ISSN 1516-3601 #65, MAY/2018
Interview with Francisco Gomes de Matos by Jack Scholes Nuevas Rutas De la clase memorística a la clase memorable: aprendizaje experiencial en el aula de ELE por David R. Sousa Fernández
INTEGRATING PROJECTS INTO TEENAGE CLASSES by Leticia Moraes
Aqui vocĂŞ encontra um mundo de conhecimento!
A revista dos proossionais de idioma! /disalchannel
www.disal.com.br Televendas: (11) 3226-3111 E-mail: email@example.com
Conheรงa a nova Livraria Disal no centro do Rio de Janeiro!
VENHA NOS VISITAR! Avenida Rio Branco - 185 - Loja 1 (21) 3579-9060 | (21) 3579-9063 firstname.lastname@example.org
THEORY AND PRACTICE New Routes® is a language teachers’ magazine with original interviews and articles that are of direct relevance and immediate, practical interest to teachers in the classroom. Although the content has a sound theoretical basis, the focus has always been on helping teachers in their day-to-day work and on making teaching and learning more efficient, effective and fun. In the Cover Topic of this issue Integrating Projects into Teenage Classes - Leticia Moraes examines the everpopular idea of using project-work with teenagers. She outlines some of the many advantages, but readily admits that the implementation of project work may also be quite challenging for the teacher. She offers New Routes® readers a wealth of practical ideas to deal with these challenges and use the flexibility of projects to overcome them. Topics include guiding learners in the process, planning ahead, using projects as an assessment tool and using the flexibility of projects in your favour. She sums up by saying that ‘project-work is flexible enough to allow teachers in different contexts to integrate them into their lessons. Besides, depending on the teacher’s experience and the needs of specific groups of teenage learners, it can be used in different ways to foster learning.’
or integrate all of them.’ She explains several ways of preparing and working with movies in the classroom and then offers a range of practical suggestions of activities ‘so that you can get inspired and prepare your own movie activities.’ These movie activities include listening, vocabulary, grammar, speaking and writing.
Peace Literacy. He is an enthusiastic advocate of checklists, rhymed reflections and alliterations. At the end of the interview he explains the value of this kind of presentation and also leaves us with this short example.
The benefits of extensive reading as a learning tool have been widely accepted, but students sometimes complain about not being able to choose their readers and having to work with assigned classic readers. This motivated Gabriel Boiani Barbosa to conduct extensive research throughout a whole year with two groups, the aim of which was to assess the impact created by giving learners autonomy to choose their reading material. The methodology used, the results obtained, the analysis carried out and the conclusions drawn can all be read in the article - Hamlet or Harry Potter? The Benefits of Increased Learner Autonomy in Extensive Reading Practices.
When ecolinguistically we communicate...
In the article - The Magic of the Movies - Vanessa Prata shows us how ‘using movies and series motivates and engages students, besides bringing “real life” language and variety to your classes. Other advantages are the variety of topics that you can work with and the fact that you can focus on one skill
The interviewee in this issue is the eminent Professor Emeritus of Linguistics, Francisco Gomes de Matos. He discusses some of the critical issues currently in ELT/TESOL and explains his views on learners’ intercultural rights and responsibilities, the linguistic creativity of learners and the distinctive features of an innovative and creative language teacher. Francisco is a prominent and influential peace linguist and here he tells us about the origins of Peace Linguistics and how and when his involvement started. He also expounds on the goals of Peace Linguistics, Communication for Peace and Global
En este artículo el autor habla sobre la ventaja de un aprendizaje basado en la experiencia, en donde se activa la dimensión afectiva de los alumnos,por eso debemos ofrecer actividades que permitan dinamizar la clase.
Una clase dinámica hará que se encienda en nuestros alumnos la parte emocional del cerebro con el fin de que la experiencia y el estímulo funcionen como un ancla a la hora de recordar lo que se ha estudiado, sustituyendo de
COMMUNICATING ECOLINGUISTICALLY: A CHECKLIST
One another’s character do we help to elevate? HOW? Our spirituality do we help to articulate? HOW? For communicative dignity do we help to educate? HOW? For global peaceful purposes do we cooperate? HOW? Environmental responsibilities do we substantiate? HOW? LIFE-enhancing changes do we creatively anticipate? HOW? Awareness of the rights of all living beings do we demonstrate? HOW? Our everyday interaction with Nature do we joyfully celebrate? HOW?
