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ISSN 1516-3601 #61, FEB/2017

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por Denise Santos

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ATIVIDADES PEDAGÓGICAS NO ENSINO DE COMPETÊNCIAS PARA O SÉCULO XXI

Interview with Luciana de Oliveira by Jack Scholes

Nuevas Rutas Del estudio clásico de lenguas al enfoque postcomunicativo: métodos y tendencias en la enseñanza de ELE. por David R. Sousa Fernández


A Revista New Routes completa 20 anos!

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Parabéns!!!!

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Sumário

EXCLUSIVA

PARA CLIENTES DISAL

05. Editorial 06. Opiniões 08. News 10. Interview 14. Cover Topic 24. How do you say... in English?

25. Novidades Disal 26. Livros 27. Eu Recomendo 28. Variedades 30. Slang 18/21 /32/36. Articles

42. Escola em Destaque 44. Nuevas Rutas 48. Dicas 49. Eventos 50. Atividades 04 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l

Publisher Renato Guazzelli Editor Jack Scholes Conselho Editorial Francisco Gomes de Matos Graeme Hodgson Heloisa Brito de Albuquerque Costa Karen Fraser José Olavo de Amorim Lizika Goldchleger Lyle French Nancy Lake Profª Dra. Gretel Eres Fernández Profª Antonieta Celani Sara Walker

Colaboradores desta edição Adriana Carla Souza Maciel Adriana Grade Fiori-Souza Cristina de Lelis David R. Sousa Fernández Denise Santos Isadora Teixeira Moraes Jack Scholes Jana Ferguson José Roberto A. Igreja Karin Heuert Galvão Lizika Goldchleger Lilian Itzicovitch Luciana C. de Oliveira Mônica Marczak Gôngora Rodrigo Garcia Rosa Silvania Capua Carvalho Sílvia Helena Oliveira Flores Susan Hillyard Victoria Rodrigo

A New Routes® (ISSN 1516-3601) é uma publicação digital, quadrimestral destinada a profissionais de idiomas, institutos de idiomas, colégios de ensino infantil/fundamental/médio, universidades e faculdades. Ela é um benefício exclusivo que a Disal oferece a seus clientes em todo o Brasil e é distribuída gratuitamente. Se você ainda não possui cadastro na Disal, faça-o através do nosso site: www.disal.com.br e aproveite mais essa vantagem de ser cliente Disal.

News Gleice Mori Nuevas Rutas Sara Tcharkhetian Eventos Gleice Mori e Henrique Xavier Arte: Projeto e Diagramação Myatã Comunicação Jornalista Responsável José Nello Marques / MTP: 14162

Em caso de dúvidas ou mais esclarecimentos, favor entrar em contato com o departamento de Marketing Disal: 11 3226-3100 ou newroutes@disal.com.br. Contatos comerciais: Disal S. A. Depto. Comercial Av. Marginal Direita do Tietê, 800 CEP 05118 100 - Jaguara - São Paulo Tel.: 11 3226-3100 - Televendas: 11 3226-3111 Fax Gratuito: 0800-7707-105 ou 0800-7707-106 e-mail: newroutes@disal.com.br

Os artigos e textos desta publicação não refletem necessariamente a opinião dos editores ou do conselho editorial, assim como os anúncios veiculados são de inteira responsabilidade dos respectivos anunciantes.


Editorial

HAPPY NEW YEAR! AND HAPPY ANNIVERSARY! A Very Happy New Year to all New Routes® readers! This year is an extra special year for New Routes® as it marks 20 years since Disal launched the first issue in 1997. Many Brazilian and international authorities on language teaching and learning have contributed to New Routes® over the last 20 years. In this special commemorative issue, New Routes® is particularly proud to publish two key sections by internationally renowned Brazilians. The Interview is with Luciana de Oliveira, who has recently been named President-Elect of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) International Association, with a three-year leadership term beginning in March 2017. She will be the first South American to serve as president, and also the youngest woman. A truly amazing achievement! Luciana discusses some of the key issues and major challenges facing TESOL and explains how she plans to address the needs of members worldwide and those of the Brazilian affiliate BRAZ-TESOL. Among the many other topics, Luciana also talks about her commitment to social justice advocacy, ways to improve the teaching of English in Brazil, and the relationship between language and identity.

com foco em atividades pedagógicas para a aula de línguas estrangeiras. Neste artigo, ela seleciona quatro competências que considera ser fundamentais na educação para o século XXI - abordagem multidisciplinar, desenvolvimento do pensamento crítico, conscientização sobre questões globais, ética e cidadania, e aprendizagem reflexiva e colaborativa. A Denise termina o artigo dizendo - ‘O que me parece ser mesmo um grande desafio para nós, educadores, é o entrelaçamento de todas essas competências. De modo geral, ao trabalhar uma competência estamos trabalhando várias outras simultaneamente; é importante, pois, ter essa percepção para um melhor discernimento do que se pretende fazer durante uma atividade pedagógica e uma avaliação mais acurada do que se logrou atingir com ela.’

O Cover Topic desta edição foi escrito por Denise Santos - Atividades pedagógicas no ensino de competências para o século XXI. Como as questões discutidas são pertinentes a todos os professores de línguas, e não apenas àqueles que lecionam inglês, este artigo está escrito em português. A Denise comenta como ela entende o ‘caleidoscópio de competências’

In the article - Figuring it out with collocations - four Brazilian authors discuss their project with a focus on lexis ‘to search for ways to teach English that would help learners make more visible progress in their learning process.’ They believe that anyone wishing to improve their knowledge of a foreign language must experience it as a system consisting of larger units of meaning than single words. They share some of the activities they have used to promote fluency in conversation courses, as part of the work developed in their project. All of them are aimed at increasing students’ repertoire of collocations to talk about a given subject: choosing the most appropriate word, discussing questions, matching columns, working with images and working with ‘real-life’ contexts. The authors conclude by saying that in

En este artículo el autor nos habla de las diferentes tendencias metodológicas de la enseñanza del

español partiendo del estudio clásico de lenguas hasta llegar al estudio Postcomunicativo.

their experience, they have learned a great lesson: ‘ELT will be extra fun and rewarding if it embraces collocation as a guiding concept and a teaching tool for promoting learner development and autonomy.’ Research has shown that extensive reading is one of the best ways to increase competence in a foreign language. The positive impact of extensive reading on learners’ language skills and their self-confidence at the secondary level was confirmed in a study carried out for one academic year at the high school level by Jana Ferguson and Victoria Rodrigo. In the article - Tips to implement an extensive reading program at secondary level they share some tips they found useful in the setup and implementation of an extensive reading program. They relate to how to put together the library, how to introduce the project to your students, how to implement the program, and what to do after students have read the book. Enjoy!

Jack Scholes Editor newroutes@disal.com.br

Sara G. Tcharkhetian apoioped.espanhol@disal.com.br

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Opiniões e Blog Disal

www.blogdisal.com.br

ACESSE O BLOG DISAL , LEIA E COMENTE EM NOSSOS POSTS

Nº 1 - MAIS ACESSADO: ONE YEAR AFTER CELTA… THIS IS WHAT I’VE LEARNED (SO FAR) – KARIN HEUERT GALVÃO

I must confess that I had mixed feelings. While feeling excited about

One year later, here is what I’ve learned pre, while, and post CELTA:

Pre-CELTA: 1) Before you send out your application, make sure you research about the center you intend to enroll. Leia mais em https://goo.gl/05N29S

I have been a reader of New Routes® magazine since its first issue printed twenty years ago. It has always been a great source for updating readings on teaching and learning additional languages for Brazilian teachers. At the beginning it was aimed at the English speaking public and gradually extended to other languages. I always use your articles and I recommend to my undergraduate students of letters in UEFS, in addition to colleagues from other countries interested in getting to know our editorial production focused on the digital literacy of 21st century professionals. Its digital access facilitates for teachers in the most diverse places of this immense country. In addition to publicizing the events of Disal, which has been

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Why do I read New Routes?

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the course, I kept asking myself “Was I ready for CELTA?”; “Was I crazy to be part of a course like this?”; “Was I good enough?”

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January 5th, 2015 was my son’s 3rd birthday and the day I started the most important course in my career, it was the day I started my CELTA course.

our partner in holding seminars for English-speaking teachers in Bahia for more than a decade. Silvania Capua Carvalho Assistant Professor of English Language and Literature, ESP in the Department of Arts and Letters, UEFS, Bahia, where she has been teaching since 1993. She is Master in Literature and Cultural Diversity by UEFS. She published the book Narratives of Mozambican Ancestry: the female myth of water in Mia Couto (2015). She works in the training of teachers and the use of literature in the teaching and learning of English in the public schools of the city of Feira de Santana as a CAPES scholarship as the first coordinator of the English Language Subproject of the PIBID UEFS (2014-2016), https://pibidinglesuefs.wordpress.com.


ACESSE, LEIA E APRENDA! DICAS E NOVIDADES NO MUNDO DE IDIOMAS. WWW.BLOGDISAL.COM.BR

CONFIRA OS POSTS MAIS VISUALIZADOS! Como e quanto cobrar por uma aula - Luciana Canonico Cruz Quando decidimos dar aulas particulares precisamos ter consciência de que teremos que nos programar para ficarmos tranquilos durante o ano todo. O que isso quer dizer? Saiba mais em https://goo.gl/O89Mji

Faz um descontinho, teacher? – Vinicius Diamantino Ah! O cliente. Aquele pelo qual as empresas vivem e também tem o poder de enterrá-las vivas. Aquele que todo colaborador tenta agradar ao máximo possível. Aquele que está sempre certo, já diz o ditado “o cliente tem sempre razão”. Saiba mais em https://goo.gl/Sp06ba

Cinco dicas (não milagrosas) para aprender Inglês – Julio Cesar F. Vieitas Falar inglês é um desafio para a maioria dos brasileiros no mercado de trabalho. Dados otimistas indicam que apenas 5% dos brasileiros falam inglês fluentemente. Ou seja, descontando aqueles que têm conhecimento... Saiba mais em https://goo.gl/Oogbdw

Qualificações internacionais para o professor de inglês – Ricardo Madureira Você está fazendo Letras, habilitação em inglês, mas gostaria de aperfeiçoar seu CV com qualificações internacionais, porém não está em condições de frequentar um curso de especialização em uma universidade no exterior. Saiba mais em https://goo.gl/Y9uN5J

Bilinguismo e Educação Infantil – Juliana Teixeira Existe uma necessidade de se produzir conhecimento acerca das consequências de se crescer bilíngue para o desenvolvimento das crianças. Tais estudos vêm sendo realizados há décadas em outros países e estudiosos em psicologia do desenvolvimento... Saiba mais em https://goo.gl/Yif9je


News

DISAL COMEMORA 50 ANOS! Conheça sobre as cinco décadas da Disal Distribuidora e um panorama da distribuição de livros no Brasil.

, empresa que, em 2017 início da história da Direção da Disal no Divulgação completa 50 anos | ©

em um prédio próprio Disal ficou instalada para o atual De 2001 até 2011, a nte. Depois se mudou Vice São de ues na Rua Marq Tietê | © Divulgação endereço, na Marginal

Em 1967, dois editores brasileiros – Ênio Matheus Guazzelli, da Editora e Livraria Pioneira, de São Paulo, e Reynaldo Bluhm, da Ao Livro Técnico, do Rio de Janeiro – perceberam que tinham uma oportunidade nas mãos: criar uma distribuidora de livros. Nessa altura da história do livro no Brasil, poucos se aventuravam a empreender uma iniciativa como essa. Foi aí o início da história da Disal que, em 2017, completa 50 anos. “Ênio e Reinaldo entraram com livros e Carlos Cohn, da livraria Palácio do Livro, que ficava na Praça da República, entrou com prateleiras, algumas máquinas Remington e calculadoras Olivetti, uma kombi velha e três funcionários que trabalharam conosco até quase o

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de rua Vitória, no centro a no número 302 da Até 1993, a Disal ficav o lgaçã Divu © | o Paul São

Fachada da atual sede

© Divulgação resa, em São Paulo |

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fim de suas vidas”, lembra Francisco Canato, hoje diretor da empresa. Oito anos mais tarde, em 1975, a distribuidora vivia o seu primeiro turning point. “A Disal já distribuía livros de algumas editoras e percebemos que havia uma necessidade de trazer livros de idiomas, principalmente em inglês, para atender escolas”, recorda Francisco, que foi conduzido ao cargo de diretor comercial da empresa justamente nesse ano. A decisão refletiu na história da Disal, que hoje é um dos principais importadores e distribuidores de livros e materiais didáticos para o ensino de idiomas no Brasil. Conta com mais de 300 editoras

rua número 486 da mesma resa se mudou para o m² | © Divulgação Depois de 1993, a emp ço de 800 m² para 2 mil espa seu o o liand amp Vitória,

eus zelli, filho de Ênio Math empresa: Renato Guaz Os sócios e diretores da to | © Divulgação empresa, e Francisco Cana Guazzelli, fundador da

e 300 mil títulos comercializados. O momento atual e os desafios da distribuição de livros no Brasil Francisco se orgulha em dizer que, nos 50 anos de história da Disal, a companhia teve prejuízo uma única vez, em meados da década de 1980. “Foi um prejuízo pequeno. Nesses anos todos, nunca tivemos dívidas em banco, nunca descontamos um título sequer”, disse. Mas, o diretor – que enfrentou os anos duros da ditadura militar e viveu todos os planos econômicos pósredemocratização – observa que esses tempos atuais não estão sendo fáceis. “Com toda honestidade, não vi uma crise como essa que estamos vivendo


News

Contudo, o distribuir pontua que o atual modelo da cadeia do livro

livrarias ganhavam dinheiro com o período escolar e usava isso para se manter durante o ano. Hoje isso não é mais possível”, completou. Além disso, o distribuidor defende que algumas práticas precisam mudar. “A consignação, por exemplo, se tornou uma prática corrente. O que poucos percebem é que quando o livreiro compra, ele vai ter um esforço maior para vender. O esforço de uma mercadoria em consignação é diferente. O setor vai ter que se redescobrir e livreiros e editores precisam ser mais parceiros”, decretou.

Lançada em 1997 em versão impressa, traz entrevistas exclusivas e artigos originais com assuntos pertinentes ao universo de ensino de idiomas, ajudando na atualização de professores e na dinâmica em sala. Ao longo deste período, discutiu as principais observações de mudança do perfil de aluno e do próprio sistema de ensino, do estudante plural, globalizado, às inovações tecnológicas como aliadas.

