MyDigiDoc July 2021 Issue 1

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MYDIGIDOC ONE YEAR ANNIVERSARY ISSUE

RESOURCES FIND OUT ABOUT OPPORTUNITIES, BOOKS, AND USEFUL CLASSES View our resources page for a chance to find an activity that is the right fit for you

ADVICE ADVICE FROM MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS AND STUDENTS We asked those in the science field/entering the field about advice they had for future generations

SPECIALTIES OVER 15 MEDICAL SPECIALTIES EXPLAINED WITH DETAIL Learn about what each specialty is by definition, and read through the data we've researched

INTERVIEWS WE TALKED TO DOCTORS, SURGEONS, AND STUDENTS

Hear what they had to say about their daily life, career, schooling, and more JULY 2021 / ISSUE 1 / VOLUME 1


A NOTE FROM MYDIGIDOC JULY 2021 ISSUE

To our readers, We thank you for taking the time out of your day to read our magazine. After months and months of brainstorming, planning, creating, and executing, our team has put together an excellent magazine filled with knowledge and first-hand experiences of scientific professionals. Furthermore, we would like to thank our talented team for putting in hours of work and dedication into our first issue; we truly appreciate it. Additionally, we thank the doctors, students, and other scientific professionals that consented to being interviewed by our team - this magazine wouldn't have been possible to build without your insight. Back to our audience, we hope you enjoy the MyDigiDoc July 2021 anniversary issue and stay tuned for our other magazine issues! WWW.MYDIGIDOC.NET

info@mydigidoc.net www.instagram.com/mydigidoc


MYDIGIDOC MAGAZINE JULY 2021

EDITOR IN CHIEF

Jasnoor Kaur

ASSOCIATE EDITOR

Bharath Burri

ASSOCIATE EDITOR

Kamalika Gogineni

ASSOCIATE EDITOR

Mahek Verma

ASSOCIATE EDITOR

Stephanie Hernandez

ASSOCIATE EDITOR

Fathima Nada

INTERVIEWEES Dr. Nikolas Parisis, Dr. Sibgath Ali Khan, Dr. Alicia Shelly, Dr. Fort, Dr. Isreb, Dr. Chuang, Dr. Carl Truesdale, Dr. Chelsea Troiano

CONTRIBUTORS Jasmin Sanchez, Dr. Raghavender Singireddy, Kim, Anjali Ramesh, Dr. Ali Khan, Sakinah Aliasger, Lauren Kanzaki, Dr. Ollie Burton, Dr. Tiffany Nevill, Rameesha Khursheed, Aditya Pradhan, Sahithi Gokavarapu


TABLE OF CONTENTS

04 About MyDigiDoc A brief overview of the start of MyDigiDoc, its mission, and some of its accomplishments

05 Specialties Detailed information about 15 specialties in medicine

19 Pathway to Medicine Read about the basic pathway to enter the vast field of medicine

22 Interviews We interviewed doctors, medical students, and other individuals about their profession

30 Advice Take in some advice given by medical professionals, students, and others

31 Trivia Exercise your brain with the activities and games we have

38 Student Resources Discover some science/stem-related opportunities, books, classes, and more

40 Writers' Notes Read about our writers' experiences in building this magazine

INTERVIEW WITH DR. CHUANG

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ABOUT MYDIGIDOC

MyDigiDoc is an organization centralized around science and education. We strongly believe in helping the world in any way possible. Some of our approaches to better society include holding fundraisers for local food drives, raising money for underserved communities, and by hosting educational seminars for those who are interested in a life-long career in medicine.

Furthermore, in January to February 2021, MyDigiDoc fundraised money for a local food drive that was supporting families in communities suffering from the aftermaths of the Covid-19 pandemic. Raising over $400, our founder and directors personally donated these goods to a local food drive, Forgotten Harvest, and a local hospital for the medical professionals and patients there.

Our founder, Jasnoor Kaur, sought to build an organization that would better the world after it was impacted by Covid-19. After Jasnoor collaborated with her two peers, Aditya Pradhan and Sahithi Gokavarapu, the three of them built the foundation of MyDigiDoc and launched the organization on July 24, 2020. A year later, MyDigiDoc is now an international organization with a team of over 40 people, all in different sub-committees and branches.

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As previously said, MyDigiDoc is an organization that aids the community in any way it can. In December 2020, they partnered with another organization (Fair Care Awareness) to fundraise for indigenous communities struggling with Covid-19 - together, we raised over $200! Fundraised goods shown.


Specialties ALL ABOUT MEDICAL SPECIALTIES, RANGING FROM DERMATOLOGY TO NEPHROLOGY

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INTERNAL MEDICINE BY MAHEK VERMA The general definition of internal medicine is that it is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of internal diseases.

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"Internists" are doctors that specialize in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in adults. They primarily see patients in an office-like setting. Usually, they will see around 20-25 patients during clinic hours; they may also see patients during rounds or when they are on-call. Most internists are generalists who have a broad range of knowledge including disease prevention, chronic illnesses, and body wellness. Common health problems that they encounter are diabetes, hypertension, colds, and the flu. They might refer a patient to a specialist if there is a bigger issue at hand.

IN 2019, THE AVERAGE SALARY FOR INTERNISTS IN THE U.S. WAS $243K, AN $13K INCREASE FROM 2018.

The pathway to becoming an internist is as listed: obtain a bachelor's degree, take the MCAT, complete medical school, take the USMLE Step 1 and 2 during medical school, participate in a three-year internal medicine residency, take the USMLE Step 3 during residency; in addition to this, it is highly recommended individuals take a fellowship in this specialty after residency. Some of the best medical schools for internal medicine, followed by their acceptance rates, are UCSF Medical School (3.8%), Harvard Medical School (3.3%), Johns Hopkins University school of medicine (7%), Perelman School of Medicine (4%), Columbia University Medical School (4%), University of Michigan Medical School (2.03%), and the list goes on. One recent breakthrough in internal medicine would be PARP inhibitors (pharmacological inhibitors of an enzyme called poly ADP-ribose polymerase; it helps delay the progression of prostate cancer in men.

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SUB-SPECIALISTS: CARDIOLOGIST, ENDOCRINOLOGIST, GASTROENTEROLOGIST, NEPHROLOGIST, PULMONOLOGIST, ONCOLOGIST, RHEUMATOLOGIST, IMMUNOLOGIST


THE AVERAGE ONCOLOGIST SALARY IN THE UNITED STATES IS $312, 621

Some good undergraduate schools (to obtain a Bachelor's Degree) are Case Western University, Penn State, Michigan State, University of Michigan, and Boston University - these are excellent colleges for a future in oncology. A handful of medical schools that would be great for a future in oncology are UT Southwestern Medical School, Baylor College of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, and Oregon Health and Science University.

ONCOLOGY BY BHARATH BURRI Oncology is the branch of medicine that researches, identifies, and treats cancer; a physician working in oncology is called an oncologist (healio.com). To become a certified oncologist, there are seven main steps you must cross. Starting off, obtain a Bachelor's Degree - there are generally no requirements for a specific major (many individuals don't event major in a science-related field). Following that, take the MCAT and get accepted in medical school. Step 4 is to take the USMLE (United States Medical Licensing Examination). Next, you need to get certified as an oncologist by passing an examination offered by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).

