – C – COOH NH+3

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ H R – C – COO¯ + ŌH NH+3

H R – C – COOH NH+3 -92-

 ‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 

  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EF ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

H R – C – COO¯  

NH+3

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  Classification of protein‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Simple proteins‫א‬‫א‬W       ‫א‬ ‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Albumin‫א‬ J1

‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬    ‫א‬     ‫א‬ Heat coagulated proteins ‫א‬

 K‫א‬Lactalbumin‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Globulins‫א‬ J2

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬٪55 ‫א‬ β-globulin‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬

 KWhey proteins

 Glutelins‫א‬ J3

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-93-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 Prolamins‫א‬ J4

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪90–50

،Zein‫א‬‫א‬ Hordein‫א‬‫א‬ Prolin ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

 Albuminoids or scleroproteins‫א‬‫א‬ J5

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬

 Keratin‫א‬ J

  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   

 K٪14‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Collagen‫א‬ J

    ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬

  Gelatin ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬

 Elastin‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ 

 Fibroin‫א‬ J

 Histons‫א‬ J6

‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ،‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Protamins‫א‬ J7

٪75‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -94-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 Conjugated proteins‫א‬‫א‬W  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    J‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬        ‫א‬ ‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Nucleoproteins J1

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Lipoproteins‫א‬‫א‬ J2

‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬      

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬

 Glycoproteins‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  Mucin ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 Chromoproteins‫א‬‫א‬ J4

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   J J‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Porphyrin

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬     ‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ Flavin ‫א‬

 ‫א‬    Prosthetic group ‫א‬ ‫א‬    Flavoproteins

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Ferritin  K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 Phosphoproteins‫א‬‫א‬ J5

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 KVitilin

 Derived proteins‫א‬‫א‬W  ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬  ،‫א‬      ‫ א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

     Modified proteins‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

Chemical or enzymatic modification of protein  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

Acetylation ‫א‬‫א‬Acetic‫א‬Succinic‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬         or succinilation of protein

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    Functional properties  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬     ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ Proteases‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 The interactions that control protein structure‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Covalent forces‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1  Peptide bond‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

Primary ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Kstructure

-96-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

- H2O

 

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E7F

 Disulphide cross-linkage‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Cross-linkage

 KCystineCysteine‫א‬،E8F‫א‬

  Cysteinee

 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ 

K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬E8F -97-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 Noncovalent forces‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2  Hydrogen linkage or hydrogen bridge‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  C = O‫א‬ –OH –NH–

KE9F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–COO¯  

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E9F

 Ionic interactions‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

–NH3+ ،–COO¯  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 –O¯‫א‬‫א‬  –S¯،L-Arginine  ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ H3N+–  –COO¯  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ Tyrosine  

 KE10FSalt bridges‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E10F     -98-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 Hydrophobic‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  R‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ KE11F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E11F  Orders of protein structure‫א‬

 Orders ‫א‬       ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

WOrganization‫א‬Levels

 Primary level of organization (Primary structure)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1   ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ E12F ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E12F

 Secondary level of organization (Secondary structure)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

    ‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

-99-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 α-helix‫א‬ J

‫א‬Helix

KE13F‫א‬

 

 Kα-helixE13F

 β- Pleated sheet (Zigzag structure)‫א‬ J

Zigzag‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Zigzag    ‫א‬         ،A 14 ‫א‬

KB14‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

B

A β-Pleated sheetE14F

 Random‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KZigzag‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -100-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 Tertiary level of organization (Tertiary structure)‫א‬‫א‬ J3 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E15F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ConformationE‫א‬F Fibrous protein‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ Coiled coil

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Globular،  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E15F  Quaternary level (Quaternary structure)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬   E ‫א‬F ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬

-101-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

‫اﻟﺒﻨﺎء اﻷول‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺎء اﻟﺜﺎﻥﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺎء اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺎء اﻟﺮاﺏﻊ‬

 

 K‫א‬E16F

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 Fibrous or linear‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Globular or spherical‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2          ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬      ‫א‬   

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 Protein isolation‫א‬

           ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Salt fractionation‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1 ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Salting-in   ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬E17FSalting-out‫א‬‫א‬

EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

    ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   

 ‫א‬  ،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬Dehydration Salting- out

(%) ‫اﻟﺒﺮوﺗﻴﻦ اﻟﺬاﺋﺐ‬

Salting- in

(‫ﺗﺮآﻴﺰ اﻟﻤﻠﺢ )ﻡﻮﻟﺮ‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E17F  Isoelectric point‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2 ‫א‬‫א‬  Isoelectric point ‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  KE18F‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬  pH‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬ pH‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬           ،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

