HCM UNIVERSITY OF ARCHITECTURE
URBAN STRATEGIES REPORT LECTURER: MA. TRAN MAI ANH CLASS: URBAN DESIGN 14
GROUP 3 LE NGUYEN KHANH TRANG NGUYEN THI MY HUNG NGUYEN MANH QUAN NGO MINH HOANG TRAN HOAI NAM
CONTENTS Singapore: City in garden 3 I. CONTEXT 4 II.ISSUE 4 III.VISION 5 IV. OBJECTIVES 5 V. STRATEGIES 6 5 STRATEGIES: 6 Strategy 1: Safeguard Singaporeâ€™s Biodiversity 7 Actions: 7 Strategy 2: Consider Biodiversity Issues in Policy and Decision- making 8 Actions: 8 Strategy 3: Improve knowledge of our biodiversity and the natural environment 9 Actions: 9 Strategy 4: Enhance education and public awareness 10 Actions: 10 Strategy 5: Strengthen partnerships with all stakeholders and promote international collaboration 11 Actions: 11 VI. FRAMEWORK - 6 KEY AREAS 12 ANALYSIS 12 VII. BUDGET & TIME 16 VIII. STAKEHOLDERS: 17 IX. KEY ELEMENTS TO SUCCESS: 17 X. FUTURE CHALLENGES: 18 TAM KY CITY 18 I. CONTEXT 19 1. Geography and natural conditions 19 2. The area 19 3. Population 19 4. Economic Development 20 II. ISSUE 20 III. VISION: 20 IV. STRATEGIES 21 V. OBJECTIVES 21 Objective 1: Developing an urban that its structure sustainable due to strong connections between schools and fields. 21 Objective 2: Developing agriculture, forestry and fisheries in a sustainable trend 22 Objective 3: Developing an urban having symbiosis between environment, water and green trees 22 Objective 4: Developing an urban environment friendly, energy saving 23 Objective 5: Building up a smart growth urban area 23 Objective 6: Building suburbs with high-quality living conditions due to key villages 24 VI. ACTIONS 25 The sub-projects: 25 VI. STAKEHOLDERS 25 VII. ACHIEVEMENT 25 Economic 26 Culture 26 VIII. SOME REMAIN ISSUE: 26 COMPARISON 27 SIMILAR 27 DIFFERENCES 27 CONCLUSION 29
SINGAPORE: CITY IN GARDEN
I. CONTEXT Singapore is an island which is located in Southeast Asia, located between Malaysia and Indonesia Area: 718,3 km² Population: 5.469.700 person/km2 No natural resource. Only “natural resource” => human Singapore has defined the conventional wisdom that economic and population expansion harm the environment. Between 1986 and 2007, its “green” cover increased from 35.7% to 46.5% while its population soared from 2.7 million to 4.6 million. Today, in active pursuit of “sustainable Singapore”. How and why this small city-state been able to reconcile its extraordinary economic expansion with environment enhancement.
II. ISSUE How do Singapore government give people a reasonable standard of living without really degrading the environment as they focus on driving economic growth for the nation’s sustainability ?
III. VISION Singapore – Garden city => city in Garden Enhancing greenery and biodiversity of Singapore. Singapore use the greenery to be a main urban strategy to develop country : - Improve living habitant for the citizen ,solve the problem of pollution - Develop tourism potential => develop economic
IV. OBJECTIVES • Develop a compact city to conserve land use and optimize the provision of infrastructure. • Promote the use of public transport by providing an extensive rail network and intensifying land use around rail stations. • Decentralize commercial centers to reduce the need for city commutes. • Provide a high-quality living environment. • Retain the natural and built heritage by safeguarding nature reserves and selectively conserving buildings of outstanding architectural and historical interest.
V. STRATEGIES 5 STRATEGIES: Strategy 1: Safeguard Singaporeâ€™s Biodiversity Strategy 2: Consider Biodiversity Issues in Policy and Decision- making Strategy 3: Improve Knowledge of Singaporeâ€™s Biodiversity and the Natural Environment Strategy 4: Enhance Education and Public Awareness Strategy 5: Strengthen Partnerships with All Stakeholders and Promote International Collaboration
Strategy 1: Safeguard Singapore’s Biodiversity This strategy aims at conserving Singapore’s habitats and ecosystems for long-term sustainability so that Singaporeans can benefit from their multiple functions. Concerted efforts should be made to protect existing native species, habitats and ecosystems, and to re-establish species that once existed.