Liquid biopsy is a great innovation that exists today; when an individual has cancer and it's progressing, the tumors (cancerous cells) shed off circulating tumor cells and other markers into the bloodstream. A liquid biopsy helps analyze these CTCs and blood markers (cancercenter.com).

A BREAKTHROUGH: THE AURIS MONARCH ROBOTIC PLATFORM HELPS TO DIAGNOSE LUNG CANCER AT AN EARLY STAGE WITH MORE ACCURACY AND A LOWER RISK OF COMPLICATIONS Shot by Michelle Leman

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ANESTHESIOLOGY BY BHARATH BURRI Anesthesiology is the branch of medicine that is focused on the relief of pain in the perioperative period; professionals in this field of study are called anesthesiologists. The path to becoming an anesthesiologist is a lengthy one; first you need to obtain a bachelor’s degree: this takes about four years. Then, take the MCAT. Once you have those two done, you can apply to medical schools. When you’re in medical school you need to take and pass the USMLE. After you graduate from medical school, you apply to anesthesiology residency programs: anesthesiology is consistently one of the hardest specialties to match into, programs typically lasting for four years. After these 12 years, you are considered an Anesthesiologist, but you can further specialize and undergo a one year fellowship in, for example, Adult Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology. No matter what path you choose, after residency you still need to get board certified.

AN ANESTHESIOLOGIST, IN THE UNITED STATES, EARNS AN AVERAGE OF $397,300 WITH THE AVERAGE VARYING DEPENDING ON THE STATE.

A few top medical schools that would fit an individual interested in this field are Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, University of Michigan Medical School, Emory University, and Duke University. As per undergraduate schools, the best for anesthesiology would be Case Western Reserve University, Penn State, Michigan State, University of Michigan, and Boston University.

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There have been significant advances in clinical monitoring technology throughout the years these advances make it easier for the anesthesiologist to monitor a patient’s vital signs while on anesthesia. This greatly improves patient safety, and anesthesiologists around the world have benefited immensely. For example, there was a surgical death rate of 1.5% before the introduction of these monitoring systems, but it fell to 0.8% after they were introduced.

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ANESTHESIOLOGY, OR ANY OTHER HEALTHCARE FIELD, IS CONSTANTLY CHANGING, AND YOU HAVE TO NEVER STOP LEARNING


“THE AVERAGE OB/GYN SALARY IN THE UNITED STATES IS $293,101 AS OF JUNE 28, 2021, BUT THE RANGE TYPICALLY FALLS BETWEEN $254,201 AND $352,701.

Obstetricians and gynecologists typically need a bachelor’s degree, a degree from a medical school, which takes 4 years to complete, and 3 to 7 years in internship and residency programs. To expand, Pre-medical courses, such as chemistry, organic chemistry, physics, and biology are required of all applicants. Medical students must also study and pass the MCAT and pass the first two parts of the USMLE. To underscore their mastery of their chosen specialty, most OB/GYNs will seek board certification from the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology, a founding member of the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) - innerbody.com.

OBGYN BY STEPHANIE HERNANDEZ “An obstetrician-gynecologist, or OB-GYN, is a healthcare professional that specializes in female reproductive health. People trained as OB-GYNs specialize in both obstetrics and gynecology”. People should see their OB-GYN if they thing they might be pregnant or have any reproductive system issues. Additionally, visit your OB-GYN for STD testing, suspected pregnancy/miscarriage, pregnancy complications, pain during sex, pain or other symptoms associated with urination, suspected infertility, and/or to ask any questions about one's sexual/reproductive health. Furthermore, OB-GYNs are trained surgeons who can perform a wide range of procedures, such as cesarean sections, instrumental deliveries during child birth, hysterectomies, removing growths (such as an ovarian cyst and uterine fibroids), surgery to repair pelvic organ injuries.

The medical schools of these universities are some of the best medical schools for aspiring OB-GYNs: Harvard University, New York University (Grossman), Duke University, Stanford University, and UCSF.

A BREAKTHROUGH: IN 2017, ”NEW ULTRASOUND TECHNOLOGY ENABLES GYNECOLOGY PRACTICES REPLACE THEIR 2D IMAGING EQUIPMENT WITH SUPERIOR 3D ULTRASOUND SYSTEMS". Shot by MART Productions

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ORTHOPEDICS BY MAHEK VERMA Orthopedics: a branch of medicine concerned with the correction or prevention of deformities, disorders, or injuries of the skeleton and associated structures.

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Orthopedic surgeons treat patients of all ages and can work in either private practice or a hospital. There are many conditions they can treat without surgery, such as back pain, fractures, and dislocations. Surgery is a last resort if all other treatments don’t work. Orthopedic surgeons are trained to conduct multiple types of surgery, including joint replacement, fusion, and soft tissue repair. In 2020, the average salary for orthopedists in the US was $511K, an increase from $482K in 2019.

IN 2020, THE AVERAGE SALARY FOR ORTHOPEDISTS IN THE US WAS $511K, AN INCREASE FROM $482K IN 2019

The pathway to becoming an internist is as listed: obtain a bachelor's degree, take the MCAT, complete medical school, take the USMLE Step 1 and 2 during medical school, participate in a three-year internal medicine residency, take the USMLE Step 3 during residency; in addition to this, it is highly recommended individuals take a fellowship in this specialty after residency. Best Medical Schools for Orthopedics include UCSF Medical School, John Hopkins University School of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, UCLA Medical School, University of Michigan Medical School, UNC School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical School, Pritzker School of Medicine, Mayo Clinic Alix School of Medicine. Breakthrough: researchers at the University of Florida have developed a magnesium surgical pin that can degrade in the body at controlled rates over time.

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SOME SUB-SPECIALTIES INCLUDE SPORTS MEDICINE, HAND SURGERY, SPINE SURGERY, JOINT REPLACEMENT, TRAUMA SURGERY, ETC.


SCHOOLING FOR OPHTHAMOLOGY INCLUDES: BACHELOR'S DEGREE (4 YEARS), MEDICAL SCHOOL (4 YEARS), INTERNSHIP (1 YEAR), OPHTHAMOLOGY RESIDENCY (3 YEARS)

Ophthalmologists earn their Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) after completing a four year bachelor’s degree and four years of medical school. During the bachelor’s degree, students are expected to complete the premed requisites. Most medical schools require applicants to have some type of ophthalmology or optometry training, and are expected to take anatomy, physics, biology and math classes. After the completion of medical school, aspiring ophthalmologist apply to an ophthalmology residency program of their choice. To have the best chance to match into a competitive residency program students are expected to have high MCAT scores and GPA [jobhero.com]. Many ophthalmologists take a one to two year fellowship after completing their residency to specialize in an area such as pediatrics (treating children), cataract surgery (removal of a clouded lens), or glaucoma therapy.

OPHTHAMOLOGY BY FATHIMA NADA Ophthalmology is a specialty of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of eye and visual system illnesses (WebMD). A change in vision (such as sudden blurriness), new floaters/flashes in one's vision, double vision, and/or a sudden loss of vision are symptoms that may result in an ophthalmologist consult. Ophthalmologists also treat eye conditions like cataracts, glaucoma, eye injuries, pain, or inflammation [of the eye] As of May 27, 2021, the average ophthalmologist salary in the United States is $301,600, with a salary range of $253,500 to $345,000. Salary ranges rely on a variety of things, including schooling, certifications, specialized qualifications, and the number of years you've worked in your field, as per salary.com.

