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people ON THE MOVE AN ATLAS OF MIGRATION

Russell King Richard Black • Michael Collyer • Anthony Fielding • Ronald Skeldon


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people ON THE MOVE AN ATLAS OF MIGRATION


In the same series: ‘Unique and uniquely beautiful. . . . A single map here tells us more about the world today than a dozen abstracts or scholarly tomes.’  Los Angeles Times ‘A striking new approach to cartography. . . . No one wishing to keep a grip on the reality of the world should be without these books.’  International Herald Tribune


people ON THE MOVE AN ATLAS OF MIGRATION Russell King Richard Black • Michael Collyer • Anthony Fielding • Ronald Skeldon

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS Berkeley

Los Angeles


University of California Press, one of the most distinguished university presses in the United States, enriches lives around the world by advancing scholarship in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. Its activities are supported by the UC Press Foundation and by philanthropic contributions from individuals and institutions. For more information, visit www.ucpress.edu. University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, California Copyright © Myriad Editions Limited 2010 All rights reserved The moral rights of the author have been asserted Library of Congress Control Number:  2010922173 ISBN: 0-520-26124-2 (cloth : alk. paper) ISBN: 0-520-26151-8 (pbk. : alk. paper) Produced for University of California Press by Myriad Editions Brighton, UK www.MyriadEditions.com Edited and co-ordinated by Jannet King and Candida Lacey Designed by Isabelle Lewis and Corinne Pearlman Maps and graphics created by Isabelle Lewis Printed on paper produced from sustainable sources. Printed and bound in Hong Kong through Lion Production under the supervision of Bob Cassels, The Hanway Press, London. 15  14  13  12  11  10  10  9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1 This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out, or otherwise circulated without the publisher’s prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser.


C ontents Authors Sussex Centre for Migration Research Introduction Acknowledgements

Part One The Grand Narrative: Migration through the Ages Early Migrations

9 11 13 17

18 20

The global distribution of humans is the result of thousands of years of migration.

Mediterranean Odysseys

22

Colonies in the Classical period not only provided trade and military security, but helped spread the Greco-Roman culture and language.

Slave Migrations

24

The transatlantic slave trade was the largest ever forced migration.

Migrations of Indenture

26

The system of indentured labour provided cheap, easily exploited workers who were shipped in large numbers mainly to European colonies.

The Great Migration

28

More than 50 million people emigrated from Europe to the USA during the 19th and early 20th centuries in the largest international free movement of people ever.

Migration from Italy

30

The poorest people are not usually the first to migrate from a poor country.

Nation-Building Migrations

32

Some migrations are encouraged and planned by governments to increase the land under state control.

Colonial Migrations

34

Colonization by Europeans resulted in the movement of millions of people, and had a major impact on populations around the world.

Diasporas

36

Many modern diasporas are not forced exiles, but are driven by trade or work.

Part Two A World in Flux: Contemporary Global Migration Patterns Global Migration

38 40

Globally, 3 percent of people are international migrants, but the share varies enormously from one country to another.

Post-War Migration of Workers

42

The post-war economic boom led to a flow of migrant manual workers, often managed through bi-lateral agreements.

New Worker Migrations Since the 1980s, migrants from diverse countries have made southern Europe their destination.

44


The Quiet Migration

46

In many high-income countries, family members of immigrants are eventually granted residence.

Latin America

48

During the 20th century, Latin America shifted from being a subcontinent of immigration to one of emigration.

The Gulf

50

Rapid economic expansion, fuelled by oil wealth, has created millions of jobs, most filled by migrant workers.

Migration Patterns in Eurasia

52

A new Eurasian migration system is emerging, bringing migrant workers to Russia’s booming oil, gas and industrial centres.

Migration within India

54

Around a quarter of people in India have changed their place of residence at least once in their lifetime.

Migration within the USA

56

Migration within the USA occurs for a range of reasons, many based on personal preference.

Internal Migration & Poverty

58

Poor people are more likely to migrate for work within their own country than abroad.