Em 2010 passou ao formato digital e hoje é é distribuída virtualmente via App - IOS, Google Play e site: www.disal.com.br/newr para institutos e professores de todo o país. A organização de conteúdo é do inglês Jack Scholes, que também é responsável pela seleção de colaboradores. Formado em Línguas Modernas pela Universidade de Liverpool e com pós-graduação em Educação e Ensino de Inglês como Língua Estrangeira na Universidade de Londres, Jack tem mais de 45 anos de experiência, é autor de vários livros e palestrante em congressos ao redor do mundo. Para chegar no modelo final de cada revista, ele conta com o suporte do conselho editorial formado por Francisco Gomes de Mattos, Graeme Hodgson, Heloisa Brito de Albuquerque Costa, Karen Fraser, José Olavo de Amorim, Lizika Goldchleger, Lyle

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A revista New Routes, produzida pela Disal Distrubuidora, completa 20 anos em 2017 como a única publicação digital do país voltada inteiramente para o mercado de ensino de idiomas. São duas décadas de serviços gratuitos, assistindo professores, estudantes, entusiastas, escolas e universidades com informações qualificadas para maior efetividade no ensino e melhor aproveitamento de aprendizado.

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REVISTA NEW ROUTES, ÚNICA DO PAÍS VOLTADA PARA O MERCADO DE ENSINO DE IDIOMAS, COMPLETA 20 ANOS

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“Mas a Disal não para. Nos últimos três anos, apesar desse momento de crise, investimos e estamos prontos para quando a economia voltar a crescer. Melhoramos nossos processos, conseguimos enxugar a nossa estrutura e estamos abrindo novas filiais [de livrarias próprias] o que nos possibilita conquistar novos mercados”, observou. Em janeiro, Francisco adiantou ao PublishNews que abrirá duas novas unidades: em Campinas, no interior paulista, e em São Caetano, na Grande São Paulo.

não se sustenta. “Há 30 anos, fiz uma palestra em Caxambu e, lá, fiz um paralelo entre as indústrias farmacêutica e a do livro. Da mesma forma que a indústria farmacêutica tem o propagandista, que visita os médicos, a do livro tem o promotor, que visita as escolas. A diferença é que o propagandista não vende o remédio e o promotor faz a venda direta nas escolas”, observou. Francisco observa que, desde a sua palestra em Caxambu, a indústria farmacêutica viu crescimentos que chegaram a 20% ao ano e uma a ampliação significativa dos seus pontos de vendas. Quadro bem diferente da indústria editorial. “Antes desta prática [da venda direta de livros, sobretudo os didáticos], as

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agora. Não é só a crise na economia. É uma crise de valores”, observa.

French, Nancy Lake, Sara Walker e as professoras Dra. Gretel Eres Fernandez e Antonieta Celani. A soma destas bagagens trouxe um reconhecimento que viabiliza contatos e contribuições intelectuais de nomes como David Crystal, Michael McCarthy, David Nunan, Donald Freeman, Jack Richards, Michael Swan, Penny Ur. O Brasil também está muito bem representado nas páginas da New Routes. Na edição comemorativa de 20 anos, por exemplo, que também ganhará uma versão física, um dos destaques de capa é a entrevista com Luciana Oliveira, que é professora na Universidade de Miami e a primeira mulher da América Latina presidente da Tesol International Association, maior associação de professores de inglês do mundo.

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Interview with Luciana de Oliveira by Jack Scholes

LUCIANA DE OLIVEIRA

JS: Could you please tell us first a little bit about your background and why and when you went to live in the United States? LO: I’m currently Chair and Associate Professor in the Department of Teaching and Learning at the University of Miami in Florida. In 2006, I received my Ph.D. in Education with a dual focus on Language, Literacy and Culture and Second Language Acquisition at the University of California, Davis. I have a Master’s in English (TESOL Option) from California State University, East Bay (CSUEB, 1999). I came to the United States – to California, specifically – in 1997 after completing my Bachelor’s and teaching credential at UNESP in Araraquara, my hometown. My goal was to just improve my English skills through advanced studies, but I ended up taking some regular courses in the English Department at CSUEB and met the coordinator of the MATESOL program who encouraged me to apply for the Master’s program and once I was admitted, then I started to teach at the university and also in a K-12 program and just found my place! JS: You have recently been named President-Elect of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) International Association, with

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your three-year leadership term beginning in March 2017. You will be the first South American to serve as president of the 51-year-old association, and also the youngest woman. Congratulations! This is truly an amazing achievement. Why did you decide to be a candidate and how do you feel about receiving this recognition for your outstanding work? LO: After serving on the TESOL Board of Directors (BOD) for three years (2013-2016), I knew that I wanted to continue to serve TESOL in its highest leadership position. One can only become President after serving on the BOD. In addition, I was encouraged by TESOL Past Presidents and other members and leaders to put in an Expression of Interest (EOI) for President, but I never imagined that I would be selected to be on the ballot the first time I put in an EOI and also win the first time I was on the ballot. That was truly incredible and unexpected and shows that TESOL members believe in my leadership capacity and promise and for that I am very thankful. I have held leadership positions at all levels of the association (from Interest Sections to Standing Committees as well as in Affiliates), so my experiences have been broad and give me excellent perspectives across various constituent groups.


Interview with Luciana de Oliveira by Jack Scholes

JS: What do you believe are some of the key issues and major challenges facing TESOL and how do you intend to respond to them? What is your leadership style? LO: TESOL has made great strides in making our vision — “To become the trusted global authority for knowledge and expertise in English language teaching” — a reality, but we must continue to pursue ways to make our services and programs affordable and varied to our membership. To address this challenge, we need to build on our mission as “an international association of professionals advancing the quality of English language teaching through professional development, research, standards, and advocacy”. Expanding the kinds of services and programs that we offer by making them cost-effective and having some free events can attract a great number of members and possibly help recruit new ones. About 75% of TESOL members are U.S.-based, so we need to continue to serve them while also addressing the needs of our members worldwide. I see TESOL looking towards more strategic partnerships with Asia, the Middle East, and Central and South America, for example, as possible ways to address the needs of our international members. In terms of my leadership style, I would say that my leadership experiences and background have developed my leadership style as participative, collaborative, and strategic. Being a leader for me means building relationships with people, encouraging participation, and reaching common solutions. Forging consensus through participation, for example with the TESOL Board of Directors, creates a sense of distributed responsibility which is a key aspect of leadership in a professional association. I attend to long-term goals and initiatives, keep the “big picture” in mind, and build on ongoing efforts and initiatives. JS: How do you plan to address the needs of members worldwide and specifically those of the Brazilian affiliate BRAZ-TESOL? LO: My goal is to serve TESOL in this more direct capacity by staying focused on the association’s mission, values, and vision and continuing its governance restructuring efforts. My priorities are to work with Board colleagues to increase engagement and membership internationally, further develop current partnership initiatives, and build bridges to reach out to other TESOLers who will foster diversity, inclusion, multiculturalism, and positive growth. I hope to be able to attend at least one BRAZTESOL conference in my three-year on the Presidential line to share some of our work within TESOL International Association. I trust the leaders of affiliates who have

the best ways to serve their members as they have knowledge of their own teaching and learning contexts. As an international association, TESOL needs to serve all affiliates, not just a few, as an issue of equity. Therefore, I will try to work with all affiliates to address the needs of their members worldwide. JS: Given your commendable commitment to social justice advocacy, will that dimension of civil peace be given more prominence in your TESOL Presidency? If so, how? LO: At this time more than ever before, I believe, we are faced with many problems related to social justice. In my work, I address social justice and advocacy on a daily basis, preparing future and current teachers to work with immigrants in the U.S. This goes beyond the notion of “tolerance” and addresses the meaning of advocacy as we have in Portuguese – of advogado – or a representative of others who cannot represent themselves, which involves taking actions on their behalf. I also address how students can advocate for themselves, as part of social justice in their daily lives in schools and beyond. In our various roles as teachers, we can do so much for our students and I know I’ll bring my advocacy with me in my TESOL leadership. JS: There can be no doubt that the world is undergoing a pendulum swing to the political right and towards intolerance and xenophobia. How can linguists and language teachers around the world contribute to combating such negative trends, if at all? LO: It’s very important for linguistics and language teachers to understand where others are coming from, the historical and contextual reasons for why some people believe what they do, and work towards helping them understand the myths and misconceptions as well as historical perspectives in which their beliefs are based. This is a tall order and we will not be able to achieve understanding in a short period of time, but we must continue to do everything and anything we can to build bridges, to respect different viewpoints, and to foster diversity and inclusion. What is happening now should just fuel our goals to go beyond these negative trends. JS: The EF English Proficiency Index (EF EPI) attempts to rank countries by the average level of English language skills amongst adults. In the most recent report of November 2016, Brazil was ranked 40th out of 72 countries, with very low proficiency. What do you think could be done to improve this?

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Interview with Luciana de Oliveira by Jack Scholes

LO: That’s a very difficult and complex question! There are so many challenges to address and I have written about many of them in my work on teacher education in Brazil. I have worked very closely with teacher educators in Brazil who prepare English language teachers, so I’m speaking from experience and not as an “outsider”. One of the biggest challenges is within teacher education for English as a foreign language teachers. Teacher education programs (Teaching English as a Foreign Language - TEFL) still do not prepare teachers from the get-go (as I have described in my work). We have seen the drawbacks of a system that has long been teaching English in TEFL undergraduate programs the same way one would teach students who want to learn the language for any other purpose, such as Tourism or Business, or for general communication purposes. The fact that these programs are teaching the language for preservice teachers of this language has been neglected. There is also now – and this has been happening for a while – the problem of schools of English hiring “native” English speakers as they are the solution to all of these problems! Many times, these so-called “native” English speakers are just speakers of English with no preparation to be teachers of the language. A short-term course in language schools is very different from a full undergraduate teacher education program or a Master’s level program that prepares teachers. I mention all of these issues to present a very complex picture in order to partially address the question. I think we need to have teacher education programs that not only prepare future teachers in terms of their language proficiency but also prepare them to be teachers of that language. Discussing future professional practice with undergraduate students in EFL programs since the very beginning of their studies is vital to educate preservice teachers; otherwise anyone proficient in English would qualify as an EFL teacher. In addition, in schools across the country, English is still not seen as a major content area and one that is just as important as Portuguese or mathematics and teachers need to have the salaries that they deserve! This exacerbates the situation – making it even harder for students to develop English language proficiency in ways that will really lead to relevant English language skills. To improve this situation, we need to have teachers who are not only proficient in the language they are teaching but also who know about ELT methods and strategies and English needs to have a higher status as a content area in schools. Improving teachers’ salaries and providing the professional learning they need to continue to advance in their careers is paramount, but unfortunately the picture is not great at this time with the political context of Brazil… Mas a esperança é a última que morre, não? So, let’s keep advocating for the rights of teachers and

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learners of English in Brazil. JS: Do you agree that there is an intrinsically “Latin American” way of communicating, which pervades English-language interactions between Brazilians and other English-speakers around the world? Is this something to be celebrated and maintained, or should Brazilians and other Latinos be more aware of the potentially negative impact of some of these characteristics on their interactions with others? LO: Yes, there absolutely is a “Latin-American” way of communicating. I think we (Brazilians) can often be perceived as interrupting conversations because we are using turn-taking patterns that are typical of Brazilian Portuguese when we interact in English. I have often found that to be an issue for me, especially when I first moved to the U.S. from Brazil. I think this relates to the next question about identity. I don’t think it should be a question of whether this is “something to be celebrated and maintained” or we should “be aware of the potentially negative impact some of these characteristics” have. We can celebrate and maintain our interactive style but also be aware of how we may be perceived by others and be aware of turn-taking patterns by speakers of other languages and adapt as necessary when we interact with others in English. There are many varieties of English which fulfill different purposes, so we need to understand what these are as they also relate to our identities. JS: What, in your view, is the relationship between language and identity? LO: Language and identity are inextricably connected. One’s identities – I prefer to use plural form here because we have multiple changing identities, not just one – are expressed through language and language expresses our various identities. Identities also change over time and are not something fixed. Identities can also be expressed through what we wear, how we use our multiple languages – how we translanguage – and what we do. JS: In light of the need for more EFL and ELL teachers in general, how can we encourage new teachers to begin their careers and plan their developmental growth as they get started? What do you suggest new teachers do immediately to plot this development? Where can new teachers find resources to develop independently? LO: EFL teachers should start by understanding their needs and challenges, sort of doing their own needs analysis in some ways. What is it that they find difficult? What do they need to improve? What are their strengths


Interview with Luciana de Oliveira by Jack Scholes

that they can draw from and use in their professional growth? This needs analysis is a very important first step. Though completing our undergraduate degrees is a key event in the life of an ELT professional, we are really just starting our professional lives at that point, so having some long-term goals is key. Teachers can find many online resources to develop independently and there are also free events that TESOL International Association offers. I know it can be very expensive to attend international conventions, but that should be a really important part of one’s professional growth. EFL teachers can also find local events to go to, as part of BRAZ-TESOL and regional ELT organizations across the country. JS: What advice would you give Brazilian linguists and educators who seek to expand their horizons and work/ study overseas in an ELT or university context? LO: Finding the “right” place to go is very important. I use quotations with the word right because what would be right for one person may not be right for another. I would start by understanding the context of the school or university, the city (is it a big or small city? What is the population there – is it more diverse or more homogeneous? Etc.), and the goals of the program. I would also consult with other ELT professionals who

have been through that experience so they can provide their own perspectives. JS: Finally, could you please give a special message to readers of New Routes and all English language teachers in Brazil? LO: When I was a child, I had a dream of coming to the U.S. I would never have imagined that my dream would become a reality, and with the support of my family members, I was able to realize that dream. At age 7, I knew I wanted to be an English teacher! I had teachermentors in Brazil who encouraged and supported me early on and that was so incredible. We all have teachers whom we remember for having been great influences in our lives. Be that teacher. If you’re unhappy with your situation, change it. Go beyond just doing what you need to survive, do more. I think if we have large goals, we can realize them. I have worked so hard and made many sacrifices (such as being away from my family) which make me very thankful for all of the opportunities I have had in my personal and professional life. I hope that my work in the Presidential line (as President-Elect, President, and Past President) at TESOL International Association will continue to contribute to ELT worldwide. We all have the potential to do more for this world, little by little, in our everyday lives.