Actions: • Implement species conservation and recovery programmes • Rehabilitate areas that have previously been degraded • Extend green corridors to counter fragmentation • Utilise parks for ex-situ conservation and to house or re-create ecosystems that have been lost
PROGRAMS & PROJECTS • Species Conservation and Recovery Programmes • Marine Rehabilitation Programme: Coral Nursery Project • Terrestrial Rehabilitation Programme: Ketam Mountain Bike Park • Active, Beautiful and Clean (ABC) Waters Programme
Species Conservation and Recovery Programmes
Marine Rehabilitation Programme: Coral Nursery Project
Terrestrial Rehabilitation Programme: Ketam Mountain Active, Beautiful and Clean (ABC) Waters Programme Bike Park
Strategy 2: Consider Biodiversity Issues in Policy and Decision- making This strategy aims to conserve Singapore’s habitats and ecosystems for long-term sustainability so that Singaporeans can benefit from their multiple functions. Concerted efforts should be made to protect existing native species, habitats and ecosystems, and to re-establish species that once existed.
Actions: • Incorporate biodiversity conservation considerations that include integrating coastal management principles into existing administrative processes • Enhance biodiversity assessment capabilities • Strengthen the current processes on access and benefit sharing, to ensure that biodiversity conservation is considered when granting access to Singapore’s natural genetic resources
PROGRAMS & PROJECTS • Integrated Coastal Management • Saving Chek Jawa
Integrated Coastal Management
Saving Chek Jawa
Strategy 3: Improve knowledge of our biodiversity and the natural environment Keen knowledge of how the key ecosystems respond to our activities will enable us to conserve and use them in a sustainable manner. It is essential that we support taxonomic studies, document our biodiversity and conduct ecological research.
Actions: • Encourage and facilitate research, in particular on ecosystem and species-specific biodiversity conservation, the interactions between the biological components and their physical environment, biodiversity valuation studies and the impact of climate change on biodiversity • Monitor the health of ecosystems and species as part of the management process • Develop and maintain a central information portal on biodiversity to facilitate more informed decision-making • Maintain a list of species with their conservation status (red data list) • Compile case studies on and assess best practices that have been implemented
PROGRAMS & PROJECTS Singapore Red Data Book Documenting our Marine Biodiversity
Singapore Red Data Book
Documenting our Marine Biodiversity
Strategy 4: Enhance education and public awareness Knowledge and awareness are pre-requisites for action, hence communication on biodiversity issues, are critical in driving public involvement. Effective communication will create greater awareness, interest in our natural heritage and instil a sense of national pride.
Actions: • Increase appreciation, awareness and understanding of Singaporeans for nature through public seminars, road shows and events • Promote volunteerism through biodiversity interest groups • Incorporate elements of biodiversity conservation into the curricula of all levels of education
PROGRAMS & PROJECTS Volunteer and Outreach Programmes Wild Singapore Online Wireless Learning Trail @ Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve SUN Club: Special Projects to Understand Nature
Volunteer and Outreach Programmes
Wild Singapore Online!
Wireless Learning Trail @ Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve
SUN Club: Special Projects to Understand Nature
Strategy 5: Strengthen partnerships with all stakeholders and promote international collaboration The most effective mode of operation for biodiversity conservation is to engage all stakeholders, including private, public and people sectors (government agencies, academia, schools, conservation groups, amateur naturalists and private corporations), in a comprehensive partnership. Such partnerships should be pursued domestically and internationally as biodiversity issues cut across sectors and transcend national boundaries.
Actions: • Encourage active participation in the stewardship of the environment for all sectors • Promote partnerships with regional and international organisations, in particular the ASEAN • Centre for Biodiversity and the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, as an indication of our commitment to biodiversity conservation at the global level
PROGRAMS & PROJECTS TeamSeaGrass Singapore Index on Cities’ Biodiversity ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity
TeamSeaGrass ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity an inter-governmental regional centre of excellence
VI. FRAMEWORK - 6 KEY AREAS • Establish world-class gardens • Rejuvenate urban parks and enliven our streetscape • Optimise urban spaces for greenery and recreation • Enrich biodiversity in our urban environment • Enhance competencies of our landscape and horticultural industry • Engage and inspire communities to co-create a greener Singapore
Establish world-class gardens 1.
Singapore Botanic Gardens
Singapore Botanic Gardens will develop Ethnobotany Garden, Tyersall Learning Forest and rejuvenate National Orchid Garden. 2.
Gardens by the Bay
Gardens by the Bay (GB) has welcomed over 3 million visitors since opening in June 2012. GB Company will continue in its efforts to engage the community and enhance the visitor experience. Singapore Botanic Gardens will develop Ethnobotany Garden, Tyersall Learning Forest and rejuvenate National Orchid Garden.