Part Three The Age of Migration: Hybrid Identities of Human Mobility Refugees

60 62

People who have fled their country through fear of persecution are refugees in international law, but some states are reluctant to grant them this status.

Refugee Warehousing

64

The majority of the world’s refugees have waited more than five years for a solution to their exile.

Refugee Return

66

A sizable number of refugees have returned to their countries of origin since the mid-1990s.

Seeking Asylum in Europe

68

The pattern of asylum seeking is closely related to global patterns of conflict or human rights abuses.

Internally Displaced Persons

70

There are more IDPs than refugees, yet there are no official mechanisms for the international community to protect them.

Climate Change

72

Climate change is likely to result in large movements of people, although maybe over relatively short distances.

Irregular Migration Irregular migrants are especially vulnerable to traffickers, and coordinated international action is needed to tackle the problem.

74


Death at the Border

76

The number of migrants who die while trying to evade border controls is a humanitarian crisis.

Migration & Gender

78

Where people migrate to and from, the jobs they do, and roles they play tend to be influenced by their gender.

Migration for Marriage

80

International marriage migration is filling the gap in rural communities left by migration to the cities.

Child Migration

82

Child migrants are largely uncounted and unstudied, and therefore ignored by policy makers.

Student Migration

84

Student migration is an important precursor to skilled migration.

Skilled Migration

86

Emigrants are among the more educated and skilled people in their country of origin, although not necessarily so in their country of destination.

International Retirement

88

Retirement migration is driven by migrants from rich countries seeking a more attractive lifestyle.

Return Migration

90

Many migrants intend to return, and those who do so can benefit their native country.

Migration & Integration

92

The extent to which immigrant communities are expected to integrate into host cultures varies around the world.

Voting from Abroad

94

Most countries allow emigrants to vote in national elections.

Dual Nationality

96

An increasingly mobile global population is creating a large number of people with dual nationality – and a range of responses from governments.

Remittances & Development

98

Remittances sent by migrant workers can make a substantial contribution to the economic and social development of their home country.

Migration Policy

100

Despite national and international political debates about migration, government policies remain surprisingly varied.

Part Four Data & Sources

102

Economics & Movement Migration Policy

104 112

Sources Index

120 126


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A uthors Russell King is Professor of Geography at the University of Sussex, and Director of the Sussex Centre for Migration Research. He has been researching migration in its various forms around the world for over 30 years; his main research projects have been on Europe and the Mediterranean, including studies on Italian return migration, Irish migration, British retirement migration to Southern Europe, international student migration, migration and development in Albania, and Greek and Cypriot diasporas. He is the editor of the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. Richard Black is Professor of Human Geography at the University of Sussex, and Head of the School of Global Studies. His recent research has focused on the relationship between migration and poverty, but he has also conducted research on refugees, the integration of economic migrants from Eastern Europe in the UK, and the relationship between migration and climate change. His main geographical focus is Sub-Saharan Africa, but he has also carried out field research in Portugal, Greece and the Western Balkans. During 1994­–2009 he was co-editor of the Journal of Refugee Studies. Michael Collyer is Lecturer in Human Geography and Migration Studies at the University of Sussex. Whilst based at Sussex he has held a Nuffield Career Development Fellowship and a Marie Curie International Fellowship, with visiting appointments at universities in Morocco, Egypt and Sri Lanka. His research is on forced, undocumented and temporary forms of migration. He is an associate editor of the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. Tony Fielding is Research Professor in Human Geography at the University of Sussex, and has been researching migration for over 40 years. His main geographical focus is on Europe and East Asia, and he has been a visiting professor at Riksumeikan and Kyoto universities in Japan. His main research projects have been on counter-urbanization in Western Europe; the relationships between social and geographical mobility; theorizing new immigration trends in Southern Europe and East Asia; and, currently, the analysis of internal and international migration flows in China, Korea and Japan. Ronald Skeldon is Professorial Fellow in the Department of Geography at the University of Sussex, and a Senior Research Fellow at the Department for International Development (DfID) in London. His research focuses on migration and development, and on both internal and international migrations. He has particular interests in the measurement of migration and in migration policy, and has acted as consultant to many international organizations. After early field research in Latin America, he has specialized in migration in Asia and the Pacific Region.