TREATMENTS ARE EITHER ADMINISTERED ORALLY OR TOPICALLY. SURGERY, CRYOTHERAPY (FREEZE TREATMENT), AND CHEMOTHERAPY ARE ALL OPTIONS FOR TREATMENT Shot by cottonbro

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PLASTIC SURGERY BY FATHIMA NADA Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on restoring, reconstructing, or adjusting the human body. Reconstructive surgery and cosmetic surgery are the two basic types of plastic surgery. Craniofacial surgery, hand surgery, microsurgery, and burn therapy are all examples of reconstructive surgery. While reconstructive surgery tries to rebuild or improve the function of a body part, cosmetic (or aesthetic) surgery aims to improve its look (Wikipedia). The following a reasons to consult a plastic surgeon: to correct birth defects, physical pain, cancer, an accident, to boost self-esteem, etc. As of June 28, 2021, the average Plastic Surgeon income is $227,090, however the salary range generally ranges between $204,531 and $258,224. The schooling to become a plastic surgeon begins with a four-year bachelor's degree program which will act as preparation for medical school.

PERSONALIZED TISSUE ENGINEERING: BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING SPECIALTY THAT RESTORES, MAINTAINS, IMPROVES, OR REPLACES DIFFERENT TYPES OF BIOLOGICAL TISSUES THROUGH A VARIETY OF ADVANCEMENTS

There is no specific plastic surgeon degree, but good bachelor's degree programs will include a lot of biology courses and potentially classes in chemistry and physics. After completing a bachelor's degree, aspiring plastic surgeons must pursue a Doctor of Medicine degree from a recognized medical school. Medical school programs typically run four years, with the first two years devoted to classroom study, and the final two years spent gaining hands-on clinical experience in a hospital or other medical facility.

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Following completion of medical school, an emerging plastic surgeon's training is further enhanced by participation in 5-6 years of residency training. During this period of training, surgeons must get clinical experience in both general and plastic surgery. Students must pass one or more examinations at the end of their residency to be able to legally practice. Following their residency, some plastic surgeons may choose to pursue a fellowship in a specific branch of plastic surgery, such as breast reconstruction or craniofacial surgery. While specialization is prevalent among plastic surgeons, they will all have received training in breast surgery, upper body congenital disorders, and burn management.

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ACCORDING TO THE HEART DISEASE AND STROKE STATISTICS, AN APPROXIMATE OF 795,000 CARDIAC PATIENTS ARE ADMITTED IN THE US ANNUALLY

Cardiology is a diverse field of medicine and surgery combined with vast implications. A cardiologist is specialized to deal with the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases like heart strokes, heart valves disorders, heart defects, disorders of coronary arteries, heart failure. Keeping these expertise options in the know, within cardiology, one may opt to go for a subspecialty in echocardiography, nuclear cardiology, cardiac electrophysiology, interventional cardiology. With the escalated demand and scope of cardiology, the annual salary percentages indicate that the cardiology field work is stretching but rewarding. The national average salary of a cardiologist is $381,082 in United States. It varies with the area you are located in and the level of expertise you have gained.

CARDIOLOGY BY RAMEESHA KHURSHEED Cardiology is the study of diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the heart and the blood vessels. A person specialized to treat heart diseases or cardiovascular diseases may be referred to a cardiologist. You'll need a four-year undergraduate degree plus an additional four years of medical school followed by a residency program which may take up to eight years. Some of the good recommendation for the courses to take in undergraduate are biology, chemistry and medicine. Due to the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, demand for cardiology specialists is expected to rise significantly, the interventional cardiology devices market is expected to grow, too. According to a projection published in the November issue of Health Affairs, the demand will grow 20 percent by 2025.

Heart diseases are not ideally curable but could be made better. Most of them are made treatable today because of some revolutionizing breakthroughs and research implementations in the field of cardiology. Some of the remarkable advances in cardiology are that have enhanced the application spectrum of this field for future are: New European guidelines on revascularization; New developments in the treatment of cardiogenic shock, and more.

A RECENT STUDY BY EDITH COWAN UNIVERSITY HAS DEMONSTRATED THAT THE BUILD-UP OF CALCIUM IN A MAJOR ARTERY OUTSIDE OF THE HEART COULD PREDICT FUTURE HEART ATTACK OR STROKE

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UROLOGY BY RAMEESHA KHURSHEED Urology is a branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the male and female urinary tract system (kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra) and male reproductive parts. A person specialized to diagnose and treat these diseases are referred to as urologists. They are also called genitourinary physicians. A four-year undergraduate degree is required to be completed followed by four years of medical school and five years of specialization and residency. Some of the good recommendations for the courses to take in undergraduate are biology, chemistry, and in some cases, physics. Some well renowned medical schools for a urology path and residency are Boston University School of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Columbia University, Indiana University School of Medicine, and Northwestern University.

FINDING A CURE FOR KIDNEY TUMORS AND CANCEROUS ADVANCEMENTS IN THE KIDNEY IS STILL YET TO BE IDENTIFIED

Urologists usually work alongside surgeons in hospitals. Their work may or may not always include surgery. They continue with clinical practices throughout their career. “A urology career is a good balance of surgery, office work and ever-changing technology,” Jeffrey R. Thrill, MD, a urologist practicing in Orlando, Florida, said, “We treat patients of all ages and with either benign or cancerous conditions. Most urologic issues are treatable or manageable, and often Urologists will follow patients for decades and develop close relationships with them, just like a family physician would”. The specialists examine patients, diagnose and treat diseases. They usually perform both minimally invasive procedures and major surgical operations including removing a urinary tract blockage, treatment of bladder, kidney or urethra infection, taking necessary urine tests for analysis. Urology research is progressing as experts try to investigate various methods and diagnostics urogenital disorders. One great advance in urology is infrared imaging technique combined with robotassisted surgery to remove kidney cancer.

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DEMAND FOR UROLOGY IS CONTINUOUSLY INCREASING. THE EXPECTED ANNUAL SALARY OF A UROLOGIST IS $252,040.


IT DOES NOT NECESSARILY MATTER WHERE YOU GO FOR UNDERGRADUATE STUDY BECAUSE THERE IS NOT A SPECIFIC RECOMMENDED MAJOR

The process to become a dermatologist starts off with getting a Bachelor’s degree: typically students would take a Pre-med program which included courses in anatomy and physiology, biology, chemistry, physics and English. These will cover all the prerequisites needed to get into a medical school. However a downside to this is that after graduating, medical school may be the only option available. For this reason, medical schools advise students to pursue a major they are interested in, while still taking pre-requisite classes. Most students apply after their third or fourth year of undergraduate study after they have obtained an MCAT score and hopefully a high GPA. After four years of medical school aspiring dermatologists have to get matched with a dermatology residency. Dermatology is consistently one of the hardest specialties to match into so it’s going to take extra hard work. Residency involved in being an intern in either general surgery or internal medicine for a year. Followed by three years of clinical residency in dermatology. After 11 years of schooling and hard work, most dermatologists complete a fellowship (usually one or two years long) which trains them in a sub-specialized field such as cosmetic surgery.