Rejuvenate urban parks and enliven Singapore’s streetscape NParks will commence detailed design of Singapore’s Destination Parks and complete several new parks to provide recreational spaces for the community, including Woodlands Town Garden East and Holland Village Park.
Optimise urban spaces for greenery and recreation NParks will work on Central Nature and Kallang-Serangoon Park Connector loops and add more than 10 ha of skyrise greenery.
Enrich biodiversity in Singapore’s urban environment The Eco-Link linking Bukit Timah Nature Reserve to Central Catchment Nature Reserve is completed in 2013
Enhance competencies of Singapore’s landscape and horticultural industry Workflow Automation System will be rolled out under the Landscape Productivity Roadmap.
Engage and inspire communities to co-create a greener Singapore NParks will add more than 100 community gardens and reach out HeArt for Nature programme to pre-schoolers
VII. BUDGET & TIME 1.035 billion (Garden by the bay) + $255.0 million (6 key areas framework ) + Community funding from agency: National Park Board 2013 marks 50 years of greening Singapore. National Parks Board (NParks) will continue to develop Singapore into a “City in a Garden”.
VIII. STAKEHOLDERS: STAKEHOLDERS
Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew
planted a Mempat tree - the start of the greening campaign Government with many agencies: The minis- Work together for an integrated planning try of the Environment and water resources, Urban Redevelopment Authority, Public Utilities Board, Ministries of Health and Education, Urban Transport Authority, Port, National Parks Board,etc. National Heritage Board Summiting official application for Singapore Botanic Gardens Grant Associates The lead designers of Garden By the bay Atelier Ten (environmental design consultants) Garden by the bay project Atelier One (structural engineers)
Garden by the bay project
CPG Consultants (architecture, civil and struc- Garden by the bay project tural, mechanical and electrical) Meinhardt Infrastructure (civil and structural) Garden by the bay project Langdon & Seah (cost consultants)
Garden by the bay project
PMLink (project management)
Garden by the bay project
IX. KEY ELEMENTS TO SUCCESS: • Good governance • Good planning/ vision • Innovation • Whole of government
• Co-creation (government with people) 17
X. FUTURE CHALLENGES: While strategic planning has stood the nation in good stead so far, the expanding population (given the limited space available) continues to pose a huge challenge. And there are new challenges on the horizon related to climate change, the ever-increasing demand for energy, and social sustainability.
TAM KY CITY
I. CONTEXT 1. Geography and natural conditions - 70 kilometers to the north of Danang city - 25-30 kilometers to the north of Chu Lai airport, Ky Ha port, and Chu Lai open economic zone. - 45 kilometers to the north of Dung Quat economic zone. Tam Ky City - the capital of Quang Nam province, located in the chain of coastal urbans, the National Highway 1A, and the road from the south of Quang Nam province to Bo Y international border gate (in Kon Tum province) linking to Ho Chi Minh road. There is Tam Ky station that is almost the midpoint of the railway from the north to the south. Two - third of the natural area of the city (6200 m2) is in Chu Lai Open Economic Zone. Thus, Tam Ky city has an important role in the socio-economic development strategy in the region. As the convergence of many meandering rivers in the city with Phu Ninh lake mild, Tam Thanh beach widespread, and cultural and historical relics of Ky Anh tunnel, Bai Say â€“ Song Dam, Khuong My tower, Chien Dan tower... Tam Ky city meets the unique culture features of Quang region, and is the very young city that is on the way forming and developing into ecological urban green, clean and beautiful.
2. The area - The total area is 92,63 km2, including: + The urban area is 41,16 km2 + The rural area is 51,47 km2
3. Population - According to census data on December 2011, the total population is about 109.051, including: + The rural: 82.750 + The urban: 26,301 - Administrative units are 9 wards and 4 communes 19
4. Economic Development The industrial-small industrial value in 2011: to reach 1186 billion, up 28.1% over the same period in 2010 The service and trade value in 2011: reach 2584 billion, up 25.4% over the same period in 2010 The export value in the area reached more than USD 48.2 million There are nearly 520 businesses and 8157 business households in Tam Ky city, using over 30,000 employees. Development orientation of Tam Ky city is to build the city towards Trade, service, industry and small industry. The output value of industry and small industry sector accounts for 38.15% and 58.6% for trade-service, creating jobs for over 4560 employees. Tam Ky City is opening more investment opportunities for domestic and foreign enterprises.