9


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S ussex C entre for M igration R esearch

T

he Sussex Centre for Migration Research (SCMR) is one of the UK’s leading institutions for research on migration. Established in 1997 as a University of Sussex research centre of excellence, it brings together over 30 members of academic faculty from eight departments (geography, anthropology, economics, sociology, psychology, politics, international relations and development studies). The Centre runs the UK’s only interdisciplinary doctoral programme in Migration Studies, as well as the UK’s longest-running Masters programme in Migration Studies, which recruits students from around the world. It is led from the Department of Geography where, in the UK’s Research Assessment Exercise in both 2001 and 2008, research on migration was flagged as being at the highest level, indicating research of consistent international excellence. The Centre’s research on migration is wide-ranging and explicitly international in its subject matter and audience. Current thematic research includes comparative studies on migration policy, migrant integration, and migration and development. Geographically, SCMR research has focused on the European Union, the Western Balkans, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Mediterranean, the Gulf and South Asia. Since 2003, SCMR has coordinated a major DfID-funded research network on migration and poverty, involving partners from a wide range of developing countries. It has also developed a major programme of research on diasporas, migration and identity, which has dealt with changing identities in countries of immigration (e.g. the UK) as well as the changing identities of migrants and returnees themselves (e.g. in Greece and Cyprus). The Centre’s research has received financial support from the UK’s Economic and Social Research Council, the Arts and Humanities Research Council, the Nuffield Foundation, the Joseph Rowntree Foundation and the Leverhulme Trust. Staff from the Centre have also provided policy advice and commissioned research for a wide range of external organizations, including the United Nations, The World Bank, OECD, EU, Commonwealth, national and local government in the UK and development agencies such as Oxfam UK.

11


M IGRATION P OLICY Despite national and international political debates about migration, government policies remain surprisingly varied.

A

lthough the global economic crises of the 1970s and 1980s produced political pressure for governments of rich countries to clamp down on immigration in order to protect jobs for their citizens, in practice, their immigration policies show significant variation. In the immediate aftermath of the 1970s oil crisis, a number of European countries – including France and Germany – did seek to limit further immigration from the south, and often tried to encourage immigrants to return to their country of origin. However, improved economic conditions in the 1990s led some European countries to look more favourably on immigration, and in 2005 only seven of the then-25 EU member states were trying to lower immigration, whilst six more had policies geared towards recruiting immigrants. The emphasis among the traditional countries of immigration is mostly on recruiting highly skilled migrants. Such policies have also spread to more recent destinations for migrants, such as Russia,

C A N A D A

EMIGRATION

Government policy 2005

U S A

to raise levels to maintain levels to lower levels no intervention no data

BAHAMAS

CUBA

MEXICO

HAITI

JAMAICA BELIZE GUATEMALA EL SALVADOR

DOMINICAN REP. ANTIGUA & BARBUDA

ST KITTS & NEVIS

HONDURAS ST VINCENT & GRENAD. GRENADA

NICARAGUA

COSTA RICA

VENEZUELA

PANAMA

DOMINICA ST LUCIA BARBADOS TRINIDAD & TOBAGO GUYANA SURINAME

COLOMBIA ECUADOR

PERU

BRAZIL

BOLIVIA

CHILE

PARAGUAY

URUGUAY

ARGENTINA

100

44–45 New Worker Migrations; 78–79 Migration & Gender; 86–87 Skilled Migration


HYBRID IDENTITIES OF HUMAN MOBILITY Singapore and Japan. This reflects an understanding that there is a growing global competition for skilled people in sectors such as health, information technology and other professional services. Some poorer countries have also sought to attract skilled migrants, but many more are, perhaps surprisingly, focused on reducing immigration. For example, amongst poor countries in Asia, only Laos is seeking to recruit skilled immigrants, whilst in Africa, Zambia is the sole country with a pro-immigration policy. In Africa, in particular, this seems to reflect a general suspicion of migration, and not just of immigration. Despite much recent talk of policies on “migration and development”, relatively few countries say they are seeking to promote emigration, and all are in Asia. And whilst a small number of countries are considering trying to emulate the practice in the Philippines of training workers for export, this remains highly exceptional.