Jack Scholes Editor email@example.com
este modo el aprendizaje memorístico que se olvida rápidamente .
Sara G. Tcharkhetian firstname.lastname@example.org
New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 05
MULHERES: DE MUSAS A AUTORAS - Sergio Guerra É quase impossível contar uma história interessante sem a presença marcante de mulheres no enredo. Tomemos a Odisseia, por exemplo, poema épico definidor da Literatura e Civilização Ocidentais, que conta a saga (inspirada por uma Musa) de um herói guiado constantemente pela sabedoria de uma deusa, tentado (mas também ajudado) por uma bruxa, aprisionado (e amado) por outra deusa, amparado por uma ninfa, socorrido (e desejado) por uma linda donzela, auxiliado por uma fiel serva, e sempre desejoso de voltar ao lar e reencontrar sua amada esposa. O que seria de Ulisses sem as (humanas ou imortais) mulheres? O que seria do mundo sem elas? Fossem elas símbolos de virtude, de vício e fraqueza, ou ainda de magia e monstruosidade, elas povoaram o imaginário coletivo da Antiguidade Clássica. Com a queda do Império Romano e a cristianização da Europa, a mulher (vista a partir de então como símbolo do pecado original) praticamente sumiu da
06 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
temática literária, e somente voltou a ser tema e inspiração de escritores a partir do século XII, com o surgimento do trovadorismo e suas canções de amigo, canções de amor e novelas de cavalaria. Foi com o advento da Renascença que a mulher deixou de ser apenas uma figura distante e idealizada para novamente se tornar a figura humana multifacetada. E embora tantas deusas, heroínas e vilãs tenham alcançado a fama e a glória, relativamente poucas mulheres ao longo da história se notabilizaram por escreverem, por serem as autoras, e não apenas personagens, de tantas histórias. Todavia, os tempos são outros, e as mulheres se notabilizam cada vez mais como escritoras. O século XX, que testemunhou a conquista de grandes direitos democráticos das mulheres, como o direito ao voto, o divórcio, a pílula anticoncepcional, e uma presença cada vez maior no mercado de trabalho, também foi o
século em que as mulheres ganharam maior espaço no mundo editorial, não apenas na literatura, como também na política, na filosofia, e em muitas outras áreas. E o século XXI despontou com fenômenos como Malala, a menina paquistanesa que ganhou o Prêmio Nobel da Paz aos 17 anos, ganhando o mundo com o seu livro Eu Sou Malala, e a britânica J. K. Rowling, autora da série Harry Potter, a primeira pessoa do mundo a se tornar uma bilionária a partir do seus livros. Porque eu sou (e sempre fui) um fervoroso admirador da sensibilidade feminina, e porque acredito com Novalis que “a poesia é o autêntico real absoluto; quanto mais poético, mais verdadeiro“, presto aqui uma homenagem ao Dia Internacional das Mulheres falando um pouco de cinco poetisas de primeira grandeza, que são célebres nomes da literatura universal. Uma delas é a inefável Florbela
Espanca, a Poetisa do Amo, que veio ao mundo no fim do século XIX, em 1894. Ela escreveu uma poesia forte, sensual, de um lirismo irresistível. Seus sonetos estão entre os mais belos da língua portuguesa. Seus versos vão desde os mais singelos, como: “Digo pra mim / Quando ele passa: / Ave Maria / Cheia de graça!”, passando pelos fulminantes, como: “Mas não te invejo, Amor, essa indiferença, / Que viver neste mundo sem amar / É pior que ser cego de nascença!”, chegando aos apoteóticos, como: “Saudades! Sim… talvez… e por que não?… / Se o nosso sonho foi tão alto e forte / Que bem pensara vê-lo até à morte / Deslumbrar-me de luz o coração!“. Seu domínio absoluto sobre as palavras fez dela uma poetisa cada vez mais conhecida e amada nos países de língua portuguesa. Florbela foi uma mulher altiva, culta, politizada, destemida, irreverente. Em seus curtos 36 anos de vida, ela escandalizou a sociedade provinciana portuguesa: cursou faculdade de direito, casou-se três vezes, rompeu com a família. Mas a luta constante contra o preconceito, o peso dos fracassos amorosos e uma sucessão de abortos involuntários desenvolveram nela uma crescente depressão. Sofreu um trauma violento ao perder seu irmão (que era seu melhor amigo) em um acidente aéreo, trauma do qual ela nunca se recuperou: “Eu fui na vida a irmã dum só Irmão / E já não sou a irmã de ninguém mais!”. Quando recebeu o diagnóstico de edema pulmonar, mergulhou ainda mais na