II. ISSUE Tam Ky was aiming by Viet Nam ‘s government to become a level 2 city. However, to actualize the level 2 city target and sustainable development, tam ky faced a lot of difficulty. At that time, Tam Ky just reach 39 over 49 criterion of a level II city ( according to 42/2009/ND-CP protocol of The Government and 34/2009/TT-BXD protocol of Ministry of Construction). In 13 remained criterion, the most difficulty to reach is the criterion about population. At the end of 2014, the population of Tam Ky was about 135000 which were much lower than the minimum of 300000 of the population criterion. In addition, just reaching 3.874 person/km2 of density was still far way from 8000per/km2 of the criterion.
III. VISION: According to the Tam Ky Planning to 2030, vision to 2050, Tam Ky was oriented to develop into “Green city and sustainable development”, Tam Ky will play a role as a center of Quang Nam provincial and a focal point in the coastal economical chain (Da Nang – Quang Nam – Quang Ngai). The city will expand forward to the east with 53% of green space and 47% of urban area, Ban Thach river area will become the green core of the city with lot of large green park. The west bank of the river is existing residential, Meanwhile the east bank will be developed a new urban area and nature ecological line. The city will have 12 functional zone that developing in environmental friendly way, and base on reserving and promoting natural value.
IV. STRATEGIES Set up a strong occupational structure with human resources training activities is the main core, especially high quality human resources. Develop Trading activities to encourage central urban area become more attractive and animate. Arrange Commercial center along Dien Bien Phu avenue and the Ban Thach river bank area to increase services, facilities to satisfy the modern life demand. Develop sustainable agriculture-forestry-fishery, apply high technology into manufacturing agricultural-forestry-fishery produces and branding register for produce to raise up produce value Develop symbiotic city that symbiotic with environment: river, sea, mountain, â€Ś.. Develop Ecotourism and urbantourism.
In near future, beside developing industrial activities and organic agriculture, Tam Ky will transform the economic structure, that focusing on services and tourisms. Ignoring industries that causing environmental pollution, agriculture play an important role in regenerating the ecologic.
V. OBJECTIVES Objective 1: Developing an urban that its structure sustainable due to strong connections between schools and fields. Completing education and living environment
Developing business- regional economy
Circulation of the completing education - living environment and developing business â€“ regional economy
Objective 2: Developing agriculture, forestry and fisheries in a sustainable trend • Agricultural products supply • Natural environment conservation · Air cleaning · Water supplement for water · Diverse creature conservation · “Heat island” response • Land Protection · Flood prevention · Landslides prevention • Beautiful landscape creation • Traditional culture inheritance • Education • Health protection, resting and tourism
Objective 3: Developing an urban having symbiosis between environment, water and green trees •
Farmland and trees preservation
Water-friendly space construction
• Urban environment, living environment formation with rich green trees
Objective 4: Developing an urban environment friendly, energy saving • • •
Using a transportation system efficient, environment-friendly Using positively sources of recycled energy such as solar energy, energy from waste... Using power-saving electrical appliances effectively
Objective 5: Building up a smart growth urban area •
An urban center with centralized functions and easy connection
Infrastructure system environmentally friendly and efficient
An urban with diverse lifestyle
An urban with its strong characteristics
Objective 6: Building suburbs with high-quality living conditions due to key villages
INDICATOR • Economical structure: Service 71%, Industryconstruction 27,5 %, agriculture 1,5% • Economical growth per year : Industry- construction 18%, Service 16%, Export 20% • GPD: 60 million • Government’s budget raise 12-15% per year • Total social Investment reach over 14000 billion • Provide over 4600 job per year , Trained worker reach over 75% in 2020, non-agricutural worker reach 90%.
VI. ACTIONS In planning and planning management, General Planning Project of Tam Ky city towards 2030, vision to 2050 (passed in 2014) implemented by Nikken Sekkei Consulting Company (Japan), together with national and international experts is the fundament to build Tam Ky a green city. In addition, there are technical assistances and consultants from international organiztions such as UN-Habitat International Urban Training Center from Korea (IUTC), Studio Veritas company (America). A lot of buildings have been constructed such as Vietnam heroic mother's monument, Seaside square Tam Thanh, especially with the connection with UN-Habitat, international interaction fund from Korea has supported project execution in the arts community, mural village in Tam Thanh. Besides, the task need to be focused on is propagandzing about education, raising community awareness; well-excecuted planning and infrastructure,; enhancing cooperative relationship, enhancing institution and finance resource; human resource development and training, enhancing the recognition, application, development in sciences and technologies…
The sub-projects: Important projects contributing to urban development, environmental improvement, livelihood solution for the poor and climate change adaptation are :Urban environmental regeneration Project - Tam Ky Subproject , The level 2- City Development Project - Tam Ky sub-project is supported by the Asian Bank (ADB); Wastewater and drainage treatment project which is funded by the World Bank (WB); etc
VI. STAKEHOLDERS The provincial People’s Committee, the UN Human Settlements Program (UN-Habitat) and the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI), took place in the province on June 23.