IMMIGRATION Government policy 2005 to raise levels to maintain levels to lower levels no intervention no data government policy is to increase number of highly skilled immigrants

ICELAND FINLAND

SWEDEN

NORWAY

RUSSIA

EST. UK

LAT.

DENMARK

IRELAND

LITHUANIA

POLAND

NETH.

BELARUS

BEL. GERMANY CZ. LUX. SL. LIECHT. REP. FRANCE A. HUN. SL. S. B-H S.M. H.S. MONACO ALB. ANDORRA

CROATIA PORTUGAL

BULGARIA

GEORGIA

MOROCCO

GREECE

IRAQ

TAJIKISTAN

KUWAIT BAHRAIN

EGYPT

PAKISTAN

MAURITANIA

GUINEABISSAU

GUINEA

SIERRA LEONE LIBERIA

NIGER

BURKINA FASO CÔTE D’IVOIRE

GHANA TOGO BENIN

SENEGAL GAMBIA

ERITREA

SUDAN

CHAD

INDIA

SAO TOME & PRINCIPE

SRI LANKA

ETHIOPIA

COOK ISLANDS

FIJI TONGA

NIUE

PALAU

BRUNEI MALAYSIA SINGAPORE

KENYA

DEM. REP. OF CONGO

VIETNAM PHILIPPINES

UGANDA

CONGO

SAMOA VANUATU

LAOS

CAMBODIA

MALDIVES

GABON

TUVALU

THAILAND

DJIBOUTI

CENTRAL AFRICAN REP.

SOLOMON ISLANDS

BURMA

YEMEN

NIGERIA

EQUATORIAL CAMEROON GUINEA

KIRIBATI

NAURU

BHUTAN

BANGLADESH

OMAN

MALI

MARSHALL ISLANDS MICRONESIA, FED. STATES OF

NEPAL

QATAR UAE

SAUDI ARABIA

CAPE VERDE

JAPAN

SOUTH KOREA

C H I N A

AFGHANISTAN

IRAN

JORDAN

L I B YA

NORTH KOREA

KYRGYZSTAN

SYRIA

CYPRUS LEBANON ISRAEL

SERBIA & MONT.

ALGERIA

UZBEK. AZERBAIJAN ARMENIA TURKMEN.

MACEDONIA

TURKEY

MALTA

TUNISIA

MONGOLIA

MOLDOVA

ITALY

SPAIN

K A Z A K H S TA N

UKRAINE ROM.

RWANDA BURUNDI

SEYCHELLES

I N D O N E S I A

TANZANIA COMOROS

ANGOLA

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

EAST TIMOR

MALAWI ZAMBIA ZIMBABWE

NAMIBIA

BOTSWANA

SWAZILAND

SOUTH AFRICA

MADAGASCAR

MAURITIUS

MOZAMBIQUE

AUSTRALIA

LESOTHO

NEW ZEALAND

101


Part Four

D ata & S ources

T

he basic data used for the study of population migration are often weak and subject to error. Only for the most advanced countries of the world do we have reasonably accurate information on population flows and, even here, very few countries provide information on the number of people leaving. Emigration and return migration are particularly problematic areas for robust data. For the study of international migration, the basic data are provided by the United Nations and refer to the stock of the foreign-born, or those living in a country other than the one in which they were born. Where place of birth is not available, citizenship is substituted, although this is not ideal for the study of migration. These national stock data are represented on pages 40–41, and listed in the following table. A more complex set of data, disaggregated to provide global estimates of origin– destination, is also available on the Global Migrant Origin Database. The UNHCR provides detailed annual statistics on refugees at the global level which are presented here. Data on IDPs are much more difficult to collect. The most authoritative source is the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), which collates information from a variety of surveys and media sources in order to arrive at “best estimates” which have been used here. Data on internal migration are often based on place of birth, although place of residence at a previous point in time provides more recent information on flows. Because of the different definitions of “a migrant” and the different sizes of migration-defining spatial units, cross-country comparisons of internal migration are difficult. The basic population data are supplemented by information from large-scale surveys such as labour-force surveys, demographic and health surveys, living standards measurement surveys, and, in a small number of cases, national migration surveys. A multitude of small-scale surveys provide insight on particular themes. Specialized databases on students, skilled migrants and refugees are also available from international organizations or specialized agencies of the United Nations. Remittance data are generally extracted from national accounts statistics, although these can also be supplemented by specialized surveys.