depressão e finalmente se suicidou em 1930, tomando uma sobredose de barbitúricos: “Dona Morte dos dedos de veludo, / Fecha-me os olhos que já viram tudo! / Prende-me as asas que voaram tanto! / Vim de Moirama, sou filha de rei, / Má Fada me encantou e aqui fiquei / À tua espera,… quebra-me o encanto!”. Na verdade, ela sempre tivera uma certa tendência mórbida natural, como já denunciava este trecho de uma carta de 1920 ao seu segundo marido, trecho este que bem serviria de resposta aos moralistas “que têm a pretensão de explicar a nossa existência, como se não passássemos de desordens que precisam de esclarecimento”: “Já viste um artista sem desequilíbrio? Eu nunca vi… e é adorável a loucura quando é bela, e quando palpita numa rajada imensa de grandeza e arte!”. Sua loucura artística a aproximou do Sagrado e fez com que ela atingisse visões próprias da sabedoria oriental, como vemos nesta passagem de seu diário: “A vida tem a incoerência dum sonho. E quem sabe se realmente estaremos a dormir e a sonhar e acabaremos por despertar um dia?”. O legado de Florbela é forte. Superado o derradeiro escândalo (o suicídio) que Florbela causou a Portugal, hoje sua pátria se orgulha imensamente dela. No soneto “Vaidade”, ela havia declarado: “Sonho que sou a Poetisa eleita, / Aquela que diz tudo e tudo sabe, / Que tem a inspiração pura e perfeita, / Que reúne num verso a imensidade! / Sonho que um
verso meu tem claridade / Para encher todo o mundo!”. Seu sonho se realizou, embora ela não tenha vivido o suficiente para o testemunhar. homens, / e a surda força dos vermes“. Assim como Florbela, as outras quatro poetisas, todas elas mulheres extraordinárias, entre tantas outras, são Musas que permanecem cada vez mais vivas através das gerações, continuando seu trabalho eterno de inspirar e humanizar homens e mulheres de todo o mundo. Confiemos nelas. Ouçamos o que elas têm a cantar! Elas compreendem a fundo o que Homero escreveu na Odisseia: “Se os deuses fiaram a ruína dos homens foi para proporcionar poemas à posteridade”. Estas poetisas indômitas transformaram suas próprias dores, lutas e fracassos em poemas cheios de esplendor e sabedoria, eternizando sua presença junto a nós através de suas obras! Lendo-as, muitas vezes somos quase que forçados a repetir os versos de Florbela Espanca: “Poeta igual a mim, ai quem me dera / Dizer o que tu dizes!… Quem soubera / Velar a minha Dor deste teu manto!”. Para saber quem são as outras quatro poetisas homenageadas e conhecer um pouco sobre sua vida e obra, visite o BlogDisal através do link: http://blogdisal.com.br/site/mulheressergio-guerra/
Sergio Guerra é, antes de tudo, um leitor apaixonado. Professor de inglês, palestrante e consultor pedagógico, diplomado pela Rosemount High School em Minnesota, Estados Unidos, formado em Letras e pós-graduado em Literatura Inglesa pela USP, começou a ensinar inglês em 1986. Ele também lecionou inglês, português e redação em escolas de ensino médio e atuou como coordenador em cursos particulares de idiomas. Como tradutor, entre outros projetos, verteu o livro Duas Paixões de Fabrizio Fasano Jr. para o inglês, pela Ophicina Books. Há mais de 20 anos leciona inglês para executivos em São Paulo em empresas brasileiras e em multinacionais, além de atuar em eventos de aperfeiçoamento para professores de inglês e liderar grupos de estudo e clubes de leitura em inglês.