        ‫א‬  { Isoelectric point  

   ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬    K‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

% Soluble protein

 

Isoelectric point

 

pH

 K‫א‬‫א‬pH‫א‬E18F

 Organic solvents‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

    Dielectric constant ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -104-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 KLow dielectric constant J2  K‫א‬ J3

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K٪3 J2‫א‬0.03  ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   Denaturation  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    J1  K‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Heavy metals‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬pH 7‫א‬   ‫א‬  ،  ‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬

، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Crystallization‫א‬ J5    ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬12

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Dialysis‫א‬

Dialysis‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

-105-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

     ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Gel filtration chromatography‫א‬‫א‬ J6  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬   ‫א‬         ‫א‬  pH and ionic ‫א‬        

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ strength

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ Retardation time‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 K

 4 J3 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬       L 20 J18 ‫א‬  Flow rate ‫א‬    

    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Fraction collector ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Spectrophotometer ‫א‬ 280 nm

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  WE19F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Peaks‫א‬ J1

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2

‫א‬ Sharpness or broadness Peaks ‫א‬ J3  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Peaks‫א‬ J4

     ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ J5  KMinor‫א‬Major‫א‬Fraction

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

(‫ﻧﺎﻧﻮﻡﻴﺘﺮ‬280 ‫اﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ )ﻋﻠﻰ‬

2

VE1

3 1 4

(VE) ‫ﺣﺠﻢ اﻻﺳﺘﺨﻼص ﻟﻜﻞ ﻡﺮآﺐ ﺏﺎﻟﻤﻠﻴﻠﻴﺘﺮ‬

VE2 VT‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ اﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻮد ﺏﺎﻟﻤﻠﻴﻠﻴﺘﺮ‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬E19F  Gel filtration‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J2

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

Standard   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  J4

(Relative  ‫א‬‫א‬ Lag MW ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ proteins

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬elution volume) VE / VT

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

‫א‬

Lag MW

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

Relative elution volume (VE / VT)

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E20F  Electrophoresis‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J7

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Isoelectric       ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬point  

NH3+ O R – C – C – O¯

H  Zwitterion

NH3+

NH2

R – C – COOH

 KZwitterion

R–C–C=O

H

H

  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

          ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ -108-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 Factor affecting migration‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  Sample‫א‬W   ‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬Net charge‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬ J

  ‫א‬F ‫א‬  K ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬E  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Trail tailing

 ‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 Electric field‫א‬‫א‬W  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ Jar‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬     ‫א‬

  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ،‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬          ‫א‬     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Buffer‫א‬‫א‬W   ‫א‬ J

،‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ J

‫א‬       ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ -109-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

K‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE0.15 J0.05F

 pH‫א‬ J

‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ pH ‫א‬ 

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬pH‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬11 J1pHKpH‫א‬  Supporting medium‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬  ‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬     ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

 ‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

 ‫א‬ J1

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬Photometric scanning‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ J2  K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KpH‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J -110-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬Pore size‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  K‫א‬

      pH ‫א‬   ‫א‬         J

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ K‫א‬ ‫א‬     

 Kα-Globulins‫א‬‫א‬Lipoproteins  Electrophoresis‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1  KRelative mobility J2

 KSDS‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   J4  K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5 Analytical ultracentrifugation‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J8 ‫א‬ 20‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬   

‫א‬   60.000 J50.000     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

    ‫א‬       ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬    K   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬     ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Ion exchange chromatography‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J9 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬      Ion exchange resin  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) ‫א‬   ‫א‬     

Diethyl amine ‫א‬‫א‬

 Kethyl cellulose (DEAEC)

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 Determination of protein in foods‫א‬‫א‬  Micro- Kjeldahl method‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬

   6.38 ‫א‬   6.25 ‫א‬     ‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K5.7‫א‬

 ‫א‬ J1

  (NH4)2 SO4     ‫א‬ ‫א‬    

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

2NH3 + H2SO4

(NH4)2SO4

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ J2

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬      

٪2  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬E٪40F‫א‬

(NH4)2SO4 + 2NaOH  3NH4OH + H3BO3

W‫א‬‫א‬H3BO3‫א‬

2NH4OH + Na2SO4 (NH4)3BO3 + 3H2O

 ‫א‬ J3

‫א‬‫א‬ HCl‫א‬ (NH4)3 BO3‫א‬‫א‬  (NH4)3BO3 + 3HCl

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 3NH4Cl + H3BO3

    E‫א‬ 1  J0.5F  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬     

FE15F 

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     E‫א‬   H   H

 K‫א‬‫א‬4EA21‫א‬F

‫א‬‫א‬ 100 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

E٪ 40F ‫א‬   ‫א‬    EB 21 ‫א‬F ‫א‬  -112-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬10‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KEH‫א‬F‫א‬E٪2F‫א‬