RESEARCHERS AT NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY HAVE DEVELOPED A NEW BIOMATERIAL CALLED SELENOMELANIN THAT CAN PROTECT PEOPLE FROM RADIATION

DERMATOLOGY BY BHARATH BURRI Dermatology is a branch of medicine that deals with the skin and diseases of the skin. It concerns the study, research and diagnosis of normal skin and disorders of the skin. Cancers, cosmetic and aging conditions of the skin, fat, hair, nails and oral and genital membranes are all aspects of dermatology (healio). Primary reasons for visits to the dermatologist are skin lesions, acne, skin rashes, discoloration or pigmentation, etc. Dermatologists also treat more serious diseases, such as skin cancer, fungal infections, and eczema. The average Dermatologist salary in the United States is $351,400 as of January 29, 2021, but the range typically falls between $301,800 and $410,000.

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NEUROLOGY BY BHARATH BURRI Neuroscience describes the scientific study of the mechanics of the central nervous system such as its structure, function, genetics and physiology as well as how this can be applied to understand diseases of the nervous system. Neurology is a specialized area of medicine that concerns disorders and diseases of the nervous system ranging from Alzheimer's disease through to infection and personality disorders. Neurology involves diagnosing and treating conditions of the central, peripheral and autonomic nervous systems (news-medical.net).

A NEUROLOGIST, IN THE UNITED STATES, EARNS AN AVERAGE OF $260,000 WITH A RANGE TYPICALLY BETWEEN $227,200$305,200

The lengthy process of becoming a neurologist consists of four years of undergraduate study, four years of medical school, one year of internship and three years of residency. After this you have two pathways which you may choose from. The first is to get your state licensing after three years of residency, which makes you eligible to practice medicine. The other is to continue your education by going into a fellowship program: A fellowship is needed for subspecialties, such as vascular medicine or clinical neurophysiology

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The process of becoming a neuroscientist is in no right any less rigorous than becoming a neurologist. To become a fully fledged neuroscientist you will need a bachelor’s degree followed by a masters. Next would be to get a PhD. However you can also apply to a joint M.D. and Ph.D. program which would allow you to obtain a medical license and advanced training in research in neuroscience. For aspiring neurologists it would be best in your interest to earn a bachelor’s degree in biology, chemistry, or physics. Aspiring neuroscientists may find it beneficial to major in biology or psychology.

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A NEUROSCIENTIST, IN THE UNITED STATES, EARNS AN AVERAGE SALARY OF $115,000 WITH THE 25TH PERCENTILE EARNING $71,500.


THE FDA HAS GRANTED THE WEARABLE ARTIFICIAL KIDNEY (WAK) EXPEDITED ACCESS PATHWAY STATUS AFTER THE DEVICE PERFORMED WELL IN ITS FIRST U.S. CLINICAL STUDY AT UWMC

Aspiring nephrologists should start with a pre-med bachelor's degree from an accredited four-year institution. A pre-med degree prepares students for medical school by introducing them to various foundational topics. No particular major is required, but some majors may be more valuable than others like biology and chemistry. The standard premed courses relevant to this career choice are one year of biology, one year of physics, statistics, calculus, two years of chemistry (organic and inorganic with lab) and one year of English. These courses will prepare students for the MCAT in which a high score is essential to apply for medical school.

NEPHROLOGY BY KAMALIKA GOGINENI Nephrology is a branch of internal medicine that specializes in the treatment of kidney diseases. Nephrologists can help design a treatment plan to help you endure renal failure. High blood pressure, fluid retention, and electrolyte and mineral imbalances are all addressed as well. Furthermore, these experts are in charge of renal dialysis, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, as well as kidney transplants. Primary Reasons to visit a nephrologist:: chronic Urinary Tract Infections, recurring, kidney stones, foamy urine, itchy skin and joint or bone pain, renal Issues, and high blood pressure with mineral imbalances. As of May 27, 2021, the average nephrology pay in the United States is $255,780, while the range frequently falls between $222,856 and $289,664

The next step is going to a medical school and obtaining a MD or DO degree. Nephrologists finish their specialty training after medical school by completing an internal medicine residency and a nephrology fellowship. The residency is usually three years long, while the fellowship is one to two years long. This specialty requires a cumulative training of 12-13 years before you can practice as an attending. All in all, the specialty is worth it as kidney disease is one of the most chronic illnesses faced by the public and being able to alleviate that is gratifying.

TOP MEDICAL SCHOOLS FOR NEPHROLOGY: DUKE UNIVERSITY, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, UCLA, JOHNS HOPKINS, AND STANFORD

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NEONATALOLOGY BY KAMALIKA GOGINENI Doctors that specialize in the care of newborn children are known as neonatologists. Neonatal specialists are also involved in more common areas of care, such as consulting families prior, through, and after labor. In a high-risk birth, such as when organ systems are not fully developed, premature labor, or a lack of oxygen, neonatologists are the first point of call. Primary seasons to visit a neonatologist are birth defects, high-risk pregnancies, premature labor, breathing disorders, and/or newborns that are severely ill and require surgery. According to a Salary.com report from June 2020, neonatologists earn an annual salary of $255,038. Like other incomes, neonatologist compensation is greater in big metropolitan regions, as well as on the west and northeast coasts.

NEONATAL MEDICINE CONTINUES TO ADVANCE AT A BREAKNECK PACE. BABIES BORN AS EARLY AS 26 WEEKS NOW HAVE A SOLID CHANCE OF SURVIVING, WHICH IS A SIGNIFICANT GAIN OVER EVEN A DECADE AGO.

Anyone aspiring to be a neonatologist should start with a pre-med bachelor's degree from an accredited four-year institution. A pre-med degree prepares students for medical school by introducing them to the principles of healthcare. To become a neonatologist, no particular major is required, but some majors may be more valuable than others like biology and chemistry. The standard premed courses pertinent to this career choice are one year of biology, one year of physics, statistics, calculus, two years of chemistry (organic and inorganic with lab) and one year of English. These courses will prepare you for the MCAT in which a high score is essential to apply for medical school. Neonatologists finish their specialty training after medical school by completing a pediatrics residency and a neonatology fellowship. The residency is usually three years long, while the fellowship is one to two years long. This time is usually split between caring for a large number of sick newborns in a neonatal intensive care unit, where they are constantly monitored by trained neonatologists, and performing clinical research. After a grueling 13 years, neonatologists set foot into a rewarding career and have the privilege of giving newborns a whole life ahead of them.

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TOP MEDICAL SCHOOLS WITH THE BEST PEDIATRIC PROGRAM: UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA, HARVARD UNIVERSITY, UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI, JOHNS HOPKINS


Becoming a working doctor in the medical field is no easy tasks. You must get through years of intense schooling, exams, extra curricular work, and much more. However, once you have reached the final pillar, you are able to help the world in a way that only a select group can. Here's a timeline of what it looks like when you take on the track of being a doctor.

UNDERGRADUATE SCHOOL

THE PATHWAY TO MEDICINE THE GUIDE TO BECOMING A DOCTOR

The purpose of an undergraduate school is to obtain a bachelor's degree; to most medical schools, it doesn't matter what you major in, as long as you take the pre-requisite classes for medical school.