The interviewee Luciana C. de Oliveira, Ph.D., is Chair and Associate Professor in the Department of Teaching and Learning in the School of Education and Human Development at the University of Miami, Florida. Her research focuses on issues related to teaching English language learners (ELLs) at the K-12 level, including the role of language in learning the content areas and teacher education, advocacy and social justice. She is the author or editor of 18 books and over 200 publications. Her new co-edited book English Language Teaching in South America: Policy, Preparation and Practices is currently in press with Multilingual Matters. For more information, please visit her university page at https://sites.education.miami.edu/faculty/luciana-deoliveira/

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por Denise Santos

ATIVIDADES PEDAGÓGICAS NO ENSINO DE COMPETÊNCIAS PARA O SÉCULO XXI

Começo convidando os leitores a uma reflexão: que substantivo você usaria para completar a afirmação “O século XXI é caracterizado por…”? Pense por alguns instantes e complete a ideia mentalmente.

ensino-aprendizagem ganha nuances especiais. Está cada vez mais evidente que o conhecimento por si só não tem grande relevância - é preciso saber usar tal conhecimento para tomar decisões e agir no mundo de forma responsável e ética.

Uma busca com a expressão acima na internet leva-me a complementos como “mudanças”, “diferenças”, “incertezas”, “globalização”, “conectividade”, “competitividade” e termos afins. Imagino que seu complemento também aponte para um ou mais desafios que vivenciamos no século XXI.

Não há uma listagem universalmente aceita sobre quais seriam as competências necessárias para vida pessoal, acadêmica, professional e cidadã no século XXI, mas é amplamente aceita a ideia de que tais competências são, de fato, um conjunto de conhecimentos, habilidades e atitudes.

Muitos desses desafios não são novos; o que é novo é a dimensão e a rapidez com que o rol de substantivos listados acima caracteriza nossos tempos. Mais do que isso, tais substantivos não nomeiam fenômenos isolados; eles se integram como numa teia, revelando cenários inquietantes que incluem, entre outros, migração em larga escala, desequilíbrio ambiental, intolerância étnico-religiosa. Diante de grandes questões como essas, e da consequente necessidade de se formar cidadãos que saibam encontrar caminhos para lidar com com esses desafios de modo competente, o processo de

A seguir, comento como entendo esse caleidoscópio de competências com foco em atividades pedagógicas para a aula de línguas estrangeiras. Especificamente, examinarei quatro áreas que julgo sintetizar as competências para o século XXI, e ilustrarei os pontos discutidos com exemplos da coleção Loop (de ensino de inglês para adolescentes, publicado pela Editora Macmillan, de minha coautoria com Reinildes Dias, Elaine Hodgson e Cristina Mott-Fernandez). Como as questões discutidas são pertinentes a todos os professores de línguas, e não apenas àqueles que lecionam

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por Denise Santos

inglês, os exemplos serão aqui traduzidos de seu original em inglês para o português. Abordagem multidisciplinar Ao longo dos tempos, convencionou-se ensinar e aprender organizando-se o conhecimento em disciplinas estanques como Matemática, Geografia, História, Inglês etc. Cada vez mais, no entanto, percebe-se que uma abordagem monodisciplinar não é suficientemente abrangente para dar conta da complexidade dos fenômenos naturais e sociais que contemplamos. Consideremos um tópico relevante para estudo neste século: a disponibilidade de água potável no planeta. Um biólogo pode nos ajudar a construir conhecimento sobre a qualidade da água, mas um geógrafo trará olhares importantes sobre a distribuição da água no planeta. O tema ganhará entendimentos ainda mais sofisticados com a contribuição de sociólogos (e sua análise sobre o acesso à agua por diferentes grupos sociais, e o impacto desse acesso nas sociedades de modo mais amplo), historiadores (com a análise sobre como e para que diferentes civilizações usaram recursos hídricos) e matemáticos (com estatísticas e projeções sobre o assunto). Análises de manifestações artísticas sobre o tema (nas artes visuais, na música, na literatura) podem trazer uma nova dimensão sobre como o acesso à água afetou e afeta outras culturas no planeta. Em outras palavras, diferentes disciplinas projetam olhares diferenciados para o mundo ao nosso redor, e esses olhares permitem um entendimento mais complexo das questões que nos circundam. De certa forma, a noção de multidisciplinaridade não é nova para o professor de línguas estrangeiras. Já há algumas décadas os livros didáticos, e os materiais pedagógicos em geral, costumam vir organizados por temas que remetem a diferentes disciplinas (por exemplo, animais, passado e presente, música etc.). No entanto, uma verdadeira abordagem multidisciplinar vai além da noção de “apresentar temas multidisciplinares” e requer, sobretudo, promover olhares multidisciplinares, levando a novos entendimentos de mundo ao se trabalhar um certo tópico ou habilidade, conforme o exemplo a seguir. Atividade de produção oral Em uma unidade cujo objetivo linguístico é a construção de conhecimento sobre descrição física de pessoas (trabalhando-se, por exemplo, vocabulário sobre altura e peso ou tipos e cores de cabelo e olhos; praticando-se o uso de locuções adjetivas), apresenta-se um jogo baseado na pintura Operários (1933), de Tarsila do Amaral. Nessa pintura, os rostos de personagens representativos de diversidade étnica aparecem sobrepostos, ocupando boa parte da tela, ao fundo da qual se vê uma fábrica. Antes do jogo, os alunos conversam em conjunto, observando a pintura e respondendo às seguintes perguntas: “Na sua opinião, as pessoas representadas são similares ou diferentes? Elas representam o mesmo grupo social ou grupos diferentes?”. Para jogar, os alunos organizamse em duplas e cada um escolhe secretamente uma das personagens, a qual deve ser descoberta pelo colega a

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partir de perguntas que requerem “sim” ou “não” como resposta, por exemplo: “Ele ou ela tem cabelo castanho?”; “Ele ou ela está usando um boné?”. Depois do jogo, os alunos são convidados a refletir sobre as situações em que precisamos perguntar e responder sobre aparência física. A atividade descrita incorpora uma postura multidisciplinar ao trazer uma obra de arte para familiarização dos alunos e ao mobilizar importantes estratégias de apreciação artística, como a observação de detalhes e a análise do impacto desses detalhes na composição como um todo. Adicionalmente, a atividade cria espaço para reflexões e debates sobre um grupo de pessoas e seu papel no cenário socioeconômico de um país em determinada época, ativando e estimulando a construção de saberes associados a várias disciplinas como História, Geografia, Economia e Sociologia. Por fim, a discussão incorpora um olhar metalinguístico à atividade, incentivando os alunos a refletir sobre a relevância do tópico linguístico trabalhado no jogo. Desenvolvimento do pensamento crítico Pensamento crítico envolve o escrutínio (seja por ação efetiva, seja por práticas discursivas) de regras de participação no mundo social. Desse modo, a formação de alunos capazes de se posicionar criticamente requer práticas pedagógicas que estimulem, entre outros, o exame de diferentes perspectivas sob as quais um evento ou assunto pode ser analisado; a identificação das motivações que levam à adoção dessas diferentes perspectivas; a reflexão sobre o que pode acontecer diante da tomada de ações sob tais perspectivas. Em outras palavras, pensamento crítico requer que se vá além da descrição de fatos ou ideias. Da descrição prosseguese à análise (decompondo-se uma ideia em partes para compará-las e contrastá-las) e, por fim, a um julgamento sólido e fundamentado. O ciclo de atividades a seguir ilustra esse processo. Atividade de compreensão escrita Antes da leitura de um guia de exposição sobre trabalhos do artista brasileiro Hélio Oiticica no museu Tate Modern em Londres, os alunos são convidados a dar uma olhada rápida no texto (incluindo a imagem que o acompanha, retratando uma instalação criada pelo artista), discutindo em duplas: “Ao observar a imagem, em que vocês pensam? O que vocês sentem?”; “Vocês acham que seus pensamentos e sentimentos seriam outros se as cores ou as formas da obra de arte fossem diferentes? Deem detalhes.”. Aqui, então, descrição do que se vê (incluindo as implicações do que não se vê) fundamenta uma análise preliminar de uma das obras do artista, preparando os alunos para a leitura do texto, que é seguida de atividades de compreensão envolvendo informações factuais e inferências sobre o texto. Em seguida, os alunos são convidados a ler um outro texto sobre o artista e sua obra: o novo texto representa um outro gênero textual (uma resenha sobre uma exposição de Oiticica no Canadá e sobre o impacto causado por certas obras nos visitantes de várias idades, inclusive um bebê de sete meses). Após a segunda leitura, os alunos consideram de que forma o novo texto confirma ou amplia o conteúdo

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por Denise Santos

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do primeiro. Finalmente, como proposta de pós-leitura, a turma encaminha um debate sobre as seguintes questões: “Quais elementos de uma obra de arte (cor, forma, textura etc.) capturam sua atenção com mais intensidade? Explique.”; “Há uma ‘receita’ para se apreciar obras de arte? Ou é possível vivenciar a arte de maneiras diferentes? Dê detalhes.”. É possível argumentar que as reflexões sugeridas pelas perguntas finais da atividade podem ser feitas automaticamente por pessoas já familiarizadas com a necessidade de desconstrução de elementos, seguida de descrição e análise, para o posicionamento crítico diante de algo. No entanto, os alunos não saberão se posicionar criticamente se não aprenderem os passos necessários para tal postura. Uma forma de ensinar a pensar e agir de forma crítica é incentivar, inicialmente, descrições complexas daquilo de que tratamos - sejam objetos, pessoas, eventos ou questões mais amplas - com ênfase em elementos complementares e/ou conflitantes (por exemplo, prós e contras; vantagens e desvantagens; características consideradas positivas e negativas; o que pode ou não ser feito etc.). Os exemplos a seguir mostram formas de abordar os temas “relações românticas” e “escolhas” com certa complexidade, em debates durante aberturas de unidades.

basta “apresentar” esses temas, trazendo unidades de trabalho ao redor de temas como “meio ambiente”, “viagens”, “deficiência física e mental”, “velhice”. É preciso, sobretudo, abordar esses temas com postura reflexiva e crítica, e contemplar planos de ação fundamentados para lidar com essas questões. Uma forma de se promover a conscientização sobre questões globais, ética e cidadania é trazer um novo olhar para tais questões, conforme os exemplos a seguir, em que se procura quebrar estereótipos e pensar em ações que possam promover a inclusão de todos e capitalizar soluções ao invés de problemas. Título da unidade: Pessoas com alto desempenho Foco da unidade: Pessoas com deficiências físicas e mentais (e suas conquistas) através dos tempos e em vários pontos do planeta Título da unidade: O impacto humano na natureza Foco da unidade: Soluções possíveis para problemas enfrentados; discussão de ações humanas com impacto positivo na natureza Título da unidade: Planos futuros Foco da unidade: Pessoas idosas

Atividades de contextualização de unidade 1. A fim de contextualizar o tema “Relações românticas” e ativar experiência prévia sobre o assunto, os alunos respondem às seguintes perguntas oralmente: “Você já se apaixonou alguma vez? Na sua opinião, quais são as características de uma relação romântica positiva? E as características de uma relação romântica negativa?”. 2. Na contextualização de uma unidade intitulada “Escolhas”, os alunos pensam sobre uma escolha feita por eles recentemente (envolvendo comida, vestuário, entretenimento, comportamento com amigos etc.) e respondem: “Foi uma escolha fácil ou difícil? O que/Quem influenciou sua escolha? Quais foram as consequências de sua escolha?”. É importante ressaltar que o pensamento crítico está atrelado a uma postura investigativa sobre nossas formas de agir no mundo, envolvendo nosso relacionamento com outras pessoas, com a cidade e o país em que vivemos, com a natureza e o planeta de forma mais geral, conforme discutido na próxima seção.

O próximo exemplo traz o detalhamento de um ciclo pedagógico que tem o objetivo de auxiliar os alunos a desenvolver empatia pela diferença, compartilhar perspectivas e descrever problemas ao mesmo tempo que contemplam soluções. Em uma unidade sobre direitos humanos, os alunos leem um trecho do diário de Anne Frank (a jovem que se tornou famosa ao fazer o registro do dia a dia de judeus escondidos durante a ocupação nazista em Amsterdã); ouvem parte de um vídeo sobre trabalho infantil na Índia (em que uma menina descreve a sua rotina); e observam o uso de tempos verbais em um artigo que dá detalhes sobre a vida de um adolescente sírio que vive como refugiado no Líbano. A atividade de produção oral propõe que os alunos escolham um dos personagens apresentados anteriormente (Anne Frank, a menina indiana ou o adolescente sírio) e que encaminhem uma entrevista fictícia sobre seu passado, presente e expectativas ou planos para o futuro. O trabalho de produção escrita da unidade propõe que os alunos escrevam um artigo de jornal, a ser disseminado o mais amplamente possível, discutindo uma situação em que se testemunha alguma violação de direitos humanos.

Conscientização sobre questões globais, ética e cidadania Apesar dos avanços tecnológicos dos últimos séculos, a desigualdade de riqueza e renda aumenta globalmente. Essa questão, e outras prementes na contemporaneidade, como migração em massa, intolerância a diferenças étnico-religiosas, inclusão social, acesso a recursos naturais, longevidade, entre outros, precisam achar espaço central no cenário escolar para que decisões responsáveis e éticas sejam tomadas pelas novas gerações. Na aula de língua estrangeira, como em outras aulas, não

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Como se vê, é possível (e mesmo recomendável) promover a integração das quatro habilidades e dos elementos linguísticos (vocabulário e gramática) focados em uma unidade com o objetivo geral de conscientizar os alunos sobre questões mais amplas na contemporaneidade. Aprendizagem reflexiva e colaborativa É cada vez maior a quantidade de informações disponíveis em nossos tempos. Dessa forma, torna-se essencial saber distinguir quais informações são ou não relevantes, bem como


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por Denise Santos

saber “como”, “por que” e “para que” aprendemos algo. Tal posicionamento investigativo sobre a própria aprendizagem cria condições mais favoráveis para a formação de aprendizes autômos, capazes de ser agentes de sua aprendizagem ao longo de sua vida. Os exemplos a seguir ilustram formas de se oferecer oportunidades para o desenvolvimento de tal postura reflexiva sobre a aprendizagem, suas formas e implicações.

necessariamente à realização de uma atividade colaborativa. Por exemplo, não há colaboração em uma conversa em que os alunos se agrupam fisicamente mas não integram o que é articulado pelos colegas em suas reflexões ou conclusões. Por definição, colaboração requer uma espécie de tecelagem em que se aglutinam diferentes contribuições formando algo novo, que não poderia ser realizado por esforço individual.