   E 70 L1F ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ A

 

B

 K‫א‬EBFEAFE21F

 Determination of non-protein nitrogen in foods ‫א‬‫א‬ J2

TCA‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬       E‫א‬ 1F ‫א‬     

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E20F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E 10F  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 .Colorimetric determination by Lawry et al. ‫א‬ J3

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬    Folin-ciocalteau   ‫א‬ 

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬

E1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬E0.2 J0.1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -113-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

٪ 2  J1F     5    1 ‫א‬ ‫א‬     

 2 ،1 ‫א‬  J3 ،  ٪ 1  J2 ،‫א‬  

٪ 2‫א‬ 0.1 J4،‫א‬ 

E‫א‬‫א‬  4‫א‬ 50 3‫א‬ 1  J5، ‫א‬ ،‫א‬ Folin-ciocalteau 0.5‫א‬

  K 30 750 ‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-114-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E×F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E√F J1  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 K‫א‬ J3

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 K‫א‬ J5

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK -115-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 W J6

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J7

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   J8  K‫א‬‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK   -116-


‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

8


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

 

 K٪90‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 4W‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

     

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

2W 1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

CH3C5H7O5    Rhamanose    ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،Deoxyribose

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬       ‫א‬‫א‬     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  J5  K‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    J6  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 J1 ‫א‬          ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   J‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬  J2  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬ J1 ‫א‬Inversion sugar‫א‬‫א‬ Inversion  K‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ W‫א‬ J2   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ J3  K‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ J

   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ -119-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

      ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬Homopolysaccharides  J1

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Heteropolysaccharides  J2

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Nitrogen containing polysaccharides  J3

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Extraction and determination of carbohydrates ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Extraction‫א‬ J1  2\1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 400 J300 10    ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬        

  ‫א‬‫א‬ 

 K 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ E‫א‬ ‫א‬F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٪75

   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

  ‫א‬       ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬

 K

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Clarification‫א‬ J2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

     ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  J1  K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ J3  K‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬   J4  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5

  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 Filtration‫א‬ J3  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬    ‫א‬   

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Deleading‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   W

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2

‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  

  J‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬

 ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

      ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  K‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ Seric‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬        ‫א‬  ‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3  0.2 J0.1 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬٪5‫א‬ 1 1 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬    ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   5 ‫א‬  ‫א‬       ‫א‬    ،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬

490‫א‬‫א‬  485 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬ 1L‫א‬ 3 J2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ELane-EynonF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

Cu (OH)2  Metallic base ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬   ‫א‬    Suboxide ‫א‬    ‫א‬   

O

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ O

H – C – H + 2Cu (OH)2

H–C OH Acid

 Aldhyde -123-

+ Cu2 O Copper suboxide


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

   ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬،‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

F‫א‬،E‫א‬F‫א‬   K‫א‬  E‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬  2‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

      ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬   

W،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

CuSO4 + 2 NaOH

Cu (OH)2 + Na2 SO4 H

H

HO – C – COOK

O – C – COOK

Cu (OH)2 +

Cu HO – C – COO Na

 

+

H2O

O – C – COO Na

H

H

 E‫א‬F



 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ NEF J1

    α-D-Glucopyranose ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   J1  KPolyhydrate alcohol‫א‬‫א‬

 Endiols   Dehydration  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    J2  K2،1‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  J3 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬

‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬    J4  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،Free redical ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

+ H2O

HOCHOH – HCOH – HCOH – HCOH – HCOH – H2COH Polyhydrate alcohol

 α-D-Glucopyranose

1-2 endiol

- H2O

HOCH = COH – HCOH – HCOH – HCOH – H2COH - H2 O

Or 2-3 endiol

H2COH –COH = COH – HCOH – HCOH – H2COH

Or

- H2 O

3-4 endiol

H2COH – HCOH – COH = COH – HCOH – H2COH

 

 Polyhydrate theory J2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1  Polyhydrate alcohol

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2

،‫א‬  5 ،3  3 ،2 ‫א‬     2    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ J3  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

        ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬     J4  K‫א‬  

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 O = COH – HCOH – HCOH – HCOH – HCOH – H2COH   + H2O    CH2OH – HCOH – HCOH – HCOH – HCOH – H2COH   +NaOH    CH2ONa – HCOH – HCOH – HCOH – HCOH – H2COH   - 2H2  CH2ONa – COH = COH – COH = COH – H2COH