New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 07
Interview with Francisco Gomes de Matos by Jack Scholes
FRANCISCO GOMES DE MATOS JS: Based on your vast experience in Applied Linguistics over many decades, what do you consider to be the most critical issues currently in ELT/TESOL? FGM: I can think of two critical issues: first of all, the still little explored dimension of EFL/ESOL learners’ rights. An example: learners having the right to ask for/ request additional lexical competence/phraseological versatility. To illustrate, imagine an adult learner asking her teacher: “I’d like to learn how to disagree in English”. Wonder if this pragmatic dimension of English language use is being globally provided, in a pedagogically systematic way. To me, that’s still a gap in language learner ESL/EFL education. Another critical issue in which TESOLers’ efforts leave something to be desired is that of helping prepare (mostly) adult learners to be proficient users of academic English. Learning to write in English for professional purposes remains a formidable challenge for ESL/EFL-educating programs both at universities and outside the academic environment, too. JS: Why hasn’t the linguistic creativity of learners of English been given the prominence it could deserve in Applied Linguistics and ELT/TESOL? FGM: Possibly because of a gap in the preparation of ESL/EFL educators: helping learners make the most of 12 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
their linguistic creativity. Wonder what percentage of global TESOLers have received minimal instruction on language learning from a psychological perspective, that is, on using language as a partly creative, meaningmaking experience. In my book Criatividade no Ensino de Inglês (São Paulo: Disal Editora, 2004) views of linguistic creativity are included, in statements kindly made by inspirers among whom David Crystal. Global research on learners’ self-perception of themselves as creative language users could help us give linguistic creativity the prominence it should deserve in both Applied Linguistics and ELT/TESOL. JS: How do you integrate learners’ linguistic creativity in your approach to language learning? FGM: By engaging learners in learners’ rights/ responsibilities awareness activities and by providing them with examples of learner-originated linguistic creativity. My ABA poster on Linguistic Creativity provides a checklist on ways of using English creativity. Maybe that reflection tool can serve as a starting point for research on a global basis. That ABA poster as well as other posters of mine produced by the ABA Design Department can be accessed at www.estudenaaba.com by clicking on Mídia, then on Posters, on English and by finding the particular poster you’re interested in.
Interview with Francisco Gomes de Matos by Jack Scholes
JS: What are the distinctive features of an innovative and creative language teacher? FGM: In my ABA poster Innovation in Language Teaching I point out 15 ways teachers can be innovative. Two examples thereof: engaging students in multidmodality activities and creating language learning materials that integrate print and digital forms of learning in novel ways. JS: How can teachers foment concepts of human intercultural rights with beginning students in our Brazilian local scenarios and help them to learn to enjoy diversity and intercultural communication? FGM: By engaging learners in learners’ intercultural rights/ responsibilities awareness from the very beginning levels of ESL/EFL instruction. Students should realize that language use is intercultural and diversity-enhancing. Encouraging them to see cultures as intercomplementary, interconnected will help build a positive attitude toward intercultural differences as well as to learn to value learners’ roles as intercultural communicators. JS: Some teachers would say it is not their job to teach values like respect for diversity or social inclusion, but rather to teach the language only. How would you respond to that view? FGM: It’s teachers’ right to describe their mission as being predominantly of a linguistic nature. While respecting such view, I’d also ask if their responsibility wouldn’t be further humanized/dignified by the teaching of values such as respect, dignity, and peace. JS: You are a prominent and influential peace linguist. What are the origins of Peace Linguistics and how and when did your involvement start? FGM: I could mention two precursory publications of mine which paved the way for a sustained commitment to developing a Peace Linguistics: first of all, in 1987, the Greek Journal of Applied Linguistics published a brief Note of mine entitled The Functions of Peace in Language Education. Therein I made a plea for PEACE as a new universal in language education. Then in 1993, the then Dublin-based Sociolinguistics Newsletter published my Plea Probing the Communicative Paradigm: A new concept for Sociolinguistics. In that text, I made a case for Communicative Peace as a deeper concept to be added to the then globally widespread notion of communicative competence. In August of that year I received a letter from U.S. sociolinguist Dell Hymes in which he stated that, so far as he knew, I was the first person to connect the communicative dimension directly with the notion of peace. He added that the sharp conjunction of the phrase communicative peace seems to go farther (than communicative competence) and even suggest, not only mediation, but meditation, the achievement of a peace within persons that is more than