MCAT The MCAT (Medical College Admission Test) is an exam required to submit in order to apply for a medical school. The MCAT tests on physics, biochemistry, CARS, biology, general chemistry, organic chemistry, psychology, and sociology. Including breaks, the MCAT is about a 6.25 hour exam.

MEDICAL SCHOOL Medical schools spans for 4 years. The first year (MS1) and the second year (MS2) are primarily for learning content and new information. The third year (MS3) and the fourth year (MS4) are for gaining clinical experience.

USMLE Applying to the United States, the USMLE (United States Medical Licensing Examination) is an exam taken to obtain a medical license. There are 3 "steps" to the exam. The recommended path is to take step 1 at the end of the MS2, step 2 at the end of MS4, and step 3 the first or second year of postgraduate training.

RESIDENCY Residency is post-graduate training for individuals exiting medical school - residency usually corresponds with what specialty one is interested in going into. Depending on the specialty, residencies can range anywhere from 3-7 years.

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WHEREVER THE ART OF MEDICINE IS LOVED, THERE IS ALSO A LOVE OF HUMANITY. Hippocrates

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DR. SIBGATH ALI KHAN M.D. INTERVIEW CONDUCTED BY FATHIMA NADA

What makes a good doctor? "Faith in God, confidence in yourself, and passion to serve mankind is what I believe makes a good doctor.

We asked Dr. Sibgath Ali Khan a few select questions about his specialty: Ophthalmology (go to page 12 to learn more about the specialty. How did you get into your specialty? "I got my glasses quite young; I think I was in 2nd grade. That was my first exposure to ophthalmology. Since then, I have been fascinated by ophthalmology. I continued and learn more about it and then finally during med school, I decided to go into ophthalmology." What does a day in your life look like? "Every day is a new day filled with new experiences, ups and downs." Here, Dr. Khan is essentially saying that for him, usually no day is the same! hat classes did you take in high school? "I took AP English, AP Statistics, AP Biology, History, Environmental Science, Chemistry, AP Calculus AB and BC. None are required."

"EVERY DAY IS A NEW DAY FILLED WITH NEW EXPERIENCES, UPS, AND DOWNS.

What is your favorite and least favorite part of your job? "My most favorite is my patient's smile, the happiness on their face when they receive good news, and my least favorite is probably is an uncooperative patient." What is your favorite and least favorite part of your job? "My most favorite is my patient's smile, the happiness on their face when they receive good news, and my least favorite is probably is an uncooperative patient." Any advice for students interested in your specialty?

"Don’t get discouraged. I know the path to become an ophthalmologist is very hard and rough, but trust me when I tell you that it is going to be worth it in the end. Picture the day you finally become a doctor and help people [when you feel low or discouraged]."

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DR. NIKOLAS PARISIS INTERVIEW CONDUCTED BY BHARATH BURRI How did you get into your specialty? “Medical Imaging has a direct impact on patients' care and what will happen in a patient’s care.” Dr. Parisis wanted to be like a generalist and a specialist at the same time - in radiology you need to know the medical imaging from head to toe and for every organ system because radiologists interact with doctors from nearly every specialty. “It’s really broad and diverse in the diseases and the types of patients that we see. We see some of the sickest patients in the hospital and some with rare diagnoses that not every doctor gets to see on a routine basis.” Any advice/comments for students interested in your specialty? “Do your best at the task at hand at each step of the way because that will set you up for success for the next step. Also, you will have no regrets when you look back on the things that you’ve done.” "YOU WILL HAVE NO REGRETS WHEN YOU LOOK BACK ON THE THINGS YOU HAVE DONE."

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What types of classes did you take in high school to prepare for/spark your interest in medicine? “I didn’t really know I wanted to do medicine in high school, so it wasn’t a decision I made until the end of college. At the end of my third year in college, I took a class on endocrinology - I was flirting with the idea of going into healthcare, but I had no idea what I wanted to be. It was that course and that professor that kind of titled me into the direction of medicine. The way she taught was very clinically orientated and I found it incredibly interesting to know how and why the body works.” What does a normal day look like in your shoes? “ I’m currently on a breast imaging rotation, so your day varies depending on where you are in your stage of training. I’m a second year resident so I don’t take any calls, weekends or any night shifts. The schedule is basically 7:30AM to 4:30PM Monday through Friday. That’s not to say I don’t need to do three or four weeks of call down the line as a senior resident. Once you kind of learn how to do radiology and practice radiology then you start doing independent call, where you’re doing overnight shifts that are never longer than 12 hours - typically nine hours or so. Throughout the day - it depends on what subspecialty/fellowship you’ve done - if you’re doing diagnostic radiology , you’re mostly at the computer reading images and then you’re also on the phone talking with people, and you’re doing procedures throughout the day. You can have one or two procedures a day or maybe even up to 10, it just depends. Typically you have lunch in the middle of the day for an hour. That’s kind of how the day goes.”

What’s your favorite thing about your specialty? Least favorite? “Radiology has a good workflow for me. The procedures are quick and predictable. It’s shift work, and the way your work is scheduled is way better, in my opinion, of a trauma surgeon or OB/GYN.” “One negative would be the long training path. People are often surprised to hear that radiology is a six year residency, and it can take seven years depending on the path you take. But at the same time, we need to be making very important diagnoses, and we can’t be missing things.”

"RADIOLOGY HAS A GOOD WORK FLOW FOR ME. THE PROCEDURES ARE QUICK AND PREDICTABLE."


Interview conducted by Fathima Nada

DR. ALICIA SHELLY M.D. How did you get into your specialty? I had always wanted to be an Obstetrician/Gynecologist. However, when I was in medical school, I realized I enjoyed the long-term relationship that I had with my patients. I enjoyed being a part of people’s health improving. I excelled in my Internal medicine rotations. I realized that I loved primary care.

What does a day in your life look like? I get to the office around 7am and start to look the charts of the patients who I will see that morning. I answer messages, review labs and imaging studies. At around 7: 45am I start seeing my patients. I see patients who are there to follow-up on their chronic conditions, or for their annual physical or there for an acute problem (urinary tract infection or a rash or etc.). Each room that I go into, has a different problem and different situation. It always keeps me on my toes. Around noon, I finish my patients for the morning and I eat lunch, review patient messages, finish notes and review labs. I start my afternoon clinic at 1pm and finish seeing patients around 4:30pm. After work, I either workout with the trainer or exercise for 30 minutes to stay healthy and balanced. In the evenings, I take care of my dog, call family and friends, and work on my podcast (Back on Track: Overcoming weight regain Podcast). There are some evenings, I will work for an urgent care online.

Listen to 'Back on Track: Overcoming weight regain Podcast'!

What are the classes you took in high school? AP Biology, AP Physics, AP Calculus, and AP Chemistry. You don’t have to do AP courses, but biology, calculus, chemistry and physics are the basic classes that you will need to apply to medical school and will need to take them in college. It is easier to take classes that you may see the material again.

What is your favorite and least favorite part of your job? Most rewarding feature of my job is being apart of someone’s lives. I get to see people at their worst and the best. It is extremely rewarding when I see someone who took a piece of my advice and changed their lifestyle and now their health is better. The least rewarding is having to finish notes, labs and patient messages, can be a bit overwhelming at times.