CH2ONa – COH = + =COH – COH – COH - CH2OH

Or

CH2ONa – COH = COH - COH = + = COH – CH2OH

Or

CH2ONa – COH = + HCOH – COH = + = COH – CH2OH

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Cu (OH)2 + Sugar Fragments CuOH + Oxidezed sugar components Heat Cu2O + H2O  2 CuOH

 

   

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 

E8F Lane Eynon Table‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، 10

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    250    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  W ‫א‬      10   ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬21.221.4

 ‫א‬

 10‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 42.6  21.3Z––––––––Z21.2H21.4Z  2  225.5Z22،235.8Z21‫א‬‫א‬Lane‫א‬  0.3Zx

1Z10.3?10.3Z225.5–235.8Z‫א‬

 10.3C0.3

 ‫א‬3.09Z––––––––––––––Zx  1  100L‫א‬232.71Z3.09–235.8Z21.3‫א‬‫א‬  232.71  100L‫א‬0.23271Z–––––––––––Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1000  250C100C0.23271

 ٪48.2Z–––––––––––––––––––––Z‫א‬٪  10C100

 

-127-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 100    ‫א‬F ‫א‬ ‫א‬  Lane Eynon  E8F 

 KE

Dextrose

Sugar solution (ml) 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

10 ml Fehling

25 ml Fehling

327 307 289 274 260 247.4 235.8 225.5 216.1 207.4 199.3 191.8 184.9 178.5 172.5 167.0 161.8 156.9 152.4 148.0 143.9 140.0 136.4 132.9 129.6 126.5 123.6 120.8 118.1 115.5 113.0 110.6 108.4 106.2 104.1 102.2

801.0 751.0 707.0 668.0 633.0 661.5 572.9 547.3 523.6 501.9 482.0 463.7 446.8 431.1 416.4 402.7 389.7 377.6 366.3 355.6 345.6 336.3 327.4 318.8 310.7 303.1 295.9 289.0 282.4 276.1 270.1 264.3 258.8 253.5 246.4 243.6

-128-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

   ‫א‬‫א‬Shaffer and Hartman J5  W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

 

2 Cu++ + HI

Cu2 I2 + I2

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬      ‫א‬   ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    E‫א‬ F   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

O  Cu (OH)2 + R - C - H

Cu (OH )

 KIO3 + 5 KI + 3 H2SO4  Cu2O + H2SO4 Cu2SO4 + I2 + K2SO4  2 Na I + Na2S4O6 

Cu2O

3 I2 + 3 K2SO4 + 3 H2O

Cu2SO4 + H2O 2 CuSO4 + 2 KI

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

2 Na2 S2 O3 + I2

 E‫א‬ F ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬Munson and Walker J6 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬Cu2O‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

Determination of total sugars (Reducing and  E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J7  non-reducing sugars)

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬       ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  -129-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 0.95 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬W 

10E50F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬20°70‫א‬٪20

E٪50F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬100‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬W 

، 25 10 ‫א‬ Lane-Eynon‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬    W

 0.95CE‫א‬٪  J‫א‬٪FZ‫א‬٪  

H+  

C12 H22 O11 342 (Sucrose)

×

Heat

2 C6 H12 O6 360 (Glucose)

1

 342  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬0.95Z––––––ZC  360  Determination of aldoses sugars‫א‬‫א‬ J8 ‫א‬‫א‬Iodometric method‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 Determination of starch in foods‫א‬‫א‬ J9  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬0.9‫א‬‫א‬

 50 250  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 3

E 250 ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

  200‫א‬ 500 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬20‫א‬

٪50‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2.5   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    250        KLane-Eynon‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪

 0.9X‫א‬٪Z٪

 Determination of crude fiber‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

     K‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬  J3  K‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  J4  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ J5  K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬  J6  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬    ‫א‬  

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬    Dietary crude fiber

  ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Wheat bran‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KTablets‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  AOAC‫א‬ J1  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

200750‫א‬ J1  KAir refluxing condenser‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٪1.25F

30   2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬EF ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4 ‫א‬ E٪1.25F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 200E‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  30 ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   -132-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  J5  KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬         ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬  J6  W‫א‬

 Preparation of Gooch crucible‫א‬

EF ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬E°600 J550F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Medium fiber‫א‬ Gooch grade asbestos‫א‬

‫א‬E8‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   Acid washed and ignited    

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J  K‫א‬

‫א‬°250‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J  K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬‫א‬ Asbestes‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J7  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K100‫א‬‫א‬ J8

 EF    °110  J 100    ‫א‬   J9  KE‫א‬H‫א‬H‫א‬F‫א‬

 K20°600 J550‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J10

 K‫א‬‫א‬  J11  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J12

 ‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬

 100C––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––Z‫א‬٪  ‫א‬‫א‬

-133-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 100C––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––Z  ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ J1  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 J‫א‬F‫א‬ ‫א‬ J2  KE……‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J4 Treated ‫א‬‫א‬K2SO4 10%٪10E‫א‬F‫א‬

