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‫ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺁﻧﻜﻪ ﺟﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻓﻜﺮﺕ ﺁﻣﻮﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﻴﺴﺖ ﻭ ﭼﻬﺎﺭﻡ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻰﺧﻮﺍﻧﻴﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺯﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ‪2.................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎﻯ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ ﻭ ﮔﺎﺯﻭﺋﻴﻞﺳﻮﺯ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻏﻴﺮﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮﻯ ‪4 ..............‬‬

‫ﻧﺸﺮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﺳﺎﻟﻢﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻧﻴﺎ ‪7 .................................................‬‬

‫ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﻴﻦﺍﻟﻤﻠﻠﻰ‪:‬‬ ‫‪1684-4270‬‬

‫ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻧﻴﻚ ‪11 ...........................................‬‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ ‪19 ...................................................................‬‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎﺕ ﺗﻜﻤﻴﻠﻰ ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎﻯ ﺭﻭﻛﺎﺭ ﺳﻘﻔﻰ ﻭ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻰ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺻﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ ‪24 .................................................‬‬

‫ﻧﺸــﺎﻧﻰ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮﻣﺘــﺮ ‪ 13‬ﺍﺗﻮﺑــﺎﻥ ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪-‬ﺳــﺎﻭﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻰ ﺻﺒﺎﺷــﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻃــﺮﻑ ﺳــﻪﺭﺍﻩ ﺁﺩﺭﺍﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ 3‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮﻣﺘــﺮ ﺑﻌــﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺯﻳﺮﮔــﺬﺭ ﭘــﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻬــﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺧﻴﺎﺑــﺎﻥ ﺳــﻌﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺣــﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﺑــﻂ ﻋﻤﻮﻣــﻰ‬ ‫‪(021)88504771‬‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪:‬‬ ‫‪4‬ﻭ‪(021) 88739880-2 (0229)4584983‬‬ ‫‪h t t p : / / w w w. a r v a n d c o r p . c o m‬‬ ‫‪E-mail: info@arvandcorp.com‬‬

‫ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴﺎﺕ ﭘﻤﭙﺎژ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﻯ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ ‪27 .........................‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻫﻨﻤﺎﻱ ﻋﻴﺐﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ‪32 ........................‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎ ‪34 ...................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭﺳﺎﺯ ﻧﺸﺘﻰ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ‪36 ...............................................................‬‬ ‫ﺿﺮﺑﻪﻗﻮچ ‪39 .....................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎ ‪40 ....................................................................................‬‬

‫ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺱ ﻣﻨﻮﭼﻬﺮ ﺷﺠﺎﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﺩﺑﻴﺮ‪ :‬ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺱ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺑﻬﺮﺍﻣﻰ‬

‫ﻋﻼﻗﻪﻣﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﺭﺍﻳﮕﺎﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﺸﺮﻳﻪ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻰ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﭘﺴﺘﻰ ‪ 37685-113‬ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻭ ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﻧﺸﺮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺑﻼﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻣﻰﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﻪﻣﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﺝ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﺸﺮﻳﻪ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻰ ﻧﺸﺮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺩ ﻳﺎ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻳﺎ ﺍﺻﻼﺡ ﻭ ﻭﻳﺮﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺁﺯﺍﺩ ﻣﻰﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻟﻰ ﻋﻮﺩﺕ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ARVAND Internal Magazine‬‬ ‫‪Managing Director: M. Shojaei‬‬ ‫‪Editor in chief: H. Bahrami‬‬


‫ﺗﺎﺯﻩﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ‬

‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺤﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫‪ Robur‬ﺍﻳﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺑﺮﮔـﺰﺍﺭﻯ ﻧﺨﺴـﺘﻴﻦ ﻧﺸﺴـﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖﺍﻧﺪﺭﻛﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻧﻰ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦﺍﻟﻤﻠﻠـﻰ ﺑـﺮﺍﻯ ﺗﺪﻭﻳـﻦ »ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣـﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺣﺬﻑ ‪HCFC‬ﻫﺎ« ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣــﻪ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻨﻰ ﻭ ﺣــﺬﻑ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺠﻰ‬ ‫‪HCFC‬ﻫﺎ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﮔﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ‪ R-22‬ﻭ ‪R-141b‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﭘﻨﺠﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺷﺸــﻤﻴﻦ ﺟﻠﺴﻪ ﻛﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻭﺗﻜﻞ ﻣﻮﻧﺘﺮﺍﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺐ ﺭﺳــﻴﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ‬ ‫»ﺩﻓﺘﺮ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﻻﻳــﻪ ﺍﺯﻥ« ﻋﻬﺪﻩﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻰ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭ ﻣﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﺎﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻨﺎﻭﺭﻯﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺯﮔﺎﺭ ﺑﺎ ﻻﻳﻪ ﺍﺯﻥ ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺭﺍﺳﺘﺎ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺑﺤﺚ ﻭ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺭﺍﻫﻜﺎﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺟﻠﺴــﻪﺍﻯ ﺑﺎ ﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥﻫﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺩﺳــﺖﺍﻧﺪﺭﻛﺎﺭﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩﻳﻪﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺎﺩﻫﺎﻯ ﺫﻳﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺁژﺍﻧﺲﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻳﻰ‬ ‫‪ UNDP ،UNIDO ،UNEP‬ﻭ ‪ GTZ‬ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﭼﻬﺎﺭﺩﻫﻢ ﺍﺳــﻔﻨﺪ ﻣﺎﻩ ﺳــﺎﻝ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﮔﺰﺍﺭ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻠﺴﻪ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺨﻨﺮﺍﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺟﻨﺎﺏ ﺁﻗــﺎﻯ ﺩﻛﺘــﺮ ﺍﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺣﺎﺟــﻰﺯﺍﺩﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﺩﻓﺘــﺮ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﻻﻳــﻪ ﺍﺯﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺑــﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣــﻪ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺣــﺬﻑ ‪HCFC‬ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﭘﻴﺸــﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﭼﺸــﻢﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺁﺗﻰ ﻭ ﻧﻘﺶ ﺁژﺍﻧﺲﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﻤــﻜﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺣﺬﻑ ﮔﺎﺯﻫــﺎﻯ ‪ R-22‬ﻭ‬ ‫‪ R-141b‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺷــﺎﺭﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﻠﺴــﻪ‪ ،‬ﭼﺎﻟﺶﻫﺎﻯ ﭘﻴﺶﺭﻭ ﻭ ﻓﺮﺻﺖﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ ﺁژﺍﻧﺲﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻳﻰ ﻭ ﺭﻫﻴﺎﻓﺖ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ‬ ‫»ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺣﺬﻑ ‪HCFC‬ﻫﺎ« ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﻩ ‪ UNDP‬ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺷــﺪ ﻭ ﭘﻴﺮﺍﻣﻮﻥ ﻧﻘﺶ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺖ ﺩﺳــﺖﺍﻧﺪﺭﻛﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺎﻣﻴـﻦ ﺑـﺮﻕ ﺍﻳﺎﻟـﺖ ﻛﺎﻟﻴﻔﺮﻧﻴـﺎ ﺑـﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﺧﻮﺭﺷﻴﺪﻯ ﻓﻀﺎﻳﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺎﻟﺖ ﻛﺎﻟﻴﻔﺮﻧﻴﺎ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻰ ﻫﻮﺍ‪-‬ﻓﻀﺎﻯ ﺁﻣﺮﻳــﻜﺎ )‪ (NASA‬ﺑﻪ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺁﻣﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧـﺎﺕ ﺁﻧﻼﻳـﻦ ﺑـﺮﺍﻯ ﻇﺮﻓﻴـﺖ‬ ‫ﺳـﺮﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻣﺴـﺘﻘﻞ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺍﻛـﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎﺑﺮﺍﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﺷــﺮﻛﺖ ‪ Green Grid‬ﺍﺑــﺰﺍﺭ ﺭﺍﻳﮕﺎﻧﻰ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻣﺤﺎﺳــﺒﻪ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻰ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﻞ )‪ (Free Cooling‬ﺑــﺮﺍﻯ ﻣﺮﺍﻛــﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎﺑﺮﺍﺗﻰ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﻞ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺗﺒﺨﻴﺮﻯ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒــﻮﻉ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﻣﻰﺩﻫــﺪ ﺗــﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﺘﺤــﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻛﺎﻧﺎﺩﺍ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﻰ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠــﻰ‪ ،‬ﺑــﺎﺭ ﻣﺮﺍﻛــﺰ ﻣﺨﺎﺑﺮﺍﺗﻰ ﻭ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺳــﺎﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺳﻴﺴــﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﺤﺎﺳــﺒﻪ ﻗــﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻴــﺰﺍﻥ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﻳﻰ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻫﺮ ﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻧﺮﺥ ﺑﻴﻜﺎﺭﻯ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳـﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻮﺭ ﺁﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‬

‫ﻃﺒــﻖ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﺭﻳﺰﻯﻫﺎﻯ ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺷــﺮﻛﺖ ﺑﺮﻕ ﻭ ﮔﺎﺯ ‪ ،PG&E‬ﺗﺎ ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫‪ 2016‬ﻣﻴــﻼﺩﻯ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﺳــﺖ ‪ 200MW‬ﺑﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩﻧﻴــﺎﺯ ﺍﻳﺎﻟﺖ ﻛﺎﻟﻴﻔﺮﻧﻴﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻣﺪﺕ ﭘﺎﻧﺰﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻝ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ‪ Solaren‬ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﺧﻮﺭﺷﻴﺪﻯ ﻓﻀﺎﻳﻰ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ‪ Solaren‬ﺍﺯ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺭﺷــﻴﺪﻯ ﻧﺼــﺐ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺟﻤﻊﺁﻭﺭﻯ ﻭ ﺟﺬﺏ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ ﺧﻮﺭﺷﻴﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ ﺳﭙﺲ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﻮﺍﺝ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﻮﻳﻰ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﺴــﺘﮕﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺖﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺑﺮ ﺳــﻄﺢ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ ﺍﺭﺳــﺎﻟﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﺴــﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮﻕ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﻕ ﺷــﺒﻜﻪ ‪ PG&E‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻰﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﻛﺴﺐ ﺗﺎﻳﻴﺪﻳﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻯ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﻃﺒﻖ ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﻨﺘﺸــﺮ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺕ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺍﻳــﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﺘﺤــﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻧــﺮﺥ ﺑﻴﻜﺎﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺸﻮﺭ ﺭﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳــﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺳــﺎﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﺗﻬﺪﻳــﺪ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻧــﺮﺥ ﺑﻴﻜﺎﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﺎﻥ ﺣﺮﻓﻪﺍﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻪ ﻣﺎﻫﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻧﻰ ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫‪ 2008‬ﺩﻭ ﻭ ﻧﻪ ﺩﻫﻢ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻪ ﻣﺎﻫﻪ ﺍﻭﻝ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ 2009‬ﺑﻪ ﺳﻪ ﻭ ﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻢ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﻓﻦ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ ﻭ ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ‪Wellington Drive Technologies‬‬ ‫ﺍﺧﻴــﺮﺍ ﻣــﺪﻝ ‪ ECR92 ECM‬ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 2‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬


‫ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻓﻦ ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣــﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺮﻭﺩﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺠــﺎﺭﻯ ﺭﻭﺍﻧﻪ ﺑــﺎﺯﺍﺭ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﻧﺮﻡﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ‬ ‫‪ Ultrasync‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷــﺮﻛﺖ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑــﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤــﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﻭﺳــﻴﻌﻰ ﺍﺯ ﻭﻟﺘﺎژﻫﺎﻯ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﭼﺸﻤﮕﻴﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻮﺭﺑﻴﻨﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬

‫ﻧﻘــﺶ ﻣﻮﺛــﺮﻯ ﺑــﺮ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪﺍﻯ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺸﺮﻳﻪ‬ ‫‪ Regina Leader Post‬ﺩﺭ ﻛﺎﻧــﺎﺩﺍ ﻣﻨﺘﺸــﺮ‬ ‫ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﺎﻳﻖﻫﺎ ﺑــﺮ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺩﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻨﻰ ﻋﺎﻳﻖﻛﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻛﻔﻰ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺘﻨﻰ ﻋﺎﻳﻖﻛﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﺗــﻮﺩﻩ ﺟﺮﻣــﻰ ﺻﻠﺐ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻣﻰﺭﺳــﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘــﺎﺕ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺸــﮕﺎﻩ ﻣﻠــﻰ ‪Oak Ridge‬‬ ‫ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﻃﺒــﻖ ﺁﻥ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺘﻨﻰ ﻋﺎﻳﻖﻛﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺩﻭ ﻭ ﻧﻴﻢ ﺗﺎ ﭼﻬﺎﺭ ﻭ ﻧﻴﻢ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﻰ ﺗﺨﻤﻴﻦ ﺯﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺎﻣﻰ ﺩﻩ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺳﺒﺰ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻝ ‪2009‬‬

‫ﻓﻦﻫﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺣﺮﻳﻖ‬

‫ﺁﺏﮔﺮﻣﻜﻦ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﺨﺰﻥ‬

‫ﺷــﺮﻛﺖ ‪ Taco‬ﺑﻪ ﺗﺎﺯﮔﻰ ﺳــﺮﻯ ‪ VT‬ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻮﺭﺑﻴﻨﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ���ﻪ ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎ ﺑــﺮﺍﻯ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﻣﻴــﻦ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻘــﺎﻝ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭﻫﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﺳــﺮﺩ ﻭ ﺗﺠﻬﻴــﺰﺍﺕ ﺁﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻰﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺳﻪﻧﻤﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻨﺲ ﭼﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺑﻮﺵﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻨﺲ ﻓﻮﻻﺩ ﺿﺪﺯﻧﮓ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻛﻠﮕﻰﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻨﺲ ﺁﻫﻦ ﭼﻜﺶﺧﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎ ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻳﻰ ‪ GE‬ﺑﺎ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻫﻰ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﺎﻳﻖ ﻗﺎﻟﺐﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺘﻨﻰ‬

‫ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵﻫﺎﻯ ﺭﺳــﻴﺪﻩ ﺣﺎﻛﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺗﻤﺎﻳﻞ ﺑﺴــﻴﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ ﻛﺎﺭﻓﺮﻣﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻋﺎﻳﻖ ﻗﺎﻟﺐﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺘﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳــﺶ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﭼﺮﺍ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳــﻦ ﻋﺎﻳﻖﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 3‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬

‫ﺷــﺮﻛﺖ ‪ Bosch‬ﺳــﺮﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﺯ ﻣــﺪﻝ‬ ‫‪ GWH C 920 ES/ESC‬ﺁﺏﮔﺮﻣﻜﻦﻫــﺎﻯ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﻭ ﭘﺮﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﻭﻧﻤﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺤﺼــﺮ ﺑﻪﻓﺮﺩ ﺁﺏﮔﺮﻣﻜﻦﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳــﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻧــﺮﺥ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻭ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﺸــﺎﺭ ﮔﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫‪ NO‬ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻨﺎﻭﺭﻯ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮﻯ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺷــﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺁﺏﮔﺮﻣﻜﻦﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺩ ﻭ ﭼﻬﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺑﺮﺳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪X‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺁﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ )‪ (AIA‬ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﻩ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺗﺮ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ 2009‬ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﻮﻝ ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﻯ ﭘﺎﻳﺪﺍﺭ ﻭ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺳﺒﺰ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻋﻼﻡ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻳﺎﺩ ﺷــﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨﺎﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷــﻰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺁﭘﺎﺭﺗﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻯ ﺑﺰﺭگ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﻪ ﭼﺸﻢ ﻣﻰﺧﻮﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻓﻨﺎﻭﺭﻯﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔــﻰ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﻪﻛﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺷــﻨﺎﻳﻰ ﺭﻭﺯ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﻳــﺶ ﻭ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻌﺸﻌﻰ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺗﺒﺨﻴﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺯﻳﺎﺑﻰ ﮔﺮﻣﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﭘﻤﭗﻫــﺎﻯ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺁﺑــﻰ ﻭ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻯ ‪ 39FD‬ﻛﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﺗﺮﻣﻮﺳﺘﺎﺕ ﻫﻮﺷﻤﻨﺪ‬

‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ‪ Vector Controls‬ﺑﻪ ﺯﻭﺩﻯ ﺳﺮﻯ‬ ‫‪ TCY3‬ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﻣﻮﺳﺘﺎﺕﻫﺎﻯ ﻫﻮﺷﻤﻨﺪ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﻣﻮﺳــﺘﺎﺕﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﻣﺎ ﻭ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﻧﺴــﺒﻰ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﻧــﺪ‪ .‬ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫــﺎﻯ ﺧﻮﺩﻛﻔﺎﻯ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﺘﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭ ﺣﻠﻘﻪ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰ ﺳﺒﻚ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻯ ﺩﻭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﺍﻯ ﻭ ﭼﻬﺎﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﺍﻯ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ‪ Ruskin‬ﺑﻪ ﺯﻭﺩﻯ ﻣﺪﻝ ‪SD60‬‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫــﺎﻯ ﺣﺮﻳــﻖ ﻛﻼﺱ ﻳﻚ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﮔﻮﻧﻪﺍﻯ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻛــﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳــﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺩﺭ ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﺁﺗﺶﺳــﻮﺯﻯ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺷــﺒﻜﻪ ﻛﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﺭﺍ ﻓﺮﺍﻫــﻢ ﻣﻰﺁﻭﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕــﺮ ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻰﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫــﺎ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧــﺪﺍﺯﻯ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻰ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﺷــﺎﺭﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺁﺗﺶﺳــﻮﺯﻯ‪ ،‬ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺭﺍ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬


‫ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ‬

‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺤﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫‪ Robur‬ﺍﻳﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎﻯ ﭼﺪﻧﻰ‬

‫ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎﻯ ﭼﺪﻧﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﭘﺮﻩﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﻞ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺳــﭙﺲ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻩﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻢ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺩﻳﮓ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺩﻫﻨﺪ ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺩﻳﮓ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺴﻜﻮﻧﻰ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﭼﻚﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺩﻳﮓ‪ ،‬ﭘﺮﻩﻫﺎ ﺑﻪﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﭻﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻣﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﮔﺎﺯﻫــﺎﻯ ﺩﺍﻍ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻔﻈﻪ ﺍﺣﺘــﺮﺍﻕ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻰﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺣﻔﺮﻩﻫــﺎﻯ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺩﻳﮓ ﻋﺒــﻮﺭ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻡ ﺷــﺪﻥ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﭘﺮﻩﻫﺎ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﮔﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺯﺩﺳﺖﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﺧﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺩﻛﺶ ﺩﻳﮓ ﺧــﺎﺭﺝ ﻣﻰﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻇﺮﻓﻴــﺖ ﺩﻳــﮓ ﺭﺍ ﺑــﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻯ ﭘﺮﻩ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸــﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺁﻣﺮﻳــﻜﺎ ﻭ ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻏﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮓﻫــﺎﻯ ﭼﺪﻧــﻰ ﺑــﺮﺍﻯ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺴﻜﻮﻧﻰ ﻭ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻯ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ‬ ‫ﺑــﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﭘﻜﻴﺞ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﭘﻜﻴﺞﻫﺎ ﻛﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘــﺎﺕ ﺩﻳﮓ ﻭ ﺣﺘﺎ ﭘﻤﭗ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺮﻛﻮﻻﺳــﻴﻮﻥ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺁﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛــﻪ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺴﻜﻮﻧﻰ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺷــﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻣﺸــﺨﺼﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣــﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻃﺮﺍﺡ ﻗﺪﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ ﺩﻳﮓ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﺠﺰﺍ ﺧﺮﻳﺪﺍﺭﻯ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺰﺍء ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘــﺎﺕ ﺁﻥ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻣﺸــﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﭘﻤﭗ ﻭ ‪ ...‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻞ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺩﻳﮓ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎﻯ ﭼﺪﻧﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻧﻴــﻚ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺑــﻪ ﻋﻤــﻞ ﻣﻰﺁﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻨــﺪ ﺭﻭﺯ ﻛﺎﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﮔﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‬

‫ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎﻯ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ ﻭ‬ ‫ﮔﺎﺯﻭﺋﻴﻞﺳﻮﺯ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﺳــﺘﻰ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ‪ ،‬ﻧﺼﺐ ﻭ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﻯ ﺷﻮﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮓ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺩﻩﻫﺎ ﺳﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻰ ﺁﺏ ﺗﺎﺯﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺷــﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻳــﻦ ﺍﻣــﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻣــﺪﺕ ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﻳﺎﺑــﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺯﻧﮓﺯﺩﮔﻰ ﻭ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﺏﮔﺮﻓﺘﮕﻰ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﭘﺮﻩﻫﺎ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎﻯ ﭼﺪﻧﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﭼﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻯ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﻪﻛﺎﺭ ﺭﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻯ ﺩﺍﺭﻧــﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﻳﮓﻫــﺎﻯ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﭼﺪﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺼﻮﺹ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺴﻜﻮﻧﻰ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺣــﺪﻭﺩ ‪ 10-15‬ﮔﺎﻟــﻦ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﺧــﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻊ ﺟﺮﻡ ﭼﺪﻥ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻳﮓ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺁﺏ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩﺷــﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺟــﺮﻡ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﻳــﮓ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺟــﺮﻡ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﺯﻳــﺎﺩ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻫﻢ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﻭ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻨﻔﻰ ﺗﻠﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺩﻳﮓ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺑﺰﺭگﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑــﻪ ﻧﺤﻮﻯ ﻛﻪ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﺣــﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻯ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪﺳــﺒﺐ ﺟﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ ﺩﻳﮓ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺩﻳﮓ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻧﻤﻰﻛﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳــﻖ ﻫــﻮﺍﻯ ﻋﺒــﻮﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺩﻛــﺶ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﻳﮓ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺑــﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﻼﻑ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ‪ ،‬ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎﻯ ﮔﺎﺯﺳــﻮﺯ ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺟــﺮﻡ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ ﺯﻳــﺎﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﻧــﺪ ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻳــﻚ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺩﻭﺩﻛﺶ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻣﻰﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﻭﻗﺘﻰ ﺩﻳﮓ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻧﻤﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺎﺯﻩ ﻧﻤﻰﺩﻫﺪ ﺗــﺎ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻫﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻣــﺎﻯ ﺩﻳﮓ ﺭﺍ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺩﻫﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺩﻛﺶ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎﻯ ﮔﺎﺯﻭﺋﻴﻞﺳــﻮﺯ ﺑﺎ ﺟﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗــﻰ ﺯﻳــﺎﺩ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑــﻪ ﻫﻤﻴــﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸــﻌﻞﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭﻳﭽﻪ ﻫــﻮﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻣﺠﻬﺰ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻛــﻪ ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎﻯ ﭼﺪﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻯ ﭘﻮﺷــﺶ ﻋﺎﻳﻖ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻧﺸــﺎﻥ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺰﻳﺖ ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﺑﺎ ﺟﺮﻡ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺟﺎﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛــﻪ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺯﻭﻥﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻧﺠﺎ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ ،‬ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺟﺮﻡ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻨــﮕﺎﻡ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑــﻪ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﻯ ﻛﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑــﺪﻭﻥ ﺁﻥﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫــﺎﻯ ﺩﻳﮓ ﻣﺠﺒﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺩﻳﮓ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺭﻭﺷــﻦ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻧﻴــﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﮔﺮﻣﺎ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻣﻴــﻦ ﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻋــﺚ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺍﺗﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﻰﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎﻯ ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ ﺁﺗﺶ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫‪(Tube‬‬