Would-be migrants to Europe being transported across the Algerian desert. The very nature of irregular migration makes it hard to quantify accurately.

103


I ndex abuse of migrants 24–25, 26–27, 68, 74, 79, 80, 83 acculturation see migrants, integration of Afghanistan asylum seekers from 69 refugees from 63 refugees returning to 66, 67 Africa impact of climate change 73 indentured labour to 26–27 migration from 44, 45 refugees 63 return refugee flows 67 slave trade from 24–25 Algeria, post-colonial migration 35 Argentina child migrants in and to 82 Italian migration to 31 assimilation see migrants, integration of asylum seekers 61, 68–69 in Europe 68–69 negative attitudes to 15 Australia deaths of migrants to 76 early migration to 20 European migration to 29, 30 Greek migration to 36 immigration 19 indentured labourers to 26–27 policy on dual nationality 97 policy towards migrants 92 students coming to 84, 85 UK pensioners in 88 Austria–Hungary, migration from 28 Bahrain, migrants in 50 Balkan states, migration from 28 Bangladesh, impact of flooding 71, 72 Belgium, pensioners abroad 88, 89 Bosnia & Herzegovina, refugee return 66 Brazil child migrants to 82 Italian migration to 31 migrants to Portugal 44 Burma, Karen refugees in 65 Cambodia, marriage migrants to South Korea 80 Canada immigration 15, 47 marriage migrants to South Korea 80 policy towards migrants 92 UK pensioners in 88 Caribbean indentured labourers to 26–27 labour emigrants 36 slave trade to 24–25 Carthage 22 Central Asia 52–53

126

Chile child migrants in and to 82 early migration to 21 China diaspora 36 Han migration 19, 33 indentured labourers from 26–27 internal migration 14, 39, 59, 71 marriage migrants to South Korea 80 migration to Russia 53 policy on dual nationality 97 skilled migration from 86 syndicates 27 climate change, impact of 72–73 Colombia, IDPs 70 colonial migrations 19, 34 return migrations 35 conflict, impact of 68, 70 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees 62, 112–19 Cook Islands, migrant voting rights 95 Cuba, indentured labourers to 26 Cyprus migration to 44 UK pensioners in 88 diasporas 19, 36–37 dual nationality 61, 96–97 Dubai 50 Eastern European migrants 45 to Russia 52 education as driver of migration 82, 83, 84–85 Ethiopia, earliest human 20 Europe family migration to 47 migration from 19, 28–29 migration to 48, 49 return migration 35 European border control 74, 76 colonies 26–27, 34–35 deaths of migrants to 76 emigration to USA 19, 28–29, 30–31 labour migrants 42, 43 migration to Australia 19 Union (EU), policy on dual nationality 96 France asylum seekers in 68, 69 basis of colonization 34–35 cave paintings 20 immigration policy 100 labour migrants 42 pensioners from and to 88, 89 policy towards migrants 92 slave trade 24–25 Frontex 74