 Kasbestos ‫א‬ ‫א‬   45  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ J5  KEF

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J6  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K(Coarse sample)‫א‬ J1

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J6  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KFine particles‫א‬ J1

 KEVigorous boilingF‫א‬‫א‬ J2 -134-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J4  ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ J‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ……‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Treated asbestos‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬05 J1  K‫א‬Pepsin‫א‬‫א‬ J2

     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬Reproducible results

 KE‫א‬F600 J500‫א‬ J1

 KRunning water condenser J2  K‫א‬ J3

 KElectric heating‫א‬ J4

 KGooch crucible for final filtration‫א‬ J5

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J6  K‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  0.78 ،  0.64  ‫א‬ 

 K3010‫א‬

    Van de Kamer and Van Ginkel ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 1952   Trichloroacetic ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬30Acetic acid‫א‬،Nitric‫א‬،acid (TCA)

‫א‬ Lignin‫א‬،Protein‫א‬،Starch‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -135-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

K‫א‬Cellulose‫א‬AdvantagePentosans‫א‬  WReagent‫א‬‫א‬

 K٪701.51TCA50‫א‬ J1  K٪65‫א‬124‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 K٪70‫א‬‫א‬2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 J‫א‬  Fine particles ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬   

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬  ‫א‬ Ethyl ether ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  30  ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬       ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 KDichromate

 Weende‫א‬‫א‬ J2  ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ Non- cellulose‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 12.5ZE 0.255 ٪ 1.25F‫א‬ J1  K‫א‬1000

‫א‬‫א‬ KOH‫א‬ 12.5ZE 0.223 ٪ 1.25F‫א‬ J2  K1000‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 KEVelpF‫א‬‫א‬Fiwe J1  K0.45‫א‬Jena‫א‬ J2  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE18F1‫א‬ J1

‫א‬‫א‬، 70110 J105‫א‬ J2  K‫א‬Freeze drying‫א‬‫א‬ -136-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 K‫א‬٪50‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4  K‫א‬Celite  ‫א‬‫א‬

 KF0‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1 J1

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2  K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3  K‫א‬2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4  K‫א‬‫א‬ J5

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬150 J6  K‫א‬5 J3 J7

 K30‫א‬ J8

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J9

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬30‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J10  K‫א‬5 J3‫א‬‫א‬150 J11

 K30‫א‬‫א‬ J12  K10‫א‬‫א‬ J13

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E25F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J14  K‫א‬

‫א‬ ،‫א‬ Eº110 J105F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J15  KEF1F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Eº 550F‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ J16  KEF2F

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J17 F1 – F2  100XZ‫א‬٪   F0

-137-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 W J3

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

KNEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK -138-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 Lane Eynon ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5

  1000       ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، 5 

    10  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬K21  20.4  ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 W‫א‬‫א‬ J6

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J7

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J8

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J -139-


‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

9


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 K٪90‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 4W‫א‬‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

     

-140-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 Fats and oils in foods‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    J1  K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J2  K‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     Liquid ‫א‬  Soft solid ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 Simple lipids‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1 ،   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K

 ‫א‬ J

‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬    ‫א‬   

 K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 Compound lipids‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2 ‫א‬           ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

 W،‫א‬،

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J

   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬        

 W‫א‬‫א‬

2‫א‬  1  W‫א‬ J1  K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ J2

 K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ J3  ‫א‬‫א‬ J

   ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬   

 K‫א‬

    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    Galactolipids ‫א‬  KCerebroside  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  Derived lipids‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

  ‫א‬ ،  ،‫א‬  ‫א‬        K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ،‫א‬   ‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

H2 – C – OH α H – C – OH β

 ‫א‬

 O + HO – C – R1

H2 – C – OH α Glycerol O H2 – C – O – C – R1 H – C – OH H2 – C – OH Monoglyceride O H2 – C – O – C – R1 O H – C – O – C – R2 H2 – C – OH Diglyceride

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

O H2 – C – O – C – R1

O + HO – C – R1

O H2 – C – O – C – R1 O H – C – O – C – R2 H2 – C – OH Diglyceride

Fatty acid O + HO – C – R1

Fatty acid

+ H2O

H – C – OH H2 – C – OH Monoglyceride

Fatty acid

 

O H2 – C – O – C – R1 O H – C – O – C – R2 O H2 – C – O – C – R3 Triglyceride

Water + H2O

Water + H2O

Water

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

– OH‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬    3  ،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KLipase‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-143-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ J1 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ J2       ‫א‬     ‫א‬       ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