Atividade de compreensão oral

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Antes de se ouvir um trecho de um filme, os alunos são convidados a fazer previsões sobre partes do roteiro. Em seguida, os alunos ouvem o trecho e verificam suas previsões e, finalmente, após o ciclo de escuta, a turma discute: “Vocês acham que prever o que vai ser ouvido pode facilitar a escuta na língua estrangeira? Por que (não)?”

Neste artigo, selecionei quatro competências que considero ser fundamentais na educação para o século XXI e, nesta seleção, deixei de citar outras igualmente importantes como criatividade, flexibilidade, comunicação, solução de problemas, postura investigativa, perseverança, iniciativa e letramento digital.

Atividade de produção oral

O que me parece ser mesmo um grande desafio para nós, educadores, é o entrelaçamento de todas essas competências. De modo geral, ao trabalhar uma competência estamos trabalhando várias outras simultaneamente; é importante, pois, ter essa percepção para um melhor discernimento do que se pretende fazer durante uma atividade pedagógica e uma avaliação mais acurada do que se logrou atingir com ela.

Como parte de um trabalho sobre características do mundo natural, os alunos preparam uma apresentação oral para uma cena imaginária no futuro em que participam de um podcast sobre como era a natureza em sua adolescência. Após as apresentações, encaminha-se um debate com a turma: “Até que ponto a escuta de apresentações orais feitas por colegas auxiliou sua aprendizagem sobre como fazer melhores apresentações no futuro?”; “A ideia de se imaginar no futuro falando sobre o seu passsado pode, de alguma forma, contribuir para decisões no presente sobre como lidar com o mundo natural? Por que (não)?” Reflexões sobre o processo de aprendizagem podem ser encaminhadas individualmente ou em conjunto, como nos exemplos recém-citados. Minha decisão em ilustrar atividades realizadas em grupo é intencional, já que a capacidade de colaborar em equipes (presencial ou virtualmente) e de saber lidar com interlocutores caracterizados por diversidade (étnica, religiosa, social, geográfica etc.) no enfrentamento de pequenos e grandes desafios é uma importante exigência do nosso século.

Nesse sentido, termino este artigo com mais um convite aos leitores. Se possível, juntem-se com um ou mais colegas para discutir as questões propostas. a. De que forma as demais competências ressaltadas nesta seção final são trabalhadas nos exemplos dados ao longo do artigo? b. Considerem um tópico de trabalho em futuro próximo e reflitam: como seria possível incorporar a noção de “competências para o século XXI” no seu trabalho em todo o ciclo pedagógico - do planejamento, passando pela implementação, até a avaliação?

Na aula de língua estrangeira, a colaboração pode ser estimulada de diversas maneiras. Uma forma aparentemente óbvia é o incentivo a atividades em duplas ou em grupos, mas é importante ressaltar que um trabalho em grupo não leva

A autora Denise Santos tem bacharelado e licenciatura em Português e Inglês pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, é mestre em educação em língua inglesa pela University of Oklahoma (Estados Unidos) e doutora em linguística aplicada pela University of Reading (Inglaterra). Tem participação frequente em congressos nacionais e internacionais, e possui vários trabalhos publicados em livros e revistas acadêmicas no Brasil e no exterior, bem como livros didáticos para o ensino de inglês e de português como língua estrangeira. Sua pesquisa recente tem foco em usos de estratégias na aprendizagem de línguas estrangeiras. Mais informações em www.denisesantos.com ou no e-mail denise@denisesantos.com.

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por Rodrigo Garcia Rosa e Lizika Goldchleger

TECHNIQUES, METHODS AND APPROACHES: MUCH ADO ABOUT NOTHING? Techniques, methods and approaches: first things first! There probably isn’t a topic less frequently associated with the canons of early in-service ELT teacher training courses than that of methods, approaches, techniques and their differences, similarities and peculiarities. In fact, the now seminal and often-cited paper by Edward M. Anthony (1963) is fifty-two years old and many other publications that followed his work contributed enormously to the understanding of these three dimensions of English language teaching. Nevertheless, if the discussion on methods and approaches has stood the test of time, a few teachers still define methods in the pejorative narrow sense used by post-methodologists, that is, in a rather utilitarian fashion (Larsen-Freeman and Anderson, 2016). These think of methods in terms of techniques which realize a set of principles or goals and they are willing to make use of any apparent “method” that offers practical solutions to problems in their particular teaching context irrespective of the method they represent or the principles these techniques aim to give a body (Bell, 2007 apud Larsen-Freeman and Anderson, 2016). The points raised by these scholars show that despite being a relatively frequent topic in the ELT universe, some practitioners still cut their teeth on drawing clear distinctions between methods, approaches and techniques. Thus, although we do not aim to provide an exhaustive account of the existing distinctions in the three terms, we will try to contribute to the discussion with a quick general characterization based on Anthony (1963): Approaches If approaches, methods and techniques can be epistemologically puzzling in the micro area of ELT, other areas of research must confront the idea of approaches with that of theories. This is probably because, to many scholars, these are areas whose boundaries are hard to distinguish given how intertwined they are on practical grounds. In the ELT, it would probably be

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best to characterize an approach as a framework that is meant to outline a view of language as well as a view of learning. As such, approaches are not ELT internal, that is, ELT approaches are oftentimes drawn from other autonomous and independent disciplines such as linguistics (for the view of language) and education theory (for the view of learning). Among the examples of approaches adopted by the ELT community are the behaviorist, structuralist, cognitivist and functional approaches to language. Methods The word method is etymologically reducible to the Greek words metá (through) and hodós (route, way, direction), that is, it specifies the route one must take in order to get somewhere. In other words, in logical terms a method cannot preexist an approach since it is bound to it and it serves the purpose of applying the chosen approach in an orderly and principled manner. Some of the widely known methods are the grammartranslation method, the direct method, the silent way, suggestopedia, etc. Techniques Techniques are at the most practical end of the continuum since they embody the operational stepby-step procedures in the classroom. Techniques are meant to make it possible for the method to be followed and guarantee the accurate execution of the principles predicted in the adopted approach. An example of a communicative language teaching technique for reading would be the three-phrased reading process which is composed of pre-reading step (students make predictions about the content of a text, for instance), a while-reading step (students answer information-based questions) and lastly a post-reading step (students react to the content presented in the text by casting their own opinions about a specific point raised therein).


Article

por Rodrigo Garcia Rosa e Lizika Goldchleger

going through, it is commonly characterized by the strong adherence to the practical solution of problems thought through in terms of the local scenario in which they take place, that is, in the words of Johnson (2006:239 apud Larsen-Freeman and Anderson, 2016): “…. teachers are users and creators of legitimate forms of knowledge who make decisions about how best to teach their L2 students within complex socially, culturally, and historically situated contexts”.

In the words of Edward M. Anthony, the three dimensions can be summarized by stating that approaches, methods and techniques should be hierarchically organized in a way that exhibits the extent to which the boundaries and functions of one layer are defined in light of the layer immediately below in the hierarchy (see the figure). An approach is axiomatic, that is, it’s self-evident and generally accepted. Methods, on the other hand, are procedural in that they state how a theoretical approach will be applied by coming up with viable and tangible principles to be used in the classroom. Techniques are procedural and they usually come in the form of a finite number of prescriptive steps that should be executed while teaching takes place. Methods & approaches in the teacher’s learning process Although the study of some methods seems to have fallen from grace with teachers in the current post-method era, a whole body of research on teacher education points to the fact that methods can help teachers become aware of why they teach what they teach and how they teach what they teach. Since teachers spend years as students and, to a reasonable extent, can be considered successful learners, there are reasons to believe they have a lot of tacit knowledge about how languages are learned and taught (Shulman, 1987). This implicit knowledge, however, will not suffice for anybody who pursues autonomy in their practice. Instead, teachers who seek self-improvement might want to reflect on the techniques they engage with on a daily basis so as to unveil the true nature of their practice from a theoretical standpoint. In other words, methods can serve as models for the integration of theory and practice towards the understanding of the teachinglearning process (Larsen-Freeman and Anderson, 2016) and they also offer an array of options, which allow teachers to respond meaningfully to particular classroom situations. Also, with regard to the current post-method era ELT is

Such a view has transformed the notion of teacher learning from one in which teachers’ duty was to put theory into practice to one in which practice can be theorized. According to the new paradigm, it’s up to the teacher to take up the challenge to go from practice to theory, or from practitioners to theory builders (Prabhu, 1992; Savignon, 2007) Final words: post-modern or post-mortem era for methods? As we have argued so far in this brief article, knowledge of methods is part of the knowledge base of teaching. This knowledge can provide teachers with a new avenue for professional growth in the most intuitive way possible, that is, by discovering general principles of the learningteaching process while trying to tackle real-life problems. Furthermore, the more experienced teachers are to experiment with different principles, the easier it will be for them to travel from practice to theory and vice-versa. Once they are aware of the methods their practice stems from, teachers are able to make informed decisions and choose to teach differently form how they were taught and also argue for or against a particular method or approach. This view on the role of methods and approaches in teacher education is the theoretical backbone of our postgraduate module Teaching Techniques at Faculdade Cultura Inglesa SP and the reason why we believe it’s still worth discussing this subject. Post-modern, not post-mortem era for methods and approaches! References ANTHONY, E.M. 1963. ‘Approach, Method and Technique’. English Language Teaching, vol.17. LARSEN-FREEMAN, D.; ANDERSON, M. 2016. Teaching & Principles in Language Teaching (3rd edn.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. PRABHU, N.S. 1992. ‘The dynamics of the language lesson’. TESOL Quarterly 26/2: 225-41. SAVIGNON, S. J. 2007. ‘Beyond communicative language teaching: What’s ahead?’. Journal of Pragmatics, 39, 207-220. SHULMAN, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57, 1-22.

New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 19


Article

Leading the way in language and pedagogy research.

Claire and Laura: Language and pedagogy researchers

Discover how our research helps you deliver better learning experiences: cambridge.org/betterlearning


Article

Deeper Insights

LEADING THE WAY IN LANGUAGE AND PEDAGOGY RESEARCH How did you get involved with Cambridge ELT?

What do you enjoy most about your work?

Claire Dembry: I saw the job of ‘Corpus Manager’ advertised and I remember thinking ‘You never see that!’ – I hadn’t before and haven’t since. I’ve been here for five years now, and I’ve done a CELTA to really immerse myself in ELT, and it’s fascinating. I hadn’t really realised how closely interlinked Corpus Linguistics and ELT are – so it’s been really interesting to combine the two. Laura Patsko: I have an ELT background – I did my CELTA, taught for a while, did my DELTA, kept teaching, then started teacher training. I loved being in the classroom, but realised that I couldn’t go much further in a language school. I joined BAAL (the British Association for Applied Linguistics) and saw this really interesting role – and the advertisement was like reading my CV!

We get to work across such a broad range of materials and courses, with different people. It’s fantastic to see right across the board, from adult courses, to schools materials, to academic English, across all the different levels. But what’s really important to me is that our work isn’t for nothing. Before, other research I was doing was dead interesting, but wasn’t for anything. It wasn’t making a difference, wasn’t improving anything, it was just for endeavour – which is fine, but it’s not really meaningful. It gives you a sense of purpose when you’ve worked hard on something and it makes it into a product – knowing your work will make language learning easier for somebody, or make the materials better. LP When I was teaching, I had a sense that I was doing something meaningful, and making a difference to those students in my classroom. But now, my work benefits teachers and students in classrooms all over the world, helping them to enjoy what they’re doing, whilst learning and continuing to improve.

What makes your role different? Both of our roles were new positions, and they were both quite different – quite cutting edge. You don’t see roles like these too often in ELT – and you don’t see other organisations doing anything similar. LP It’s the combination of theory and practice – helping one inform the other. People often assume that the theory informs the practice and then it stops, but it can be the other way – which is one thing I like about doing pedagogy research here. You do research with people rather than on people – working with teachers, visiting classrooms. You’re connecting the dots between language and its forms, the way people use it, and the way people learn it. And that’s a lot of fun. I feel like I haven’t gone too far out of the classroom now I’m not teaching. CD

CD

“[We’re] connecting the dots between language and its forms, the way people use it, and the way people learn it. I feel like I haven’t gone too far out of the classroom now I’m not teaching.” New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 21


Article Deeper Insights

Deeper Insights

What is the aim for research at Cambridge? Although is for cheesy, it’s about making learning better, What is thethis aim research at Cambridge? making it faster, more interesting, more useful …  LP Helping people actually learn the language. You have to CD Although this is cheesy, it’s about making learning better, remind yourself why a particular student in that classroom making it faster, more interesting, moreisuseful …  – LP heHelping wants topeople learn English, so how can we help him actually learn the language. Youdo have to that? What are the actual, practical things that we do remind yourself why a particular student is in thatcan classroom to–help a person in the real world achieve that learning? he wants to learn English, so how can we help him do CD

that? What are the actual, practical things that we can do Why is research to ELTachieve materials? to help a personimportant in the real world that learning? LP Whenever you add something to your life that you’re Why is research important to ELT materials? not an expert in, you’re putting a lot of faith into those with the expertise to helptoyou achieve what LP Whenever you you addneed something your life that you’re you want to do. When I moved to Cambridge, I bought not an expert in, you’re putting a lot of faith into those a bicycle. I needed to you make suretoI wasn’t going to bewhat unsafe, with the expertise need help you achieve soyou I took it to a cycle shop to have it checked over. I knowa want to do. When I moved to Cambridge, I bought nothing about mechanics, so was putting so much trust bicycle. I needed to make sure I wasn’t going to be unsafe, inso this guy it into the cycle shop shop to – but I can’t check that I took a cycle have it checked over.he’s I know done a good jobmechanics, because I don’t have that expertise. It’s nothing about so was putting so much trust the same in language learning. People land in a classroom in this guy in the cycle shop – but I can’t check that he’s and they’re given book. They don’t have years of done a good jobabecause I don’t have that expertise. It’s language research behind them – so they have to trust the same in language learning. People land in a classroom that bookgiven has been designed in a way willofactually andthat they’re a book. They don’t havethat years help them learn the language. So, research is massively language research behind them – so they have to trust important to ensure the materials weinare providing that that book has been designed a way that willare actually the best they can be. Anybody who speaks English could help them learn the language. So, research is massively write some activities but it doesn’t that it’s important to ensuredown, the materials we aremean providing are going to address the things learners are likely to havecould the best they can be. Anybody who speaks English trouble with, activities or that it’sdown, goingbut to be designed in athat wayit’s write some it doesn’t mean that we actually use English in the real world. I think you going to address the things learners are likely to have really need that research to make sure that materials are trouble with, or that it’s going to be designed in a way informed by something other than just a general intuition. that we actually use English in the real world. I think you

really need that research to make sure that materials are How do you insightsother to impact informed byuse something than just a general intuition. Cambridge materials? How do you use insights to impact We can lookmaterials? at the most frequent words, the most Cambridge difficult thing for learners with different first languages, why some levels groups students find words, particular CD We can or look at theofmost frequent thethings most very easy or very hard. We might look at which level we why difficult thing for learners with different first languages, should at,students or why you teach one some teach levels something or groups of findshould particular things word over another one with a similar meaning, because very easy or very hard. We might look at which level weit might beteach less useful. Teachers haveteach a general should something at, orand whyauthors you should one feeling about things like that but we can help prove it – it word over another one with a similar meaning, because we can find thatuseful. stuff out. Research something else might be less Teachers andadds authors have a general that’s beyond expert instincts and experience. It’s an feeling about things like that but we can help prove extra it – ‘check’ you that like, stuff whichout. canResearch support ideas and perhaps we canif find adds something else provide extra insights new methods to consider. that’s beyond expertor instincts and experience. It’s an extra

CD

What do insights bring to the language learning experience? What do insights bring to the It’s about learning taking into account the whole person – there’s language experience? so much more to learning a language than just memorising rules. You really haveinto to know about it and LP It’s about taking account thewho’s wholeusing person – there’s how they’re using it, and when it’s appropriate to say so much more to learning a language than just memorising this or that. That whole package needswho’s support from rules. You really have to know about using it and something other than a person’s intuition. Everyone’s how they’re using it, and when it’s appropriate to say own is whole so personal. If you’re to interact thisexperience or that. That package needsgoing support from with people all over the place in a language you need something other than a person’s intuition. Everyone’s that extra insight to confidentIf that you’re going to be own experience is feel so personal. you’re going to interact able to meet all the challenges that you’re going to face. with people all over the place in a language you need LP

that extra insight to feel confident that you’re going to be able to meet all the challenges that you’re going to face.