Germany asylum seekers in 69 Greek migration to 36 immigration policy 100 labour migrants 42 migration from 28 pensioners abroad 88, 89 Ghana 19, 58 child migrants 82, 83 impact of remittances 99 migrant voting rights 94, 95 Global Forum on Migration and Development 16 globalization 84 of labour market 15 government policy on emigration 100–101, 112–19 immigration 100–01, 112–19 return migration 36, 90–91 skilled immigration 101–12, 112–19 Greece colonization by 22–23 diaspora 36, 37 labour migrants to 44 guest-workers 39, 42 Gulf Cooperation Council 50 Gulf region deaths of migrants to 76 labour migration to 39, 41, 50–51 slave trade 24–25 hunter-gatherer societies 19 indentured labourers 19, 26–27, 36 India indentured labourers from 26–27, 36 internal migration 39, 54–55 migrants to Gulf 50, 51 partition of 35 policy on dual nationality 97 skilled migration from 86 Indian Ocean tsunami 51 Indonesia, planned migration within 33–34 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 72 internally displaced persons (IDPs) 61, 62, 70–71, 72–73, 104–111 International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families (1990) 112–19 Iran policy on dual nationality 96 refugee receiver 63 Iraq asylum seekers in Europe 69 refugees in Jordan 50 Ireland migration to USA 27, 28 UK pensioners to 88


Italy asylum seekers in 68 labour migrants to 44, 45 migrant voting rights 94, 95 migration from 28, 30–31, 91 return migration 91 UK pensioners in 88 Jamaica skilled migration from 86 UK pensioners to 88 Japan labour migration 42 marriage migrants to South Korea 80 migration from Latin America 48, 49 policy on skilled immigrants 100 students coming to 84, 85 Jewish migration 28, 36 Jordan, 50, 51 refugees in 50 Kuwait, migrants in 50 labour market 15, 41, 42–43, 78, 79 access to 93 informal 44 Latin America ethnic composition of 34 migration 48–49 Lebanon, diaspora 36, 37 Malta migration to 44 pensioners to 88 Mediterranean Classical colonization 22–23 migration from 39, 46 migration to 44–45 retirement migration to 88–89 transit of migrants across 44, 61, 74, 76 Mexico border with USA 14, 15, 61, 77 child migrants to 82 deaths of migrants from 76 migration to USA 48, 49 migrant voting rights 94, 95 skilled migration from 86 Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX) 92, 93 migrants 104–111 child 82–83 deaths of 76–77 discrimination against 93 exploitation of 74, 82 female 41, 54, 61, 73, 78, 79 flows of 13 integration of 61, 90, 91, 92–93 internal 13–14 irregular 15, 44, 61, 74–75, 76–77, 82 labour 26–27, 36, 42–43, 44–45, 47

marriage 61, 80–81 negative attitudes to 15 opposition to 15 pensioner 88–89 return 61 skilled 50, 86–87, 100 stocks of 13 student 84–85 migration and gender 41, 54, 61, 73, 78–79 barriers to 14–15, 52 causes of 14 colonial 34–35 early 19, 20–21 family 39, 41, 46–47, 92 for marriage 80–81 global 40–41 government policy on 16, 36, 100–01 impact of climate change on 72–73 internal 39, 52–53, 54–55, 56–57, 58–59 labour 39, 42–43, 44–45, 50–51, 52–53, 78–79, 86–87 nation-building 32–33 net 40, 104–111 pioneer 32–33 planned 33 poverty-driven 58–59, 74–75, 76–77 retirement 88–89, 90 return 36, 90–91 rural to urban 54, 55, 58, 59, 83 skilled 50, 86–87, 100–01 student 84–85 “the great” 28–29 urban to rural 54 Mongolia, marriage migrants to South Korea 80 Mozambique, migrant voting rights 95 Native Americans, displacement of 32 Netherlands basis of colonization 34 Dutch East Indies, indentured labour 27 pensioners abroad 88, 89 policy towards migrants 92 post-colonial migration 35 slave trade 24–25 North Africa migration to Europe 44 North America early migration to 20–21 European migration to 28–29 Greek migration to 36 Italian migration to 30–31 migration within 28, 32 slave trade to 24–25 Oman, migrants in 50 Ottoman Empire slave trade 24–25