°44‫א‬ ‫א‬ Trans‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬‫א‬ J5

‫א‬  Eladic acid Trans‫א‬،°14 ‫א‬ Cis‫א‬  

H – C – (CH2)7 – CH3

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

H – C – (CH2)7 – CH3

H – C – (CH2)7 – COOH

HOOC – (CH2)7 – C – H

Oleic acid (Cis form) Melting point = 14°C

Eladic acid (Trans form) Melting point = 44°C

°40‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  -144-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

KE°40 J38‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J3  750 J400 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ J4  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬ J1

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬ ‫א‬ K‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬E22F

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  Hydrolysis‫א‬ J1  ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

E JF‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Saponification‫א‬ J2  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

O H2 – C – O – C – R O H–C–O–C–R O H2 – C – O – C – R Triglyceride

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

CH2OH CHOH

+ 3 Na OH

O + 3 Na – O – C – R

CH2OH Sodium hydroxide

Glycerol

Sodium fatty acid salt

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

 W‫א‬,،‫א‬‫א‬1‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1  K‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،°80 

 Cholesterol  Phytostrols  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬       ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J3  ‫א‬ 100‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬

 K

 Rancidity‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Rancidity 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  K     ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬       ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -147-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

Oxytitive rancidity.‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    Peroxides ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 

           ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  Methyl keton   ‫א‬    ‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬  

 Hydrolytic rancidity‫א‬‫א‬ J1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ K 15°150‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Off-odor‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬       ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E 16 J14F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪0.2‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

، 12W6 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Ketonic rancidity‫א‬‫א‬ J2 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    Aspergillus niger  

    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ β-oxidation‫א‬

 K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

CH3 – (CH2)5 – CH2 – COOH Caprillic acid  

‫א‬

O CH3 -(CH2)4 – C – CH2 – COOH β α

 

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Oxidative rancidity‫א‬‫א‬ J3 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 A.D.E.K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3 H H

CH3 – (CH2) 7 – CH = CH – (CH2) 7 – COOH

O2

CH3 (CH2) 7 – C – C – (CH2) 7 – COOH

O–O Oleic acid (A) Peroxides or H H CH3– (CH2)7– C – C – (CH2)7 – COOH O (B) Epoxides ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ A‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬     ،Peroxides   ‫א‬      ‫א‬  Epoxides     B    ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -149-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WEHydroperoxidesF‫א‬‫א‬

11 10 9 8 (A) R1 – CH2 – CH = CH – CH – R2

11 10 9 8 R1 – CH = CH – CH – CH2 – R2

(C)

OOH 11 10 9 8 R1 – CH – CH = CH – CH2 – R2 (B)

OOH 11 10 9 8 R1 – CH2 – CH – CH = CH – R2

(D)

OOH R1 = CH3 – (CH2)6 –

OOH R2 = – (CH2)6 – COOH

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EB A F 11 8

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬    K ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 10 9‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ECF 11 10‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 9

 KEDF89‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬10‫א‬

‫א‬EF‫א‬ 

‫א‬10،911،8‫א‬‫א‬Hydroperoxides ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  Auto-oxidation‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J1 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 3‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

-150-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬ J2 ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬           ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ J3  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J4 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J5    ،‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    

‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ J6 Peroxidation ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E9F

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 EU.V.‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 α،β،a،x‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ -151-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

 E‫א‬F‫א‬

 ‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  Antioxidants‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Hydrogen donor‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

  ROOH + A

 W‫א‬

 ROO + AH  K ‫א‬   Hydroperoxide radical ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  EE F ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ،‫א‬  

‫א‬        ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬ ‫א‬  

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬       K ‫א‬    W‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬  J1

 K J2

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4

Food Drug  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬     J5

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K Administration

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

BHA: Butlated Hydroxy Anisol PG: Pyrogallate  Citric acid, Tartaric acid, Ascorbic acid, H3PO4      Shortening ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -152-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Chelating 

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ Chelating agents‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 W3‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،Synergists

 Phenols‫א‬ J1    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

OH

CH3

 

HO

C(CH3) S

OH

C(CH3)3  

OH Hydroqunon

 

CH3

4, 4\ Thiobis (6 Tetrabutyl- 3 methyl phenol)

 Amines‫א‬ J2 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬       ‫א‬       ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

NH Diphenyl amine CH3 CH3 – CH2 – CH – HN

CH3 NH – CH – CH2 – CH3

N, N\ Di Sec butyl P. Phenyl diamine NH

NH -153-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

N, N\ Diphenyl para phenyl diamine

   