‘check’ if you like, which can support ideas and perhaps provide extra insights or new methods to consider. Find out more at cambridge.org/betterlearning

22 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a lFind out more at cambridge.org/betterlearning


Communication Inspiring Communication

Bring fascinating topics, inspiring speakers, and authentic language to your classroom with TED Talks.

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4


How do you say ... in English?

by José Roberto A. Igreja

PUXAR FERRO PUMP IRON Também existe em inglês uma expressão igualmente coloquial para se referir ao exercício físico com o uso de haltere: pump iron. Confira o exemplo abaixo: You look like you’re in great shape. Have you been pumping iron? Você parece estar em ótima forma. Tem puxado ferro?

BRINCAR DE ESCOND-ESCONDE PLAY HIDE AND SEEK

ASSUMIR A HOMOSSEXUALIDADE COME OUT OF THE CLOSET

COMEÇAR DA ESTACA ZERO START FROM SCRATCH

Josh used to enjoy playing hide and seek with his friends when he was a child. Josh gostava de brincar de escondeesconde com os amigos quando era criança.

When Sam finally decided to come out of the closet, everyone already knew he was gay. Quando Sam finalmente resolveu assumir a homossexualidade, todos já sabiam que ele era gay. Nesse contexto, pode-se também usar apenas o phrasal verb come out:

Bill had to start from scratch after he lost most of his money in the stock market. Bill teve de começar da estaca zero depois que perdeu a maior parte de seu dinheiro na Bolsa de Valores.

DAR BRONCA EM ALGUÉM TELL SOMEONE OFF It’s about time someone told Mike off. He can’t just go on misbehaving like that. Já está na hora de alguém dar uma bronca em Mike. Ele não pode simplesmente continuar a se comportar mal daquele jeito. CANTEIRO DE OBRA CONSTRUCTION SITE As a civil engineer, Frank is used to inspecting construction sites. Como engenheiro civil, Frank está acostumado a inspecionar canteiros de obra.

James came out to his family and close friends about a year ago. James assumiu sua homossexualidade para a família e os amigos íntimos há aproximadamente um ano. A referência à palavra closet (armário) também está presente na frase a closet homosexual, que significa “um homossexual enrustido”, ou seja, alguém que ainda não assumiu a homossexualidade ou que, literalmente, “continua no armário”.

DEDURAR TELL ON “Are you sure Mike is not going to tell on us?”, Dick asked his friends. “Vocês têm certeza de que o Mike não vai nos dedurar?”, Dick perguntou aos amigos.

O autor José Roberto A. Igreja has a BA in English and Literature from PUC/SP. He is the author of Inglês Fluente em 30 Lições; Como se diz em inglês?; What to say when?; Guia Prático para a comunicação em inglês; How do you say ... in English?; Say it all in Brazilian Portuguese!; Fale Tudo em Inglês and Falsos Cognatos - Looks can be deceiving!. He´s also the co-author of Inglês de Rua - American Slang; Fluent Business English; English for Job interviews!; Fale Inglês como um Americano; Phrasal Verbs and American Idioms!, all published by Disal Editora. You can check out his blog at www.faletudoemingles.com.br

24 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l


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Editora: Cengage Learning Autores: Paul Dummett, Helen Stephenson, Lewis Lansford 176 Páginas ISBN: 9781305399181

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Editora: Disal Editora Autores: Adriana G. Fiori-Souza, Adriana C.S Maciel, Isadora T. Moraes, Mônica M. Gôngora, Sílvia H.O. Flores 232 Páginas ISBN: 9788578441876

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New Rou te s ® Di s a l | 2 5


Livros Book Review

HELBLING YOUNG READERS CLASSICS

Time to get back to school and program our classes. How can we motivate our students? Using materials and resources that carry them away is definitely a plan and readers are always a must. Reading improves skills and knowledge of a language. Rumor has it that the link between reading for pleasure and vocabulary development is expected as well, as it introduces young people to new words and helps them develop a self-sufficient approach to learning in general. Nowadays we look for efficient, handy and useful resources that can meet our needs, optimize the teaching time and be motivating. Helbling Young Readers for Primary Schools is a new series of graded readers that will gladly surprise you. It’s easy to choose among a collection of fantasy and adventure stories which enrich school life. There are five levels corresponding to the Cambridge Young Learners English and Trinity. The variety of teaching resources enables you to respond to the needs of diverse learning, considering students’ learning styles. It’s very

simple to identify the structures and vocabulary on the book flap and there are also suggestions on how to use the book, which can be very useful in the classroom. Technology is present and the CD-ROM includes different didactic ideas and the audio book. Reading should be encouraging, and books with accompanying audio will improve the students’ ear training and help them get used to the accent, speed and rhythm of the foreign language. For those who are learning a new language, the audio really helps them to recognize words they already know, as well as stimulating them to pay attention to the new ones. Teachers will benefit from using the companion website - e-zone with free online activities and teaching resources. www.helbling-ezone.com These books come with a caring note to the reader, previewing what to expect, already calling the attention to the book flaps with a picture dictionary. It feels like opening a gift. There is a special icon at the beginning, indicating interaction with the story. It’ll make children look for this moment with

a new surprise on every page. You can count on a pre-reading section named Play Station 1 that moves the children to learn by playing. The tasks are developed to arouse curiosity and prepare the students to dive into the story they are about to read. At the Play Station 2 section, students have the chance to work with post-reading activities, approaching understanding, grammar, vocabulary, listening, writing, speaking through integration of skills, providing meaningful learning. The books invite the students to reflect upon universal values, helping them internalize timeless concepts. Every reader has a project connected to one of the topics of the story, teaching English referring to other subjects (CLIL: Content and Language Integrated Learning) such as History, Arts, Geography, Civics, etc. The illustrations are catchy, colorful and modern, grabbing students’ attention. We are always looking for healthy opportunities at emotional and intellectual levels. The Helbling Young Readers Classics are for sure one of them. Happy teaching!

The reviewer Lilian Itzicovitch Leventhal has been working with Education since 1983. She is master of Education, graduated in Languages, Translation Studies, and Cambridge Examiner. She’s the author of the books: Inglês é 10!, Inglês é teen! and co-author of Inglês é 11!, Dream Kids, a book series for Fundamental. She’s been a director at Potential Consultoria, specialized in Languages and Schools for 15 years and nowadays she also coordinates English at Colégio Renascença. lilian@potential.com.br 26 | New Routes® Disal


Eu Recomendo

MONICA TEEN AROUND THE WORLD!

Trabalho com a Editora Pearson há mais de dez anos. Enquanto professora de Língua Inglesa em escolas regulares, acredito que devemos procurar uma editora que nos dê confiança em seu material e que também nos dê apoio pedagógico. Encontrei tudo isso na equipe que acompanha meu trabalho todos esses anos e, por confiar nesses profissionais, sempre peço a eles orientação sobre o material didático que adoto para minhas aulas. A indicação do Monica Teen – Around the World para os anos finais do Ensino Fundamental foi de uma surpresa muito feliz! Além de já amar os quadrinhos e histórias da Turma da Mônica, ter a chance de levar essas histórias para a sala de aula, como uma ferramenta de ensino foi um ganho enorme para a minha didática e meus projetos pedagógicos. Os alunos se envolvem mais por já conhecerem os personagens e

isso tem aguçado a curiosidade deles com relação ao idioma. Com unidades bem distribuídas, o material me chamou atenção desde a capa: colorida, com os personagens em destaque e com os desenhos já nos dando uma dica de qual aventura eles viverão naquele volume. Unidades bem distribuídas, textos de leitura gostosa para os alunos e com uma abordagem bem contextualizada do vocabulário estudado. A gramática apresentada em língua portuguesa, ao meu ver, dá mais autonomia aos alunos, especialmente aqueles que estão iniciando no estudo do idioma e sentem-se mais à vontade para, dessa forma, estudarem sozinhos.

diversificada e dinâmica. E, ao final do livro, material extra de gramática, vocabulário, projetos e jogos. Além disso tudo, temos plataforma online e o multi-rom ao nosso dispor com recursos extras para melhorarmos nossas aulas, modelos de provas e também material extra para o aluno estudar em casa, utilizando a Internet que é algo que os atrai sempre. Definitivamente, dar aulas e estudar inglês com essa coleção não é nada chato, é pura diversão!

As quatro habilidades são trabalhadas em conjunto e uma atividade dando sequência à outra. Nada é estudado de forma solta nem aleatória. E em cada unidade, exercício de consolidação dos conteúdos apresentados de forma

Cristina de Lelis - Professora de Língua Inglesa em escolas regulares pública e privada, instituto de idiomas e universidade.

N ew Route s ® Di sa l | 2 7


Variedades

THINGS SAID BY TRAIN DRIVERS ON THE LONDON UNDERGROUND Sorry for the delay, it’s not my fault. I love you all really.

insurance company won’t pay out.

Hurry up and let the doors close. I want my dinner.

Let the passengers off the train FIRST! (Pause) Oh go on then, stuff yourselves in like sardines, see if I care - I’m going home.

Ladies and gentleman, upon departing the train, may I remind you to take your rubbish with you? Despite the fact that you are in something that is metal, fairly round, filthy and smells, this is a tube train for public transport and not a bin on wheels. Please keep your kids with you at all times. Even the annoying ones. Do you want the good news first or the bad news? The good news is that last Friday was my birthday and I hit the town and had a great time. The bad news is that there is a point’s failure somewhere between Mile End and East Ham, which means we probably won’t reach our destination. Please let passengers off the train before boarding. It’s not the storming of the Bastille you know. This is your driver speaking. We are aware that all the lights have gone out on the train but there is absolutely nothing to be worried about... or is there? Apologies for the delay, they’re actually testing new selfdriven trains. Oh wait, I don’t think I was meant to tell you that. Please note that the beeping noise coming from the doors means that the doors are about to close. It does not mean throw yourself or your bags into the doors. This train is early and is now being delayed so that it is late. I don’t understand this either. I can assure the passenger in the second carriage that it is not raining in the train. Please put your umbrella down. Stand clear of the doors. If you get trapped and hurt, your

28 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l

Please stay behind the yellow line. It is located near your feet, is yellow in colour and resembles... a line.” We can’t move off because some idiot has their hand stuck in the door. This train has six carriages. When you all board the first one, it causes the floor to bend and the doors will not close. We apologise for delays to your Piccadilly line service this morning. This was due to earlier late running. If you’re leaving at the next station please mind the gap between the timetable and reality. To the gentleman wearing the long grey coat trying to get on the second carriage – what part of ‘stand clear of the doors’ don’t you understand? Mind your fingers, mind your toes, watch the doors, they’re gonna close. Could the young couple in the second carriage please get a room! Beggars are operating on this train. Please do NOT encourage these professional beggars. If you have any spare change, please give it to a registered charity. Failing that, give it to me. Ladies and gentlemen, you may have noticed we’ve stopped. I don’t know why. They haven’t told me. Sorry for this short delay, why don’t you take this opportunity to look up from your papers and smile at a stranger? Or even say hello!


Variedades

VERBING The English language is always in a constant state of flux. New words are created all the time and old ones disappear. In recent years, one trend that has become very noticeable, and not always welcomed by all, is the changing of nouns into verbs. In English, it’s easy to do this because the base forms of verbs don’t need special endings. Also, one of the reasons why verbed nouns are so popular is that they are so easily understood Some people think verbing makes what you say sound more original, vibrant and to the point. Others deplore it. Verbing or, what grammarians refer to as denominalization, is not new. It has been part of the English grammar for many centuries. We’ve already become used to more recent denominalisations like – to pencil in – e.g. ‘I’ll pencil you in for 3pm.’ – or – to impact – e.g.‘ That will significantly impact the company’s sales.’ Some of these inventions can be quite annoying or even considered to be an abomination, like – to dialogue – e.g. ‘Let’s dialogue about this tomorrow.’ Here are a few more examples from the business world –

Here are just a few more examples from the world of sport –

To rollerblade / to skateboard / to snowboard / to zorb – all come from the names of equipment.

Football referees card players. Athletes podium and medal in events, racing drivers pit, golfers par and coastal divers tombstone.

READING FROM TOP TO BOTTOM AND BACK

To trend / to statement / to evidence / to flipchart / to incentivize / to showcase / to action / to task / to transition /

time when we Netfix and chill, or our holidays when we

Today was the absolute worst day ever And don’t try to convince me that There’s something good in every day Because, when you take a closer look, This world is a pretty evil place. Even if Some goodness does shine through once in a while Satisfaction and happiness don’t last. And it’s not true that It’s all in the heart and mind Because True happiness can be obtained Only if one’s surroundings are good It’s not true that good exists I’m sure you can agree that The reality Creates My attitude It’s all beyond my control And you’ll never in a million years hear me say that Today was a good day

Airbnb our accommodation and summer or winter in a place.