Pacific Islands impact of climate change on 73 indentured labourers from 26–27 Pakistan impact of remittances 99 refugee receiver 63 people smuggling see migrants, irregular persons of concern to UNHCR 62, 63, 104–111 Philippines 78–79 encouragement of emigration 16, 87 female labour migrants 44, 78, 79 IDPs 71 marriage migrants to South Korea 80 skilled migration from 86 Phoenician colonization 22–23 Poland, migration from 28 Portugal basis of colonization 34 labour migrants to 44 post-colonial migration to 35, 44, 45 slave trade 24–25 poverty as driver of migration 14, 28, 58–59, 74–75, 77, 83 Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air (2000) 112–19 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees 112–19 Qatar, migrants in 41, 50 refugees 61, 62–63, 104–111 integration of 65 resettlement of 65 return 65, 66–67, 104–111 warehoused 64–65, remittances 61, 79, 94, 98–99, 104–111 Roman colonization 22–23 Romania, child migrants to 82 Russia asylum seekers in Europe 69 ethnic origin of migrants 52 marriage migrants to South Korea 80 migration from 28 migration in 19, 52–53 migration to 39, 52–53 policy on skilled immigrants 100 Saudi Arabia, migrants in 50 Scandinavia, migration from 28 sea-level rise, impact of 72, 73 Singapore, policy on skilled immigrants 100 slave trade 19, 24–25, 26 small island states impact of climate change on 73 skilled migration from 86, 87 Somalia, asylum seekers in Europe 69

127


South Africa child migrants in and to 82, 83 European migration to 29, 30 migrant voting rights 95 South America Italian migration to 30–31 slave trade to 24–25 pioneer migration to Amazon basin 32 South Asia, migrants from 50, 51 South Korea, 80, 81 Spain basis of colonization 34 labour migrants to 44, 45 migration from Latin America 48, 49 retirement migration to 88, 89 slave trade 24–25 Sri Lanka, migrant voting rights 95 Sub-Saharan Africa, migration to Europe 44, 45 Sweden, asylum seekers in 68 Switzerland, pensioners from and to 88, 89 Thailand, marriage migrants to South Korea 80 tourism 14 trafficking see migrants, irregular Turkey, migrants to Russia 52, 53 UAE, migrants in 50 Uganda expulsion of Asians 35 railway 26 UK asylum seekers in 68, 69 attitude to Ugandan Asians 35 basis of colonization 34 family migration to 46–47 migration to North America 28–29 pensioners abroad 88, 89 policy towards migrants 92 post-colonial migration 88 skilled migration to 86, 87 slave trade 24–25 students coming to 84, 85 UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 62, 63, 64, 65, 71

128

UN High Level Dialogue on International Migration and Development 16 UN Special Representative on the Human Rights of IDPs 71 US Committee on Refugees and Immigrants 65 US Department of Homeland Security border control 74 US State Department Trafficking in Persons reports 74–75 USA African–American migration 28, 36 border with Mexico 14, 15, 74, 77 Chinese migration to 27, 28 deaths of migrants to 76 displacement of Native Americans 32 European migration to 28–29 Hispanic population 48 Hurricane Katrina 72 immigration 15, 19 indentured labourers to 26–27 internal migration 39, 56–57, 72 international migrants to 56, 57 labour migration 39 marriage migrants to South Korea 80 migrant voting rights 95 migration within 28, 32 pioneer migration 32 policy on dual nationality 96 policy on migrants 92 reasons for migration 56 skilled migration to 86, 87 slave trade 24–25 students coming to 84, 85 UK pensioners to 88 Uzbekistan, marriage migrants to South Korea 80 Vietnam marriage migrants to South Korea 80 migrants to Russia 53 voting rights of migrants 61, 92, 93, 94–95, 112–19 Zambia, immigration policy 101


129


HIMACHAL PRADESH PUNJAB CHANDIGARH

UTTARANCHAL

HARYANA

DELHI SIKKIM

Migration is a key issue of our times. Nations with long and noble traditions of accepting displaced and dispossessed people are questioning whether they should continue to make room for asylum seekers. At the same time, the global economy depends, as it has always done, on the flow of skilled and unskilled workers.