Any advice for students interested in your specialty? Start now to expose yourself to the medical field. You can volunteer at your local hospital. You can shadow a doctor a few times. This will give you exposure and backstage access to what a medical doctor does and it looks good on your medical school application. Look into summer programs that focus on medicine or science.

What makes a good doctor? A good doctor is a person who is caring for their patients and realizes what they don’t know and looks the correct answer up. They ask for help if it is not certain what is causing the patient to be sick.

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DR. FORT INTERVIEW BY KAMALIKA GOGINENI How did you get into your specialty? “It really wasn’t until my fourth year when I rotated through pediatrics that I realized I enjoyed being with kids and specifically with babies. My first rotation was in the NICU and I hated the first week out of fear. It wasn’t till my first month rotation that I truly, truly enjoyed it. I made up my mind then.” What types of classes did you take in high school to prepare for/spark your interest in medicine? “Anatomy and biology. My father is a physician and from a really young age I have been exposed to medicine. I knew this was what I wanted to do but during my sophomore year, I volunteered at a hospital. Grab something you think you're interested in, reach out, rotate. I didn’t take any extra courses than what I was taught in school. I knew I had a passion for all the science courses like biology, physics, and even chemistry, I was very excited about. If you know you have that inclination for science, then don't just study for the tests, read for medical school. Think to yourself what should I be learning for medical school. So you go beyond the areas of interest. This exploration is training your brain and getting your sense on what you're going to be doing for the rest of your life. You just got to keep up with your learning and research if you're truly passionate about it.”

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Any advice/comments for students interested in your specialty? “If you're interested in taking care of kids, you do want to reach out to your community hospital and get a feel for what they do. It doesn't seem easy when you're in high school, even when you're in college. Most doctors who are in academics really want to help and teach and you just email them. You may not get an answer immediately, if you really wanna see if this is gonna be a part of your future you have to be persistent and put yourself out there. You have to be consistent and persistent about what you want. Physicians love what they do so they would be happy to spread that passion to other people. If you just band together and have a good vision and have a passion for what you wanna do, it doesn't matter if you start small, you will grow. And ultimately, if you end up helping even a couple people, you should be proud. Say to yourself I'm just gonna put myself out there and if it helps someone somewhere then I've done my job.”

What’s your favorite thing about your specialty? Least Favorite? “One of the reasons why I decided to be a neonatologist is to be able to get these very sick, very small, premie who normally wouldn't have a chance and with your skills, with your knowledge, with the team around you, your able to get these babies to do well, to grow, to get out of their illnesses, and send them home with their parents, I mean how cool is that?! With your ability, a sick baby gets to go home. You didn't know a baby that was gonna make it out of the hospital for months and months and now they get to graduate if you ill and go home to have a life and a family. Being in an ICU, we get extremes. We get extremely sick babies and some of those babies do die. And so that is the part that there is no training, there is no book, there is nothing, that really teaches you how to best manage these situations. Until you're there making the really tough decisions, and until you're involved in a code that does not go well, those things are always tough and it does affect you personally and it does affect the soul of who you are and you learn to manage that. You've got a lot more happy stories than the sad ones and you hold on to those. Even the sad ones, when babies do go, when they do die, there is something called a beautiful death. There is a process of making death respectful for the babies and families and making it as beautiful and humane in a morbid, tough situation. It is honestly an honor and a blessing to do what we do.” What does a normal day look like in your shoes? “Normally, there is a huge range of how you practice. There are different levels of NICU. Basically come in get your sign in from the night doctor will give you information on the sickest patients and what happened through the night or anything you should watch out for. And then you carry your team and you get information on those patients. Then you can be 3 hours walking around the NICU talking about patients and managing patients. When you do your rounds, you've got your residents, fellows, nurse practitioners, PAs, respiratory therapists, nurses so it's a really great team and group effort on how you are for these babies. After rounds depending on what you do, if you do research, you may be going to your lab, dealing with your cells. I do clinical research so you know I'll go back to my office, writing something, reading something or attending meetings for research. You can also be a full clinician in which you will go back and meet with the family, put in umbilical lines, and do procedures. Then we will sign out and hand over everything to the night team. That's a typical day on service.”


DR. ISREB

INTERVIEW BY KAMALIKA GOGINENI How did you get into your specialty? “I finished medical school, went into internal medicine residency for three years, then after that two years of nephrology fellowship. I’m a big math person so in nephrology there’s a lot of dealing with electrolytes, acids and bases. There's a lot of math, physics, and that's what caught my attention.” What types of classes did you take in high school to prepare for/spark your interest in medicine? “Biology, Physics, Chemistry, and Biochemistry are foundational for medicine in general.” What’s your favorite thing about your specialty? Least Favorite? “My most favorite thing is really the ability to take care of patients and make a change in their lives. Especially the ones with advanced kidney disease and keep them away from going on dialysis and that gives me pleasure. The bad part is on call, you know doing calculations at 3 in the morning you know how much fluid this person needs is not so great.” Any advice/comments for students interested in your specialty? “I think a lot of people overlook nephrology but I think it's worth the consideration. It's an evolving field right now and now we're seeing a lot of new medication, new testing, genetics, and all that stuff that's really gonna change how we see patients. The future in nephrology is exciting because we're gonna be doing a lot more. Overall, it's a good specialty to be in”

What does a normal day look like in your shoes? “There’s three different ways it can go, one is in the clinic from 9 o'clock to 4:30 and that's it. I'm done so it would be a week like that. Then there are days when I'm doing dialysis rounds where I go to the dialysis centers and see patients and there is a shift in the morning, one in the afternoon, and one in the evening and that's a long day. Then there’s service at the hospital.”

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DR. CHUANG INTERVIEW BY MAHEK VERMA

How did you get into your specialty? For breast surgery, you have to do general surgery

What does a normal week look like in your shoes? In a week I have two office hour days and two

first, and then do a breast fellowship. General

operating days. On an office hour day, I see new

surgery can last anywhere from 5 to 7 years

patients and follow ups, and I might do procedures like

depending on what path you choose, and breast

ultrasound-guided cores or cyst aspirations. During my

fellowship is 1 year after that.

operation days, I either do lumpectomies, which is

What types of classes did you take in high school

which is removing the entire breast. I usually do that in

to prepare for/spark your interest in medicine? I took all the classes that were offered, You had to take gym for 4 years. In my junior and senior years, I decided to take AP Bio, [AP] Physics, and [AP] Chemistry. But you don’t have to do that, you can take whatever you want. I also took AP Calculus, AP Government, AP History, and AP Spanish. I just took whatever was offered at my school.

removing a portion of the breast, or I do mastectomies, conjunction with a plastic surgeon who comes in after I remove it to reconstruct the breast. Any advice/comments for students interested in your specialty? For people who are interested in breast, I think you should shadow a breast surgeon, so you can see all the aspects that we do. Breast is very confusing and that’s why there’s fellowship in it. Whatever specialty you do decide to do, just remember that you’re good at it because it’s boring and you see it

What’s your favorite thing about your specialty?

every single day. Nowadays everybody’s specialized so

Least favorite?

whatever you do, you just end up doing the same thing

My most favorite is that I get to cure cancer, and

every single day. That’s what the future is going to be.

my least favorite is diagnosing people with

Just try everything, and the clinic that you hate the

cancer.

least is the one you should choose because clinic is the worst part of everybody’s specialty. Whichever one you

How has Covid-19 impacted your work? A lot of people missed their screening mammogram which is for breast cancer, therefore a lot of cancers were delayed. We do telecommunication for some things but we still need to examine the patient to see how their breasts are and to make sure their breast exam matches what we see on imaging. We tried to do post-op visits through that too if we could.

can tolerate the most, that’s the one you should choose. Do you have anything else you would like to add? I think it’s [breast surgery] a great specialty because breast is confusing and you need a specialist. I’m able to be a surgeon and also take care of patients which is great. Not many surgical specialties do that. Like general surgery, if you take out somebody’s appendage you won’t ever see them after that. With breast, you have the continuity of are which

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I like.