Now read from bottom to top.

to workshop / to table / to calendar / to action / to fast-track / to prioritize / to beef up / to Xerox. The primary cause of the recent rapid increase in verbing is technology. Potential changes in our language are picked up and rapidly repeated all around the world. Examples from technology include – To text from a mobile / to bookmark a website / to inbox an email contact / to friend or defriend someone on Facebook / to like (the action, not the feeling) / to blog about a subject / to ebay a product / to skype someone/ to whatsapp someone / to google something. This process can be found in all areas of activity, from family life, where mothers and fathers now parent, to our leisure

New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 29


by Jack Scholes

Slang

AMERICAN SLANG SASSY ATREVIDO, IMPERTINENTE, MAL-EDUCADO She’s a sassy young woman! Ela é uma jovem atrevida! Usa-se também o verbo to sass, que significa falar ou comportar-se de forma insolente, sem respeito, sobretudo com pessoas que têm poder ou posição de autoridade. BLOOPER ERRO BOBO E CONSTRANGEDOR People really like watching television bloopers. As pessoas gostam muito de assistir a erros constrangedores na televisão. JOE BLOW O HOMEM COMUM; ZÉ-POVINHO, POVÃO We need to know what Joe Blow thinks about this. Precisamos saber o que o povão acha disso. O nome inglês Joe, apelido de Joseph, equivaleria em português a Zé ou Zezinho. Y’ALL VOCÊS TODOS Come on y’all. Sit down now and listen. Vamos, vocês todos. Sentem-se agora e escutem. Y’all é uma forma de dizer you all, sendo usada principalmente no sul dos Estados Unidos para falar a um grupo de pessoas, ou para chamar a atenção delas. TUSH NÁDEGAS; BUNDA She slipped and fell on her tush. Ela escorregou e caiu de bunda. A palavra tush vem do iídiche e entrou na gíria americana para designar o traseiro. 30 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l

YADA YADA YADA BLABLABLÁ Politicians always say they will cut taxes, improve the economy, yada yada yada. Os políticos sempre dizem que vão cortar impostos, melhorar a economia, esse blablablá.

CAKEWALK COISA OU SITUAÇÃO EXTREMAMENTE FÁCIL; MOLEZA, SOPA, CANJA Winning the game was a cakewalk for them. Ganhar o jogo foi moleza para eles. > a piece of cake

Usa-se yada yada yada para completar uma frase quando não se precisa ser específico, ou quando o assunto é chato, ou quando a conversa é fiada… Diz-se também blah blah blah. DIDDLY NADA, ZERO; NECAS DE PITIBIRIBA She doesn’t know diddly about computers. Ela não sabe nadinha sobre computadores. Usa-se também diddly-squat e, ofensivamente, diddly-shit. > jack shit / zip RINKY-DINK INFERIOR, BARATO, DE MÁ QUALIDADE; CHINFRIM He’s the owner of a rinky-dink hotel in the center of town. Ele é o proprietário de um hotel chinfrim no centro da cidade. SKIVVIES ROUPA DE BAIXO, ROUPA ÍNTIMA, NORMALMENTE MASCULINA Don’t forget to take some clean skivvies. Não se esqueça de levar umas cuecas limpas. TO YAMMER FALAR MUITO, DE MODO IRRITADIÇO OU RABUGENTO; CHORAMINGAR, TAGARELAR What is he yammering on about? Por que ele está choramingando? PUTZ PESSOA DETESTÁVEL, IMBECIL He’s a real putz! Ele é um cara muito detestável!

The author Jack Scholes is the author of many books, including Slang - Gírias Atuais do Inglês, Modern Slang and Slang Activity Book. He is also co-author with Jane Revell of Sucesso nos Exames. His most recent publications are Inglês Rápido, Quick Brazilian Portuguese and Why do we say that? Por que dizemos isso?. All published by Disal Editora. Email: jack@jackscholes.com


FEVEREIRO

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ABRIL

Participe das palestras ministradas na Disal - Matriz! Amplie seu conhecimento! > Veja programação no site: www.disal.com.br/eventos > Para mais informações: eventos@disal.com.br / Fone 11 3226-3100

A DISAL, BRAZ-TESOL, DIAMANTINO e a WORLD STUDY se uniram para multiplicar suas chances de ganhar uma anuidade BRAZ-Tesol, um curso online Diamantino e novidades World Study. Quanto mais amigos você indicar para assistir aos eventos da Disal, mais oportunidades de ganhar você terá!* *Inscreva-se: www.disal.com.br/eventos e saiba mais.

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Article

by Adriana G. Fiori-Souza • Adriana C. S. Maciel • I s a d o r a T. M o r a e s • M ô n i c a M . G ô n g o r a • S í l v i a H . O. F l o r e s

:)

When we decided to start a project with a focus on lexis (as opposed to grammar or syntax), the idea was to search for ways to teach English that would help learners make more visible progress in their learning process. We were determined to develop new strategies for increasing overall fluency. Our target audience were students who already had an intermediate knowledge of the language, but seemed to have reached a plateau in their learning, no matter how hard we tried to teach them.

1

Michael Lewis, author of a renowned trilogy1 on the Lexical Approach to ELT, highlights that the main difference between intermediate and advanced level students is an extensive repertoire of vocabulary, rather than a better understanding of grammar. He also points out that the biggest issue regarding effective learning is that words tend to be processed and stored as single items, when they should be internalized as longer fragments or chunks. Take, for instance, the words hold and responsible, which

LEWIS, M. (Ed.). Teaching Collocation: Further developments in the Lexical Approach. London: Language Teaching Publications, 2000. LEWIS, M. Implementing the Lexical Approach. London: Language Teaching Publications, 1997. LEWIS, M. The Lexical Approach. London: Language Teaching Publications, 1993.

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by Adriana G. Fiori-Souza • Adriana C. S. Maciel • I s a d o r a T. M o r a e s • M ô n i c a M . G ô n g o r a • S í l v i a H . O. F l o r e s

seem to be known by most intermediate level students as separate items, but not as a combo expressing one idea, as in I’ll hold you responsible [for the missing money, for someone’s misfortune, etc.]. In light of the above, we strongly believe that anyone wishing to improve their knowledge of English (or any other language, for that matter) must experience it as a system consisting of larger units of meaning than single words. Only by doing so will students succeed in moving beyond the plateau and getting back on track again.

Article

In our project, we encouraged participants (students taking an undergraduate Teacher Education program) not only to identify collocations but also to record them, especially those they found particularly relevant for their own communication purposes. By selecting and recording vocabulary in order to build up their own lexical notebooks, students managed to monitor and be in charge of their own learning process – an additional bonus. Collocations can actually involve various possible word combinations, such as:

A key concept in any lexical approach to teaching languages a) adjective + noun (a huge profit; a brief chat; key issues, is collocation, that is, the frequent association of two or etc.); more words that sound natural to proficient speakers. In b) verb + [adjective] + noun (order a pizza; do volunteer English, sometoexamples would be throwin a isolation, party, a heavy intless to refer vocabulary items because students will work; make new friends, etc.); smoker, a fast car, etc.

o learn which words collocate with those – or else they will struggle c) noun + noun (a series of events; a sense of pride; a range is then pointless to refer to vocabulary items in icate Itisolation, ideas, using their mother tongue as a reference foretc.); putting of interests, because students will also need to learn which ther. words That collocate is bound result artificial and possible withtothose – orinelse they willcombinations struggle d) verb + adverb (shop online; live dangerously; whisper to communicate ideas, using their mother tongue as a hension, as in the case of translations from Brazilian softly, Portuguese: etc.); reference for putting words together. That is bound to result ty*, a instrong a quick car*,miscomprehension, etc. artificialsmoker*, combinations and possible e) verb + expression with preposition (pay by direct debit; as in the case of translations from Brazilian Portuguese:

wait for delivery; burst into tears, etc.).

a party*, smoker*, a quick etc. s are make indeed verya strong powerful tools forcar*, boosting fluency. If we make an Below we share some of the activities we have used to h modules or pieces in prefabricated homes, it is easy to understand Collocations are indeed very powerful tools for boosting promote fluency in conversation courses, as part of the fluency. If we make an analogy with modules or pieces in work going developed in our project. All of them are aimed at them will lead to more effective communication than through prefabricated homes, it is easy to understand why using increasing students’ repertoire of collocations to talk about of expressing scratch, that is, word (or laying them will leadideas to morefrom effective communication thanword going by a given subject. through the ordeal of expressing ideas from scratch, that is, rick to build an ordinary home). The examples given previously ● Choosing the most appropriate word: as collocations word by word (or laying brick by brick to build an ordinary s focus on “prefabricated” language aims at relatively providing are only fixed, you can find the same word home). The examples given previouslychunks, illustrate which this up with many others (as exemplified with focus “prefabricated” language chunks, which aims at h tools to on understand and use English (or any other pairing language) more the word party). But just because there are plenty of providing learners with tools to understand and use English effortlessly. possibilities, it does not mean they will fit any context. (or any other language) more quickly and effortlessly. We have seen many results by working with exercises in

are alsocombinations, arbitrary combinations, explaining why s are Collocations also arbitrary so so explaining certain words which students have to pick the most appropriate word why certain words go together is usually counterproductive. tomake complete a collocation. They realize memorizing the is usually counterproductive. We say, for instance, your bed We say, for instance, make your bed and do the dishes, not expressions by heart will lead nowhere, that context thenot otherthe wayother round (do your bed* or(do make the dishes*). dishes, way round your bed* or make the tremendously, dishes*). that some expressions are more matters frequent than others and also that most of the words

Having that in mind, we find it much more worthwhile to are already in their mental lexis. It is also interesting t in mind, we find it much more worthwhile to used provide several provide several combinations to any given word, because to work with words that cannot complete the collocation. ns to they anywillgiven word, students’ because they help increase mental lexiswill and, help as a increase students’ For example: “I’ve already put on some (effort – weight consequence, the range of possibilities to express ideas. In s and,the ascase a consequence, the range of possibilities to express – kilos). I wantideas. to do something to keep (weight – slim of the word party, for example, some collocations – fit).” You can say that you have already put on some of thewould word be:party, for example, some collocations would be:

have

skip

give

throw

a party a invite sb to

party show up to

miss

attend gatecrash

weight (more frequent) or kilos, but not effort (we usually say put effort into). In the second sentence, to keep fit is more common than to keep slim, even though fit and slim have similar meanings.

● Discussing questions: general and specific warm up questions are a great way to start up a topic and find out students’ opinions and previous knowledge of it. We’ve

organize

ect, we encouraged participants (students taking an undergraduate

New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 33


Article

by Adriana G. Fiori-Souza • Adriana C. S. Maciel • I s a d o r a T. M o r a e s • M ô n i c a M . G ô n g o r a • S í l v i a H . O. F l o r e s

noticed this is when students are usually made aware of their communication problems, which are later on solved when they learn collocations. For instance, if the topic is ‘online shopping’, students can be asked: “Have you ever shopped online? Do you think shopping online is safe? Do you prefer to shop online or in-store?” ● Matching columns: very often, students have heard the collocations they learn but they do not use them in their speech. Introducing collocations in a ‘match the columns’ style is a great way to show students they already know most of what they are learning, and now they just need to try and implement that in their speech. Have a look at the example below, which is part of a lesson built around the topic ‘taking a gap year before college’.

a) we need to reach the end of the… b) you want to go on a university exchange… c) we can take a leave of… d) we might find it hard to get back…

⬚ …on track

⬚ …program ⬚ …absence ⬚ …term

● Working with images: as the saying goes, a picture is worth a thousand words. Various images can successfully illustrate ideas that would be difficult for students to understand otherwise. By bringing together image and collocation, we found that students were able to grasp meanings and concepts more promptly.

An image representing to waste money or to throw money away. Source: Google Images.

● Working with ‘real-life’ contexts: when students have to actively use language to communicate, there are several advantages: they engage more in the activity at hand and are more willing to carry it out; they realize the importance of learning collocations and are better able to internalize them. We usually give them a task to perform or a problem to solve. Students have to imagine themselves in a specific situation and find ways to cope with it – using collocations. Example: “In groups, discuss important tips to give to foreigners coming to Brazil. Think of some of our customs (related to greetings, sports, personal hygiene, hospitality, punctuality, dressing habits, eating habits, etc.) that might intimidate them. Try to show a different/positive image of Brazil, but remember to be realistic.” All the activities above proved valuable, building on students’ previous knowledge and evolving from controlled practice to free practice. Used in different stages of the lesson, they helped increase students’ sense of empowerment to express ideas because of the constant flow of collocations introduced and worked on. Exposure to and practice of collocations also helped students develop an ‘ear’ for the language, that is, they were able to spot wrong word combinations more easily. Another aspect that contributed to students’ performance and progress was the fact that all the material used was authentic, not simplified for educational purposes. By referring to reliable online

An image representing an emergency fund. Source: Google Images.

34 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l


by Adriana G. Fiori-Souza • Adriana C. S. Maciel • I s a d o r a T. M o r a e s • M ô n i c a M . G ô n g o r a • S í l v i a H . O. F l o r e s

Article

sources to choose texts and videos, we could bring reality closer to the classroom, and show students that the collocations learned in class were indeed out there, within their reach. To conclude, we would like to say that, in our experience, we have learned a great lesson: ELT will be extra fun and rewarding if it embraces collocation as a guiding concept and a teaching tool for promoting learner development and autonomy.