‫)‪Fire‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎﻯ ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ‪ ،‬ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻃــﺮﺍﻑ ﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎﻯ ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ ﻗــﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻰﮔﻴﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺁﺗــﺶ ﻭ ﮔﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﺍﻍ ﺣﺎﺻــﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎ ﻋﺒــﻮﺭ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺣــﺮﺍﺭﺕ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻓــﻮﻻﺩﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺯﺍﺋﺪﻩﻫــﺎﻯ ﻣﺎﺭﭘﻴﭻ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﮔﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﺍﻍ ﻓﺮﺻﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻯ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎ ﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎﻯ ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﻋﻤــﻮﺩﻯ ﻗــﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻰﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕــﺮ ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﻓﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻰﻳﺎﺑﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺗﻤﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﮔﺎﺯﻫــﺎﻯ ﺩﺍﻍ ﺑﺎ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎ ﺑﻴﺸــﺘﺮ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣــﺎﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺩﻳﮓﻫــﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻗﺪﺭﻯ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛــﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫــﺎﻯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﻓﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎﻯ ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﭼﺪﻥ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 4‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬


‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(1‬ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﻰ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻰ ﺩﻳﮓ ﺑﺎ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺴﻰ ﻛﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ )ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ‪ -‬ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﻪ(‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺩﻳﮓ���ﺎﻯ ﭼﺪﻧﻰ‪ ،‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻛﺴــﻴﮋﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻻﻳﻠﻰ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺧﻮﺭﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻰﺭﻭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦﺭﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺮﭼﻨﺪ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎﻯ ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ ﻗﺪﺭﻯ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﮓﻫــﺎﻯ ﭼﺪﻧﻰ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑــﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻡ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﭼﺪﻧﻰ‪ ،‬ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻡ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﭼﺪﻧﻰ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺴــﻜﻮﻧﻰ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫‪ 15-30‬ﮔﺎﻟﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﻟﻮﻟـﻪ )‪(Water Tube‬‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻰ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻯ ﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ ﻛــﻪ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺁﻥﻫــﺎ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺷﻌﻠﻪ ﻣﺸــﻌﻞ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﺍﺭﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻰ ﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳــﻦ ﺩﻳﮓﻫــﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻋﻤــﻮﺩﻯ ﻭ ﺍﻓﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺴﻰ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻩ )ﻓﻴﻦ( ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺳــﻄﺢ ﺗﻤﺎﺱ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺎ ﮔﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﺍﻍ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑــﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻴﺸــﺘﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻳﺐ ﻫﺪﺍﻳﺖ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ ﻣﺲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴــﻪ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻓــﻮﻻﺩ ﻭ ﭼﺪﻥ‪ ،‬ﺳــﻄﺢ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻳﮓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑــﺮﺍﻯ ﻳﻚ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻌﻴــﻦ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎﻯ ﭼﺪﻧﻰ ﻭ ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑــﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ ﻛﻤﺘــﺮ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻳــﻦ ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺟــﺮﻡ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻰ‪ ،‬ﺟﺮﻡ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎ ﻛﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦﺭﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺳــﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺁﺏ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﮔﺮﻡ ﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺒﺘــﻪ‪ ،‬ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 5‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(2‬ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﻳﮓ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮﻯ ﻭ ﻏﻴﺮﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻼﺣﻈــﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻇﺮﻓﻴــﺖ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﻳﻰ ﺩﻳﮓ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺟﺮﻡ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ ﻛﻢ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳــﻦ ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎ ﺗﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻰ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺸــﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﺩﻳﮓ ﮔﺮﺩﺵ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻰ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻯ ‪ 39FD‬ﻛﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﻭ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﻳﮓ ﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (1‬ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺁﺏ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺩﻳﮓ ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺩﺵ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟــﺖ ﻓــﻮﻕ ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺷــﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺯﻭﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﮔﺮﻣﺎ‬


‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺤﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫‪ Robur‬ﺍﻳﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬

‫‪CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(3‬ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺁﺏ ﻭ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ‪ CO2‬ﺩﺭ ﮔﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﮓ‬ ‫)ﺳﻮﺧﺖ‪ :‬ﮔﺎﺯ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻰ ﻭ ﮔﺎﺯﻭﺋﻴﻞ(‬ ‫ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ ﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺩﻳﮓ ﻛﻤﺎﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﮔــﺮﺩﺵ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻣﺸــﻜﻠﻰ ﺑــﺮﺍﻯ ﺩﻳﮓ‬ ‫ﺑﻪﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﻤﻰﺁﻭﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺟﺎﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﻳﻚ ﺩﻳﮓ ﺑﺎ ﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺑﺎ ﺯﻭﻥﻫﺎﻯ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻭ ﺟﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ ﻛﻢ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﻭﺍﺳــﻂ ﺁﺏ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﻰ ﻋﺎﻳﻖ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﻭ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻥ ﻣﻜﺮﺭ ﺩﻳﮓ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺎ ﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺴــﻰ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻜﺘﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﭼﺪﻧﻰ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﻻﻳﻪﺍﻯ ﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﭘﻮﺷــﺎﻧﻴﺪﻩ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﺱ ﺁﺏ ﺑــﺎ ﭼﺪﻥ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻯ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻰ ﺍﺟــﺎﺯﻩ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮓ ﺑﺎ ﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺴﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺎﺯ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﺍﻛﺴــﻴﮋﻥ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺪﺍﻧﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻮﺭﺩﮔﻰ ﻛﻠﻜﺘﻮﺭ ﻭ ﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ‪ 10-15‬ﺳــﺎﻝ ﮔﺬﺷــﺘﻪ ﺩﻳﮓﻫــﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﭘﻜﻴــﺞ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻯ ﻧﻴــﺰ ﺑﻪ ﺑــﺎﺯﺍﺭ ﺁﻣﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ‬

‫ﺩﻳﮓﻫــﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈــﻮﺭ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﻳﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻀﺎ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺴﻜﻮﻧﻰ ﻭ ﺁﭘﺎﺭﺗﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﻭ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷــﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳــﻦ ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻋــﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﻳــﺶ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺁﺏ ﮔﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮﻓﻰ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧــﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺴﻜﻮﻧﻰ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻳــﻦ ﭘﻜﻴﺞ ﺗﻐﺬﻳﻪ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎﻥﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣــﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺷــﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻮﻛﺘﻮﺭﻫــﺎ‪ ،‬ﭘﺎﻧﻞﻫــﺎﻯ ﺗﺎﺑﺸــﻰ ﻭ ﻏﻴــﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ )ﻏﻴﺮﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮﻯ(‬

‫ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺳــﻮﺧﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻛﺮﺑﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﻨــﺪ ﮔﺎﺯ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻰ‪ ،‬ﮔﺎﺯﻭﺋﻴﻞ ﻳــﺎ ﮔﺎﺯ ﻣﺎﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺳﻮﺯﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺁﺏ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﮔﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌــﻰ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳــﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻛﻨﺶ ﺯﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻰﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪:‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺑﺎﻻﻯ ﮔﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺍﺣﺘــﺮﺍﻕ‪ ،‬ﺁﺏ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪﺷــﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺳــﻮﭘﺮﻫﻴﺖ ﻫﻤــﺮﺍﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﺎﺯﻫــﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺩﻛﺶ ﺩﻳﮓ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺳﻄﻮﺡ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ ﺩﻳﮓ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺁﺏ ﺷــﻮﺩ )ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣــﺮ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻻﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠــﻒ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠــﻪ ﭘﺎﺋﻴﻦ ﺑــﻮﺩﻥ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻳﮓ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ(‪ ،‬ﺁﺏ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﮔﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﺳﻴﺪ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺭﺩﮔــﻰ ﺟﺪﺍﺭﻩﻫــﺎﻯ ﻣﺤﻔﻈــﻪ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺍﻏﻠــﺐ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻨﺲ ﺁﻫﻦ ﻭ ﻓﻮﻻﺩ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫‪ LTW‬ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﻣــﺎﻯ ﮔﺎﺯﻫــﺎﻯ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘــﺮﺍﻕ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻔﻈــﻪ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪﻧﺤــﻮﻯ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺨــﺎﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳــﻦ ﻣﺤﻔﻈﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﻧﻤﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺑــﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺩﻛﺶ ﺩﻳﮓ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻣﻰﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺘﻌــﺎﺭﻑ ﻏﻴﺮﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑــﻪ ﻧﻜﺎﺕ ﻓــﻮﻕ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﻗﺖ ﺷــﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﮔﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻕ ﻭ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺁﺏ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﻨﻢ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻧﺸــﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺩﻳﮓ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﻧﺸﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺷــﻜﻞ )‪ (2‬ﺭﺍﺑﻄــﻪ ﻣﻴــﺎﻥ ﺩﻣــﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑــﻪ ﺩﻳﮓ )ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ( ﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﻳﮓ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑــﺎ ﻧﮕﺎﻫﻰ ﺑــﻪ ﺷــﻜﻞ ﺩﺭﻣﻰﻳﺎﺑﻴﻢ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺷــﻴﺐ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ‪ 130‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻜﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻣﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺷﺒﻨﻢ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﮔﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻰ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻳﮓ )ﺁﺏ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ( ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩﻳﮓ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭ ﺧﻮﺍﻫــﺪ ﻛــﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻌﻨــﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺁﻥﻛﻪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺳــﻄﻮﺡ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺩﻳﮓ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺷﺒﻨﻢ ﻭﺍﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺳﻮﺧﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫‪ CO2‬ﻣﻮﺟــﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﮔﺎﺯﻫــﺎﻯ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻰ ﺩﻳﮓ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (3‬ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺷﺒﻨﻢ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﮔﺎﺯ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻰ ﻭ‬ ‫ﮔﺎﺯﻭﺋﻴــﻞ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ‪ CO2‬ﺩﺭ ﮔﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﮓ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 6‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬


‫ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻟﻢﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﭼﻴﺴﺖ؟ ﻣﻮﻟﻜﻮﻝ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ‪ NH3‬ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻛﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟــﻰ ﻭ ﻳﻜﻰ ﺍﺯ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﻳﻰ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺘﺮﻭﺷــﻴﻤﻰ‪ ،‬ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻋﺎﺩﻯ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﺎﺯ ﻣﻰﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﭼـﺮﺍ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴـﺎﻙ ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻧﻴﺎ ﺷـﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷـﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ؟‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ‪:‬‬

‫‪ -3‬ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻰ ﻣﺒﺮﺩﻫﺎﻯ ﻓﺮﻳﻮﻧﻰ ﺍﺛﺮ ﻣﺨﺮﺏ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺯﻳﺴﺖ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﺑﺮ ﻻﻳﻪ ﺍﺯﻭﻥ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺗﺨﺮﻳﺒﻰ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﮔﺮﻡ ﺷــﺪﻥ ﻛﺮﻩ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫)ﺑــﺮ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﮔﻠﺨﺎﻧﻪﺍﻯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺗﻤﺴــﻔﺮ ﺟﻮ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ( ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷــﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺣﺎﻃﻪ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻛﺮﻩ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻻﻳﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺗﻤﺴﻔﺮ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﭘﺘﻮﻳﻰ ﻛﺮﻩ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺣﺎﻃﻪ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻣــﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻛﺮﻩ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﻣﻤﺎﻧﻌﺖ ﻣﻰﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻟــﺬﺍ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﻛﺮﻩ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺞ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳــﺶ ﻣﻰﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﺴــﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺨﺮﺑﻰ ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﻭ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﻛﺮﻩ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺫﻭﺏ ﺷــﺪﻥ ﻳﺦﻫﺎﻯ ﻗﻄﺐ ﺟﻨﻮﺏ ﻭ ﺷﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻏﻴﺮﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺁﺏ ﻭ ﻫﻮﺍﻳﻰ ﻭ ﻃﻮﻓﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺳــﻴﻞﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺴــﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻠﻚ ﻭ ﻣﺨﺮﺏ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﺩﻓﻊ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺗﻤﺴــﻔﺮ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺗﺨﺮﻳﺒﻰ ﺑﻪﺟﺎ ﻧﮕﺬﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺟﺬﺏ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺧﺎﻙ‪ ،‬ﺍﺛﺮ ﺗﻘﻮﻳﺘﻰ ﺑﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﺁﻥ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﻣﺒﺮﺩﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎ‬ ‫ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻰﻛــﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻳــﻚ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﻫــﻮﺍ ﺧﻨﻚ ﻓﺮﻳﻮﻥ ‪ R22‬ﺷــﺎﺭژ‬‫ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺭﺍﻧﺶ ﻭ ﻣﻜﺶ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﮔﺮﻡ ﺗﺎﺑﺴــﺘﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ )‪ 300 psig (20bar‬ﺩﺭ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺭﺍﻧﺶ ﻭ )‪ 50 psig (3.5bar‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻣﻜﺶ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻛﻰ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 7‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬

‫ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺣﺎﻛﻢ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻭ ﻟﺬﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﭼﺸﻤﮕﻴﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻭ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳــﻮﺯ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻛــﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺧــﻼء ﻛﺎﺭ ﻧﻤﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻣﺸــﻜﻼﺕ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺘﻴﻮﻡ ﺑﺮﻭﻣﺎﻳﺪﻯ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻼء ﺭﺍ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻣﺎ‪:‬‬

‫ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺗﻤﺎﻳﻞ ﺷــﺪﻳﺪﻯ ﺑــﻪ ﺍﻧﺤﻼﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺗﻤﺎﻳــﻞ ﺍﻧﺤــﻼﻝ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻣــﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻯ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﺑﻄﺮﻯ ﺁﺏ ﺑﻪ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﻳﻚ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ )ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ‬ ‫ﻳــﻚ ﻛﻴﻠﻮﮔﺮﻡ( ﺩﺭ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ‪ ،‬ﮔﺎﺯ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻟﻜﻮﻝﻫــﺎﻯ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﺟﺬﺏ ﺁﺏ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺷــﺪ ﻭ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻫﻴﭻ ﮔﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻛﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﭘﺨﺶ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒــﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺗﻤﺎﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴــﺎﻙ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺤــﻼﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﺑﻴﺸــﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻤﺎﻳﻞ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﭘﺮﺍﻛﻨــﺪﻩ ﺷــﺪﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺑــﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺩﻟﻴــﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝﻫﺎﻯ ﺿﺪ ﻋﻔﻮﻧﻰ ﻳﺎ ﺳﻔﻴﺪﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﺎﺯﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﻭ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻣﺰﺍﺣﻤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻯ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻰﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺧﻄﺮ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ‬

‫ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﮔﺎﺯﻯ ﺳــﻤﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻔﺲ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﺕ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﻣﺴــﻤﻮﻣﻴﺖ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺗﻤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﻣﺮگ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻰﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺟﻬﺖ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺕ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻟﻮﺍﺯﻡ ﺍﻳﻤﻨﻰ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻰﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻣﺎ‪:‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻰﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ 8 kg‬ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ 11 kg‬ﺁﺏ ﺣﻞ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻧﺸﺖ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﺣﺪﺍﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫‪ 1 kg‬ﺩﻓﻌﺘﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﮔﺎﺯ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻟﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﮔﺎﺯﺳــﻮﺯ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻀﺎﻯ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻣﺜﻼ ﺑﺎﻡ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺣﺘﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺣﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﻡ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻴﻖ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻮﺍ ﻫﻴﭻ ﺧﻄﺮﻯ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺯﻧﺪﻩﺍﻯ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ‪ 70 bar‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﺴﺖ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻟﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﺭﻯ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻯ ‪ 39FD‬ﻛﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫‪ -1‬ﺍﺭﺯﺍﻧﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻧﻴﺎﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻣﺒﺮﺩﻯ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﺎ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺍﺯ ﺗﺒﺨﻴﺮ ﻫﺮ ﻛﻴﻠﻮﮔــﺮﻡ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭ ﻳﻚ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ‪300‬‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻠﻮﻛﺎﻟﺮﻯ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺮﺩﻫﺎﻯ ﻓﺮﻳﻮﻧﻰ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ‪ R22‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷــﺮﺍﻳﻂ ‪ 50‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮﻛﺎﻟﺮﻯ ﺳﺮﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ؛ ﻳﻌﻨﻰ ‪ .1/6‬ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻯ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺻﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ ﻛﻤﺘﺮﻯ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﻰ‬


‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺤﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫‪ Robur‬ﺍﻳﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻯ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺼﺐ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 8‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬


‫‪1- Mayakawa Mfg . Co . Ltd – httP://www.mycomj‬‬ ‫‪. Co.JP‬‬ ‫‪2- Coolmax Co . httP://www. Coolmaxbar.com‬‬ ‫‪3- Gas Refrigerator . httP://gasrefrigerator.nettech‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺣــﺎﻝ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻰ ﻫﺘﻞﻫﺎﻯ ﭼﻬﺎﺭ ﻭ ﭘﻨﺞ ﺳــﺘﺎﺭﻩ ﻗﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎ ﻭ ﺁﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻳﺨﭽﺎﻝﻫــﺎﻯ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻛﻰ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ ﺑﻰﺻﺪﺍﻯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻣﺠﺎﺯ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻳﺨﭽﺎﻝﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻰ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻌﺘﺒﺮﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷــﺮﻛﺖﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺷــﺮﻛﺖ ‪ Indel‬ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼــﻮﻻﺕ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﻛﺸــﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻮﺳــﻌﻪ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻰﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷــﺮﻛﺖ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻳﺨﭽﺎﻝﻫﺎ ﻭ ‪minibar‬ﻫﺎﻯ ﻫﺘﻞﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺴــﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺘﺒــﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻧــﻮﻉ ﻳﺨﭽﺎﻝﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺬﺑــﻰ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻛﻰ ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪﺍﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻳﺨﭽﺎﻝﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺫﻳﻞ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 9‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬

‫ﻫﻴﭻ ﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﻴﻦﺍﻟﻤﻠﻠﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻔﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﮔﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﺩﺭ ﻟﻮﺍﺯﻡ ﺧﺎﻧﮕﻰ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﻳﻰ ﻧﺪﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ »ﻣﺒﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺰ« ﻳﻜﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺒﺮﺩﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺯﻳﺴﺖ ﻭ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻝ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ‪Robur‬‬‫ﺍﻳﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺩﺭ ﭘﻴﺸــﺮﻓﺘﻪﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻛﺸــﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻧﻴﺎ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺴﻜﻮﻧﻰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻯ ﻭ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻰﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﺎﻝﻫﺎﻯ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﺍﻳﻦ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ‪ 5‬ﻗﺎﺭﻩ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺭﺳــﻤﻰ ﺷــﺮﻛﺖ ‪ Robur‬ﺍﻳﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺁﺩﺭﺱ ‪ www.robur.it‬ﻧﻴﺰ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺁﺩﺭﺱ ﻭ ﻋﻜﺲﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﻪﻣﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﭘﺲ‪:‬‬