Dr. Carl Truesdale INTERVIEW BY STEPHANIE HERNANDEZ

How did you get into your specialty?

Besides attending university, what other

Becoming a facial plastic surgeon helped him

actions did you have to take to become a

to fulfill his lifelong passions of medicine as

plastic surgeon?

well as art. He loves uncovering the “unique

He completed five years of specialized

beauty of each patient.”

surgery training in the field of head and neck surgery, Otolaryngology. During his residency,

What classes did you take in high

he taught surgical techniques, as well as

school/university to prepare for/spark

lectured and performed procedures in Ghana

your interest in medicine?

while on a surgical mission. He also

As stated before his passions for art,

completed a fellowship in facial plastic and

medicine, as well as culture led him to double

reconstructive surgery at Lasky Clinic Surgery

major in Biology as well as Spanish at

Center located in Beverly Hills, California.

Morehouse College, a liberal arts college in Atlanta, Georgia, graduating summa cum

Any advice/comments for students

laude.

interested in your specialty? Be prepared to work hard and work under

What’s your favorite thing about your

immense pressure. Although being in the

specialty? Least favorite?

medical field, especially plastic surgery, is

His favorite thing is being able to use his

immensely competitive and difficult, do the

passions of art and medicine while helping

best you can and prepare for a difficult but

people on a daily basis. His least favorite thing

fulfilling career.

is the fact that it is a very precise and demanding job, as he sometimes completes fatal surgeries. Therefore, there is no room for errors.

"BE PREPARED TO WORK HARD AND WORK UNDER IMMENSE PRESSURE."

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Dr. Chelsea Troiano INTERVIEW BY STEPHANIE HERNANDEZ

How did you get into your specialty?

What’s your favorite thing about your specialty? Least

She has always had an affinity towards medicine, and

favorite?

wanting to bring her patient’s wants into reality. As a

Her favorite thing is helping her patients bring their vision

female facial plastic surgeon, she says that she fully

of what they look like to life. She does not have a least

understands “what it is like to see something different in the

favorite thing however she is most stressed out by the fact

mirror compared to what other people see.”

that one small mistake will botch the surgery.

What has your curriculum looked like, in regards to

Do you have any advice for students interested in your

college, medical school, etc.?

specialty?

She knew that she wanted to start my own business so she

Be prepared to fail, but when you do prepare to work hard

got a management degree at the Kelley School of Business.

to succeed. Even though this career path is difficult, never

She also really liked chemistry so she got a bachelor of arts

give up.

in chemistry at Indiana University. While at the Indiana University School of Medicine, she was a part of the Alpha Omega Alpha Society, an honor society in the field of medicine. For her fellowship, she studied under Edward H. Farrior, MD at Farrior Facial Plastic Surgery.

What distincts you from fellow facial plastic surgeons? She has a multitude of honors and awards. For example, she was the first to study and publish the effects of vaping on wound healing which was named the “Greatest Scientific Contribution in Resident Research” from Boston University in 2018-2019. She also had the top score of facial plastic and reconstructive surgery on the inservice exam at Boston University in 2018-2019. She was also the chief administrative resident for head and neck surgery in 20182019. She is also a part of many professional societies such as the Florida Society of Otolaryngology and the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

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"A GOOD PHYSICIAN TREATS THE DISEASE; A GREAT PHYSICIAN TREATS THE PATIENT WHO HAS THE DISEASE." WILLIAM OSLER

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JASMIN SANCHEZ MS4 “My piece of advice for anyone interested in medicine is to be easy on yourself. It’s very common to not meet all of your expectations every single time. It’s okay. Move on. Continue to try your best. You will get where you need to be.”

DR. ALI KHAN M.D. “Believe in yourself and remember if you make any mistakes or miss any opportunities, there’s always a next time. Always stay positive.”

ANJALI RAMESH MS4 'Don't go into medicine solely for the money or because of parental pressure. I have seen so many people waste years of their life just to hate their job and despise it every single day.

LAUREN KANZAKI MS3 "One of the best ways to combat imposter syndrome, and stress, and the pressure of being a student and trying to be perfect in your grades and your performance is to really just find someone to talk about it with. Whether it be a counselor, or a therapist, or even a friend. It’s kind of scary to be the first one to start these types of conversations but when I reached out to some of my friends and told them about difficulties I was having, almost all the time they say they’re going through the same thing. No one likes to openly share that side of themselves so it’s hard. Be kind to yourself."

DR. TIFFANY NEVILL

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"Don't forget to take the time to do things you love, whether that be playing soccer, working out, reading a book, watching your favorite show, or going to the beach. Do your best to prevent burnout by eating well, doing some physical activity, going outside, taking some vitamins, and keeping a hobby that you love."

DR. RAGHAVENDER SINGIREDDY “Don’t give up or get dissuaded by the competitiveness of this field. Try your best, and never give up on yourself ”.

SAKINAH ALIAGASER MS4 “Expose yourself to the field early on. Do not hesitate to take any and all opportunities related to medicine. Determine if you actually want to become a doctor or if you just like the idea of it.”

KIM Enjoy the process [of becoming a physician]. There is a long and sometimes treacherous road to become a physician and at times it can get overwhelming and feel like it will take forever. But, before you know it, you look back and smile at it all that you have accomplished. You will be amazed at how much you have learned and how beautiful the human body and the way it works is. If you can learn to enjoy every single class/activity you do on your own journey, not only will you be happier, but it will make you a better doctor and your patients deserve that.

DR. OLLIE BURTON "If you come across opportunities for learning or getting involved in research, then I would wholeheartedly encourage you to grip them and not let go. I have often found that my favorite projects come about from nothing more than a throwaway conversation at a conference or by being introduced to someone new."

advice


trivia

EXCERSIZE YOUR BRAIN WITH THE GAMES WE HAVE ON THE NEXT COUPLE PAGES

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MYDIGIDOC CROSSWORD PUZZLE

Across 4. branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. 6. branch of medicine dealing with disorders of endocrine glands 7. branch of medicine dealing with the structure and diseases of the eye. 9. branch of medicine dealing with examination of tissues for diagnosis and treatment 10. branch dealing with arthritis and other diseases of the joints, muscles, and bones. 12. branch of medicine dealing with the diseases and treatment of newborn infants. 13. branch of medicine dealing with women's health

Down 1. branch of medicine dealing with the structures of skin, hair, and nails. 2. branch of medicine dealing with diseases of the urinary tract and reproductive organs 3. branch of medicine dealing with radioactive substances for diagnosis. 5. branch of medicine dealing with the administration of anesthesia. 8. branch of medicine dealing with the musculoskeletal system. 11. branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of the kidneys. Answer key on the next page!