The authors Co-authors of Spice up your English with collocations! (Disal Editora) Adriana Grade Fiori-Souza is Professor of English at Universidade Estadual de Londrina (Londrina / PR). She has co-authored books about English for Specific Purposes, Business English Terminology and Collocations. Her current research interests are collaborative praxis and deliberative dialogue in Teacher Education Programs. afiori@uel.br Adriana Carla Souza Maciel has a degree in Modern Languages / English from Universidade Estadual de Londrina (Londrina / PR) and currently works as an English teacher in a private secondary school and a language school. Her areas of interest include EFL and English-language Literature, mainly African ones. dri1601@gmail.com Isadora Teixeira Moraes is currently an English professor at Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (Ponta Grossa / PR). She works mainly with English Teaching, Translation Studies and Corpus Linguistics. isatmoraes@gmail.com Mônica Marczak Gôngora has a degree in Modern Languages / English from Universidade Estadual de Londrina and is currently an Academic Coordinator at a language school for adult learners (Londrina / PR). Her areas of interest include Teaching Adult Learners, American Modernist Literature and English for Specific Purposes. monica.marcgon@gmail.com Sílvia Helena Oliveira Flores has a degree in Modern Languages / English from Universidade Estadual de Londrina (Londrina / PR) and currently works as a private English language teacher. She is interested in the areas of ELT and English as a Lingua Franca. sflowers777@hotmail.com

New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 35


Article

by Jana Ferguson and Victoria Rodrigo

TIPS TO IMPLEMENT AN EXTENSIVE READING PROGRAM AT SECONDARY LEVEL

Research has shown that extensive reading is one of the best ways to increase competence in a foreign language. For extensive reading to work students have to understand and enjoy the reading, and have to read in large amounts. If students have access to books that are at their level, with topics that interest them, and teachers provide reading time in class (Sustained Silent Reading), students will read. In the long run, reading will have a positive impact on their language skills and their self-confidence as language learners will rise.

reading. The library used in this project contained a total of 47 books. The 39 students read a total of 238 books making an average of 6 books per student. Results showed that, at the linguistic level, students improved their language performance showing significant gains between the pre and post cloze tests that were administered. Also, students reported enjoyment, interest, and understanding of the reading material. So, their improvement and enjoyment was real, and so was the success of this reading program.

The positive impact of reading at the secondary level was confirmed in a study we carried out for one academic year at the high school level (4 and 5 grade) where 39 students read books of their interest for 15-20 minutes every other day in class, making a total of approximately 1350-1800 minutes of

Since we really believe in the power of reading, we would like to share some tips we found useful in the setup and implementation of an extensive reading program. These are some tips that can help teachers to set up a successful extensive reading program. They relate to how to put together the library, how to introduce the project to your

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by Jana Ferguson and Victoria Rodrigo

Article

students, how to implement the program, and what to do after students have read the book.

number of pages in the book by the number of days they have to complete the reading.

Putting together the library

2. As a general rule, students were given one week to read a book with 50 pages or less, two weeks for 50-100 pages, and three weeks or more for a book with 100 or more pages.

1. Review the material available for your classroom library.

1. Go to the publishers’ webpages and browse material. Introducing the project to the students 2. Request catalogues (it is easier to see all available options). 2. Survey your student’s interests before buying the books: 1. Survey your students about what books would interest them. Allow them to browse selected catalog pages that include appropriate readers and ask the students for their opinions about the books. 2. Give students a list of popular movies or books representative of different genres to see what they like (e.g. Harry Potter: drama and fantasy). 3. Ordering books: 1. Once you have made your book selections, buy only one copy of each book. Once you begin your extensive reading project, if students like a particular book, then you can order additional copies. 2. Keep track of your books by using a spreadsheet, such as Excel, with titles, levels of the book, publishers, price and ISBN. This will help you for future ordering and you can add comments about the popularity of each book.

1. Have a lesson on what extensive reading is. During this lesson give students guidelines and reading strategies that can aid them during the project. It is important to differentiate extensive reading from the intensive reading that students are accustomed to in a foreign language classroom. Have a discussion in which they compare the way they read in their native language versus the target language, and then emphasize that during this project they will be reading more like how they read in their native language. 2. Set the expectation that they will not understand every word, and that is ok. They have to become more accustomed to ambiguity and using context than they have been in the past. 3. To organize the project, have each student make a folder with the reading log, book report template, and grading rubric. Explain book selection questionnaire and how they will select books. Explain the procedures and grading. 4. Give students a pre-test (cloze-test) that they can later compare with a post-test at the end of the semester. This allows students to see a concrete example of how the reading has assisted in their language acquisition.

3. Our experience taught us that it would be better to order books that are shorter, illustrated, and Implementing the project with larger, easy to read text. Also, shorter books will allow you to buy more books, as they tend to 1. Student book selection: be less expensive. 1. Allow and encourage the students to pick any 4. Getting the books ready book that interests them. 1. Cover them with clear contact paper so they are more durable.

2. If they start reading it and it is too hard, allow them to return it and choose another one.

2. Mark them as school property.

3. If a book is at a particular student’s level, he or she should be able to read and understand the text without using a dictionary.

3. Place them by level (easy, intermediate, and advanced) using color-coded stickers. This method will make it easier to organize them. 2. Check-in/check-out day: 5. Set the pace of reading for your students 1. To help with pacing, add a recommended number of pages to read each day to finish that book within a predetermined time period. To do this, divide the

1. Exchange books at the end of class. This will keep students from spending too much class time deciding on which book they would like to select. You can also allow students to come before or after school if they would like more time to decide on a book.

New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 37


Article

2. Devise a check-in/out process that works for you. Whatever your system is, be strict about it and enforce it with your students. If check-in/out procedures are not followed it is easy for books to get lost.

by Jana Ferguson and Victoria Rodrigo

5. Having a check-in/out procedure is essential. Whether using an online resource such as Classroom Booksource, a basic spreadsheet, or even a paper/pencil system, your procedure allows your to know that students are following the correct check-out procedures and aids in grading and keeping track of your resources.

3. A very helpful site for organizing your classroom library is https://classroom.booksource.com/ default.aspx. Here you can keep a record of all of What to do after students have read the book the books in your library and easily check them in and out to your students. It also has a reporting Students were required to turn in a very simple and general report containing very basic information about the plot, feature that you can use to assist with grading. characters and setting of the book they read, together with 4. Below is the check-in/out procedure used during a reading log showing their opinion about the book. our extensive reading project: Grading: a. Check out: 1. During our project, students were graded once every nine weeks using a basic rubric that i. All books were laid out on desks in the evaluated the following for each book they read: classroom and students were allowed to browse before deciding on a book a. Completion of the Reading Log they wanted to read. ii. Once students selected a book, they completed the Book Selection Survey and gave this to the teacher, who would assign the book that student in Classroom Booksource. The teacher would then place the survey in the student’s folder. b. Check in: i. Students return the book to the teacher, who would mark the book as returned from that student in Classroom Booksource.

b. Completion of the Book Selection Survey c. Book Reports d. Number of books/pages read during the grading period 2. It should be noted that the students’ grades should reflect students’ effort. We did not want to make the reading task seem like a chore or homework assignment, but attaching a grade to the project adds validity and importance to the project for the students.

The authors Victoria Rodrigo is a professor of Spanish and Second Language Acquisition at Georgia State University in Atlanta where she teaches at undergraduate and graduate level. Her area of research is receptive skills, reading and listening, as a means of enhancing language acquisition. Jana Ferguson has taught Spanish at the high school level for five years. She was inspired to implement an extensive reading program in her classroom while completing her masters in Spanish Language and Literature at Georgia State University in Atlanta.

38 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l


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APRENDER INGLÊS NÃO É SÓ SABER DE GRAMÁTICA, É VIVER O IDIOMA A UP TO YOU é uma escola de idiomas que há mais de 15 anos se dedica ao ensino de inglês, espanhol e francês como língua estrangeira. Por sua atuação no segmento independente do ensino de idiomas, a escola oferece um programa moderno, de alta qualidade, comprometido com o aprendizado de cada aluno, proporcionando uma atenção personalizada. Gerida por três irmãs, educadoras da área de idiomas, a UP TO YOU é uma empresa familiar, que conta com a credibilidade e confiança de seus alunos. Pelo fato de não pertencer a uma grande rede de escolas mercadológicas, a UP tem a flexibilidade para fazer mudanças e garantir um cuidado muito especial na seleção dos materiais, na didática e metodologia. Com uma equipe de professores comprometidos e cativantes, majoritariamente da área de Letras, a escola busca a qualidade com um preço justo e acessível. Como afirmam suas administradoras, “ensinar não é algo automático e repetível; os anos de experiência e dedicação nos fizeram perceber a necessidade de desenvolvermos um ensino de idiomas voltado especificamente para o público brasileiro”; para a criança que encontra no curso uma maneira de se divertir aprendendo, para o adolescente que conta com um ensino de línguas muito precário na escola pública e particular, para o jovem e adulto que enfrentam um mercado de trabalho concorrido, e para todos aqueles que procuram, na realidade, aprender uma nova língua como uma prática cultural.

veiculam, e pouco conscientes do papel que uma escola de idiomas pode representar numa sociedade não igualitária como a nossa. Por isso, a UP comporta uma escola de idiomas crítica, criativa e moderna, que colabora para a fomentação das capacidades intelectuais dos alunos e que permite, ao longo do tempo, a formação de um aluno competente para usar o idioma nas situações que lhe convém. Não à toa, são priorizadas aulas dinâmicas, voltadas à interação entre os alunos. Os resultados até agora não poderiam ser melhores: alunos entrando nas universidades, realizando intercâmbios, participando de programas como Ciências sem Fronteiras, conquistando vagas no mercado de trabalho e compartilhando a alegria de dominar uma língua. Viver a empresa como uma verdadeira escola faz toda a diferença: “Adoramos fazer o que fazemos!” UP TO YOU - Viva essa língua!

Assim, a proposta UP não se limita a seguir o livro, em repetir o “verb to be”, ou decorar tempos verbais que não façam sentido ao aluno, mas sim trazê-lo para debates, para questões e assuntos que lhe interessam, possibilitando que use o idioma para se expressar, emitir opiniões e manter uma conversa, por exemplo. De fato, o que faz a UP TO YOU uma escola bem sucedida é o engajamento de toda a sua equipe nos processos de ensino, atividades interdisciplinares e projetos temáticos: “Esse engajamento, poderíamos dizer, é o nosso maior diferencial: o idioma vivido na prática, de modo contextualizado e prazeroso!”, ressalta a coordenadora. Essas características fizeram da empresa uma escola que não encontrou identidade em relação à maioria dos institutos de idiomas da região, os quais apesar do marketing sobre aprender inglês rápido, em poucos meses e com método estrangeiro ou imbatível, possuem pouco apreço pedagógico nos métodos e programas de ensino, sendo esses, muitas vezes, não tão eficazes quanto 42 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l

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Nuevas Rutas

por David R. Sousa Fernández

DEL ESTUDIO CLÁSICO DE LENGUAS AL ENFOQUE POSTCOMUNICATIVO: MÉTODOS Y TENDENCIAS EN LA ENSEÑANZA DE ELE.

Desde el estudio de las lenguas clásicas como parte de las asignaturas escolares hasta la concepción del aprendizaje de una lengua como un vehículo de comunicación, han surgido decenas de tendencias metodológicas. En ocasiones, estos enfoques complementaban o desarrollaban los preceptos de la metodología vigente. Si bien, en gran parte de las ocasiones, se presentaban fundamentos antagónicos que generaban una especie de «efecto péndulo» en la concepción de la metodología más pertinente a la hora de abordar la enseñanza y aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera. Haciendo un repaso por esta tradición metodológica encontramos, en el siglo XVIII, el que a la postre se convertiría en uno de los métodos pioneros en la enseñanza profesional de lenguas, el conocido como método tradicional o método gramática-traducción. Se nutría, en parte, de técnicas empleadas durante el estudio clásico de las lenguas en el que se hacían traducciones y paráfrasis de textos clásicos para, posteriormente, realizar análisis gramaticales, léxicos, sintácticos o retóricos. Este método centra el aprendizaje en el trabajo sistemático y deductivo de diferentes aspectos gramaticales y su posterior perfeccionamiento práctico. Otorga gran importancia a la lectoescritura en detrimento de las actividades orales y auditivas y no se preocupa en exceso por la capacidad del alumno para comunicar, sino por la correcta producción de sentencias, en muchos casos descontextualizadas, y por tratar de alcanzar un alto nivel de corrección gramatical. El profesor, como fuente de conocimiento, se convierte en el centro del proceso de enseñanza/aprendizaje y los 44 | Nu eva s Ru tas ® D is a l

estudiantes, por su parte, presentan un rol pasivo centrado en ejecutar aquello que el profesor dispone. El uso del método tradicional se populariza durante décadas hasta que, a finales del siglo XIX, algunas corrientes lingüísticas formulan hipótesis metodológicas que se oponen a los paradigmas tradicionales de la enseñanza de lenguas. Surgen de este modo los conocidos como enfoques naturales que, antagónicamente a la metodología que se habían implantado hasta el momento, sostienen que una segunda lengua puede ser aprendida bajo un proceso similar al de la adquisición de la lengua materna. El método directo, centrado básicamente en el aprendizaje a través de la interacción oral en la lengua meta, fue uno de los más empleados dentro de los planteamientos naturalistas. Presenta un rechazo absoluto del empleo de la lengua materna, ni siquiera para hacer aclaraciones o dar explicaciones, y concede un papel preponderante al léxico por encima de la gramática que, cuando no es directamente obviada, pasa a un segundo plano y es aprendida de manera inductiva una vez que los alumnos ya la han empleado en diferentes actividades orales. No hay repetición de estructuras lingüísticas ni ejercicios de huecos y el profesor se erige como la figura responsable de proporcionar un flujo constante de información que impulse a los alumnos a realizar intercambios discursivos que favorezcan el desarrollo de sus destrezas comunicativas.


por David R. Sousa Fernández

A estas dos corrientes contrapuestas, que reflejan el «efecto péndulo» citado al principio del artículo, se une una nueva tendencia con la llegada de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Los ejércitos necesitaban que sus soldados aprendieran a manejarse de manera rápida y eficaz en lenguas extranjeras y esta nueva necesidad educativa trajo a la escena docente el método audiolingual o audio-oral. Basado en la concepción estructuralista de la lengua de Bloomfield (1933) y en el conductismo psicológico de Skinner (1957), defiende que hablar una lengua implica internalizar sus hábitos lingüísticos. Surge así un método basado en la práctica repetitiva y sistemática de estructuras dialógicas con el propósito de conseguir un uso y un control correctos de las formas. La consolidación de nuevos hábitos y el empleo de las estructuras propias de la lengua meta, poniendo énfasis en la producción oral y posponiendo la producción escrita, conforman la base de este sistema de práctica mecánica y repetición de modelos. Tal y como ocurrió con las metodologías anteriores, el método audio-oral también cae en descrédito con la llegada de nuevas teorías en el ámbito de la enseñanza-aprendizaje de lenguas. La revolución cognitiva, encabezada a mediados del siglo XX por Chomsky (1957), desarrolló hipótesis acerca del modo en que la mente humana adquiere y estructura el lenguaje en oposición a las concepciones conductistas del aprendizaje. Con las posteriores aportaciones, durante las décadas de los 60 y 70, de las corrientes pragmáticas y sociolingüísticas, se produce un gran salto hacia la concepción del potencial comunicativo de la lengua. Cobran fuerza conceptos como el aprendizaje activo o la eficacia comunicativa y se otorga gran importancia al desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa planteada por Hymes (1971). A la luz de estos preceptos surge el enfoque comunicativo. Se comienza a relegar a un segundo plano la memorización de normas o la repetición de enunciados y se fomenta el aprendizaje activo, se otorga importancia al significado contextualizado y prima la funcionalidad en la producción de enunciados.