‫‪ -1‬ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﺳﻤﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﻳﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﭻ ﺧﻄﺮﻯ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭ ﺁﻥ ﻧﻤﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﺎﻥﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﻪ ﮔﺎﺯ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻄﺮﻧﺎﻙ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻣﺮگ ﺑﺎﺭ ﻭ ﻛﺸﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻰ ﻣﻨﺎﺯﻝ ﺑﻪﺩﺭﺳﺘﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻟﻮﺍﺯﻡ ﺧﺎﻧﮕﻰ ﻛﺎﻣﻼ ﻣﺠﺎﺯ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺨﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺯﻳﺴﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺧﺎﻧﮕﻰ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻯ ﻭ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰ ﺭﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ ﻭ ﻓﺰﻭﻧﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻛﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻴﺞ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺧﻼء ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻭ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﻟﻴﺘﻴﻮﻡ ﺑﺮﻭﻣﺎﻳﺪﻯ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺑﺎﺯ )ﺑﺎﻡ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ( ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻧﺸــﺖ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ )ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻏﻴﺮﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ( ﺣﺪﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ 1 kg‬ﺭﺥ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﺣﺘﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺗﻤﺴﻔﺮ ﺭﻗﻴﻖﺳﺎﺯﻯ ﻭ ﺩﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﻭ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪﻩ ﺍﻳﻤﻨﻰ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﮔﺎﺯ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻟﻮﺍﺯﻡ ﺧﺎﻧﮕﻰ ﻣﻨﻊ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻯ ‪ 39FD‬ﻛﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﮔﺮﻡﺗﺮﻳــﻦ ﻫــﻮﺍﻯ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ )‪ (50 ºC‬ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ ‪ 25 bar‬ﻳﻌﻨﻰ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﻧﺸﺘﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺪ ﺻﻔﺮ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺗﺎﻛﻨﻮﻥ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻣﻮﺭﺩﻯ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺸﺖ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺴﻤﻮﻣﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﻓﻮﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎ ﻃﻰ ‪ 50‬ﺳﺎﻝ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻭ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺮﺗﺎﺳﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻳﺎ ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻤﺪﻩﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﻓﺮﻭﺵ ﻭ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﺘﺤﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﻟﻴﺎ ﻭ ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎﻯ ﻏﺮﺑﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻟﺬﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺮ ﻧﺸــﺖ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺑﺴــﻴﺎﺭ ﺳــﺨﺖﮔﻴﺮﺍﻧﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺸــﻮﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻭ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑــﺮﺩﺍﺭﻯ ﻧﺒﻮﺩﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻟﻰﻛــﻪ ﻃﻰ ﻣﺪﺕ ‪ 50‬ﺳــﺎﻝ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﺑﻪ ‪ 1000000‬ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺁﻳﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷﺎﻳﻌﻪ ﻛﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻟﻮﺍﺯﻡ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻧﮕﻰ ﻏﻴﺮﻣﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺻﺤﺖ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ؟‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺄﺳــﻔﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻗﺒﺎﻯ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺤﺼــﻮﻝ ﻳﻌﻨﻰ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳــﻮﺯ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﻧﺸــﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻛﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﺩﺭ ﻟﻮﺍﺯﻡ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻧﮕﻰ ﻣﻤﻨﻮﻉ ﺷــﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺫﻫﻦ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺿﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺭﺳﻴﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺖ ﻣﻨﺤﺮﻑ ﻣﻰﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ‪ 60‬ﺳﺎﻝ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺗﺎﻛﻨﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻳﺨﭽﺎﻝﻫﺎﻯ ﻧﻔﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻯ ﺳﻴﻜﻞ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺰﺍﺭﺍﻥ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﺴﻞ ﻳﺨﭽﺎﻝﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﺎﺯﻝ ﭘﺪﺭﺍﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻃﻰ‬ ‫ﺳــﺎﻟﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻤﺎﺩﻯ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻫﻴﭻﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺁﻓﺮﻳﻨﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺧﺪﻣﺖ ﺭﻓﺎﻩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺁﺳﺎﻳﺶ ﻧﺴﻞ ﺩﻫﻪﻫﺎﻯ ‪ 1330‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 1350‬ﺧﻮﺭﺷﻴﺪﻯ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻋﻠﻰﺭﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﺼــﺐ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻳﺨﭽﺎﻝﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﻨﻰ ﺁﺷــﭙﺰﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺗﺎﻛﻨﻮﻥ ﻫﻴﭻ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺩﺛﻪ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺴــﺎﺭﺕ ﺟﺎﻧﻰ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺎﻟﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻟﻮﺍﺯﻡ ﺛﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺑﺴــﻴﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺷﺮﻛﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﭘﻴﺸﺮﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻟﻮﺍﺯﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻭﺩﺗﻰ ﺩﺭ ﭘﻰ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻛﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺑــﺮﻭﺩﺕ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻣﺼــﺎﺭﻑ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻯ ﻭ ﺧﺎﻧﮕﻰ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺁﺩﺭﺱ ﺍﻳﻨﺘﺮﻧﺘﻰ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬


‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺤﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫‪ Robur‬ﺍﻳﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺁﻥ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ 1000000‬ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﺮﺗﺎﺳﺮ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺎﺭﻩ ﺁﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻭ ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﻛﻨﻮﻥ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺣﺎﺩﺛﻪﺍﻯ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﺸﺖ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺁﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻳﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻭ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻯ ﻣﻬﺮ ‪) CE‬ﮔﻮﺍﻫﻴﻨﺎﻣﻪ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎ( ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻭ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ 85%‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸــﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﻭ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻯ ﻣﻰﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -8‬ﺷــﺮﻛﺖ ‪ Robur‬ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺎﻝ ‪ 2003‬ﻣﻮﻓﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺴﺐ ﺟﺎﻳﺰﻩ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺳــﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻰ ‪ EFQM‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺮﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺳــﺮﺁﻣﺪ ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎﻳﻰ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -9‬ﻧﺼﺐ ﻭ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻯ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ 1000‬ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺗﺎﻛﻨﻮﻥ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻛﻮﭼﻚﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺧﻄﺮﻯ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﻧﺸﺖ‬

‫ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺭﺯﻭﻣﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻼﻗﻪﻣﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -10‬ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪﺳــﺎﺯﻯ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺳﻮﺧﺖ ﻛﺸﻮﺭ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﻝﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺭﺳــﻰ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﺑﺎﻻ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﺑﺴــﻴﺎﺭ ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻰ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﺍﻳﻤﻦ ﻭ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮژﻯ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻻﻯ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻭ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ ﺍﻓﺘﺨﺎﺭ ﻣﻮﻧﺘﺎژ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻛﺴﺐ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﺨﻦ ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻧﻰ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻛﻰ ﻳﻌﻨﻰ‪ ،‬ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﻳﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﺣﺬﻑ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺧﺴــﺘﻪﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻯ ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻦ‪ ،‬ﺣﻔﻆ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺯﻳﺴﺖ ﻭ ﺁﺳﺎﻳﺶ ﻭ ﺁﺭﺍﻣﺶ‬ ‫ﺧﻴﺎﻝ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪﻩﻯ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺏﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫـﺎﻯ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺻﺒـﺎ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪﺷـﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺏﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﻭ ﭘﻴﺸـﺮﻓﺘﻪﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺪﻫﺎﻯ ﺳـﺎﺧﺖ ﻭ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺸـﺮﻓﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﻯﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺴﻜﻮﻧﻰ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻯ ﻭ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﻯ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻣﻰﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 10‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬


‫ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻧﻴﻚ‬

‫‪ GPM‬ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺗﻮﺿﻴــﺢ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻧﻴﻚ ﻣﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺷــﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺧــﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻳﻚ ﻳﺎ ﭼﻨﺪ ﻋﺎﻣــﻞ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯﺑﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺳــﺒﺐ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎﻯ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻯ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳــﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﮔﺬﺷــﺘﻪ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻰ ﻛﻪ ﻗﻴﻤﺖ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ ﻧﺴــﺒﺘﺎ ﻛﻢ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﻧﻴﺰ ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﮔﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻯ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻤﺎﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﭘﺲ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﻪ ﻃﺮﺍﺡ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﻪ ﻧﻜﺎﺕ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻨﻔﻰ ﻫﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﺠﺎ ﻭ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻧﻴﻚ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ‬

‫ﺍﻳــﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﻰ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺷــﺮﺡ ﻫﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(1‬ﻳﻚ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺳﺮﻯ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪﺳﺎﺯﻯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ‪ Q = 500 GPM DT‬ﻣﺸــﺨﺺ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻳﻚ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﺭ ﻫﺮﻗﺪﺭ ‪ ΔT‬ﺑﻴﺸــﺘﺮ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ GPM ،‬ﻛﻤﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦﺭﻭ ﻫﺮ ﻋﺎﻣﻠﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺤﻮﻯ ‪ ΔT‬ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺭﺍ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﻭ ‪ GPM‬ﺭﺍ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳــﺶ ﺩﻫﺪ )ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻰ ﺷــﻮﺩ(‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻋﺎﻣﻠﻰ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯﺑﺮ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪﺳﺎﺯﻯ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ ﺍﺛﺮ ﻣﻨﻔﻰ ﻣﻰﮔﺬﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻘﻰ ﻣﻰﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻯﺷﺪﻥ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺷﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﻪﺭﺍﻫﻪ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻨﺎﺭﮔﺬﺭ‪ ،‬ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸــﺘﺮﻙ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎ ﻭ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 11‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(2‬ﻳﻚ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺳﺮﻯ ﺑﺎ ﺩﻭ ﺣﻠﻘﻪ‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻯ ‪ 39FD‬ﻛﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺯﻳــﺮ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫــﺎﻯ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻧﻴﻚ ﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﻃﺮﺍﺡ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺁﺏ ﺳﺮﺩ ﻳﺎ ﮔﺮﻡ ﻛﺎﻓﻰ ﺑﺎ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻭ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨﺎﻝﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﺮﺳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻛﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﺯﻭﻥﻫــﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﻞ ﻭ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻃــﺮﺡ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﭘﺎﺭﻩﺑﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﺳــﺘﻰ ﻭ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻃﺮﺡ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﻫﺮﭼﻪ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺗــﺎ ﺣﺪ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺳــﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﮔﻰﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮﺿﺮﻭﺭﻯ ﺩﺭ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎﺏ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ ﻭ ﻧﮕﻪﺩﺍﺭﻯ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﻭ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﺎﻟﻴﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﻛﻢ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﻃﺮﺡ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺖﺩﻭﺳــﺖ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺯﻳﺴﺖ ﻫﻤﺎﻫﻨﮕﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -8‬ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻛﻢ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -9‬ﺍﻳﻤﻨﻰ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺪ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -10‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﺪ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯﻫﺎﻯ ﻧﻮ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻟﻢ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﮔﻴﺮﻯ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -11‬ﺑﻪ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮژﻯ ﺭﻭﺯ ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -12‬ﻭﺍﺑﺴﺘﮕﻰ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ ﺑﻴﻦﺍﻟﻤﻠﻠﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺪ ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -13‬ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﻴﺮﻯ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ )ﮔﺮﻣﺎ ﻳﺎ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎ(‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻫﺮ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﻃﺮﺡ ﻧﻤﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺭﺳــﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦﺭﻭ ﻃﺮﺍﺡ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻰ ﻫﻤﻪﺟﺎﻧﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﻪ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﭙﺮﺩﺍﺯﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﻠﻤﻰ‬


‫ﻣﻰﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻳﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﺮﻯ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ‪ :‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺳﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻭﺻﻞ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺷــﻜﻞﻫﺎﻯ )‪ (1‬ﻭ )‪ (2‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸــﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻰ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻰ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺒﻰ ﻫﻢ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺍﻳﻦﻛﻪ ﻧﻤﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺭﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻟﻰ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻳﻜﻰ ﻧﻴﺴــﺖ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻃــﺮﺍﺡ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻫﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨﺎﻝﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳــﺎﺱ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻣﻰﺁﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﺬﺍﺭﻯ ﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺁﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﻛــﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻰﮔﺬﺭﺩ ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﻗﻄﺮ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺳــﺮﻯ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻣﻰﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺤﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫‪ Robur‬ﺍﻳﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺳﺮﻯ ﺍﻧﺸﻌﺎﺑﻰ )‪(Diverting‬‬

‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (3‬ﻣﻰﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺰ ﭼﻨﺪﻃﺒﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳــﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﺁﺏ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻨــﮕﺎﻡ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﺍﺯ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﺻﻠــﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺸــﻌﺐ ﺷﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺯﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻰ ﻛﻪ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﻯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(3‬ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﻰ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺳﺮﻯ ﺍﻧﺸﻌﺎﺑﻰ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺮﻣﺪﺍﺭ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(4‬ﺳﻪﺭﺍﻫﻰ‬ ‫‪Monoflo‬‬

‫ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨــﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻫــﻮﺍﻯ ﺍﺗﺎﻕ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﻛــﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﺯﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺳــﻪﺭﺍﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺤﺮﺍﻑﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﻭﻳﮋﻩﺍﻯ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪monoflo‬‬ ‫ﻣﻰﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (4‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺳﻪﺭﺍﻫﻰ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳــﻪﺭﺍﻫﻰ ﻛﻤﻚ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺁﺏ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﺻﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﺭ ﻧﺸﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﺷــﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻪﺭﺍﻫﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﺻﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺪﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﺠﺎ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ C‬ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ‪ ABC‬ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺁﺏ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻰ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﺭ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻧﻤﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻩ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﻯ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻪﺭﺍﻫﻰ ‪ ،monoflo‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺷﻴﺮ‬ ‫}‪ P‬ﻧﺎﻡ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻯ ‪{P‬‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺩﻭ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ C‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺳــﺮﻯ ﺍﻧﺸــﻌﺎﺑﻰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺰﻳﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻛــﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﺠﺰﺍ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻛــﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺩﻭﺣﺎﻟﺘﻪ )ﺑﺎﺯ‪ -‬ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ( ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺷﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺧﻴﻠﻰ ﻛﻢ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳــﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺳــﻴﺮﻛﻮﻟﻪ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺳــﺒﺐ ﻣﺨﻠﻮﻁ ﺷــﺪﻥ ﺁﺏ ﺍﺻﻠﻰ ﺑﺎ ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻃﺮﺍﺡ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨﺎﻝﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺳــﺒﺐ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺳــﻪﺭﺍﻫﻰﻫﺎﻯ ‪ monoflo‬ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺳــﺮﻯ ﺑﻴﺸــﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻧﻴﻚ ﻛﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻫﻤﺎﻥﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺁﺏ ﺍﺻﻠﻰ ﻣﺨﻠﻮﻁ ﺷــﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺁﺏ )ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﻳﺶ( ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﭼﻨﺎﻥﻛ��� ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺩﺍﺩﻳﻢ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪﺳﺎﺯﻯ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺿﺮﺭ ﻣﻰﺭﺳﺎﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺍﻳﺪﻩﺁﻝ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻤﻰ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ‪ GPM‬ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﻭ ‪ ΔT‬ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﻛﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻰ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺳﺮﻯ ﺍﻧﺸﻌﺎﺑﻰ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻃﺮﺍﺡ ﻧﻤﻰﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ‪ -‬ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎﻳﻰ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﺑﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (5‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻫﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ ﺯﻳﺮﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ‪ ΔT‬ﻣﺨﺼﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﻯ ﻫﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺮﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳــﺎﺱ ‪ ΔT‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈــﺮ ﻃﺮﺍﺡ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (6‬ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﺎ ﺑﺰﺭگ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻭﻟﻮﻟﻪﺍﻯ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(5‬ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺳﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻫﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ ﺯﻳﺮﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﭘﻤﭗ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﺻﻠﻰ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻯ ﻳﻚ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺭﻓﺖ ﻭ ﻳﻚ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﻰﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬ ‫)ﺷﻜﻞ ‪.(7‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﺭﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦﺭﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺩﻭ ﺳﺮ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 12‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬


‫ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‪ ،‬ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺗﺎ ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺘــﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺑــﺎ ﺟﻤﻊ ﻣﺎﻛﺰﻳﻤــﻢ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴــﺎﺯ ﻫﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺮﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺸــﻜﻼﺗﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪﺳﺎﺯﻯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(6‬ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺳﺮﻯ ﺍﻧﺸﻌﺎﺑﻰ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ‪ Monoflo‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﭼﻨﺪﻃﺒﻘﻪ )ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﺻﻠﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻪﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ‪ -‬ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪(.‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 13‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬

‫‪150 × 50 + 45 × 57 = 200 (X) X = 48 °F‬‬

‫ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﺑﻪ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫‪400 (48) + 200 (57) = 600 (X) X = 51 °F‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟــﺖ ﺑﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣــﻞ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺎﻛﺰﻳﻤــﻢ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻳﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺮﻳــﻚ ‪) 300 GPM‬ﺟﻤــﻊ ‪ (600 GPM‬ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺟﻤﻊ ﺗﻨﺎژ‬ ‫‪ 300‬ﺗﻦ ﻭ ﻫﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎ ‪ 100‬ﺗﻦ ﻣﻰﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﭘﺎﺭﻩﺑﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺭ ﺷــﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪ 3‬ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺎﻛﺰﻳﻤﻢ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫‪ 100‬ﺗﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻰ ﺑﺎﺭﻫــﺎﻯ ‪ 1‬ﻭ ‪ 2‬ﺑﻪ ‪ 25‬ﺗﻦ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻳــﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺑــﺎﺭ ﻛﻞ )ﺗــﻦ( ‪ 100 + 25 + 25 = 150‬ﻣﻰﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﻮﺍﺏﮔﻮﻯ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺳــﺒﺐ ﻧــﻮﻉ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻰﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻚ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﻭ ﭘﻤﭗ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻛﺮﺩ؛ ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﭼﻴﻠــﺮ ﻭ ﭘﻤﭗ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻋﺒﻮﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﻪ ‪ 300 GPM‬ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﻳﺎﻓﺖ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺳــﺒﺐ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺷــﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﻪﺭﺍﻫﻪ‪ ،‬ﻫﺮ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻳﻚﺳــﻮﻡ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻳﺎ ‪100 GPM‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓــﺖ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺷــﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪ 3‬ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟــﺖ ﭘﺎﺭﻩﺑﺎﺭ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳــﺖ ‪ 200 GPM‬ﺑﺎ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ‪45‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺷــﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪3‬‬ ‫ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺴــﺖ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﻪ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭﺳــﺖ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﻫﺪ ﻭ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺍﺗﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺭﻓﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣــﺎﻝ ﻓﺮﺽ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ ﻛــﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﻳﻚ ﭼﻴﻠــﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺧــﺎﺭﺝ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻴﻢ ﻭﻟﻰ ﭘﻤــﭗ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻤﺎﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﻭﺷــﻦ ﻧﮕﻪ ﻣﻰﺩﺍﺭﻳﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ‪ 600 GPM‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﻪ ﮔﺮﺩﺵ ﺩﺭﻣﻰﺁﻳﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫‪ 200 GPM ،3‬ﻣــﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺧــﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻰ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(7‬ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺩﻭﻟﻮﻟﻪﺍﻯ ‪ -‬ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻯ ‪ 39FD‬ﻛﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ‪ ،‬ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴــﻤﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺩﻭ ﺳﺮ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻢ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺁﺳﺎﻥﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﻭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺷﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﻪﺭﺍﻫﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺑــﺎﺭ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻯ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻟﻰ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻧﻤﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﭘﺎﺭﻩﺑﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺩﻫﺎﻧﻪ ﺷﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﺩﻫﺎﻧﻪ ﻛﻨﺎﺭﮔﺬﺭ ﺷــﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭﻯ ﺁﺏ ﺍﺯ ﻛﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺎﺭﮔﺬﺭ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻣﻰﮔﺮﺩﺩ ﺗﺎ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺩﺵ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻭ ﺣﺪﻭﺩﺍ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﻤﺎﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﻭ ﭘﻤﭗ )ﻣﺤﻞ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻭ ﭘﻤﭗ(‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻭﺩﺍ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻳﻚ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺷــﻜﻞﻫﺎﻯ )‪ (9) ،(8‬ﻭ )‪ (10‬ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟــﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦﻛﻪ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻫﻨــﮕﺎﻡ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﭘﺎﺭﻩﺑﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻧﻤﻰﺩﻫﺪ‪ ،‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻣﻰﻣﺎﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺳــﺒﺐ ﻣﺨﻠﻮﻁ ﺷــﺪﻥ ﺁﺏ ﺭﻓــﺖ ﺑﺎ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻛﻢ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻭ ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﭘﺎﺭﻩﺑﺎﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﺎﻛﺰﻳﻤﻢ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺷــﻜﻞ )‪ (11‬ﻳﻚ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺷــﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺳــﻪﺭﺍﻫﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﻭ ﭘﻤﭗﻫــﺎﻯ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﻛﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺳﻴﺮﻛﻮﻻﺳــﻴﻮﻥ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﻋﻬﺪﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪ 1‬ﻭ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪ 2‬ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ‪:‬‬


‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺤﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫‪ Robur‬ﺍﻳﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺩﻳﮕــﺮﻯ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﻣﻰﺍﻓﺘﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﻣﻰﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻳﻢ؛ ﺑﻪ ﺷــﻜﻞ‬ ‫)‪ (12‬ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺁﺑﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﻥ ‪ 51‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺁﺑﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﻥ ‪ 45‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻣﺨﻠﻮﻁ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺩﻣــﺎﻯ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ‪ 45‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳــﺖ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺭﻭﺷــﻦ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺎ ‪ 39‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳــﺖ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺩﻫﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺩﻣــﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ ‫)ﺧﺮﻭﺟــﻰ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫــﺎ( ﺭﺍ ﺭﻭﻯ ‪ 45‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳــﺖ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺷــﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﭼﻴﻠ ِﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺑﺎ ‪ COP‬ﻛﻤﺘﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭ ﺧﻮﺍﻫــﺪ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ ﺣﺴــﮕﺮ ﺩﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺣﺪﻭﺩﺍ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻓــﺖ‪ .‬ﭘﺲ ﺩﺭ ﻣــﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﻴﻪ ﭘﻤﭗﻫــﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳــﺎﻥ ﻣﺎﻛﺰﻳﻤﻢ )ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ( ﺧــﻮﺩ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺁﺏ ﻛﺎﻓﻰ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻪ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﺳﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﺪﻳــﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻫﻤــﺮﺍﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺗﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺘــﻪ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳــﺮﻯ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫــﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻰ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺧــﺎﺭﺝ ﻛﺮﺩ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺁﻥﻛﻪ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺭﺥ ﺩﻫﺪ ﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯ ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﮔــﺮﺩﺵ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻤﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻛﺎﻫــﺶ ﺩﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﻼﻭﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺳــﺮﻯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻰﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣـﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻨـﺪ ﭘﻤﭗ ﺑـﺮﺍﻯ ﺯﻭﻥﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﻳﺸﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﭼﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺯﻭﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺗﺎ ﻫﺮ ﺯﻭﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺑﻪﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻰﺭﻭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﮔــﺮﻡ ﺧﺮﻭﺟــﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﮓ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻛﻠﻜﺘﻮﺭ ﻣﻰﺭﻭﺩ ﻭ ﺳــﭙﺲ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺪﺷــﺎﺧﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻫﺮ ﺷﺎﺧﻪ ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ ﭘﻤﭗ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺁﺏ ﮔﺮﻡ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺯﻭﻥ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ )ﺷــﻜﻞ ‪ .(13‬ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﺯﻭﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﻛﻠﻜﺘﻮﺭ ﺟﻤﻊﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑــﺮﺍﻯ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺯﻭﻥﻫﺎ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺯﻭﻥ ﺷــﻤﺎﻟﻰ‪ ،‬ﺯﻭﻥ ﺟﻨﻮﺑﻰ‪ ،‬ﺯﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻕ ﻭ ﺯﻭﻥ ﻏﺮﺑﻰ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺷﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻫﻪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨﺎﻝﻫﺎ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﭘﺎﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻯ ﺑﺎ ﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎﻯ ﭘــﺮﻩﺩﺍﺭ )‪Finned Tube Baseboard‬‬ ‫‪ (Heater‬ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺯﻭﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﻪﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺗﺮﻣﻮﺳﺘﺎﺕ ﺯﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻓﺮﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎ ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﭘﻤــﭗ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻢ ﻭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﭘﻤﭗ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻊ ﻭ ﻭﺻﻞ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ )ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ(‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(8‬ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ ﻣﺤﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻼﻗﻰ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﭘﻤﭗ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ‪ -‬ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ‪ -‬ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :a :(9‬ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ‪ -‬ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪ :b .‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ‪ -‬ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﺳﺮ ﺯﻳﺮﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺯﻳﺮﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻭﺭﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪) .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺳﻴﺮﻛﻮﻻﺳﻴﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻴﺪﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪(.‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 14‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬


‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :a :(10‬ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ‪ -‬ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ‪ :b .‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ‪ -‬ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺩﻭ ﺳﺮ ﺯﻳﺮﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪) .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺳﻴﺮﻛﻮﻻﺳﻴﻮﻥ ﻛﺸﻴﺪﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪(.‬‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 15‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(11‬ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ‪ ،‬ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ‪-‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎﻯ ‪ 1‬ﻭ ‪ 2‬ﺑﻪ ‪ 25‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪﺍﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(12‬ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ‪ -‬ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪ 2‬ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ‪ T=51 °F‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭ ﺁﻥ ﻣﻰﮔﺬﺭﺩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺁﺏ ﺧﻨﻚ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺍﻭﻝ ﻣﺨﻠﻮﻁ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻯ ‪ 39FD‬ﻛﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﻯ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺷﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬ ‫ﺳــﻪﺭﺍﻫﻪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺷــﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻫﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻳــﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴــﺐ ﺁﺏ ﺭﻓﺖ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳــﻖ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻛﻨﺎﺭﮔــﺬﺭ ﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﻣﺨﻠﻮﻁ ﻧﻤﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﻫــﻢ ﻣﻰﺁﻭﺭﺩ ﻛــﻪ ‪ GPM‬ﻋﺒﻮﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ ﻣــﺪﺍﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﭘﺎﺭﻩﺑﺎﺭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻋﺒﻮﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﻭ ﻫﻤﺎﻥﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺷــﻜﻞ )‪ (8‬ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ‬ ‫)ﻣﺤﻞ ﺗﻼﻗﻰ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﭘﻤﭗ( ﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﭘﻤﭗ‬ ‫ﺑــﻪ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻣﻰﺭﻭﺩ ﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺩﻭ ﺳــﺮ ﺷــﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻰﻳﺎﺑﺪ‪ .‬ﺷﻜﻞﻫﺎﻯ )‪ (14‬ﻭ )‪ (15‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ )ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎ ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺷﻜﻞﻫﺎ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺷﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬ ‫)‪ (CV‬ﺯﻳــﺮ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫــﺎﻯ ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﻴﺸــﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺷــﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺯﻳﺮﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻭﺭﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﺳــﺖ؛ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦﺭﻭ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑــﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺷــﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ )‪ (BV‬ﻗﺪﺭﻯ ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺩﻭ ﺳﺮ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻃﺮﺍﺡ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﺯ ﺷــﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺩﺳﺘﻰ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﺪﺭﺝ ﻭ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ‬ ‫)‪ (Calibrated Balancing Valve‬ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷــﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺗــﻰ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﻴﺮﻯ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ‪ GPM‬ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻫﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺮﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻳﻜﺴــﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭﻟﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﭘﺎﺭﻩﺑﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﻨﺤﻨــﻰ ﭘﻤﭗ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻣــﻰﺭﻭﺩ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﺠﺎ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺼــﺎﻻﺕ ﻭ ﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻰﻳﺎﺑﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﭘﻤــﭗ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺷــﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﻰﺍﻓﺘﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ ﺭﺥ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑــﺎ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺑــﺎﺭ ﻭ ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚ ﺷــﺪﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝﺷــﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭ ﺳــﺮ ﺷــﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻋﻤــﻼ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺑــﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﭘﻤﭗ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴــﻪ ﺩﻭ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ‬


‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺤﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫‪ Robur‬ﺍﻳﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(13‬ﻫﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻛﻠﻜﺘﻮﺭ ﺭﻓﺖ ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺯﻭﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻐﺬﻳﻪ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :a :(15‬ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ‪ :b .‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺑﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻭ ﭘﺎﺭﻩﺑﺎﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :a :(14‬ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪ :b .‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺑﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻭ ﭘﺎﺭﻩﺑﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﺸــﺎﻥ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻭ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﭘﺎﺭﻩﺑﺎﺭ ﺧﻴﻠﻰ ﺷﺒﻴﻪ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﻫﻢ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ‪ GPM‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺎﺭ ﻛﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺁﻥﻗﺪﺭ ﻛﻢ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﻣﺰﻳﺖ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻰ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ‪ ،‬ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﭘﺎﺭﻩﺑﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻼ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻰﻳﺎﺑﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﭘﺲ ﻣﺸــﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ )ﭘﻤﭗ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ(‪ ،‬ﻫﺮﭼﻨﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺳــﺒﺐ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺷﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻫﻪ‬

‫)ﺑﺮﺧﻼﻑ ﺷﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺳﻪﺭﺍﻫﻪ(‪ ،‬ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﺨﻠﻮﻁ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺁﺏ ﺭﻓﺖ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻧﻤﻰﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺍﻳﻦﻛﻪ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ ﺭﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﭘﻤﭗ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﭘﺎﺭﻩﺑﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻣﻰﺁﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻛﻢ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻰ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ ﻣﺼﺮﻓﻰ ﭘﻤﭗ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﻝ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ‪ GPM ،‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﺩﺵ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ ﺯﻳﺮﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﺵ ﺁﺏ ﺳﺮﺩ ﻳﺎ ﮔﺮﻡ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩﺍﺵ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﺻﻠﻰ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷــﺖ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻨﺪ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﻳﺎ ﺩﻳﮓ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻯ ﻳﻜــﻰ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎ ﻳﺎ ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﭘﻤــﭗ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮﻓﻰ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺩﻳﮓﻫﺎ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﻳﻰ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺟﺎﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﭘﺎﺭﻩﺑﺎﺭ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻛﻞ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﭘﻤﭗ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺷــﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺍﻓﺘﺪ‪ ،‬ﮔﺎﻫﻰ ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﺎﻥ ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺢ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺷــﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘﺎﻃﻰ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺑــﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷــﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺷــﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧــﻪﺍﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳــﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭ ﺷــﻜﻞ )‪ (16‬ﻭ )‪(17‬‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﺎ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻛﻨﺎﺭﮔﺬﺭ )ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ(‬

‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 16‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬


‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(16‬ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﻰ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻧﮕﻪ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻦ ‪ ΔP‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﺻﻠﻰ‬

‫ﻛﻨﺎﺭﮔﺬﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺑﺎﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻧﺨﺴﺖ ﺷﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻛﻨﺎﺭﮔﺬﺭ ﻗﺪﺭﻯ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻭ ﺳــﺮ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺁﺧﺮ )ﻳﺎ ﺟﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﻓﺮﺳﺘﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ( ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻧﺸــﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﭘﻤﭗ ﺣﺪﻭﺩﺍ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺳﭙﺲ ﺑﺎ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﻚ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﻭ ﭘﻤﭗ ﺁﻥ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (18‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸــﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺷﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻫﻪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺷﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻫﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻋﺒﻮﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﺭﻫــﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻢ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻛﻞ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻋﺒﻮﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫‪ 300 GPM‬ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﭘﺲ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻜﻰ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﭘﻤﭗ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺍﻳﻦﻛﺎﺭ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺭﻭﻯ‬ ‫‪ 25‬ﻓﻮﺕ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳــﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﺠﺎ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﻗﺴــﻤﺖ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﭘﻠﻪﺍﻯ ﻛﻢ ﻭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎ ﺣــﺪﻯ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ‬ ‫ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎ ﻭ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﻳﻰ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻰ ﻧﻤﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻯ ﺁﺏ ﺧﻨﻚ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻛﻨﺎﺭﮔﺬﺭ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺯﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﺨﻠﻮﻁ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻰ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺍﻳﻦ ُﺣﺴﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺟﺎﺯﻩ ﻧﻤﻰﺩﻫﺪ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﻨﺤﻨــﻰ ﭘﻤﭗ ﺑﻪ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻭ ﭼﭗ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐﺗﺮ ﺷﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻫﻪ ﻭ ﺁﺳﻴﺐ ﻧﺪﻳﺪﻥ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎ ﻣﻰﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺷﻜﻞﻫﺎﻯ )‪ (19‬ﻭ )‪(20‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 17‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(18‬ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ‪ ،‬ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﺎ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺎﺭﮔﺬﺭ )ﭘﻤﭗ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ(‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(19‬ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ‬ ‫)ﭘﻤﭗ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ(‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻯ ‪ 39FD‬ﻛﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(17‬ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﻰ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻧﮕﻪ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻦ ‪ ΔP‬ﻫﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ ﺯﻳﺮﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ‬


‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺤﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫‪ Robur‬ﺍﻳﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(20‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﭘﺎﺭﻩﺑﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻰ ﻛﻪ ﻓﺮﺳﺘﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ‪ ΔP‬ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ )‪ (1‬ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﺣﺪﻭﺩﺍ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻣﻰﻣﺎﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(21‬ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ ﺣﺪﻭﺩﺍ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻣﻰﻣﺎﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(22‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻰ ﻛﻪ ﻓﺮﺳﺘﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ )‪ (2‬ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (19‬ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ )‪ (21‬ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻓﺮﺳــﺘﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ‪ 2‬ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﭘﺎﺭﻩﺑﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (22‬ﺩﺭﻣﻰﺁﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔــﺎﻉ ﻧﻘﻄــﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﻛــﺮﺩ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﻔــﺎﻉ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺗﺸــﻜﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ‪ ΔP‬ﻓﺮﺳــﺘﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫)‪ (DP Transmitter‬ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻛــﻪ ﺟﺎﻳﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪.‬‬

‫)ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻭﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺩﻭﻡ ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚ ﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪.(1‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻰﻫﺎﻯ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻧﺸــﺎﻥ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ ﻛــﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ‪ GPM‬ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻴﺪﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ )‪ (ΔP‬ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻣﻰﻣﺎﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﻭ ﺷــﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦﻛﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻋﺒﻮﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﺪﻭﺩﺍ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺣﺪﻭﺩﺍ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻣﻰﻣﺎﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 18‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬


‫ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ‬

‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 19‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬

‫ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕــﻰ ﻛﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﺁﻥ ﻣﻮﺿــﻮﻉ ﻣﻬﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺧﻴﺮ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻋﺪﻩﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺻﺎﺣﺐﻧﻈــﺮﺍﻥ ﻭ ﺩﺍﻧﺸــﻤﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫‪ Hydeman ،Didderich ،Bracen‬ﻭ ‪...‬‬ ‫ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﺻﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪﺳــﺎﺯﻯ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮﻓﻰ ﭼﻴﻠــﺮ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛــﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻥ ﻫﺮﭼﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‪ .‬ﺣﺎﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﺑﺴــﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﻰ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦﺭﻭ ﻻﺯﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﮕﻮﺭﻳﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﺷﺮﻛﺖﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺳــﺎﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺍﻟﮕﻮﺭﻳﺘﻢﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﻛﺮﺩﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﺑﺮﺝﻫﺎﻯ ﺧﻨﻚﻛــﻦ ﺑﻪ ﭼﻬﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﻪ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﻭ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺑﺮﺝ‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻛﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﺩﻣــﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ ‪-‬‬ ‫ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺗﻐﺬﻳﻪ‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﻳﻤﻨﻰ‬

‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺑﺮﺝ‬

‫ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﻗــﺪﻡ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻪﻛﺎﺭﮔﻴــﺮﻯ ﺑﺮﺝﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺷــﻦ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻭ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽــﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻫــﺮ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﭘﻤﭗ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ ﻭ ﻳﻚ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻯ ‪ 39FD‬ﻛﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺍﻏﻠــﺐ ﺍﻭﻗــﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻬﻮﻳــﻪ ﻣﻄﺒــﻮ ِﻉ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺑﺎﺭ ﻭ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺗﺮ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﺑﻴــﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻇﺮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷــﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﺍﺟﺎﺯﻩ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷــﻮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﺧﺮﻭﺟــﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ ﻛﻢ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣــﺎﻥ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺳــﺒﺐ ﻛﺎﻫــﺶ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺲ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﻣﻰﻳﺎﺑﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﺮﻳﻔﻴﻮژ ﻭ ﺍﺑﺰﻭﺭﭘﺸﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺎﻝﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺧﻴﺮ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺷﺮﻛﺖﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﻃﻮﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻰﮔﻴــﺮﺩ ﻛــﻪ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﻣــﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻭﺟــﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺑــﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛــﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍ ﺗﺎ ‪ 55‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓــﻦ ﻭ ﻳــﺎ ﺣﺘﺎ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﻛــﺮﺩﻥ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻦﻫــﺎﻯ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ ﺣــﺪﻭﺩ ‪ 10‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ‬ ‫ﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜــﻰ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺳــﺎﻧﺘﺮﻳﻔﻴﻮژ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑــﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴــﻦ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ‪ 2-3‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻰ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦﺭﻭ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻦﻫــﺎ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﺤﺴــﻮﺱ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻕ ﻣﺼﺮﻓﻰ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﻳﻰ ﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ ﻣﺼﺮﻓﻰ ﻛﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺧﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﺍﺣــﺎﻥ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﺝﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴــﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺗﺮ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻴــﺮﻭﻥ ‪ Reset‬ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎ ﺟﺎﻳﻰﻛﻪ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﺧﺮﻭﺟــﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺑﻪ ﺣــﺪﻭﺩ ‪ 60‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﻣﻰﺭﺳــﺪ )ﺑــﺮﺍﻯ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫــﺎ ﺩﻣــﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺎ ‪ 55‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑــﺮﺩ(‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠــﺎ ﺷــﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺑــﺮﺝ ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻛــﺮﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺏ ﺭﻓﺖ ﺑــﻪ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﺁﺏ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﻣﺨﻠﻮﻁ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻧﮕﻪ ﻣﻰﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺨﺼﻮﺹ ﺁﻥ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺷﻦ‬ ‫ﺷــﺪﻥ ﻭ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﺷــﺪﻥ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﻗﻔﻞ )‪ (interlock‬ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴــﻤﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺷــﺮﻭﻉ ﻛﺎﺭ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﭘﻤﭗ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ ﺭﺍﻩ ﺍﻓﺘﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻦ ﺑﺮﺝ ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺷــﻦ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻧﺨﺴــﺖ ﭘﻤﭗ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﺩ ﻭ ﻛﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺁﻳﺎ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ ﺑﺮﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻳﺎ ﻧﻪ؟ ﻭ ﺳﭙﺲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﺟﺮﻳــﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻦ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺮ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﻰ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭ ﻭ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺗــﺎ ﺑﻪﺧﻮﺑﻰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﭼﻴﻠــﺮ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻧــﻰ ﻣﻌﻴﻦﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻃــﺮﻑ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺸــﺨﺺ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻤﻨــﻰ ﭼﻴﻠــﺮ‪ ،‬ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺧﺎﻣــﻮﺵ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧــﻰ ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺑــﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺷــﺮﻭﻉ‪ ،‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ ﻛﻢ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﺸــﻜﻞ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻣــﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻳــﻚ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﻯ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻛــﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻼﺕ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻫﻔﺘــﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﺭﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳﻴــﺰﻯ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺁﻥ ﺧﺎﻣــﻮﺵ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﺖ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﻛﻢ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺮﺝ‬ ‫ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺧﻴﻠﻰ ﻛﻢ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ )ﻣﺜﻼ‬ ‫‪ 65‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ(‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻰ ﺑﺎ ﺷــﺮﻭﻉ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﻝ ﻫﻔﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﺁﻓﺘﺎﺑﻰ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺍﺳــﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﺠﺎ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺭﻭﻯ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎ ﻛﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺗﺸﺘﻚ ﻭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻰﻛﻪ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺷــﻦ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺕ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻳﺎﺩﺷــﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧــﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻣــﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﻴﻦ‬


‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺤﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫‪ Robur‬ﺍﻳﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗــﻮﺭ ﻭ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦﺭﻭ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﻳﻤﻨﻰ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽــﻪ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ ﻳﻜﻰ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫــﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺩﺍﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺍ ِﻋﻤﺎﻝﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺯﻭﺩﺗﺮ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﻗﺪﺭﻯ ﮔﺮﻡ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﭼﻨــﺪ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻛﻨﺎﺭﮔﺬﺭ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻛﻨﺎﺭﮔﺬﺭ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﻳﺎ ﺩﻭ ﺷﻴﺮ ﮔﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻫــﻪ ﻭ ﻛﺎﻫــﺶ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳــﺎﻥ )ﻧﻘﻄﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﭘﻤﭗ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻣﻰﺭﻭﺩ(‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﭘﻤــﭗ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺘــﻰ ﺍﺧﺘــﻼﻑ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺣﺪﺍﻗــﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ‬

‫ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭ ﻭ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﻣﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳــﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺩﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻃﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻓﻮﻕ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻴﻨﻴﻤﻢ ﺁﻥ ﻧﺮﻭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧــﻰ ﺭﺍﻫﺒــﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳــﻦ ﺑﻴــﻢ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳــﺎﻥ ﺁﺏ ﻋﺒﻮﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺭﺳﻮﺏ ﺩﺭ ﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻛﻤﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺗﺮﺳﻰ ﺑﻰﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﭼﻬﺎﺭ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺍﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﺷﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬ ‫ﺳــﻪﺭﺍﻫﻪ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺠﻰ ﺍﻧﺤﺮﺍﻑﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﻫﺎﻧﻪ ﻛﻨﺎﺭﮔﺬﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺑﺎﺯ )‪(NO‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺩﻫﺎﻧﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ )‪ (NC‬ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦﺭﻭ ﺑــﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻰ ﺁﺏ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮﺝ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺭﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑــﺮﺝ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻨﺎﺭﮔﺬﺭ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬

‫ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﺝ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺑــﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ ﮔﺮﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻣﻰﺭﻭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺩﻫﺎﻧﻪ ﻛﻨﺎﺭﮔﺬﺭ ﺷــﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺁﺏ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﮔﺮ ﻟﻮﻟــﻪ ﻛﻨﺎﺭﮔﺬﺭ ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﺝ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﺷــﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺑــﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ ﻧﺼﺐ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻛﻨﺎﺭﮔﺬﺭ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺸﺘﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺝ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺷﻴﺮ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﺎﻻﻯ ﺗﺸﺘﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺝ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷــﻮﺩ )ﺷــﻜﻞ ‪ .(1‬ﻧﺼﺐ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻠﻰ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻫﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻜﺶ ﭘﻤﭗ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻛﺮﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺷــﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻭ ﺳــﺎﻳﺮ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻰﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺗﺸﺘﻚ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻛﻨﺎﺭﮔﺬﺭ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻭﺟــﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺑــﺮﺝ )ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ(‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑــﻪ ﻃــﻮﺭ ﺍﻳﺪﻩﺁﻝ‪ ،‬ﺷــﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺼﻪ ﺧﻄﻰ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻰ ﺷﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻭﺍﻧﻪﺍﻯ ﻣﺸــﺨﺼﻪ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﻣﺴــﺎﻭﻯ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﮔﺮ ﻳﻚ ﺷﻴﺮ ﭘﺮﻭﺍﻧﻪﺍﻯ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺪﺍﻛﺜﺮ ‪ 70‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺩﺵ ﻭ ﺍﻗﺘــﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ‪ 33‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺧﺼﻠﺘــﻰ ﺣــﺪﻭﺩﺍ ﺧﻄــﻰ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫*‬ ‫‪+‬‬ ‫!‬ ‫‬ ‫‬ ‫‬ ‫‬ ‫‬ ‫‪ ,‬‬ ‫‪ Cv‬ﺷﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺍﺯ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ‪+‬‬ ‫‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻣﻰﺁﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ‪ DP‬ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺩﻭ ﺳﺮ ﺷﻴﺮ ﺑﻪ ‪ psi‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻭ ‪ ،GPM‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﮔــﺬﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ DP .‬ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻴﺸــﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺗﻴﻚ ﺑﺮﺝ ﻭ ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ )‪ (1‬ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺷــﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫‪Cv‬ﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﺯ ﺷــﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(1‬ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﻰ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻭ ﺷﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺎﺭﮔﺬﺭ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .a‬ﺑﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻜﺶ‪ .b .‬ﺑﻪ ﺗﺸﺘﻚ ﺑﺮﺝ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﺑﺮﺝ ﻣﺘﺮﺍﺩﻑ ﺑﺎ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﻣــﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﻛﺎﻫــﺶ ﺑﺎﺭ ﭼﻴﻠــﺮ‪ ،‬ﺩﻣــﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻰﻳﺎﺑــﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 20‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬


‫ﺭﻭﺷﻦ‪ -‬ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺩﻩﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﻩ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻫﻢ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﺭﻓﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻰﮔﻴﺮﺩ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻫﻢ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺳﺎﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻣﺎ )‪ .(Throttling Range‬ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ ﻧﻮﺳــﺎﻥ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ‪ 2-3‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺭﺍ ‪ 75‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ ﻧﻮﺳﺎﻥ ﻫﻢ ‪ 3‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻦ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺩﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ ‪ 76.5‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 21‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺳــﺮﺩ ﺷــﺪﻥ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪ ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ ﻛﺎﻫــﺶ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻛﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﻳــﻚ ﺩﺭﺟــﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳــﺖ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻣــﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺳﻴﻜﻞﺗﺮﺍﻛﻤﻰ ‪ 1.5-2.5‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﻳﺎﺑــﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪﻛﻨﻨــﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺳــﺎﻧﺘﺮﻳﻔﻮژ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫‪ 70-75‬ﺩﺭﺟــﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﺍﻋــﻼﻡ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪﻛﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﺎﻥﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﻔﺘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻣﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺗــﺎ ‪ 55‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺩﺍﺩﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﮔﺮﺩﺷــﻰ ﭘﻴﭽﻰ‬ ‫)‪ (Rotary Screw‬ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﻛﻤﺘﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺑــﺮﺍﻯ ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑــﻪ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻤــﻞ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻰ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺍﻳــﻦ ﺩﻣﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺑﺰﻭﺭﭘﺸــﻦ ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺳــﺎﺯﻧﺪﮔﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﺍﻗــﻞ ﺩﻣﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺎ ‪ 55‬ﺩﺭﺟــﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺩﺍﺩﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑــﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ ﺍﻳــﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻃﺮﺍﺡ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻛﺎﺗﺎﻟﻮگﻫﺎﻯ ﺳــﺎﺯﻧﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺣﺴﮕﺮ ﺩﻣﺎ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺑــﺮﺝ )ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ( ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ ،‬ﺳــﻴﮕﻨﺎﻟﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﻓﺮﺳــﺘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝﻛﻨﻨــﺪﻩ ﻧﻴــﺰ ﻓﻦ ﺑﺮﺝ‬ ‫ﺧﻨﻚﻛــﻦ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳــﺖ ﺷــﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪) .‬ﺷﻜﻞ ‪(2‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ )‪ :(1‬ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺷﻴﺮ ﭘﺮﻭﺍﺯﻩﺍﻯ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻛﻨﺎﺭﮔﺬﺭ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ‬

‫ﺷـﻜﻞ )‪ :(2‬ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﻰ ﻛﻨﺘـﺮﻝ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ ‪ -‬ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﺭﻓﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴـﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﺳـﻂ ﺣﺴﮕﺮ ﺩﻣﺎ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷـﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻓﺮﺳﺘﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻧﺨﺴـﺖ ﻓﻦ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺷـﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺷــﻦ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺩﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫‪ 73.5‬ﺩﺭﺟــﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‬ ‫)ﺷﻜﻞ ‪.(3‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺳــﺎﻥ ﺩﻣــﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ ﻧﻮﺳــﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﻳــﻰ ﻛــﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻗﺪﺭﻯ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺟــﺮﻡ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﻭ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻰ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻯ ‪ 39FD‬ﻛﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﻗﻄﻊ ﻭ ﻭﺻﻞ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺝ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ ﻧﻮﺳــﺎﻥ ﺩﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ 2-3 .‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪﺍﻯ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﻳــﻦ ﺩﺍﻣﻨــﻪ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺑﻴــﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻟﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈــﻮﺭ ﺑﻬﺒــﻮﺩ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ‪ -‬ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﻯ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﺭﻭﺷــﻦ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ‬


‫ﻓﻦ ‪ -‬ﺍﺯﻓﻦﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻭﺳﺮﻋﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﻰ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻣﺸــﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻔــﺎﻭﺕ ﻛﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺑــﻪ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‬ ‫)ﺷﻜﻞ ‪.(4‬‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻦﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻭﺳــﺮﻋﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻳــﺪ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺯﻣﺎﻧــﻰ ﻛﻮﭼﻜﻰ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﮕﻮﺭﻳﺘﻢ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ ﺗﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﻪ ﭼﺮﺥﺩﻧﺪﻩﻫﺎ ﺁﺳﻴﺐ ﻧﺮﺳﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺤﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫‪ Robur‬ﺍﻳﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﺑــﻪ ﺟــﺎﻯ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺭﻭﺷــﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻓﻦﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻭﺳــﺮﻋﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵﻫــﺎﻯ ﺩﻳﮕــﺮﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺗﻨﺎﺳــﺒﻰ‬

‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴــﺮ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻦﻫﺎﻳــﻰ ﺑﺎ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳــﻦ ﺩﻭ ﺭﺍﻩ ﺣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﻣﺸــﻜﻼﺗﻰ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦﺭﻭ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻰ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻦﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬ ‫ﻇﺮﻓﻴــﺖ ﺑﺮﺝﻫــﺎﻯ ﺧﻨﻚﻛــﻦ ﺑــﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻦ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽــﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺒﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺑــﺎ ﻗﺪﺭﻯ ﺍﻧﺤﺮﺍﻑ )‪ (offset‬ﺍﺯ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺑﻪﺭﻭ ﻫﺴــﺘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻧﺤﺮﺍﻑ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﺍﻧﺘﮕﺮﺍﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺒﻰ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺒﻰ ﺍﻧﺘﮕﺮﺍﻝ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(3‬ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻰ ﻛﻪ ﻓﻦ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﻭ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(4‬ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ ‪ -‬ﻓﻦ ﺩﻭﺳﺮﻋﺘﻪ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﻳﺎ ‪ PI‬ﻣﻰﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻜــﺮﺩ ﺍﻧﺘﮕــﺮﺍﻝ ﻭﺿﻌﻴــﺖ ﻧﻘﻄــﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺭﺍ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻰﻛــﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ‪ Reset‬ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻣﻰﮔﺮﺩﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦﺭﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ‪Reset‬‬ ‫ﻫﻢ ﻣﻰﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻓﻦﻫــﺎﻯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﺮﺝ‬ ‫ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ‪ PI‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.���‬ ‫ﺑﻪﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻦﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻭﺭﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺑــﺮﺍﻯ ﺑﺮﺝﻫﺎﻯ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪﻛﺮﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻓﻦ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ »ﺳــﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺤﺮﺍﻧﻰ«‬‫ﺧﻮﺩ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ ﻧﻜﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽــﻪ ﺍﺯ ﭼﺮﺥﺩﻧــﺪﻩ ﺑــﺮﺍﻯ ﻓــﻦ‬‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﻳﺪ ﻛــﻪ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻦ ﺑﻪ ﭼﺮﺥ ﺩﻧﺪﻩﻫﺎ ﺁﺳــﻴﺐ ﻧﺮﺳﺎﻧﺪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺻﺪﺍ ﻧﻜﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺷــﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﭘﻤﭗ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻰ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻏﻦﻛﺎﺭﻯ ﭼﺮﺥﺩﻧﺪﻩﻫﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺑﺎ ﺳــﺎﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﺑﺮﺝ ﻣﺸﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺷــﻜﻞ )‪ (5‬ﺍﻧــﺮژﻯ ﻧﺴــﺒﻰ‬‫ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﻳﻰﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺝﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺝﻫﺎ ﺯﻳــﺎﺩ ﺑﺰﺭگ ﻧﺒﺎﺷــﻨﺪ )ﻛﻮﭼﻚﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫‪ 40 hP‬ﻗــﺪﺭﺕ ﻓﻦﻫــﺎ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﻦﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺻﺮﻓﻪ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻯ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻗﻄﻊﻧﻈــﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺰﺭﮔــﻰ ﺑﺮﺝﻫﺎﻯ ﺧﻨﻚ‬‫ﻛﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤــﺮﻙ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻫﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻦﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫــﺎ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺻﺮﻓﻪ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻯ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟــﺖ ﺑﺎﺭ ﻛﻢ )‪ 50‬ﺩﺭﺻــﺪ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﺑﺮﺝ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺘﺮ( ﻣــﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻃﺮﺍﺡ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻭ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻃﺮﺍﺡ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻓﻦ ﻳﻜﻰﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺝﻫﺎ ﻣﺤﺮﻙ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺰﺭگ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺑﺮﺟﻰ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺷــﺮﻭﻉ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻤﻪ ﺑﺮﺝﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﻰﺍﻳﺴﺘﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻣﺤﺮﻙﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺳــﻮﺋﻴﭻ‬‫ﻛﻨﺎﺭﮔﺬﺭ ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻣﺤﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﺑــﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻧﻜﺮﺩ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﻓﻦﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻭﺵ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻝ ﺑﻪﻛﺎﺭ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺧﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻓﻦﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺭﻭﺷــﻦ‪ -‬ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 22‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬


‫ﺣﺘﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻣﺤﺮﻙﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻻﺯﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ ﻳﻚ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺳــﺮﻋﺖ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻦﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺮﻋﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻤﺘــﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﺍﻗــﻞ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﻍ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻦ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳــﻦ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺭﺳــﻴﺪ ﻭ ﻫﻨﻮﺯ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﺑﺮﺝ ﻛﻢ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ‪ -‬ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻓﻦﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻍ ﻧﻜﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑـﻪ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺁﻣﺪﻥ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺷـﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻯ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺝﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻯ ﺗﺸﺘﻚ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙﺍﻧﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑــﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺷــﻦ‪ -‬ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﻓﻦﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻛﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﺑﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺑﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺷــﻴﺮ ﺍﺗﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﻚ ﻗﻄﻊ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺑﺮﺝﻫﺎﻯ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ ﺟﺮﻳــﺎﻥ ﺁﺏ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﺝﻫﺎ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠــﻪ ﻓﻦﻫﺎ ﻧﺨﺴــﺖ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺑﺎﺭ ﻛﻢ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺗﻤﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﺑــﺎ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺝﻫــﺎﻯ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ‪ ،‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦﻛﻪ ﻓﻦ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻣﻘﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺻﺮﻓﻪ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻰﻛﻪ ﺟﺮﻳــﺎﻥ ﺁﺏ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺝ ﺑﺮﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻦ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﭙﺲ ﺑﺎ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺝﻫــﺎﻯ ﺧﻨﻚﻛــﻦ ﻣﺠﻬــﺰ ﺑــﻪ ﻓﻦﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺳﺮﻋﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻦ ﻳﻜﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﺝﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺩﻫﻴﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻣﻘﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺻﺮﻓﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻦﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺩﻫﻴﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺁﺏ ﺗﻐﺬﻳﻪ‬

‫ﻛﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﺁﺏ ﺗﻐﺬﻳــﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳــﻖ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺁﺏ ﺗﺸﺘﻚ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻰﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﻮﺩ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺷﻴﺮ ﺷﻨﺎﻭﺭ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺵ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺑﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﺘﻦ ﺳــﻄﺢ ﺁﺏ‪ ،‬ﺷــﻨﺎﻭﺭ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺷﻴﺮ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﺮﻋﻜﺲ‪ .‬ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻯ ﺷﻴﺮ ﺷﻨﺎﻭﺭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦﺭﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺴـﮕﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﻜﻰ‬ ‫ﺳـﻄﺢ ﺁﺏ ﻭ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫـﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﻜﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻭﺳــﻴﻠﻪ ﺑﻴﺸــﺘﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴــﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺰﺭگ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻰﻛﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﺍﺯ ﭘﺎﺋﻴﻨﻰ ﺭﺳــﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﮕﻨﺎﻟﻰ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺷﻴﺮ ﺳــﻠﻮﻧﻮﺋﻴﺪ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺁﻣﺪﻥ ﺳــﻄﺢ ﺁﺏ ﻭ ﺭﺳﻴﺪﻥ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺳــﻄﺢ ﺑﺎﻻﻳﻰ‪ ،‬ﺳــﻴﮕﻨﺎﻝ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻯ ﺷــﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺳــﻠﻮﻧﻮﺋﻴﺪ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻰﺑﻨﺪﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﻭﺳــﻄﺢ ﻫﺸــﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻳﻰ ﻭ ﭘﺎﺋﻴﻨﻰ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﻋﻼﻡ ﻫﺸﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﻳﻤﻨﻰ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(5‬ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﻳﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻦ ﺩﻭﺳﺮﻋﺘﻪ ﻭ ﻓﻦ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻦ ﻳﻚﺳﺮﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 23‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻯ ‪ 39FD‬ﻛﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺝﻫﺎﻳــﻰ ﻛــﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻯ ﻓﻦﻫــﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻭﺍﻧﻪﺍﻯ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﻪ ﭘﺮﻭﺍﻧﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻌﺎﺵ ﻭ ﺻــﺪﺍ ﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑــﺮ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺻﺪﺍ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﻌﺎﺵ ﻣﺰﺍﺣﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺗﺨﺮﻳﺐ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺳــﺎﺯﻩ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺁﺳــﻴﺐ ﺑﺮﺳﺎﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺳــﻮﺋﻴﭻﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﻼﻡﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺭﺗﻌﺎﺵ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺑﺮﺝﻫﺎﻯ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻓﻨﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺷﺪ ﻭ ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺭﺗﻌﺎﺵ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺋﻴﭻ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻕ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻋﻼﻡ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﻰ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺳﻮﺋﻴﭻ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻥ ﻓــﻦ ﻭ ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺳﻮﺋﻴﭻ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻯ ﻗﺎﺏ ﺿﺪ ﺑﺎﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﺁﺯﺍﺩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺩﻭﺭ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺩﻭﺭ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ ﺑﻪﺟﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻦﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﻦﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺣﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﺨﺴــﺖ ﺁﻥﻛــﻪ ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻫــﺮ ﺩﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺘﺮﺍﺗﮋﻯﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷــﻮﺩ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻟﻰ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺩﺍﺷــﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﮔﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺍﻓﺰﻭﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻰ ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺑﺨﻮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻯ ﺗﻐﻴﻴــﺮ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻦﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﻦ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺁﺏ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻴــﻢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮﺭﺳــﻰ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻕ ﻓﻦﻫــﺎ ﻭ ﭘﻤﭗﻫــﺎ ﺑﭙﺮﺩﺍﺯﻳــﻢ ﻭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺗﺠﺰﻳــﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻛﻨﻴــﻢ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻋﺒﻮﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻨﻰ ﻣﺠﺎﺯ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ ﺷــﺮﻛﺖ‬

‫ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﻧﺸﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑــﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺑﺎﺭ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﺭﺟﺢ ﺍﺳــﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ ﺳــﺮﻋﺖ ﻛﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻦﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﻪ ﭘﺎﺋﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴــﺮ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺳــﭙﺲ ﻓﻦﻫﺎ ﻳﻜــﻰ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻯ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬


‫ﺗﺨﺼﺼﻰ‬

‫ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎﺕ ﺗﻜﻤﻴﻠﻰ ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻛﺎﺭ ﺳﻘﻔﻰ ﻭ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻰ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺻﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺑﺪﻧﻪ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻰ‬

‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺭﻕ ﺁﻫﻨﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ‪ 1 mm‬ﺑﺎ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺒﺎ ﻭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﮔﻮﺷــﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻴﺰ )ﺑﺮﺍﺳــﺎﺱ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﻯ ﺭﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎ(‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﭘﻮﺷــﺶ ﺭﻧﮓ »ﭘﻮﺩﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﺍﺳــﺘﺎﺗﻴﻚ« ﺑﻪ ﺭﻧﮓ ﺳﻔﻴﺪ‬

‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺤﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫‪ Robur‬ﺍﻳﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬

‫‪.RAL 9016‬‬

‫ﺑﺪﻧﻪ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻰ‬

‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺭﻕ ﮔﺎﻟﻮﺍﻧﻴﺰﻩ ﮔﺮﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪DINEN 10142‬‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﮔﺎﻟﻮﺍﻧﻴﺰﻩ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ‪ . 14 μm‬ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻧﻪ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﺎﺷــﻴﻦﺁﻻﺕ ‪ CNC‬ﺑﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲﭘﺬﻳﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺴــﻴﺎﺭ ﺁﺳــﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﻋﺎﻳﻖﻛﺎﺭﻯ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺑﺎ ﻋﺎﻳــﻖ ‪ Poly Foam‬ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ‪ 5 mm‬ﺟﻬﺖ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻖ ﺳــﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻰ ﺑﺪﻧﻪ ﻓﻦ ﻛﻮﻳﻞ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﺭﻳﭽﻪ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻰ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺷــﺒﻜﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺳــﺮﻭﻳﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻨﺲ ‪ ABS‬ﻭ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺗﺎ ﻭﺯﻥ ‪ 150 kg‬ﻭ ﺗﺤﻤــﻞ ﺩﻣﺎ ﺗﺎ ‪ 90 ºC‬ﺑﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﻭ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ‪ .‬ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺡ ﻓﻦ ﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺷﺮﻛﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎﻳﻰ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﻮﻳﻞ‬

‫ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ ﻧﺮﻡﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﻪﺭﻭﺯ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳــﻰ ﺑﺎ ﻟﺤﺎﻅ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﻳﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫● ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻰ ﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺿﺮﻳﺐ ﮔﺬﺭ ﺁﺯﺍﺩ )‪.(By Pass Factor‬‬ ‫● ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ ‪ V-Waffle Fin‬ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺎﺷــﻴﻦﺁﻻﺕ ﺳــﺎﺧﺖ ﻣﺒﺪﻝ ﻫﻮﺍﻳﻰ ﺳــﺎﺧﺖ ‪Burr Oak‬‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻣﻮﺍﺝ ﺳﻴﻨﻮﺳــﻰ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺳــﻄﺢ ﻛﻮﻳــﻞ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻁ ﻭ ﻟﺬﺍ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺿﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﺳــﻄﺢ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻰ ﻣﺒﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫● ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ‪ Hydraulic Vertical Tube Expander‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺧﻂ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦﺁﻻﺕ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫‪ Burr Oak‬ﺁﻣﺮﻳــﻜﺎ ﻭ ﺣــﺬﻑ ﻓﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻫﻮﺍﻳﻰ ﻣﺎﺑﻴــﻦ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻭ ﻓﻴﻦ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍ���ﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺿﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫● ﭼﺮﺑﻰﺷــﻮﻳﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺳــﻄﺢ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻰ ﻭ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻰ ﻣﺒﺪﻝﻫﺎﻯ ﻫﻮﺍﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﺑــﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴــﺮﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺟﺬﺏ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﻏﺒﺎﺭ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﮔﺬﺭﻧﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳــﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﻭ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺮﺗﺎﺳــﺮ ﻣﺪﺕ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻯ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﭼﺮﺑﻰﮔﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ‪ 85 ºC‬ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﻛﻠﻴﻪ ﭼﺮﺑﻰ ﻭ ﺭﻭﻏﻦﻫﺎﻯ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﺒﺪﻝ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺩﻗﺖ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫● ﻧﺼﺐ ﻛﻠﻜﺘــﻮﺭ ﻳﻜﭙﺎﺭﭼﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻨﺲ ‪ Forged Brass‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﻭ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺁﺏ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻦ ﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﻭ ﺗﻘﻮﻳﺖ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺖ ﺁﻥ ﺣﻴﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﻭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸــﻰ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﻓﻦ ﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﻜﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻨﺲ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﺴــﻰ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻗــﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻰﮔﻴﺮﺩﻛﻪ ﺑــﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺟﻮﺷــﻜﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺴــﻴﺎﺭ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﭘﻴﭽﺶ ﺣﻴﻦ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺁﺏ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻧﺼﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫● ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﮔﻴــﺮﻩ ﻣﺨﺼﻮﺹ ‪ 6‬ﭘﻬﻠــﻮﻯ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻰ ﻋﻠﻰﺭﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻛﻠﻜﺘﻮﺭ ﺑﺴــﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻨﺲ ﺑﺮﻧﺞ ﺁﻫﻨﮕﺮﻯ ﺷﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺖ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺳــﻼﻣﺘﻰ ﺍﻳــﻦ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺣﻴﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻧﺼﺐ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

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‫ﻭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻰ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺎﻳﻠﻨﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﻠﺒﺮﻳﻨﮕﻰ ﺑﺎ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﺴــﻴﺎﺭ ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻰ‪ ،‬ﻛﻢ ﺻﺪﺍ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ‪ 2‬ﺳﺎﻝ ﮔﺎﺭﺍﻧﺘﻰ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﮔﻴﺮﻯ ‪Air Vent‬‬

‫ﻓﻦ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ‬

‫ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﻓﻦ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻨﺲ ‪ ABS‬ﺑﺎ ﭘﺮﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ ‪ Air Foil‬ﺑﺎ ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﺻﺪﺍﻯ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻦﻫﺎﻯ ﺁﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮﻣﻰ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺲ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺲ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻰ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻯ ﻧﺎﻓــﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻨﺲ ﺁﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﻬــﺖ ﺍﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﺑﻰﺻﺪﺍﻯ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻭ ﻫﺎﺯﻳﻨﮓ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻨﺲ‬ ‫‪ ABS‬ﻭ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﺳــﺎﺱ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﭘﻴﺸﺘﺎﺯ ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎﻳﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﺮﺻﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺑﻪﺻﻮﺭﺕ ‪ 3‬ﺩﻭﺭ ﺳــﺎﺧﺖ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻟﻴﺴﺎﻧﺲ ﺩﺭ ﺷــﺮﻛﺖ ‪Pioneer‬‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 25‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬

‫ﻓﻴﻮﺯ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺘﻰ‬

‫ﻧﺼﺐ ‪ 3‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﻓﻴﻮﺯ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺘﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﺑﺮﻕ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺑــﻪ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺳــﻮﺧﺘﻦ ﻣﻮﺗــﻮﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺗﺼــﺎﻝ ﻛﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺳﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﺮﻗﻰ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﻠﻴﺪ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﻭﺭ‬

‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺏﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻛﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻰ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻴــﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ 1000000‬ﺑﺎﺭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺭﻭﻛﺶ ﻛﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺟﻨــﺲ ‪ ABS‬ﺑﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﺭﻭﺷــﻦ ﻭ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺳــﺮﻋﺖ‬ ‫ﭼﺮﺧﺶ ﻓﻦ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻨﻮﻉ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬

‫● ﺭﻭﻛﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻻﺯﻥ‬ ‫● ﺭﻭﻛﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺑﻪﺭﻭﺯﻥ‬ ‫● ﺭﻭﻛﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺷﻴﺐﺩﺍﺭ‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻯ ‪ 39FD‬ﻛﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺷﻴﺮ ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺁﭼﺎﺭ ﻣﺨﺼﻮﺹ ﻭ ﻫﺪﺍﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﺖ ﺳﻴﻨﻰ ﺍﺻﻠﻰ )‪ (Drain Pan‬ﻭ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻯ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﺷــﺶ ﺁﺏ ﺍﺯ ﺷــﻴﺮ ﻫﻮﺍﮔﻴﺮﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ )ﻛﻒ ﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻳﺎ ﺳﻘﻒ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺫﺏ( ﻭ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﮔﻰ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺁﺏ ﮔﺎﻫﺎ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﮔﺮﺩﺵ‪.‬‬


‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺤﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫‪ Robur‬ﺍﻳﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬

‫● ﺗﻮﻛﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﭘﻠﻨﻴﻮﻡ ﻭ ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮ ﻫﻮﺍ‬ ‫● ﺗﻮﻛﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﭘﻠﻨﻴﻮﻡ ﻭ ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮ ﻫﻮﺍ‬

‫ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﻭ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻦ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ‬

‫● ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻮﺍﺩﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻣﻰ ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺭﻭﺯ ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫● ﺭﻋﺎﻳــﺖ ﻛﻠﻴﻪ ﻧﻜﺎﺕ ﻛﻠﻴﺪﻯ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻭ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﺳــﺮﻭﻳﺲ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫● ﺗﻀﻤﻴــﻦ ﻛﻴﻔﻴــﺖ ﻭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑــﺎ ﺭﻋﺎﻳــﺖ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻳﻦ ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‬

‫‪ ISO 9001‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺧﺬ ﮔﻮﺍﻫﻴﻨﺎﻣﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ‪ Alliance‬ﺁﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫● ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻛﻴﻔﻰ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻰ ﺍﻗﻼﻡ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﻭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺪﻭﻥ ﻭ ﭘﺮﺳﻨﻞ ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺵ ﺩﻳﺪﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫● ‪ 2‬ﺳــﺎﻝ ﮔﺎﺭﺍﻧﺘﻰ ﺗﻤﺎﻣــﻰ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﻜــﺮﺩ ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪﻯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫● ﺍﺧــﺬ ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺻــﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎﻳﻰ‪.‬‬ ‫● ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ ﺻﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﺎﺯﻩ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﺍﺯ ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 26‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬


‫ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴﺎﺕ ﭘﻤﭙﺎژ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﻯ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 27‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬

‫ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻧﻰ‬

‫ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻧﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭ ﻋﻠﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﻭ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻯ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻯ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫● ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺑــﻪ ﻧﺪﺭﺕ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺷــﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺷــﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻰﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫● ﺩﺭ ﻳــﻚ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﻪ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎ ﻫﻢﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻭﺝ ﺑﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻰﺭﺳﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳــﻦ ﻇﺮﻓﻴــﺖ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣــﺎ ﻧﺒﺎﻳــﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﺑــﺮ ﻣﺠﻤــﻮﻉ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﻛﺎﻫــﺶ ﻣﺠﺎﺯ ﺭﺍ »ﺿﺮﻳﺐ ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻧﻰ«‬ ‫ﻣﻰﮔﻮﻳﻨــﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳــﻦ ﻋــﺪﺩ ﺿﺮﻳﺒﻰ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺠﻤــﻮﻉ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴــﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻯ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻯ ﻣﺠﻤــﻮﻉ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻫﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻳــﺐ ﺍﺧﺘــﻼﻑ ﺑــﺮﺍﻯ ﻳــﻚ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻫﻰ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 0.6‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 0.7‬ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬

‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒــﺎ ﺗﻤــﺎﻡ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﻫــﺎﻯ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻭ ﺑﺴــﻴﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺰﺭگ‬ ‫ﺑــﺎ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ )ﺷــﻜﻞ ‪ .(1‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎ )ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎ( ﺩﺭ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﻰ ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺩﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﺭﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻳﻚ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﻭ ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺑﻮﻳﻠﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺣﻔــﻆ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺷﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﻪﺭﺍﻫﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺒــﻮﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ ﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻛﻠﻰ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻴﺎﻧﺒﺮ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ‪ ،‬ﻛﻢ ﻭ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻗــﻰ ﻣﻰﻣﺎﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﻼﺵﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﻳﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ‬ ‫ﻛــﺮﺩﻥ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺑﺎﻋــﺚ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻧﺎﻛﺎﻓﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻯ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸــﻰ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(1‬ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ ﺑﺎ ﭼﻴﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﺑﻲ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻯ ‪ 39FD‬ﻛﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ »ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻯ« ﺑﻪ ﮔﺮﻭﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﻳــﺎ ﭼﻨﺪ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﻭ ﻳــﺎ ﺑﻮﻳﻠﺮﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺁﺏ ﺳــﺮﺩ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻡ )ﻳﺎ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ( ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻴــﺎﺯ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒــﻮﻉ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻳﻚ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧــﻪ ﻧﺴــﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺒــﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻗــﺮﺍﺭ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﻀﻰ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﻳﺎ ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﻭ ﺑﻮﻳﻠﺮ ﺗﺸــﻜﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺑﻌﻀﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴــﺎﺕ ﺑﺰﺭگ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺮﻭﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪﺍﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪﻯ ﻓﻀﺎﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻫﻰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑــﻪ ﻋﻠﺖ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺑــﻮﺩﻥ ﻓﻀــﺎﻯ ﻣﺤﻮﻃﻪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﻟﻴــﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺳــﻪ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻯ ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﭼﻨﺪ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﻭ ﺑﻮﻳﻠﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺁﺏ ﮔﺮﻡ ﻭ ﺳــﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﭘﺮﺍﻛﻨﺪﻩﺍﻯ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺗﻐﺬﻳﻪ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺭﺳــﻰ ﺗﺎﺳﻴﺴــﺎﺗﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺁﺏﺩﺍﻍ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨــﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠــﺎ ﻣــﺪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﻴﺴــﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻮﻳﻠﺮﻫﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﭘﻤﭗﻫــﺎﻯ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺍﻧﺒﺴــﺎﻁ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﺁﺏ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﺰﺭﻳﻖ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﻣﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺁﺏ ﺳــﺮﺩ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺭﻓﺖ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 40‬ﺗﺎ ‪45‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﻭ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺘﻰ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫‪ 12‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 15‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﻣﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﮔﺮﻡ ﺭﻓﺖ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 160‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 200‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺘﻰ ﺁﻥ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬ ‫‪ 40‬ﺩﺭﺟــﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﻛﺎﻫــﺶ ﻣﻰﻳﺎﺑﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺻ���ﻝ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜــﻰ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﻯ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﻳﻰ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ‬ ‫ﺻﺮﻑﻧﻈــﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺰﺭﮔﻰ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﻯ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﺸــﺎﺑﻪ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺑﺰﺭگﺗﺮ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‪،‬‬

‫ﺿﺮﻳﺐ ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻧﻰ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻰﻳﺎﺑﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﻠﻤﻰ‬


‫ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ )ﻳﺎ ﺑﻮﻳﻠﺮ( ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻰﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺩﺵ ﺁﺏ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﺧــﻞ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋﺚ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸــﺘﺮ ﺷــﺪﻥ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﻣﺨﻠــﻮﻁ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫــﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨــﺪ ﺑــﺎﺯﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧــﺮژﻯ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﺑﺨﺸﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻜﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷــﺪﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻛﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻯ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺷــﻴﺮ ﻣﻴﺎﻧﺒﺮ ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻛﻠﻴﺪ ﺣﺪﻯ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻯ ﺧﻮﺩﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﭼﻴﻠــﺮ ﺩﻭﻡ ﻭ ﭘﻤﭗ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺍﺭﺳــﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺎﻡ ﻫﺸﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺩﻭﻡ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺑﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺑﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻋﻜــﺲ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﻭﻧﺪ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺎﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻻﻳﻞ ﺑﻪﻛﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻯ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‪ ،‬ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﻳﻠﺮ ﻳﺎ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺳﻴﺐ ﺩﻳﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻫﻰ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﻧﻜﺎﺕ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺷﺪﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷــﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺒﻜﻪﻯ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺣﺴﺐ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺁﺏ ﺭﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪﻯ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻫﻰ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﻮﻳﻠﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎ ﺩﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﭼﻴﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺭﺳــﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪﺍﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﻯ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﻭ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺷــﻜﻞ )‪ (3‬ﭼﻴﺪﻣــﺎﻥ ﺑﻬﻴﻨــﻪﺍﻯ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴــﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻯ ﻧﺸــﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ‬

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‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺤﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫‪ Robur‬ﺍﻳﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ‬

‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝﻣﻴﺎﻧﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﭼﻴﺪﻣــﺎﻥ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﻴﺎﻧﺒﺮ ﻧﺸــﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (2‬ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﺷﻴﺮ ﻓﺸﺎﺭﻯ ﻣﻴﺎﻧﺒﺮ‬ ‫)ﺑﺎ ﺳﻴﮕﻨﺎﻝ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻟﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ(‬ ‫ﻭ ﻳــﻚ ﺷــﻴﺮ ﺩﻭ ﺭﺍﻫﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺴــﻴﺮ ﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫــﺪ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺍﺻﻠﻰ ﺁﺏ ﺭﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻟﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺣﺲ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺳﭙﺲ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻟﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﺩﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺷﻴﺮ ﻣﻴﺎﻧﺒﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻋﺒﻮﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﻪﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧــﺪﺍﺯﻩﻯ ﺷــﻴﺮ ﻣﻴﺎﻧﺒﺮ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻳﻚ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﺷــﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻧﺒﺮ ﺑﺎﻳــﺪ ﻛﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎﻯ ﺣﺪﻯ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖﻫﺎﻯ ‪ 10‬ﻭ ‪ 90‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺷــﻴﺮ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸــﺎﻥ ﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺎﺭ ﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻯ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻳﻚ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﻭ ﭘﻤﭗ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﺭ ﻣﻰﺭﻭﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺷﻴﺮ ﻣﻴﺎﻧﺒﺮ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬

‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﻯ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ‪ ،‬ﺁﺏ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﻛﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻰﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﮔﺮﺩﺵ ﺩﺭﻣﻰﺁﻭﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩﻯ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻴﻠﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ‬ ‫)ﻗﺮﺍﺭﮔﺮﻓﺘــﻦ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ( ﻳﺎ ﺧﺎﻣــﻮﺵ )ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭ( ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺳﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻜﻰ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ )ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ‪A‬‬ ‫ﻭ ‪ .(B‬ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸــﻰ )‪ (A-B‬ﻛﻪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﭘﻤﭙﺎژ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ ،‬ﺟﺪﺍﺳﺎﺯ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻰ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(2‬ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ ﺑﺎ ﭼﻴﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻣﻴﺎﻧﺒﺮ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(3‬ﭼﻴﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻭ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﻱ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 28‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬


‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻰ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻰ ﺑﻪﮔﻮﻧﻪﺍﻯ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﺎﻥﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺷــﻜﻞ )‪(7‬‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺧﻂ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻯ ﺑﺎ ﺧﻂ ﺭﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺩﺍﻣــﻪ ﻣﻰﻳﺎﺑﺪ‪ .‬ﺁﻥﮔﺎﻩ ﺧﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸــﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ )ﻭ ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ( ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻣﺴﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺭﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺘﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ‪،‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(4‬ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻛﺸﻲ ﺭﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺘﻲ‬

‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻰ)ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ(‬

‫ﺷــﺒﻜﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻮﺯﻳــﻊ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁﺩﻫﻨــﺪﻩﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﻯ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻯ ﻭ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺳﻪ ﻧﻮﻉ ﭼﻴﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺷــﺒﻜﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸــﻰ ﻭﺟــﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ :‬ﺭﻓﺖ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺘﻰ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ ﻭ ﺣﻠﻘﻮﻯ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻰ ﺭﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻰ ﺭﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺘﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (4‬ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪﻳﻤﻰﺗﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻰ ﻣﻰﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺰﻳﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺳــﺎﺩﮔﻰ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺯﻳﺮﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺭﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻫﺮ ﺍﻧﺸﻌﺎﺏ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﻛﻮﭼﻚﺗﺮ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﭘﻤﭗﻫــﺎ ﺑﺎﻳــﺪ ﺑﻪﮔﻮﻧﻪﺍﻯ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺷــﻮﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻏﻠﺒﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 29‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(5‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻲ ﺭﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(6‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻲ ﺭﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ‪50‬‬

‫ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺩﺑﻲ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻯ ‪ 39FD‬ﻛﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ )ﻳﻌﻨﻰ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺁﻥ ﻛﻢ ﻭ ﻗﻄﺮ ﺁﻥ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ( ﻭ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻳﺎ ﺷﻴﺮﻯ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺴــﻤﺖ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻧﮕﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺘﻰ ﺩﻭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﭘﻤﭙﺎژ ﻳﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻰ ﺟﺪﺍ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﻣــﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﻯ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷــﺖ‪) .‬ﻣﻰﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺷــﺒﻜﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﻓــﺮﺽ ﻛﺮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﻭ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻰ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﭘﻤﭙﺎژ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﻭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻭ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻳﻜﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻯ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ(‪ .‬ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺍﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺭﻓــﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﺪﻩﺁﻝﺗﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﭘﻤﭙﺎژ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺣﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻯ ﭼﻨﺪ ﭘﻤﭗ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺩﻗــﺖ ﻛﺎﻓﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺁﻭﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺷــﺮﺍﻳﻄﻰ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﺑﺎﺭ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻳﻚ ﻳﺎ ﭼﻨﺪ ﭘﻤﭗ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺁﺏﺩﻫﻰ ﭘﻤﭗﻫــﺎﻯ ﺑﺎﻗﻴﻤﺎﻧﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﻭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﺑﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸــﻰ ﻭ ﺍﻓﺖ ﻧﺎﺷــﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳــﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺑﻴــﻦ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﻠﻰ ﺭﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚﺗﺮ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺷــﻮﺍﺭ ﻣﻰﺳــﺎﺯﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ‬ ‫ﺷــﺪﻥ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻜﻞﻫﺎﻯ )‪ 5‬ﻭ ‪ (6‬ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺷــﻜﻞ )‪ (5‬ﭘﺮﻭﻓﻴﻞ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻰ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺁﺏ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺷﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﻰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ ،(6‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫‪ 50‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻧﺎﺷﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺷﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ‪ 25‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ���ﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘــﻼﻑ ﺭﺍ ﺟﺒﺮﺍﻥ ﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﺎﻓــﻪ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪﻯ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺷــﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺑﻌﻀــﻰ ﺍﺯ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺠﺪﺩﺍ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻛﺮﺩ‪.‬‬


‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(8‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻲ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ‬

‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺤﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫‪ Robur‬ﺍﻳﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(7‬ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(9‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻲ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ ﺩﺭ‪50‬‬

‫ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺩﺑﻲ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝﺳﺎﺯﻯ ﺁﻥ ﺁﺳﺎﻥﺗﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻭﻓﻴﻞﻫﺎﻯ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴــﻚ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ‬ ‫ﻭ ‪ 50‬ﺩﺭﺻــﺪ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺑــﻪ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺷــﻜﻞﻫﺎﻯ )‪ 8‬ﻭ ‪ (9‬ﺗﺮﺳﻴﻢ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪﻯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺩﺷﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻰﺣﻠﻘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻣﺤﻮﻃﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻫﻰ ﺑﺰﺭگ ﻳﺎ ﺣﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺰﺭگ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﮋﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺍﻣﺎﻛﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴــﺮﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸــﻰ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺣﻠﻘﻮﻯ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﻚ ﺷﻤﺎﻯ ﺍﺳﺎﺳﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (10‬ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﻯ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺍﺻﻠﻰ ﺣﻠﻘﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻳﻜﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﻯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ‪ 40‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﻯ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻯ ﺍﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺭﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺘﻰ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﻭ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﻣﻰﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﺮ ﺣﻠﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺧﻮﺩﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭ ﺟﻬﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﻰ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻔﺮ ﻣﻰﺭﺳﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ )ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﺩﻝ‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎﺭ( ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺧﻮﺩﻛﺎﺭ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺭ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻳﺎ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﭘﺮﻭﻓﻴﻞ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (11‬ﻓﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﻴﺎﻧﺒﺮ ﺷــﻜﻞ )‪ (2‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻴﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﭘﻤﭙﺎژ ﺷﻜﻞ )‪(3‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻨﻰ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﻪﺍﻯ ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﻯ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻯ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺁﻥﮔﺎﻩ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺁﺏﺩﻫﻰ ﭘﻤﭗ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ )ﺷﻜﻞ ‪ 12‬ﺭﺍ ﺑﺒﻴﻨﻴﺪ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﺑﻂﻫﺎﻯﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﻰ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(10‬ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻲ ﺣﻠﻘﻮﻱ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﻭﻗﺘﻰ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﻯ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻯ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺪﻳــﻦ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺤﺖ ﭘﻮﺷــﺶ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺩﻫــﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧــﺪﺍﺯﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑــﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ‬ ‫ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺑﺨﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻏﻠﺒﻪ ﺑــﺮ ﺍﻓﺖ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 30‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬


‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(11‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻚ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻲ ﺣﻠﻘﻮﻱ ﺑﺎ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﻴﺎﻧﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﻯ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ ﭼﺸﻤﮕﻴﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻯ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻻﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻧــﺮژﻯ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺰﺭگ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﻯ ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻛــﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﻬﻢﺗﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﻯ ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪﺍﺳﺎﺯﻯ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻰ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻘﻴﻪﻯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺖ؛ ﺗﺎ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﭘﻤﭗﻫــﺎﻯ ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﻪ ﻫﻴﭻ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﻯ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺪﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪﮔﻮﻧﻪﺍﻯ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﺑﺮﺳﺪ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﻯ ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻫﻤﻪ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (13‬ﻳﻜﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻣﻮﺳﺘﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺷــﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺘﻰ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻦ ﺍﻳﻦﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺴــﻴﺮ ﻣﻴﺎﻧﺒﺮ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻣﺎﻧﻌﻰ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧــﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺷــﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻓﻘــﻂ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺭﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﻠﻰ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺧﻂ ﻣﻴﺎﻧﺒﺮ ﺑﻪﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﺍﺳﺎﺯ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻰ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻰﻛﻨــﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﭼﻴﺪﻣﺎﻧﻰ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺘﻰ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﻳﺎﻓﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺡ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺟﺎﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺷﺒﻨﻢ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺭﺳﻴﺪﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﺧﻮﺍﺳﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺑﻌﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺯﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻛﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(12‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻚ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻲ ﺣﻠﻘﻮﻱ ﺑﺎ ﭘﻤﭗ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ‬

‫ﺧﻼﺻﻪ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﻫــﺎﻯ ﻣﺮﻛــﺰﻯ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺵﻫــﺎﻯ ﻛﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﻭ ﭼﻴﺪﻣﺎﻥﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﻯ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﻪﻯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﺭﺿﺎﻳﺖﺑﺨﺸﻰ ﻧﺪﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ ﺗﺠﻬﻴــﺰﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ ﭘﻤﭙﺎژ ﺑﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻓﺮﺻﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻯ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﺮﺭﺳــﻰ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻭ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻰ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻧﮕﺮﻓﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺰﻳﻴﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻫﻨﺪﺑﻮﻙ ‪ ،ASHRAE‬ﺟﻠﺪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 31‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(13‬ﺭﺍﺑﻂ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﭘﻤﭗ ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻯ ‪ 39FD‬ﻛﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬


‫ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻯ‬

‫ﺭﺍﻫﻨﻤﺎﻱ ﻋﻴﺐﻳﺎﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ‬

‫ﻟﻴﺴــﺖ ﺑﺮﺭﺳــﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﺑﻪ ﺷــﻤﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺍﻗﺺ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﻛﻤﻚ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺤﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫‪ Robur‬ﺍﻳﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﻋﻴﺐﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺑﺼﺮﻱ‬

‫ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻧﻤﻲﻛﻨﺪ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﻧﺒﻮﺩﻥ ﺑﺮﻕ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﭘﺮﻳﺪﻥ ﻳﺎ ﺳﻮﺧﺘﻦ ﻓﻴﻮﺯ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺑﺎﺯ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺍُﻭﺭﻟﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﺑﺎﺯ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ )ﻛﻠﻴﺪ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﻴﺪ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻ ﻳﺎ ﺗﺮﻣﻮﺳﺘﺎﺕ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺩﻣﺎ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺭﻭﻱ ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﮔﺮﻡﻛﻦ ﺑﺮﻓﻚﺯﺩﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﮔﺮﻓﺘﮕﻲ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﺖ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﮔﻲ ﻭ ﺟﺮﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻫﻮﺍﻱ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﺏﮔﺬﺭﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻤﻞ ﻧﻜﺮﺩﻥ ﻓﻦ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﮔﺮﻓﺘﮕﻲ ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭ ﺑﺎ ﻳﺦ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﻋﻤﻞ ﻧﻜﺮﺩﻥ ﻓﻦ ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -8‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺣﺒﺎﺏ ﺩﺭ ﺷﻴﺸﻪ ﺭﻭﻳﺖ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ )ﺳﺎﻳﺖﮔﻼﺱ( )ﻛﻤﺒﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -9‬ﮔﺮﻓﺘﮕﻲ ﺧﻂ ﻣﺎﻳﻊ )ﮔﺮﻓﺘﮕﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﻳﺮ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -10‬ﭘﺎﺭﻩ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻳﺎ ﺷﻞ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺗﺴﻤﻪ ﻣﺤﺮﻙ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -11‬ﺷــﻞ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺣﺒﺎﺏ ﺷﻴﺮ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺧﻂ ﻣﻜﺶ )ﻛﺎﻣﻼ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺑﺪﻧﻪ ﻧﭽﺴﺒﻴﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ( ﻳﺎ ﺷﻜﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻮﻳﻴﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻭﺻﺪﺍﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﭘﺮﻩﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻦ ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭ ﻳﺎ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺪﻧﻪ ﻓﻦ ﺗﻤﺎﺱ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻟﻘﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺧﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺷﻴﺸــﻪ ﺭﻭﻳﺖ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ )ﻛﻤﺒﻮﺩ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺳــﺮ ﺳــﻴﻠﻨﺪﺭ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﻳﺦﺯﺩﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ )ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﭘﻤﭗ ﻣﺎﻳﻊ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻟﻖ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﻗﺮﻗﺮﻩ )ﭘﻮﻟﻲ( ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﭼﺮﺥ ﻃﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺤﻞ‬

‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ )ﭘﺎﻳﻪ( )ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻣﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ(‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﺸﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﭼﺸﻤﻲ ﻧﻘﺼﻲ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻧﮕﺮﺩﻳﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﮔﻴﺞﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﭘﻤﭗ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻓﺸﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺩﻫﺶ ﺑﺎﻻ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺷﺎﺭژ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻛﺜﻴــﻒ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﮔــﺮﺩﺵ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺁﺏ ﻛﺎﻓﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻲ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺩﻫﺶ ﻛﻢ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻛﻤﺒﻮﺩ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻫﻲ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ )ﻧﺎﻛﺎﺭﺁﻣﺪ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻣﻜﺶ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻫﻲ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺷــﺎﺭژ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ )ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻮﻳﻴﻦ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻣﻌﻴﻮﺏ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺷﻴﺮ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻲﻛﻪ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﺮﻓﻚﺯﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻣﻜﺶ ﻛﻢ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻛﻤﺒﻮﺩ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﮔﺮﻓﺘﮕﻲ ﺷﻴﺮ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻌﻴﻮﺏ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺁﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﮔﺮﻓﺘﮕﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻂ ﻣﺎﻳﻊ‪ ،‬ﺷﻴﺮ ﺑﺮﻗﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺷﻴﺮ ﻗﻄﻊﻛﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﮔﺮﻓﺘﮕــﻲ ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗــﻮﺭ )ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺗــﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺣــﺪ ﺑــﻮﺩﻥ ﺑﺮﻓــﻚ ﺭﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭ(‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 32‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬


‫‪ -5‬ﻛﺎﺭ ﻧﻜﺮﺩﻥ ﻓﻦ ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻣﻌﻴﻮﺏ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﭘﻤﭗ ﺁﺏ ﻳﺎ ﺻﺎﻓﻲ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﭼﻴﻠﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟـﻪ‪ :‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺩﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻫﺮ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻂ ﻣﺎﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻥﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﮕﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻋﻴﺐ ﭘﻴﺸﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬

‫ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﺷﻴﺮ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺳﺎﺑﻜﻮﻝ )ﻣﺎﺩﻭﻥ ﺳﺮﺩ( ﺩﺭ ﻣﺎﻳﻊ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺷﻴﺮ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻧﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻣﺤﻞ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺣﺒﺎﺏ ﺷــﻴﺮ ﺍﻧﺒﺴــﺎﻁ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺳــﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ )ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﺩ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﺷــﻴﺮ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ ﻳﺦ ﻳﺎ ﺷﻲء ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﮕﻲ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻣﺤﻞ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 33‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬

‫ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻥ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻛــﻢ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﻱ ﮔﻴــﺞ ﻣﺮﻛﺐ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨــﮕﺎﻡ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺗﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻱ ﺩﺭﺳــﺖ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻧﻜﺮﺩﻥ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻧﻤﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺘﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺩﻣﺎﻱ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺩﻣﺎﻱ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻏﺬﺍﻳﻲ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﻚﻓﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺳﻪ ﻓﺎﺯ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﻳﻤﻮﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﻳﻮ‬

‫ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻧﻤﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﭘﺮﻳﺪﻥ ﻓﻴﻮﺯ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﻧﺒﻮﺩﻥ ﺑﺮﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨﺎﻝﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﺑﺎﺯ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻭﺭﻟﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﺑﺎﺯ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﺳﻮﺧﺘﻦ ﺳﻴﻢﭘﻴﭽﻲ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﺳﻌﻲﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺍﻣﺎ ﻧﻤﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺑﺮﻕﺭﺳﺎﻧﻲ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﻢﭘﻴﭻﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ )ﺳﻪﻓﺎﺯ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻭﻟﺘﺎژ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺑﺮﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺑﺎﺯ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺧﺎﺯﻥ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻤﻞ ﻧﻜﺮﺩﻥ ﺭﻟﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﺑﺎﺯ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺳﻴﻢﭘﻴﭻ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﮔﻴﺮﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﭘﻴﺴــﺘﻮﻥ ﻳﺎ ﭘﺮﻩ ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ ﻗﻄﻌﻪﺍﻱ ﺷﻜﺴﺘﻪ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﮔﻴﺮ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻧﻤﻲﻳﺎﺑﺪ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺳﻴﻢﻛﺸﻲ ﻏﻠﻂ ﺳﻴﻢﭘﻴﭽﻲ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ )ﺳﻪ ﻓﺎﺯ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻭﻟﺘﺎژ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ )ﺳﻪ ﻓﺎﺯ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻣﻌﻴﻮﺏ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺭﻟﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻣﻌﻴﻮﺏ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺧﺎﺯﻥ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺩﻫﺶ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﺳﻴﻢﭘﻴﭽﻲ ﺳــﺘﺎﺭﻩ‪ -‬ﻣﺜﻠﺚ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﺭ ﻧﻤﻲﺭﻭﺩ‬ ‫)ﺳﻪ ﻓﺎﺯ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻜﻞﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻛﻢ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻧﺸﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﺳﻮﭘﺎپ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺍﻭﺭﻟﻮﺩ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻛﻤﺒﻮﺩ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻣﻌﻴﻮﺏ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺷﻴﺮ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻳﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﻗﻄﻊﻛﻦ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﻢ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ )ﻛﻠﻴﺪ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ(‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻯ ‪ 39FD‬ﻛﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺻﺪﺍﻱ ﺗﻖﺗﻖ ﻣﺎﻳﻊ ﺩﺭ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳـﻮﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻲﻛﻪ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺷﻴﺮ ﺩﻫﺶ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﺍﺟﺎﺯﻩ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﻣﺎﻳﻊ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪) .‬ﻣﺒﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺩﻫﺶ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺲ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻴﺪﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﺎ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﺷﻮﺩ‪(.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺩﻣﺎﻱ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺲ )ﻣﺒﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ(‬ ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻲﻛﻪ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺩﻫﺶ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﻣﻲﺷــﻮﺩ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺗﻲ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﻲﺷــﻮﻧﺪ ﻳﺎ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ ﺯﻣﺴــﺘﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨــﺪ‪ ،‬ﻳﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺩﻣﺎﻱ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﻛﻢ ﻭ ﺳــﻴﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺷﻲ ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻲ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﻣﺎﻳﻊ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺳــﻴﻠﻨﺪﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻲ ﺭﺥ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻪﻃﻮﺭ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺎﻱ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻧﮕﻴﺮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻜﺶ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻣﺎﻱ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﻛﻢ ﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻋﺎﻳﻖﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺳﺮﺩ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺲ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻜﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲﻛﻪ ﻛﻨﺪﺍﻧﺲ ﺩﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻜﺶ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻣﻲﺍﻓﺘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﺖ ﺳﻴﻠﻨﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﻛﺸﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻟﻮﻟــﻪ ﻣﻜــﺶ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺭﺍﻳــﺰﺭ‪ ،‬ﻳﻚ ﺭﻳــﺰﺵ ﺁﺯﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﻟﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻲ ﺭﺥ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﭘﻲ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺗﻠﻪ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺩﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻜﺶ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﺻﻼﺡ ﻣﻲﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺣﺒﺎﺏ ﺷــﻴﺮ ﺍﻧﺒﺴــﺎﻁ ﺑﺎ ﺧﻂ ﻣﻜﺶ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦﻛﻪ ﺣﺒﺎﺏ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻲﻛﻪ ﮔﺮﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻧﺼﺐ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪﻩ‪ .‬ﺣﺒﺎﺏ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﺮ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻣﺎ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ؛ ﻛﻪ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﻧﺼﺐ‬ ‫ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﭘﺮ ﺷــﺪﻥ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪ ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﺷــﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﻣﺎﻳﻊ ﺑﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻜﺶ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺭﺥ ﺩﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻝ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻜﺶ ﻛﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺻﺪﺍﻱ ﺗﻖﺗﻖ ﻣﺎﻳﻊ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﻢ ﻳﺎ ﺳﻮﭘﺮﻫﻴﺖ ﻣﻜﺶ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻣﻜﺶ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﻢ ﻳﺎ ﺳﻮﭘﺮﻫﻴﺖ ﻣﻜﺶ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ‬


‫ﻋﻠﻤﻰ‬

‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺤﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫‪ Robur‬ﺍﻳﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫــﺎ ﺑــﻪ ﺍﻧــﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻓــﻮﻻﺩﻯ ﻭ ﺁﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮﻣــﻰ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﭘﺎﻧﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﺴــﻴﻢ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺑــﻪ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭ ﭘﺎﻧﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻳﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺁﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺷــﻤﺎﻟﻰ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﺪﺗﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﺝ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﭘﺎﻧﻠﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺷﻜﻞﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻃﺮﺡﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺭﻧﮓﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺑﻴﻦﺍﻟﻤﻠﻠﻰ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﭘﺎﻧﻠﻰ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺭﻕ ﻓﻮﻻﺩ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﭘﺎﻧﻞﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻧﻴﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺎﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺧﻮﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻧﻠﻰ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﻯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ )‪ (Radiation‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺩﻫﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴــﻤﻰ ﻛﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ‪ 5‬ﺳــﺎﻧﺘﻰﻣﺘﺮ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﺍﺟﺴــﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﺧــﻞ ﺍﺗﺎﻕ ﺭﺍ ﮔﺮﻡ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﺮﻗﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﺎﻧﻞﻫﺎ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﻧﺴــﺒﺖ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﻧﺎﺷﻰ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﻧﺎﺷﻰ ﺍﺯ ﻛﻨﻮﻛﺴﻴﻮﻥ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻼﺣﻈــﻪﺍﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻻﻳﻪﺑﻨﺪﻯ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺗﺎﻕ ﻛﻢ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺁﺳﺎﻳﺶ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(1‬ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻳﻚ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭ ﭘﺎﻧﻠﻰ‬

‫ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺎﻥ ﻣﻰﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﭘﺎﻧﻠﻰ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻯ ﻫﻢ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻛﻨﻮﻛﺴــﻴﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﻨــﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻳــﻚ ﻳﺎ ﭼﻨﺪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﺑﻪ ﭘﺮﻩ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﭘﻬﻨﺎﻯ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻫﻢ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺤﻮﻯ ﻛﻪ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ‪ 10-20‬ﺳــﺎﻧﺘﻰﻣﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﻰﺯﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽــﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﮔﺮﻡ ﺑﺎﻻﺭﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥﻫﺎﻯ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﺳﺮﺩ ﭘﺎﺋﻴﻦﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﺠﺎﻭﺭ ﭘﻨﺠﺮﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑــﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦﻛﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻛﻨﻮﻛﺴــﻴﻮﻥ ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﺮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﻰ ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﭘﺸﺖ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﻧﺪ ﻭ ‪ 15-20‬ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻰﻣﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻛﻒ ﺍﺗﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻰﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻗﻄﺮ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎ ‪ 34‬ﻭ ‪ 12‬ﺍﻳﻨﭻ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (1‬ﻳﻚ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﻯ ‪ PEX-AL-PEX‬ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷـﻜﻞ )‪ :(2‬ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺷـﻴﺮ ﺗﺮﻣﻮﺳـﺘﺎﺗﻴﻚ ﻣﺨﺼﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗـﻮﺭ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺭﺍﻳﺰﺭ ﺭﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺷـﻴﺮ ﻗﻔﻠـﻰ )‪(Lockshild‬‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﺭﺍﻳﺰﺭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ‪) .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻫﻢ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﻣﺎ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﮔﻴﺮﺩ ﻭ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻛﺮﺩ‪(.‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤ��� ‪ / 34‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬


‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ )‪ :(1-a‬ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﭘﺎﻧﻠﻰ‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ )‪ :(1-b‬ﺿﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﺻﻼﺡ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﭘﺎﻧﻠﻰ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺷــﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻣﻮﺳــﺘﺎﺗﻴﻚ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭ ﻛﻪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺘﻦ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭ ﻭ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﺷﻴﺮ ﻗﻄﻊ ﻭ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﺷﻴﺮ ﻗﻔﻠﻰ )‪ (Lock Shield‬ﺑﺎ ﻣﻬﺮﻩ ﻣﺎﺳﻮﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﺧﻮﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﭘﺎﻧﻠﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺣﻮﻟﻪﺧﺸﻚﻛﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺪﺍﺷﺘﻰ ﻭ ﺣﻤﺎﻡ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺷﭙﺰﺧﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪) .‬ﺷﻜﻞ ‪(2‬‬

‫ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪﻩﻯ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺏﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫـﺎﻯ ﻃـﺮﺡ ﺻﺒـﺎ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪﺷـﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺏﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻣـﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺸﺮﻓﺘﻪﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺪﻫﺎﻯ ﺳـﺎﺧﺖ ﻭ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﭘﻴﺸﺮﻓﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﻯﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺴـﻜﻮﻧﻰ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻯ ﻭ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻣﻰﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 35‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻯ ‪ 39FD‬ﻛﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﭘﺎﻧﻠﻰ‬

‫ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻰ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﭘﺎﻧﻠﻰ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻳﻚ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺳــﻮﻯ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪﻛﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺑﺎ ‪ 65‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ‬

‫ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﻣﻰﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺣﺎﻟﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺿﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﺻﻼﺡ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪﻯ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﻚ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻭ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﺻﻼﺡ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ )‪ (1‬ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬


‫ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ‬

‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺤﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫‪ Robur‬ﺍﻳﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭﺳﺎﺯ ﻧﺸﺘﻰ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻧﺸﺘﻰ‪ ،‬ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻳﺎ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺗﺒﺮﻳﺪ ﺑﺴــﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﻗــﺖ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧــﺖ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪﻫــﺎﻯ ﮔﺰﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺪﺭ ﺭﻓﺘﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺮژﻱ ﻭ ﭘﻮﻝ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻯ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳــﻦ ﻣﺪﺕ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳــﺶ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺩ؛ ﻛﻪ ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﺑــﺮﺍﻯ ﻣــﺪﺕ ﺯﻳــﺎﺩﻯ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺑﻴﻔﺘــﺪ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﮕﻴﻨﻰ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﻛﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﺖ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﻰ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻧﺎﻛﺎﻓﻰ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻏــﻦﻛﺎﺭﻯ ﻭ ﺧﻨﻚﻛﺎﺭﻱ ﺑــﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﻴﺎﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﻛﺎﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﺗــﺎ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺱ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑــﺎ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻟﺮﻫــﺎﻯ ﮔﻮﻧﺎﮔﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺷﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺩﺳﺖ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﺭﻧﮕﻰ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﺒﺮﻳﺪ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ ﻣﺒﺮﺩﻫﺎﻯ ﺭﻧﮕﻰ ﻛﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺸﺘﻰ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﺼــﺮﻯ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﻣﻰﺳــﺎﺯﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺷــﺎﺭژ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺮﺩﻫــﺎﻱ ﺭﻧﮕﻰ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﻣﻰﺟﻮﻳﻨﺪ ﻫﻤﻴﺸــﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺩﺍﺷــﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﺎﻳﻊ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺷﺎﺭژ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿــﻮﻉ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﻜﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﻲ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺸــﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ ﻣﻲﺭﻭﺩ ﻭ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﻭﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣــﺎﺩﻩ ﺭﻧﮕﻰ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻟﺤﺎﻅ ﺁﻧﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﮕﻴﻦﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺟﺪﺍ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻯ ﺳﻴﻠﻨﺪﺭ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺟﻤﻊ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻰﻛﻪ ﻣﻰﺧﻮﺍﻫﻴﺪ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ‬

‫ﺭﻧﮕﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺷﺎﺭژ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻴﺪ ﺳﻴﻠﻨﺪﺭ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻓﻘﻰ ﻗــﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻳﺎ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺁﺭﺍﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻥ ﺩﻫﻴﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺗﺴــﺖ ﻧﺸــﺘﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺮﻳــﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴــﺎﺕ ﺳــﺮﻭﻳﺲ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴــﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺣﺘﻤﺎ ﻗﺒﻼ ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﻣﮕﺮ ﺁﻧﻜﻪ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻫــﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻧﺸــﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ‪) 30 psig‬ﭘﻮﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺑــﺮ ﺍﻳﻨﭻ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ( ﻳﺎ ‪ 2 bar‬ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻧﺸﺘﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﻧﺸــﺪ‪ ،‬ﺁﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩﻯ‪ ،‬ﻣﺠﺪﺩﺍ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺟﺴــﺘﺠﻮﻱ ﻧﺸــﺘﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻗﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺣﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝﺗﺮﻳــﻦ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺯﺍﻥﺗﺮﻳــﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳــﺶ ﺣﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻟــﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺏ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺑﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺁﺭﺍﻣﻰ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻭ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺸــﺘﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻗﺴــﻤﺖﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺪﻩ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﺳﭙﺮﻯ ﭘﺎﺷﻴﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺼــﻮﺹ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﻛــﻪ ﺑﻪﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺁﻣﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﭘﻴﺸــﻨﻬﺎﺩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺯﻳﺮﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺴــﻜﻮﺯﻳﺘﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺻﺎﺑﻮﻥ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻟﺬﺍ ﺣﺒﺎﺏﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺷــﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳﺪﺍﺭﺗــﺮ ﻭ ﻗﻮﻯﺗﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑــﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﻰﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺒﺎﺏﻫﺎﻯ ﺣﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺏ ﻭ ﺻﺎﺑﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﻰ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﻋﻤﺪﺗﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻰﺭﻭﻧﺪ ﻭ ﻧﺎﭘﺎﻳﺪﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻴﺐ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺣﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻰﻛﻪ ﻧﺸــﺘﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨﺸﻲ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﺸــﺘﻰ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺁﻧﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺒﺎﺑــﻰ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻴــﺎﻥ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺛﺮﻯ ﺑﺮﺟﺎﻯ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮔﺬﺍﺷﺖ ﺍﮔﺮﭼﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺻﺪﺍﻯ ﻧﺸــﺘﻰ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻨﻴﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺸﻌﻞ ﻫﺎﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺍﺯ ﺷــﻌﻠﻪﺍﻯ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﻻﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﭙﺴــﻮﻟﻰ ﺍﺯ ﮔﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺑــﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺜــﺎﻝ ﭘﺮﻭﭘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻓﺮﻭﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺸﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﺷــﻴﺮ ﺩﺳــﺘﻰ ﻭ ﻭﻧﺘﻮﺭﻯ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺤﻔﻈﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻁ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﻳﻚ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺟﺴــﺘﺠﻮﮔﺮ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﻣﻰﮔﺮﺩﺩ ﺗﺸــﻜﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﻻﻯ ﺍﺭﻓﻴﺲ ﻣﺸــﻌﻞ ﻳﻚ ﺣﻠﻘﻪ ﻣﺴﻰ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻰﻛﻪ ﻣﺸﻌﻞ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﮔﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺭﺳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻰﻛﻪ ﻣﺸــﻌﻞ ﺭﻭﺷــﻦ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻫــﻮﺍ ﺑــﻪ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﻭﻧﺘــﻮﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳــﻖ ﻟﻮﻟــﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﺴــﺘﺠﻮﮔﺮ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺷــﻌﻠﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺁﺭﺍﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑــﺎ ﺭﻧــﮓ ﺁﺑﻰ ﻳﺎ ﺑــﺪﻭﻥ ﺭﻧﮓ ﻣﻰﺳــﻮﺯﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻰﻛــﻪ ﺍﺛــﺮﻯ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺒﺮﺩﻫــﺎﻯ ﻫﺎﻟــﻮژﻥ‬ ‫)‪ R502 ,R500 ,R22 ,R12 ,R11‬ﻭ ‪(...‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻫﻮﺍ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﺭﻧﮓ ﺷﻌﻠﻪ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺳــﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﺖ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺎ ﺣﻠﻘﻪ ﻣﺴــﻰ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺩﺍﻍ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻰﻛﻨــﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺭﻧﮓ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻃﻴﻒ ﺳــﺒﺰ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻧﺸــﺘﻰ ﻛﻢ ﺗﺎ ﺁﺑﻰ ﺗﻴﺮﻩ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻔﺶ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻧﺸﺘﻰ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻴﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺳﻮﺧﺘﻦ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﻫﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﻰ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺗﺴﺖ ﻧﺸــﺘﻰ‪ ،‬ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺟﺴﺘﺠﻮﮔﺮ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻣﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻘﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻰﺭﻭﺩ ﻧﺸﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 36‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬


‫ﺩﺭ ﺁﻧﺠــﺎ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻴﻢ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻬﺖ ﻫﺮﭼﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﺁﻣﺪﺗﺮ ﺷــﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ‪ ،‬ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 37‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﺮﻑ ﻧﺴﻠﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻑ ﻧﺴﻠﺮ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭﺳﺎﺯﻯ ﻧﺸﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﺳــﺮﺩﻯ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻰﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻰ ﺑﺎ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺑــﻪ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﮔﺮﺩﺵ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽــﻪ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴــﺎﻙ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺏ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻴﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻛﻨﺶ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺭﻧﮓ ﺁﺏ ﺑﻪ ﻗﻬﻮﻩﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻰﻳﺎﺑﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻧﺸﺖ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻳــﻦ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻰﻛﻪ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ﻳــﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲﻛﻪ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺍﺯ ﮔﺎﺯ ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻭژﻥ ﺧﺎﻟﺺ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﮔﺎﺯ ﭘﺮﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻭژﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎﺭﻯ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺩﺳﺖ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬ ‫ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻧﻰ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻝ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻰﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫)‪ 500 psi (33 bar‬ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧــﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﻗــﻊ ﺍﻳــﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺗﻨﻬــﺎ ﺭﻭﺵ‬ ‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳــﺶ ﺑــﺮﺍﻯ ﺷــﺒﻜﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸــﻰ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻨﺪﻩ ﻧﻮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺟﻬ��� ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻣﺤﻔﻈﻪ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺩﻋﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﻘﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﻜﻪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺭﺳﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺗﺴﺖ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻋﺎﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﺻﺮﻑﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﻜﻪ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺷﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ ﻣﻜﺶ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﺸــﻴﻤﻦ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻠﻮ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﻫﺮﮔﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﺪﻣﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳــﻮﭘﺎپﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻳﻖﺑﻨﺪﻯﻫــﺎﻯ ﻣﻴﻞﻟﻨــﮓ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻝﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻭ ﻧﻴﻤﻪﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ﻭ ﻧﺸﻜﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻰ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻟﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻗﻄﻊ ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﺑﺎﻯِﭘﺲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺷﻴﺮ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺪﺍﺷﺖ‪ ،‬ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺎﻯﭘﺲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﭙﺴــﻮﻝ ﻧﻴﺘــﺮﻭژﻥ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﺠﻬــﺰ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺭﮔﻼﺗﻮﺭ ﺗﺎﻳﻴﺪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑــﻪ ﺩﻻﻳﻞ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺘﻰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺒﻴﻪ ﻳﻚ ﺷﻴﺮ ﺍﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎﻥ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﻜﻪ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬

‫ﺷﻤﻊ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳــﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﺷــﻤﻊ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﻤﻊ ﻗﻠﻤﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻭﻗﺘﻰ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ‬ ‫ﺷــﻮﺩ ﮔﺎﺯ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮﺭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻰﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻦ ﻧﺸﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻛــﻰ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻰﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺻﻠﻪﺍﻱ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻯ ﻧﺸﺘﻰ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮﺭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺳﻔﻴﺪ ﺭﻧﮕﻰ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻰﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺮﺩﻭ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﻭ ﺳــﻮﻟﻔﻮﺭ ﺳــﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻓﻰ ﺗﺪﺍﺭﻙ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺸــﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺳﻤﻰ ﺗﺪﺍﺑﻴﺮ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻧﺸﺘﻰ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﺑﻪﻭﺍﺳﻄﻪ ﺑﻮﻯ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺯﺍﻯ ﻫــﺮ ‪ 3‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 5 ppm‬ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﺣﺘﻰ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺣــﺪﻭﺩ ‪ 15 ppm‬ﺑﺨــﺎﺭ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺳــﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ‪ ،30 ppm‬ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺎﺳــﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﺴﻰ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻯ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫‪ 5000 ppm‬ﻛﺸﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻭ ﺣﺪﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﺪﺕ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﺠﺎﺯﻱ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻰ ﺑﺎ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫‪ 50 ppm‬ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ 5 ،‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴــﺎﻙ ﺩﺭ ‪ 150000‬ﺗﺎ ‪270000 ppm‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﺷﺘﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺮﺩﻫﺎﻯ ﻫﺎﻟﻮژﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺗﻰ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺪ ﻫﺎﻟــﻮژﻥ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻓﻠﻮﺋﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﻡ ﻳﺎ ﻳﺪ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻯ ‪ 39FD‬ﻛﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻧﺸﺖﻳﺎﺏﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﻜﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻳــﻦ ﻭﺳــﻴﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﺴــﺎﺱﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﮔﻮﻧــﻪ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭﺳﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﻧﺸﺘﻰ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻃﺮﺡﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﻣﺪﻝﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻥ ﭘﺎﺳــﺦ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﻣﺪﻝﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺗﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺩﻣﺎ )ﺗﺮﻣﻴﺴــﺘﻮﺭ( ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻝﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻯﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻚ ﺑﺮﺍﺳــﺎﺱ ﺭﺳــﺎﻧﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﮔﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﮔﻮﻧﺎﮔﻮﻥ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭﺳــﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻯ ﺑﺎﻃﺮﻯ ﺧﺸﻚ‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻰﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭ ﻳﺎ ﻧﻮﻙ )ﻗﻠﻢ(‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻦ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ؛ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻗﻠﻢﻫﺎ ﻫﻤﻴﺸﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻋﺎﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﮔﻰ ﻭ ﺟﺮﻡ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻯ ﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺎ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻗﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭﺳﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺟﻨﺐ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺗﺴﺖ ﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﺳــﻴﮕﻨﺎﻝ ﺻﺪﺍﻳﻰ )ﺑﻮﻕ( ﺍﻋﻼﻡ ﻣﻰﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺣﺪﻭﺩﺍ ﻳﻚ ﺑﻮﻕ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻰﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﻫﺎﻟﻮژﻧﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭ ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭﺳﺎﺯ ﺗﻤﺎﺱ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻋﻼﻡ ﺳﻴﮕﻨﺎﻝ ﺷﺪﺕ ﻣﻰﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﻧﺸﺖ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺸﺘﻰ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺳﻴﮕﻨﺎﻝ ﻣﻤﺘﺪ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺳﺎﻧﻰ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻰ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺐ ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭﺳﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﺖ ﺣﺴــﺎﺱ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺠﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﻟﺤﻈﻪﺍﻯ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻀﺎ ﻋﻜﺲﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻴــﻦ ﻋﻠﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺟﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻧﺸــﺘﻰ ﻧﺎﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻰﻣﺎﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭﺳﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﻜﻲ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻕ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﺎﻳﻖﻫﺎﻯ ﻓﻮﻣﻰ‪ ،‬ﺣﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻟﺬﺍ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺸﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻓﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨــﮕﺎﻡ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭﺳــﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﻜﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺘﻲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺟﺎﺑﻪﺟﺎﻳﻰ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﻟﺬﺍ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻦﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺤﻮﻃﻪ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻰﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻛﻮﺭﺍﻥ ﻫﻮﺍ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ ﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻴﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻗﻠﻢ ﺣﺴــﺎﺱ ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭﺳــﺎﺯ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺯﻳﺮﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺳﻨﮕﻴﻦﺗﺮ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺁﺭﺍﻣﻰ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺎ ﺟﺎﺑﻪﺟﺎ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺧــﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻰﻛــﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺁﺗﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﺴــﻮﺯﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻮﻯ ﺗﻨﺪﻯ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﺴــﻰ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﺳﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬‬


‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺤﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫‪ Robur‬ﺍﻳﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﮔﺮﻓﺖ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻣﺪﺕ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺑﺎﻗﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎﻧــﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺪﺕ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻰﻛﻪ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟــﺖ ﺑﻤﺎﻧﺪ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻭژﻥ ﻛﻪ ﺣﺎﻛﻰ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺖ ﻛﻮﭼﻜﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺰﺭﮔﻰ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺗﻜﻨﺴﻴﻦﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲﻛﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻟﻴﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺭﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﺧﻴﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻝ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻪ ﻋﺎﻣﻠﻲ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲﺑﻴﻨﻴﻢ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵ‬ ‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺣﺒﺎﺏ ﺑﺴــﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﺮﺧــﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪﻛﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺣﺒﺎﺏ ﺭﺍ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻲﺩﺍﻧﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺷــﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪ 4434‬ﺳــﺎﻝ ‪1995‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﮕﻠﺴــﺘﺎﻥ ﺗﺎﻛﻴﺪ ﻣﻰﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻓﺸـﺎﺭ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﮔﺎﺯ ﺑﻰﺍﺛﺮ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪ R22 .‬ﻳﺎ ﻫﺮﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻤﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨــﻮﺍﻥ »ﺭﺩﻳﺎﺏ« ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ »ﺭﺩﻳﺎﺏ« ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳــﺶ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻧﻤﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪) .‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺵ » ﺭﺩﻳﺎﺏ« ﻳﻚ ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭﺳــﺎﺯ ﻧﺸــﺖ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺖ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻣﺸــﺎﺭﻛﺖ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﻣﻴــﺰﺍﻥ ﻣﺨﺘﺼﺮﻯ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺷﺎﺭژ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺳﭙﺲ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻭژﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻰﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪(.‬‬ ‫ﻧﺸــﺘﻰ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭﺳــﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺸــﻌﻞ ﻫﺎﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﺸــﺨﺺ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﺵ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻧﺸﺘﻰ ﻭﻛﻴﻮﻡ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺳــﭙﺲ ﻣﺸــﺨﺺ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺍﻳﻦﻛﻪ ﺁﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻴﻮﻡ ﺷﻜﺴــﺘﻪ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺧﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﻋﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺪﻩ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻧﺸﺘﻰ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻭﻛﻴﻮﻡ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻛﻪ ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻯ ﻧﺸﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻯ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻛﺸﻴﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺷــﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻀﺮﺍﺕ ﺁﻥ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷــﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -1‬ﺷﻴﺮ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﺗﺮﻣﻮﺳﺘﺎﺗﻴﻚ )ﻣﺎﻛﺰﻳﻤﻢ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩﻱ ‪(350 psi‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺷﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ ﻣﻜﺶ‪ ،‬ﻧﺸﻴﻤﻦ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻠﻮ )ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﺍﻳﺰﻭﻟﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ(‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺷﻴﺮ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻣﻴﺎﻧﻲ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﺷﻴﺮ ﻗﻄﻊﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺖﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻛﺎﻣﻼ ﺑﺎﺯ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻛﭙﺴﻮﻝ ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻭژﻥ‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﺭﮔﻼﺗﻮﺭ ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻭژﻥ ﻭ ﮔﻴﺞ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﺷﻴﺮ ﺍﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎﻥ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫‪ -8‬ﺳﻪﺭﺍﻫﻲ‬ ‫‪ -9‬ﺷﻴﺮ ﻗﻄﻊﻛﻦ )ﻭﻧﺖ ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺗﻤﺴﻔﺮ(‬ ‫‪ -10‬ﻛﭙﺴﻮﻝ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪:(1‬ﺁﺭﺍﻳﺶ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻝ ﺗﺴﺖ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ‪300 psi‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻯ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ‪ :‬ﺗﺪﺍﺑﻴﺮ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻰ‬

‫ﺍﮔﺮﭼﻪ ﻣﺒﺮﺩﻫﺎﻯ ﺭﺍﻳــﺞ )‪R502, R22,‬‬ ‫‪ R12‬ﻭ ‪ (...‬ﺧﻄﺮﻧﺎﻙ ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭﻟﻰ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷــﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻰ ﻣﺒﺮﺩﻫﺎ ﺳﻨﮕﻴﻦﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﻓﻀﺎﻯ ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﻫﻮﺍ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ‪ 19‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﻛﺴﻴﮋﻥ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ ﺭﻓﺘﻦ ﻫﻮﺷﻴﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻰﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻰﻛﻪ ﻣﺸــﻐﻮﻝ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻧﺸــﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻦ ﺷــﻮﻳﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﻴﺸــﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻛﻨﺎﺭ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﺸــﺖﻳﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺘﻴﺪ ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ���ﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﮔﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻧﺸﺖ ﺭﺥ ﺩﻫﺪ ﻭ ﺗﺪﺍﺑﻴﺮ ﺯﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻫﻤﻴﺸﻪ ﺟﻬﺖ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺖ ﺍﺯ ﭼﺸﻢﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺑﺎ ﭘﻮﺳﺖ ﺑﺪﻧﺘﺎﻥ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺳﻮﺧﺘﮕﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﻚ‪ ،‬ﺩﺳﺘﻜﺶ ﻭ ﻟﺒﺎﺱ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻭﺳﺎﻳﻞ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻰﻛﻪ ﻣﺸﻐﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺭژ ﻳﺎ ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻯ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻦ ﺷﻮﻳﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺳﻴﻠﻨﺪﺭ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪ ﭘﺮ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻫﻴــﭻﮔﺎﻩ ﺳــﻴﻠﻨﺪﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻌﺮﺽ ﻧﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺧﻮﺭﺷــﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﺗــﻮﺭ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﻳﻰ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻣﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻧﺪﻫﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﺍﺯ ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻜﻰ ﺷﻌﻠﻪ ﺁﺗﺶ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺎﻳﻰ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻕ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺷﻌﻠﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎﺏ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﺍﺯ ﺗﻤﺎﺱ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ‪ /‬ﺭﻭﻏﻦﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﻫﺮﻣﺘﻴﻚ )ﺑﺴﺘﻪ( )ﺭﻭﻏﻦﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ(‪ ،‬ﻛﻪ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﻴﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎﺏ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻫﻤﻴﺸﻪ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻤﺖ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺷــﺎﺭژ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻴﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﻰﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻮﭘﺎپﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﻫﻤﻴﺸﻪ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻴﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﺒﺮﺩﻯ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺷﺎﺭژ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻦ ﺷﻮﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -8‬ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻦ ﺷــﻮﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻜﺎﻧــﻰ ﻛﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﻫــﻮﺍ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺑــﺎ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎﻙ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﻳﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺎﺳﻚ ﺗﻨﻔﺴﻰ ﻳﺎ ﮔﻮﻧﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻭﺳﺎﻳﻞ ﺗﻨﻔﺴﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺱ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 38‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬


‫ﻧﻜﺘﻪ‬

‫ﺿﺮﺑﻪﻗﻮچ‬

‫‪1‬‬ ‫    ‪ +‬‬ ‫‪,‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ ΔPh‬ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺳــﺒﺐ ﺿﺮﺑﻪﻗــﻮچ ﻣﻰﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﻭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫‪ lbf/ft2‬ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ ρ‬ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻰ ﺳﻴﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ‪ lbm/ft3‬ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ Cs‬ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺎﻝ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﻪ ‪ ft/sec‬ﺍﺳﺖ‪) .‬ﺩﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺳﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ‪ 4720ft/sec‬ﻣﻰﺑﺎﺷﺪ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ V‬ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺳﻴﺎﻝ ﺩﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ ‪ ft/sec‬ﻣﻰﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ gc‬ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ ‪32.2 ft-lbm/lbf.sec2‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ‪ ΔPh‬ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ‪ 10‬ﻓﻮﺕ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺑﻪﻳﻜﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻰﺍﻳﺴﺘﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 39‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬

‫ﻫﻤﺎﻥﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ ΔPh‬ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺳﻴﺎﻝ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻧﻴﻚ ﺟﻮﺵﺁﻣﺪﻥ ﺁﺏ )‪ (Flashing‬ﻣﻬﻢﺗﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺿﺮﺑﻪﻗﻮچ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺟﻮﺵﺁﻣﺪﻥ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻰ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﺟﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﺯ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺣﺒﺎﺏﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺟﺎﻯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪﻳﻜﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭﺵ ﻛﻢ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺳﻴﺎﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﻣﻰﺭﻭﺩ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻰ ﻛﻪ ﭘﻤﭗ ﺑﻪﻳﻜﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻗﻄﻊ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﻣﻰﺭﻭﺩ ﺑﻪﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﻣﻰﭘﻴﻮﻧﺪﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺩﺭﻳﭽﻪ ﺷﻴﺮﻫﺎ )‪ (Contracta Vena‬ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺳﻴﺎﻝ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻰﻳﺎﺑﺪ‪ ،‬ﺁﺏ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺷــﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺻﺪﺍ ﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟــﺖ ﺟﻮﺵﺁﻣﺪﻥ ﺑﻪ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻭﻳﺘﺎﺳﻴﻮﻥﻣﻰﺍﻧﺠﺎﻣﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺿﺮﺑﻪﻗــﻮچ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻰ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺣﺒﺎﺏﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪﻳﻜﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﻭﻳﮋﻩ ﺣﺒﺎﺏﻫﺎ ﭼﻨﺪﺻﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺁﺏ ﺍﻃﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪﺍﺭﻩ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺷﻴﺮﺁﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺻﺪﺍ ﻭ ﺿﺮﺑﻪﻗﻮچ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺣﺘﺎ ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺣﺒﺎﺏﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺮﻛﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﻛﺖ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺁﺏ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺻﺪﺍ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪﺷــﺪﺕ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻳﺶ ﺟﺪﺍﺭﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﮋﻩ ﺭﻭﻯ ﭘﺮﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﭘﻤﭗ ﺍﺛﺮ ﻣﻨﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﻜﺘﻪ ﺟﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻳﻦﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺩﻣﺎ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﺨﺮﻳﺐ ﺣﺒﺎﺏﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﺑﻪﻗﻮچ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻰﻳﺎﺑﺪ‪ .‬ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻣﺎﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻓﺸﺎﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﮋﻩ ﺑﻴﺸــﺘﺮﻯ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺑﺎ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺯﺍﺩﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻛﻪ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﺣﺒﺎﺏﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺗﺨﺮﻳﺐ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻯ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺩﻣﺎﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ )‪ (150 ºF‬ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺑﺴــﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﺸﺖ ﺁﺏ ﺍﺯ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻧﻴﻚ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻰ ﺁﻥ ﻧﻴﺰ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻣﺸــﺎﺑﻬﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺮﺍﺕ ﻧﺸﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﻛﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ‪ ،250 ºF‬ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻳﻤﻨﻰ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻯ ﺍﺯ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﺿﺮﺑﻪﻗﻮچ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻰ ﺑﺎ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﻣﺠﺎﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ‬ ‫‪ MTW‬ﺑﺎ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ‪ 125psig‬ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻰ ‪ 300 ºF‬ﻭ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ‪ HTW‬ﺑﺎ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ‪ 300psig‬ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ‬ ‫‪ 400-410 ºF‬ﺭﺍ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ‪(Hansen) .‬‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻯ ‪ 39FD‬ﻛﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺿﺮﺑﻪﻗﻮچ ﺑﻪ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩﺍﻯ ﺍﻃﻼﻕ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺻﺪﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﺑﻪ ﺳــﻨﮕﻴﻨﻰ ﺍﺯ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﮔﻮﺵ ﻣﻰﺭﺳﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻰﺭﺳﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻻﻳﻞ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻰﻛﻪ ﺷــﻴﺮﻯ ﺑﻪ ﺳــﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸــﻰ ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺳــﺘﻮﻧﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺏ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪﻳﻜﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻰﺍﻳﺴــﺘﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺳــﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﻪﻳﻜﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﺗﻴﻚ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﻣﺪﻥ ﻭ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺝ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺎﻝ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺝ ﺑﺎ ﺳــﺮﻋﺖ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺖ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ]ﺩﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺳﺮﺩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ‪ 4720‬ﻓﻮﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ )‪1430m/‬‬ ‫‪ (sec‬ﺍﺳﺖ[ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﻯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺭﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﺠﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺷﻴﺮ ﺑﺴﺘﻪﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﻣﻰﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺷــﻴﺮ ﻛﺎﻣﻼ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺝ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺯﮔﺸﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻓﺸﺎﺭﺵ ﺑﻪﺗﺪﺭﻳﺞ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻰﻳﺎﺑﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻰ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺷــﻴﺮ ﻛﺎﻣﻼ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺝ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﺭﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺗﻠﻒ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﮔﺎﻫﻰ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﭼﻨﺎﻥ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺷﻜﺴﺘﮕﻰ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻰﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻧﻜﺘﻪ ﻣﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻧﻴﻚ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟــﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻧﻴﺴــﺖ ﻭ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻓــﻮﻕ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻧﻤﻰﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﺷﻴﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺷﻴﺮ ﻳﻚﻃﺮﻓﻪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﭘﻤﭗ ‪ 1000‬ﻓﻮﺕ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺳﭙﺲ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷﻴﺮ ﺑﻪﻳﻜﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫‪ 2 (1000)/4720 = 0.423‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺿﺮﺑﻪﻗﻮچ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ‪ 10000‬ﻓﻮﺕ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺷﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫‪ 4.23‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻰ ﺷﻴﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻧﺌﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﻚ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻫﻢ ﺳﺮﻳﻊﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﻧﻤﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺣﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻ ﺭﻓﺘﻦ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬

‫ ‬

‫‪NOP‬‬

‫ ‪)$‬‬

‫‪IH  FIJNM‬‬ ‫  ‪N^KJ  JG^H‬‬ ‫^‪O^K‬‬

‫ ‪ +‬‬


‫ﻋﻠﻤﻰ‬

‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪88739880-2:‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺤﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫‪ Robur‬ﺍﻳﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ‪ ،GPM‬ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ ﺑﺎ‪:‬‬

‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺗﺎﻕ ﺟﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻛﻨﻮﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﻧﺒﺎﺷــﺪ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻓﻀﺎﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺩﺍﺭﻳﻢ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﮔﺮﻡ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺭﺍﻩﺣﻞﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺍﺗﺎﻕ ﻣﻰﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫــﺎ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﻰ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻫــﺮ ﭘﺮﻭژﻩ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺴﻰ ﺑﺎ ﭘﺮﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﺁﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮﻣﻰ ﻭ ﻳﻚ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﻭ ﻓﻦ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻓﻦ ﻛﻤﻚ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﻋﺒﻮﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻦ ﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﺑــﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪﺍﻯ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳــﺶ ﻣﻰﻳﺎﺑﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻮﻛﺴــﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎ ﺍﺟﺒﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﻓﻀﺎﻯ ﺑﺰﺭگ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﻯ ﻛﻨﻮﻛﺘﻮﺭﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﺑﺎ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻣﺎﻯ ﺣﺎﺻﻞﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﻭ ‪ GPM‬ﻋﺒﻮﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﺮﻣﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﻭ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻭﺩﺍ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﺎ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ‪ 140‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﻭ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺑﺎ ‪ 65‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺘﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ ‪ 5000 Btu/h‬ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ‪ 180‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻳﻚ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺿﺮﻳﺐ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﻪ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩ )ﺷﻜﻞ ‪.(1‬‬ ‫ﺍﺛﺮ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ‪ GPM‬ﻋﺒــﻮﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻛﻮﻳﻞﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (2‬ﻣﻰﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ‪ GPM‬ﻛﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ‪ GPM‬ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﺣﺎﺻﻞﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻰ ﺩﺭ ‪ GPM‬ﻫﺎﻯ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺍﻳﻦﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ‪ GPM‬ﻧﻤﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎﻳﻰ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳــﺶ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﻋﺒﻮﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ ﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧــﺪ ﺩﺭ ‪CFM‬ﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻰ ﺩﺭ ‪CFM‬ﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻛﻢ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ‪CFM‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﻤﻰ ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﻧﺎﭼﻴﺰ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺳــﻄﺢ ﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺭﺩﻳﻒﻫﺎ ﻭ ﭘﺮﻩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺤﻮﻯ ﻣﺤﺴﻮﺱ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳﻞ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟــﺖ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳــﻞ ﺭﺍ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺩﺍﺩ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﻯ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﻰ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﻛﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(1‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﻯ ﺑﻪﺩﺳﺖﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﻭ ﻫﻮﺍ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(2‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﻯ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻰ ﻭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻳﻚ ﻓﻦﻛﻮﻳﻞ‬

‫‪(180-65) / (140-65) × 5000 = 7670 Btu/h‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 40‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪24‬‬


Arvand-24