VII. ACHIEVEMENT Tam Ky have achieved some important success. In 2016, Tam Ky was recognized as Level II city. And before that in 2015, Tam Ky was awarded By Un-Habitt, Asia landscape organization, Asia settled Committee, Urban research center of Fukuoka city for “Asia landscape city award”. The award was set up to honor the efforts of those Asian city that have great sustainable development to become a beautiful city that friendly with environment and encourage the history, cultural value.
Economic In 2016, Services and industrial values reach 97,3% in economical structure of the city. In detail, Services value cost 16000 billion in 2016, 20 times than 10 years ago, Industrial value cost 2200 billion, 5 times than 10 years ago. In general, the Tam Ky economic have maintained the good development which always stay in 14-15% per year. For example: Many industrial zone: Truong Xuan 1,2; Thuan Kieu; Tam Thang was constructed, creating a motivation for economical development. Many trading and tourism facilities was invested, like Co.opMart supermarket system, hotels on Ban Thach river bank,… . The city also attracted many foreign Company and cooperation like: Muon Thanh Cooperation, Panko Cooperation, Shing Chang company,…. .
Culture Educational facilities network was invested and Almost educational facilities have reached national standard. Many entertainment and social facilities of the city was constructed and regenerated , ex: 24/3 square, children cultural house, Quang Nam museum, etc.
VIII. SOME REMAIN ISSUE: Beside some marker achievement, the city still has some existing issue, and limited in social -economical development. Infrastructure, urban environment haven’t completed, economic still not developed and sustainable, quality and quantity of enterprise maintain in low point. Cultural and civilized aware of some person haven’t followed the city development. The city Government still have to focus on solving the conflict between the need of fast development and the condition of finance and human resource, between development of city infrastructure and request to protect natural environment. More important issue that handling people’s life when Clearance beginning.
COMPARISON SIMILAR Having the same purpose develop a green city
Both project had the similar scope which is urban level project
They have the cooperation with local community ( more effectively in the case of Singapore)
Economic growth is related to tourism economy.
DIFFERENCES Context: Aiming for the sustainability is an essential consequence for developed countries like singpore Tam ky is a developing country and the first precedence is enhancing economic growth paralleling with sustainable development. Project area: Singapore: Mega national City , area: 720 Km2 with over 5,5 Million Tam Ky: Small city, 100 Km2, 100,000 people
Vision: Tam Ky is aiming to build a new city in a “Green growth” direction. However Singapore Just want to increase the rate of greenery in city and improve biodiversity.
Purpose Singapore’s lack of natural resources leads to the need of adding more greenery. Tam Ky want to become a level 2 city according to the government’s request also the “green growth” city trend of the world when they receive the habitat’s fund.
Human resources quality: Sin has high human resources. Therefore, there is no need of training. However, they focus on educating adolescent’s awareness of natural environment protection. Meanwhile, Tam Ky is a young city lacking of human resources so that they need to train new high quality human resource to meet the demand of development.
CONCLUSION General urban planning in VN Urban planning approach is still based on City evaluative standards of VN â€˜s Government in order that it is hard to integrating spatial and social- economic movements.
REFERENCES: http://www.singaporebudget.gov.sg/budget_2013/expenditure_overview/mnd.html subws-2014-01-presentation-singapore-en 5892-Singapore_City_Garden-CS-EN-0-01-2013-corr-w https://www.nparks.gov.sg/ http://tamky.gov.vn/Default.aspx?tabid=109&Group=86&NID=2767&do-an-dieu-chinh-quy-hoachchung-thanh-pho-tam-ky-tinh-quang-nam-den-nam-2-3--tam-nhin-den-nam-2-5 http://quangnamnews.vn/english/economics/201609/tam-ky-development-strategy-green-growth-698695/ https://citynet-ap.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Association-of-Cities-Vietnam-ACVN-Presentation-Climate1.pdf http://www.quangnam.gov.vn/CMSPages/BaiViet/Default.aspx?IDBaiViet=16803 www.fukuoka.unhabitat.org/kcap/activities/egm/2014/pdf/egm15_en.pdf