Nuevas Rutas

funciones que se desarrollan en cada contexto), enfoque por tareas (se centra la utilización de estrategias comunicativas en diversos actos de habla a fin de que la suma de ellos permitan obtener un resultado final concreto), enfoque orientado a la acción (trata a los estudiantes como agentes sociales y fomenta el desarrollo de las aptitudes comunicativas a través de intercambios dentro de un marco social determinado), enfoque por competencias (persigue que el alumno adquiera un conjunto de conocimientos, saberes, habilidades y destrezas que le permita ser comunicativamente competente). Finalmente, en los albores del siglo XXI, fruto de la evolución en la enseñanza de lenguas desde los preceptos del enfoque comunicativo, comienza a acuñarse el término postcomunicativismo. La didáctica postcomunicativa en el ámbito de la enseñanza de lenguas entiende el proceso de enseñanza/aprendizaje como un proceso de adaptación a contextos, ámbitos, intereses y necesidades, y a la búsqueda de soluciones metodológicas para las diferentes situaciones de aprendizaje. Mantiene preceptos básicos del enfoque comunicativo como la concepción de la lengua como instrumento de comunicación, el papel fundamental de la interacción, el trabajo colaborativo o la atención a los componentes de la competencia comunicativa. Y aunque carece de un sistema unitario respaldado por autoridades intelectuales, debido a que aún se encuentra en un período inicial, podemos decir que, con respecto al enfoque comunicativo, desarrolla y amplía nociones como el concepto de autonomía, los procesos psicolingüísticos implicados en los actos de habla o los factores afectivos que inciden en el aprendizaje. Esto conlleva a que los materiales empleados en el aula adquieran una serie de características distintivas:

• Proporcionar oportunidades de aprendizaje significativo y cooperativo que fomenten la producción del alumno

Paulatinamente, los docentes asumen que la enseñanza se organiza en torno a las funciones del lenguaje desarrolladas en unos actos de habla influidos contextualmente, por lo que encaminan a sus alumnos hacia la producción de enunciados similares a los que se encontrarían en una situación real. Prestan atención a las necesidades del alumno y promueven el trabajo de todas las actividades comunicativas de la lengua, integrando habilidades y relegando la gramática a un uso funcional, centrando la enseñanza en el paradigma de la optimización de los recursos comunicativos frente al de la adecuación lingüística. A lo largo del tiempo, se han ido originando diferentes orientaciones vinculadas a esta corriente comunicativa: enfoque nocional-funcional (focaliza el aprendizaje en las

Aprendizaje significativo y contextualizado [Vente 2 – Pág. 61

Nuevas Rut as® Dis a l | 45


Nuevas Rutas

• Aportar datos contextualizados que permitan activar el descubrimiento intuitivo y la interiorización de sus usos. • Fomentar la conciencia sobre las estructuras de la lengua y llamar la atención sobre contenidos formales y funcionales. • Facilitar el acceso a los usos que vienen determinados por los contextos pragmáticos, sociales y culturales.

por David R. Sousa Fernández

En resumen, las tendencias postcomunicativas muestran una orientación centrada en el alumno, al que trata de capacitar para producir actos de habla en situaciones comunicativas inéditas y al que no solo enseña normas y usos, sino estrategias que le permitan poner en práctica dichos usos adaptándose al contexto; además atiende al componente afectivo y fomenta la capacidad que desarrolla el estudiante para organizar su propio proceso de aprendizaje y que este sea intencional, consciente y analítico. En definitiva, un enfoque dirigido hacia la capacitación para producir y comunicarse de manera eficaz a través de un aprendizaje significativo. Bilbiografía: Bloomfield, L. (1933). Language. University of Chicago Press, Chicago [1993] Skinner, B.F (1957). Conducta verbal. Ed. Trillas, México (1981) Chomsky, N. (1957). Syntactic Structures. Ed. Walter de Gruyter. Berlín (2002) Hymes, D. H. (1971). «Acerca de la competencia comunicativa». En Llobera et al. (1995). Competencia comunicativa. Documentos básicos en la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras. pp. 27-47 Madrid: Edelsa, .

Observación de elementos pragmáticos y socioculturales [Vente 2 – pág. 174]

El autor del artículo:

• Facilitar la integración de las actividades comunicativas de la lengua.

David R. Sousa Fernández Es licenciado en Filología Hispánica, Máster en Lengua y Sociedad de la Información y Máster en Mediación Intercultural. También ha cursado los posgrados de Especialista en enseñanza de ELE, Especialista en didáctica del español de los negocios y Especialista en el tratamiento de la literatura, cine, cómic y música para la enseñanza del ELE, entre otros cursos de formación. Fue docente en el Centro de Lenguas de la Universidad de Vigo y profesor asociado en la Escuela Superior de Educación y en la Escuela Superior de Comunicación y Turismo de la Universidad de Bragança, en las que impartió diversas disciplinas de ELE y participó en el Máster de Enseñanza de Inglés y Español. También fue responsable académico de un centro de enseñanza de español en Portugal, donde desarrolló labores docentes y de coordinación, además de ejercer como organizador y presidente de tribunal de los exámenes DELE.

Trabajo integrado de las actividades comunicativas de la lengua [Vente 2 – pág. 46-47]

• Promover la autonomía del alumno y facilitar al estudiante el acceso a contenidos y a controlar su propio aprendizaje. 4 6 | Nu eva s Ru t a s ® D is a l

Es autor de materiales de ELE, ha publicado diversos artículos sobre didáctica y cuenta con amplia experiencia como formador de profesores. Actualmente es asesor didáctico de la Editorial Edelsa (Departamento de Formación e Investigación Didáctica).


especial DEle b2 curso completo Y AHORA PARA AQUELLOS QUE QUIEREN UN CURSO DEDICADO EXCLUSIVAMENTE A LA PREPARACIÓN AL DELE B2: UN CURSO COMPLETO ESPECIAL

EL CURSO CONTIENE: • Actividades de adquisición del léxico recogido en los Niveles de referencia (Plan Curricular del Instituto Cervantes) para el nivel B2. • Práctica de la gramática y de las funciones que debe dominar el estudiante para presentarse al examen. • Explicación, pautas y estrategias para enfrentarse a cada tarea de cada prueba con éxito. Y además… • Incorporación de todos los modelos de examen del libro Preparación al DELE B2 para que, después de haber hecho el curso, el alumno pueda entrenarse. Respuestas explicadas: los ejercicios de gramática y funciones proponen respuestas múltiples. Las soluciones explican tanto el ítem correcto como los incorrectos.

Para más información entre en contacto con: Sara Ganimian Tcharkhetian | Apoio Pedagógico Espanhol apoioped.espanhol@disal.com.br | Fone: 11 3226-3102


by Susan Hillyard

Dicas

DRAMA ACTIVITIES - DOS AND DON’TS Do:

Don’t:

say: ‘If you don’t understand, say now’ and then explain again or ask a competent student to explain, possibly in mother tongue if necessary

say: ‘Do you understand?’ Even those who don’t will not admit it. They will all nod their heads. Then they will feel confused and unable to start

make sure it’s not embarrassing to say ‘I don’t understand’

let students feel they HAVE to understand everything. Give them opportunities to ask for help whenever, whatever, wherever

open with the words ‘You are going to do an activity/ sketch/ improvisation/task…

open with the words ‘ I want you to work with a partner’ as the students will immediately start thinking of who and will stop listening to you

give the instructions ending with ‘in groups of six’ or ‘in pairs’ say: Don’t move yet/until I tell you to….’

open with words related to movement as the students will start to move and not listen to your instructions

wait for complete silence and stillness before giving instructions

give instructions while students are talking or moving

ensure everybody is ready to stop, pay attention and become the ‘audience’. This is one of the peculiarities of drama, where the roles of actor and audience go back and forth all the time

let students continue discussing their work once you have called a plenary

ensure the students ‘freeze’ in their start positions before they present on the ‘stage’ and the audience is silent and paying attention

let students start to perform before you give the signal or before the audience is paying attention

To summarise: explain what the aim of the activity is, how students will be expected to work, how much time they should take and then, whether they will be working on their own, with a partner or in a group. Make sure they understand and don’t let them ask each other. Finally, give them the signal to move and to begin. During the activities, move around to help them and keep them on task. When the time is up, use your stop signal and ask all the groups to sit down or stand still, ready to follow the next step.

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Eventos

A DISAL, BRAZ-TESOL, DIAMANTINO e a WORLD STUDY se uniram para multiplicar suas chances de ganhar uma anuidade BRAZ-Tesol, um curso online Diamantino e novidades World Study. Acesse o site www.disal.com.br/eventos e saiba mais.

São Paulo - Inglês Horário

Palestrantes

13h50 às 15h05 Higor Cavalcante - Teachers, STUDY ENGLISH!

Higor Cavalcante

03/02

15h25 às 16h40 Caltabiano - How do our students learn? Views on (second) language acquisition

Bruna Caltabiano

10/02

13h50 às 15h05 I - Study - How to engage, teach and amuse kids!

Alessandra Machado e Karin Heuert Galvão

10/02

15h25 às 16h40 Kaits - Tecnologia a serviço da Gestão da Educação

Silvia Consorti

17/02

13h50 às 15h05 Kagan - Cooperative Learning

Simone Sanaiotte

17/02

15h25 às 16h40 Summit - Pronunciation: When to start teaching it and how

Monica Magri

10/03

13h50 às 15h05 Kagan - Brain Friendly Teaching

Simone Sanaiotte

10/03

15h25 às 16h40 Pearson - How to Teach Speaking

Carmen Castellani

17/03

13h50 às 15h05 Intercultural Language Education - The Sounds of Writing

Malu Sciamarelli

17/03

15h25 às 16h40 Fernando Sobral - Beyond Flashcards and Vocabulary Notebooks

Fernando Sobral

24/03

13h50 às 15h05 Bilingualism SIG - O Bilinguismo e interculturalidade nas escolas brasileiras

Bilingualism SIG

24/03

15h25 às 16h40 Mattiello - Shaping Up English Pronunciation

Rodolfo Mattiello

31/03

13h50 às 15h05 Kaits - Melhore seu desempenho com apoio da Tecnologia

Silvia Consorti

31/03

15h25 às 16h40 ICT - Emotion and repetition as the core ingredients to your grammar and vocabulary recipies – Feed your students with the best! Part II

Jose Luiz Sarmento

07/04

13h50 às 15h05 Disal Editora - Differentiated Learning

Bjarne Z A Vonsild

07/04

15h25 às 16h40 LAM SIG - Managing yourself: Practical tips to succeed in your career

Leadership and Management SIG

DISAL PINHEIROS

DISAL HIGIENÓPOLIS DISAL PINHEIROS DISAL HIGIENÓPOLIS

03/02

DISAL PINHEIROS

Eventos

DISAL HIGIENÓPOLIS

DISAL PINHEIROS DISAL HIGIENÓPOLIS

Data

DISAL PINHEIROS | SP

DISAL HIGIENÓPOLIS | SP

DIA 10 FEV | DIA 10 MAR | DIA 24 MAR | DIA 07 ABR

DIA 03 FEV | DIA 17 FEV | DIA 17 MAR DIA 31 MAR

Rua Dep. Lacerda Franco, 365 - 05418-000 São Paulo - SP / Fones: 11 3816-6096 / 3813-5761 Vagas limitadas.

Rua Maria Antônia, 380 - 1222-010 São Paulo - SP / Fones: 11 3256-7293 / 3256-0264 Vagas limitadas.

Realização:

Apoio:

Para mais informações e atualizações dos eventos, acesse o site: www.disal.com.br/eventos Para incluir seu evento nesta página, escreva para eventos@disal.com.br

Parceiros:

New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 49


Activities

ONE, TWO, THREE WORDS Focus:

Speaking and Listening; Fluency and spontaneity; Keeping a conversation going

Level:

Elementary-Advanced

Time:

10 - 15 minutes

Materials and preparation:

None, and there is no handout either.

In class 1. Tell your students that they will be conversing in pairs, A and B, that A will begin a conversation by saying one word, B will reply by saying two words, A will respond by saying three words, B will reply by saying four words, and so on. 2. On the board, write A: ‘Hello’, and ask students to tell you two words that someone could say in reply. Accept any reasonable suggestions such as, Hello, Marie; Sorry, what?; Lovely day!, and write them on the board too. 3. Then write A: ‘…..’ on the board and elicit a response with three words. Again, accept any reasonable suggestions such as, How are you?; Want a coffee?; Yes, beautiful day. 4. If your students are a little slow thinking up ideas, let them plan their upcoming conversation on paper in pairs. If they are usually spontaneous, let them start straightaway. The only rule is that they cannot start with the word Hello, because you’ve already started a dialogue that way. Encourage them to try to build towards a ten word response from B. Variation The activity can be made easier for lower level classes by asking them to go up to three (or four words) and then go back and start the sequence over again (with one word), and so on. Note Setting an arbitrary constraint such as the number of words or the letter with which utterances must start or restricting the topic and the time, usually distracts students from worrying what to talk about and how to express their thoughts.

50 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l


Activities

Crossword Puzzle A Crossword Puzzle is a word game in which you have to guess the answers to clues and write the words into numbered squares that go across and down. The goal is to fill the white squares with letters, forming words or phrases relating to the use of the Internet, by solving clues which lead to the answers. Can you solve this puzzle?

1

2 3 4

5

6

7 8

9

10

11

Tips Using the Internet When you go (13) _____ , you can send and receive (11) _____ , or you can (7) _____ the Internet by using (5) _____ to look at or (9) _____ information, pictures, music or (3) _____. To (12) _____ the Web, you need a (1) _____ - when you first access a site, you will see its (2) _____ , which will give you (4) _____ to other parts of the site. Many people like to (6) _____ their favorite (10) _____. More and more people like to read or write a (1) _____ on a topic of interest to them - there are thousands to choose from. You can use your favorite (8) _____ to find whatever you want.

12

13

Share your answers at the Cambridge Brazil Facebook page. fb.com/CambridgeBrazil

Medium Level

Source: Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary 3rd Ed - Colour Picture - Study and Work [P16]

New Ro ut esÂŽ Dis a l | 51


NEW ROUTES 20 ANOS TEMOS ORGULHO DE TER PARTICIPADO DE PARTE DESTA HISTÓRIA


Todas base1