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NOTA RINGKAS UNTUK SUBJEK BIOLOGI


Organised study of life and living things and their interactions with the natural environment Living things : organisms


Study of structure and functions of living organism

Catology – study of structure and function of cell. Anatomy – study of internal structure Biochemistry – study of chemistry of organisms


Study of change and development in living things

Genetics – study of heredity and genetic variation Paleontology – study of extinct organisms


Study of living things and environment

Ecology – study of organisms : environment, adaptation and interaction


Study of living things

Zoology – study of animals Botany – study of plants Microbiology – study of microorganisms Taxonomy – study of the classification of living and extinct organisms


IDENTIFYING A PROBLEM

Also call PROBLEM STATEMENT In the form of a QUESTIONS Eg : “ What is the effect of different sugar concentration on the expansion of dough? ”


FORMING A HYPOTHESIS

Connect together the concentration of sugar (manipulated variable) and the dough rise (responding variable) in a relationship that is testable. Only include the manipulated variable and responding variable and their relationship to each other. Eg: “ The higher the concentration of sugar in the dough, the more the dough rises�


PLANNING THE EXPERIMENT

Preparation of control test List of controlled variables. How and When to vary the manipulated variable and How and When to record the responding variable. The quantity of materials and apparatus required What to label and How to label the test sets Set-up the materials and apparatus. Precautions and The sequence of steps.


CONDUCTING THE EXPERIMENT

Carry out the experiment following the sequence that you have listed COLLECTING DATA

Data is recorded in the table of data. Sometimes you need to culculate the average value


ANALYSING DATA

Data are represented in the form of table, histrogram, pie chart, graph with axes, bar chart, etc. Easy to inteperated

INTEPERATING DATA

Identify trends, patterns, and relationships between manipulated and responding variables to make inferences


MAKING CONCLUSION

Decision is made as to accept or reject hypothesis


WRITING REPORT

• PROBLE STATEMENT • HYPOTHESIS • VARIABLES • TECHNIQUE • MATERIALS • APPARATUS • PROCEDURE • RESULT • DISCUSSION • CONCLUSION


• PROBLE STATEMENT – How is the fitness level of students determined? • HYPOTHESIS – • VARIABLES – manipulated.v : students responding.v : time taken for the pulse rate to return normal Fixed.v : age, types of exercise. • TECHNIQUE • MATERIALS • APPARATUS • PROCEDURE – practical book, pg 2 • RESULT – practical book, pg 2 • DISCUSSION • CONCLUSION -


GRAPH

Pulse rate (number of beats per minutes)

Time after step test (minutes)


Give your answers

A student used the following experiment set-up to show that living things give out carbon dioxide during respiration. Variables Hypothesis Problem statement


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