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MYDIGIDOC CROSSWORD PUZZLE ANSWER KEY

33


WORDSEARCH TIME

34

Answer key on the next page!

anatomic

arteries

curable

emergency

hospital

medicine

ology

patientcare

physician

psychiatrist

stethoscope

surgeon

systems

tissue


WORDSEARCH TIME

Answer key on the next page!

anatomic

arteries

curable

emergency

hospital

medicine

ology

patientcare

physician

psychiatrist

stethoscope

surgeon

systems

tissue

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10

weirdbut

TRUE

FACTS

6. Having a good cry is actually beneficial to your

can—but probably won't want to-

health. Tears contain stress hormones,

reach for the cobwebs in your basement as a backup.

and crying itself may increase the synthesis of

Physicians in ancient Greece and

endorphins, the body's natural painkiller,

Rome utilized cobwebs to produce bandages because they had natural antibacterial and antifungal properties. They were said to quicken healing and minimize bleeding. Vitamin K is thought to be abundant in cobwebs and as a result, it could have antifibrinolytic qualities. 2. The human body has amazing healing abilities. The entire brain, for example, replaces itself every two months, the liver every six weeks, and the epidermis every 35 days. Even the lining of your stomach is replaced every 3 to 4 days. 3. It is not possible to create artificial blood. There are machines that can replace your heart and lungs, and you can have an artificial hip, knee, elbow, or even ankle, but there is no means to produce synthetic blood substitutes in the lab. 4. The universe appears to be turned upside down in your mind. When your retina's rods and cones convey an image to your brain—say, when you're looking at a tree—the image sent to the brain is upside down. The image in the visual cortex of the brain rotates

DO YOU BELIEVE THESE?

1. When you run out of bandages, remember that you

as well as feel-good hormones like oxytocin. 7. Did you know that your feet contains one-fourth of all the bones in your body, with each foot having 26 bones and 33 joints for a total of 52 bones? It's strange that so many bones are housed in such a little area of your body. 8. Did you know that identical twins' offspring are genetically siblings, not cousins? This is due to the fact that they share 25% of their DNA. Full siblings share 50% of their DNA, half-siblings 25%, and cousins 12.5 percent. As a result, they are genetically equivalent to half-siblings. 9. Chimpanzees and humans share 98.8 percent of their DNA. Thankfully, the changes in how these genes are utilized are the ones that matter. Because, while we all have the same genes in the same brain region, these genes are expressed in various "volumes" or amounts, the human brain is larger and smarter than that of chimps and gorillas. These distinctions have an impact on brain growth and function.

automatically. This is something that babies learn very early on. You don't even realize

10. You are unable to tickle yourself. There have been

you're doing it because it's so automatic.

some poor reasons for this, such as your brain not responding the same way since it

36

5. The fingernails on the longest fingers grow faster

knows you're tickling yourself. That

than the fingernails on the shortest

argument falls apart since it is easy to pinch yourself.

fingers. Nobody is sure why. The middle finger of your

Even the most ticklish individual

dominant hand has the fastest-

cannot tickle himself, according to medical science.

growing fingernail.


TRUE FALSE or

1. Humans are bioluminescent.

2. There are more than 200,000 miles of blood vessels in your body. 3. The small intestine is roughly 23 feet long. 4. Your brain can survive for up to 15 minutes without oxygen. 5. One-eighth of your bones are in your feet. 6. When listening to music, your heartbeat will sync with the rhythm. 7. Your right kidney is higher up than your left kidney. 8. Your ears and your nose stop growing at age 25 9. Stomach acid can dissolve metal. 10. Cornflakes have more genes than people do.

HOW MANY DID YOU GET RIGHT?

eurT ,eurT ,)gniworg pots reven( eslaF ,)thgir naht rehgih tfel( eslaF ,eurT ,)4/1( eslaF ,)nim01 ot pu( eslaF ,eurT ,)im000,001( eslaF ,eurT

37


RESOURCES

Competitions, scholarships, volunteering opportunities, and more

38


MYDIGIDOC

RESOURCES Science-related competitions, scholarships, volunteer opportunities, student organizations, and more. Reach out to us at info@mydigidoc.net if you have any questions related to this

COMPETITIONS Science Olympiad

Jessica Wilde shares how to overcome writer's block. Story on p. 20

Biology Olympiad Conrad Challenge Davidson Fellows

VOLUNTEER OPPORTUNITIES American Red Cross Local Hospital Volunteering

Envirothon

AAAS Volunteering Program MIT Think Scholars Program

Science National Honors Society Regeron ISEF

Volunteer with a professor through cold

SCIENCE JOURNALS Journal of Nutrition

emailing NOAA Volunteering

Journal of Materials Sciences Journal of Molecular Biology Journal of Biological Chemistry ChemComm The Lancet The New England Journal of Medicine

SCHOLARSHIPS

STUDENT ORGANIZATIONS MyDigiDoc Girls in White Coats Philosophy in Science Bound by Science

Novus Biologicals Scholarship Program USRA Scholarship Award ASME Scholarships Program Steinman Scholarship Peggy Dixon Scholarship

39


writers' notes

MyDigiDoc thanks all the writers, editors, graphic designers, interviewees, and contributors. This magazine would not have been possible without you all. A special shoutout to our writers: we have asked them to write their feelings about this magazine. Stay tuned for upcoming magazines.

"As a content writer for MyDigiDoc’s magazine, I 10/10 recommend it to readers interested in science/medicine as it can give you insights to these fields, specifically the interview with the doctors. I know I had a great time researching (which led me to acquiring new knowledge and learning more) and writing articles and I would like to thank the founders for giving me this wonderful opportunity. The editorial team was very collaborative and I had never worked with a team before that was this good. Especially Jasnoor, she guided me every step of the way and did not get tired by my endless number of questions. She was an amazing team leader! I hope all readers enjoy the magazine and learn from it. And lastly, to all the readers: Thank you for reading!"

"It was amazing to work on this magazine. I got to interview doctors, and I learned a lot through the research that we did on specialties. This was a great experience, and I hope everyone finds something interesting/useful."

Fathima Nada

"I thoroughly enjoyed working on this magazine as it gave me the opportunity to learn more in-depth regarding different careers in the medical field. Whether that be from research or interviewing doctors about their personal experiences, it has truly been a great experience."

"I’ve had a wonderful time working on this magazine. I’ve learned a lot, and it’s been a very fun experience." Mahek Verma

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Bharath Burri "Specialties other than the ones I was interested in. I really enjoyed discussing with doctors and medical students and getting a perspective on their own experiences and thoughts. It’s been a wonderful opportunity and I hope the magazine provided an outlook for students aspiring to be a healthcare professional." Kamalika Gogineni

Stephanie Hernandez


JULY 2021 ISSUE

To our readers, We hope you enjoyed the MyDigiDoc July 2021 anniversary issue and stay tuned for our other magazine issues!

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