 Aminophenols‫א‬ J3 ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

    

 

    

     

HO

NH2 – C4H9

N – Butyl – para – amino phenyl

HO

NH N – Cyclophexyl – para – amino phenyl

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬  – OH‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬– OH

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ J‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4 -154-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ J1 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ،‫א‬  

 ‫א‬ J2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Thiobarbituric acid value (TBA value)‫א‬ J3 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

    ،‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬    

 ThiobarbituricDimalonic aldyhide‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

pH

Dimalonic aldhyide + TBA

Malonic aldyihide TBA complex

  4 ‫א‬PinkMalonic aldyhide TBA‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Induction periodE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

  ‫א‬  ،‫א‬           ‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5     ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬، 430‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -155-


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 127

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J6  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬     KSalcal aldehyde 

 

 Epoxides‫א‬ J7  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J8 ‫א‬°200 J160 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬ J1  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   J4  K‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬ J5

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  Halphen test‫א‬‫א‬ J1 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ٪2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Cyclo-propenoid acid  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬°225‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4  K‫א‬‫א‬

-156-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 2.5‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 2.5‫א‬

30‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

   

 Baudouin test‫א‬‫א‬ J2       Sesmolin  Sesamo     ‫א‬ ‫א‬   

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ٪1  ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 2‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬     

‫א‬ ‫א‬٪1 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 1   K‫א‬‫א‬،

 Bieber's test‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3 ‫א‬F  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    1  ‫א‬    5  ‫א‬  

 F ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬

   E‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،E1.45

‫א‬15‫א‬‫א‬،100

‫א‬‫א‬Pink  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٪30‫א‬  K   ‫א‬‫א‬

 Detection of fish oil‫א‬‫א‬ J4   10      10  ‫א‬   0.5  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     E ‫א‬ 4    1      28F  ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5 ‫א‬2‫א‬‫א‬1‫א‬ 

    ‫א‬   0.773  ‫א‬   100     -157-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬°2023‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬     K‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،

   

-158-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

  J 2   J 2

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬   J  K‫א‬‫א‬

 KKCis‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Trans‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J -159-


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 127  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 W3‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J6

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J7  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK J  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬ J

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬ J2  KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬ J3

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬ J4   

  -160-


 

 127

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬K،‫א‬K J‫א‬ J1  K1996 J‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬

 J‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ J   K ،  ‫א‬ K J‫א‬  J2  K2003 J‫א‬ J‫א‬

 J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬ J3  K1993 J‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬

 J‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬K J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4  K1968 J‫א‬

‫א‬  J  K ،  K J‫א‬ ‫א‬ J‫א‬   J5  K1996 J‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬

 K ،    K ،   K J‫א‬   J6  K1963 J‫א‬ J‫א‬ J‫א‬‫א‬ J‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W

1- Akoh, C. C. and Min, D. B. (1997). Food Lipids: Chemistry, Nutrition and Biotechnology. Marcell Dekker, Inc., New York, Basel, Hong Kong. 2- AOAC (1995). Official Methods of Analysis, 16th ed. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD. 3- AOCS (1980). American Oil Chemistry Society. Official Methods of Food Analysis. Am. Oil Chemiste Soc., Chicago. 4- Berette, R., Kochan, S. J. and Plenkoweski, J. J. (1984). Karl Fisher determination of water in oils and fats: International Collaboration Study. J. AOAC 67, 299-301. 5- Fennema, O. R. (1995). Food Chemistry. 3rd ed. O. R. Fennema (Ed), Marcell Dekker, Inc., USA. th 6- Harris, D. C. (1995). Quantitative Chemical Analysis, 4 ed. W. Freeman (Ed), Champan and Hall, New York. 7- Hoffmann, G. (1986). Quality Control in the Food Industry. Vol. 1 and 2, 2nd ed. Academic Press Inc. London. Ltd. 8- IUPAC (1979). Standard Methods for the Analysis of Oil, Fats and Derivatives 6th ed.C. Paquot (Ed) Pergaman Press, New York. 9- Kosikowski, R. V. (1986). In membrane separations in Biotechnology, W. C. Mc Gregor (Ed). Pp. 201- 254. Marcell Dekker, Inc., New York. -161-


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 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

10- Nilson, S. S. (1998). Food Analysis. 2nd ed. An Aspen Publication, Aspen Publishers, Inc. Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA. 11- Pomeranz, Y. and Meloan, C. (1994). Food Analysis: Theory and Practice. 3rd Champan and Hall, New York. 12- Wong, D. W. S. (1989). Mechanism and Theory in Food Chemistry. AVI., Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York.