UTTAR PRADESH

RAJASTHAN

BIHAR

JHARKHAND WEST BENGAL

MADHYA PRADESH

GUJARAT

ORISSA

MAHARASHTRA ANDHRA PRADESH GOA KARNATAKA PONDICHERRY

A

TAMIL NADU KERALA

Migration, both internal and international, provides millions of people with a possible escape route from poverty or oppression. New currents of human migration are appearing all the time – triggered by educational and economic opportunities, but also by persecution and a changing climate.

E G Y P T

MAURITANIA M A L I

SENEGAL

GUINEA BISSAU

CHAD

GUINEA

CÔTE D'IVOIRE

SIERRA LEONE

GHANA

CROATIA B-H SERBIA & MONTENEGRO

27%

79%

73%

ARMENIA

82%

CORDILLERA ADMIN. REGION

ILOCOS REGION

LEBANON

CAGAYAN VALLEY

SYRIA WEST BANK

50% 50%

PALESTINIAN TERRITORIES

IRAN

RWANDA

CONGO

DEMOCRATIC REP. OF CONGO

BURUNDI

TANZANIA ANGOLA

ZAMBIA

Front cover, main image: Mark Henley/ Panos Pictures; small images, left to right: Chris Stowers/Panos Pictures, Jenny Matthews/Panos Pictures, Moises Saman/Panos Pictures, Piotr Malecki/Panos Pictures.

Tucson El Paso 318,000

30,000

TEXAS Gr Rio and

PAKISTAN

EGYPT 46% 54%

SAUDI ARABIA

74,000

BICOL REGION

42% 58%

University of California Press Berkeley 94704 www.ucpress.edu MIMAROPA

KENYA

Laredo

Manila

NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION

SOMALIA UGANDA

ARIZONA

75,000

50% 50% CALABARZON

41,000 162,000 AFGHANISTAN

IRAQ

JORDAN

El Centro

CAMEROON

y alle eV

GAZA STRIP

CENTRAL LUZON 48% 52%

CALIFORNIA San Diego

AZERBAIJAN

DJIBOUTI ETHIOPIA

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

Back cover: Felix Strummer/iStockphoto

This unique atlas gives shape and meaning to the statistics of population movement, making it an indispensable resource for understanding the world in which we live.

18%

SUDAN

BENIN

TOGO

LIBERIA

21%

P H I L I P P I N E S

40%

35%

Manufactured in Hong Kong

60%

65%

EASTERN VISAYAS WESTERN VISAYAS 40% 55% 45% CENTRAL VISAYAS

42%

www.myriadeditions.comN

ORTHERN

58%

60%

CARAGA

Reference/Demography/Globalization

MINDANAO

24% 76% ZAMBOANGA PENINSULA

33% 18%

67%

TRIPU

CHHATTISGARH

GREATER MUMBAI

This compelling new atlas maps contemporary migration in its economic, social, cultural, and demographic contexts. Drawing on the expertise of the Sussex Centre for Migration Research at the University of Sussex, it traces the story of migration from its historical roots through the economic and political imperatives of the last 50 years, to the current causes and effects of global movement.

Through full-color maps, the atlas unravels the complexity of today’s global movement, exploring why, where, and how migrations take place. It reveals flows of children, students, would-be spouses, skilled and unskilled workers, their family members, retired people, and those returning to their home country – people of all ages, most of whom are moving in the hope of improving their circumstances. Other flows, perhaps more familiar to us, are of refugees and displaced people, forced from their homes by conflict or environmental disaster.

MEGHAL

9 780520 261518

Profile for Myriad Editions

THE PEOPLE ON THE MOVE-AN ATLAS OF MIGRATION  

Migration is a key issue of our times. Nations with long and noble traditions of accepting displaced and dispossessed people are questioning...

THE PEOPLE ON THE MOVE-AN ATLAS OF MIGRATION  

Migration is a key issue of our times. Nations with long and noble traditions of accepting displaced and dispossessed people are questioning...

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