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 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ 2 ................................................................................................................................................................  3 ................................................................................................................................................................  2 ........................................................................................................................................ Introduction 2 .......................................................................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 3 ......................................................................................... Definition of food analysis‫א‬ 3 ...............................................................................................Importance of food analysis‫א‬ 4 .......................................................................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬ 4 ............................................................................................................................................ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 5 ........................................................................................... Constituent of food materials‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 7 ..................... Preparation of the representative sample for chemical analysis‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 9 .............................................................................................................. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 10 .................................................................................................................................‫א‬‫א‬ 11 .................................................................................................................................................... ‫א‬ 13 .............................................................................................................................................. ‫א‬‫א‬ 14 .................................................................................................................................................... ‫א‬ 15 ............................................................................................................ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 16 .................................................................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 17 ...........................................................................................................................................................  19 ................................................................................................................................. ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ 20 .................................................................................................................................... Introduction 21 .............................................................................................. General properties of water‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 24 ....................................................................................................... Water phases in foods‫א‬‫א‬ 25 .........................................................................................................................................‫א‬ 25 ....................................................................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 26 ....................................................................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 26 ............................... General methods for moisture determination in foods‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 35 .................................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 37 ...........................................................................................................................................................  39 ..............................................................................................................‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ 40 ....................................................................................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬W 40 .................................................................................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬ 41 ..................................................................................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬ 42 ........................................................ Determination of organic acids in foods‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -163-


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 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

43 .............................................................................................................. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 44 ................................................................................................................................. (pH)‫א‬ 44 .......................................................................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 44 ..........................................................................................................................Buffer solution‫א‬‫א‬ 45 .................................................................................................................. (pH)‫א‬ 47 ...........................................................................................................................................................  49 ............................................................................................................. ‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 50 ....................................................................................................................................... ‫א‬ 51 .......................................................................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 51 ................................................................................................................................ ‫א‬‫א‬ 53 .........................................................................................................................................‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 53 ................................................................................................................. ‫א‬‫א‬ 54 ..........................................................................................................Determination of ash‫א‬ 57 .......................................................................................... Soluble and insoluble ash‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 58 ....................................................................................................................... Alkalinity of ash‫א‬ 59 ........................................................................................ Determination of ash alkalinity‫א‬ 60 ....................................................................................................... Acid/ base balance‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 61 ................................................................................... ‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬Davidson & Leclerc 63 ...........................................................................................................................................................  65 ....................................................................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ 66 ................................................................................................. Classification of vitamins‫א‬ 66 ........................................................................................................................ ‫א‬‫א‬ 67 .................................................................. Determination methods of vitamins‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 69 ......................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 70 .......................................................................................................... Vitamin C in foods‫א‬ 70 ............................................................................................ E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 71 ................................................................................................................ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 71 ........................................................................................................................................  73 ..................................................................................................................................... Vitamin A 74 ....................................................................................................................................... ‫א‬ 74 .................................................................................................. Determination of vitamin A 76 ...........................................................................................................................................................  78 ...........................................................................................................................‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ 79 ........................................................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -164-


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 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

79 ........................................................................................................................ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 80 .................................................................................................................. Carotene pigment‫א‬ 80 ...................................................................................................................................‫א‬‫א‬ 82 ...............................................................................................................................................‫א‬ 83 .......................................................................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 86 ...........................................................................................................................................................  87 .........................................................................................................................‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ 88 ................................................................................................................................................. ‫א‬ 90 ................................................................................................. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 93 ..................................................................................................... Classification of protein‫א‬ 96 .............................................The interactions that control protein structure‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 102 .................................................................................................................................. ‫א‬‫א‬ 103 .................................................................................................................. Protein isolation‫א‬ 112 ........................................................................... Determination of protein in foods‫א‬‫א‬ 115 .........................................................................................................................................................  117 .................................................................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ 118 ............................................................................................................................ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 119 ....................................................................................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬ 120 .............................................. Extraction and determination of carbohydrates‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 122 ............................................................................................................................ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 131 ......................................................................................... Determination of crude fiber‫א‬‫א‬ 131 ................................................................................................................................. ‫א‬‫א‬ 132 .................................................................................................................................. ‫א‬‫א‬ 138 .........................................................................................................................................................  140 ................................................................................................................. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ 141 ............................................................................................................................................... ‫א‬ 142 ............................................................................................................................ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 144 ......................................................................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 146 ............................................................................................................................. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 146 ........................................................................................................................‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 147 ....................................................................................................................... Rancidity‫א‬‫א‬ 152 .................................................................................................................. Antioxidants‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 155 ............................................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 156 ............................................................................................. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -165-


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 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

159 .........................................................................................................................................................  161 ........................................................................................................................................................... ‫א‬‫א‬

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                                   

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