absence of conflict, but a state of being. Dell Hymes illuminating message encouraged me to proceed in the then embryonic journey toward a Peace Linguistics. Another precursory publication of mine helped sustain my involvement in what would be called Peace Linguistics: Pedagogia da Positividade. Comunicação construtiva em Português (Recife, Editora da UFPE, 1996). JS: What is the aim of peace linguistics and how would you characterize this approach? FGM: Two of the goals of Peace Linguistics are: 1. Describing languages and varieties thereof as systems used for communicatively dignifying and peaceful purposes. 2. Contributing to the humanizing tradition of Peace Studies by arguing for Peace Linguistics as complementary to Peace Education and to Peace Psychology. The approach implemented by peace linguists is humanizing-dignifying and focused on using languages for the good of Humankind. JS: What are some of the most recent developments in Peace Linguistics? FGM: Two of the recent developments in Peace Linguistics in my work are: 1. My advocacy for Teaching English peacefully (cf. ABA poster with such title) 2. My plea for TESOLERS as appliers of Nonkilling (cf. my 2010 ABA poster). In the former poster, I state my conviction that When English peacefully you help globalize, a deeper mission as EFL/ESL teachers you realize. In the latter poster, I invite TESOLers to always use English to CHANGE fight into light, foe into friend, fear into faith, harm into harmony, and kill into nonkill. JS: How would you explain ‘Communication for Peace’ to the layman? FGM: To a lay person, I would present the key concepts of Loving one’s linguistic neighbor and Communicating for the good of Humankind. If they were Brazilians or Portugueseusing persons I’d refer them to my book Comunicar para o Bem. Rumo à Paz Comunicativa. (São Paulo: Editora Ave Maria, 2002). In English, I would suggest that the lay person access my article Using peaceful language: from principles to practices. In UNESCO-OELSS online Encyclopedia, published in 2005. JS: Which are your three words of wisdom towards Communication for Peace? FGM: Dignity, Nonviolence, and Nonkilling. On my interpretation of Dignity, I humbly refer New Routes readers to my book Dignity. A Multidimensional View (Dignity Press, 2013). On Nonkilling, may I suggest that you download my New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 13
Interview with Francisco Gomes de Matos by Jack Scholes
book Nurturing Nonkilling: A Poetic Plantation. (Honolulu: Center for Global Nonkilling, 2009 www.nonkilling.org) JS: How do you view the notion of teaching languages peacefully, as advocated by Linguapax and by Peace Linguistics? FGM: As I pointed out in a previous answer, when the Linguapax Program was established in 1987 I published a brief plea advocating the use of PEACE as a new universal in language education. Thus, the aims of Linguapax and of Peace Linguistics are interconnected, intercomplementary. The former has become an inspiring Tradition, whereas Peace Linguistics is still in its infancy.
For global peaceful purposes do we cooperate? HOW? Environmental responsibilities do we substantiate? HOW? LIFE-enhancing changes do we creatively anticipate? HOW? Awareness of the rights of all living beings do we demonstrate? HOW? Our everyday interaction with Nature do we joyfully celebrate? HOW?
JS: What is Global Peace Literacy and how can it be implemented? FGM: Global Peace Literacy is a more comprehensive type of Literacy. Its implementation calls for the integration of principles/practices of Global Education, Global Peace, Global Ethics, Global Diplomacy, Global Citizenship, among other fields. JS: In a time of polarised political views, frequent religious intolerance and an ever-widening gulf between rich and poor, what contribution can Peace Linguistics bring to classrooms in which teachers wish to discuss controversial or taboo topics as part of a programme of true education for global citizenship, not just language instruction? FGM: I could see a dual contribution: not only of Peace Linguistics but also of the precursory Pedagogy of Positiveness. Thus, learners could be asked to clarify what they consider to be controversial or taboo and why and how can controversies be discussed as a DIGNIdialogue rather than in an exchange of insults or aggressive vocabulary. An activity on how to criticize positively could also be planned for use in such classroom contexts. JS: You are an enthusiastic advocate of checklists, rhymed reflections and alliterations. Could you please explain the value of this kind of presentation and also leave us with a short example? FGM: Among the benefits of such visual communication resources, I’d point out: memorability (tools are memoryenhancing), poetic-sensitivity-promoting (rhyming and alliteration), conciseness (learning to express oneself in communicatively shorter ways). COMMUNICATING ECOLINGUISTICALLY: A CHECKLIST When ecolinguistically we communicate... One another’s character do we help to elevate? HOW? Our spirituality do we help to articulate? HOW? For communicative dignity do we help to educate? HOW?
14 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
The interviewee Francisco Gomes de Matos, born in Crato-Ceará, a longtime resident of Recife, has a Ph.D. in Applied Linguistics from PUC-SP, an M.A. in Linguistics (University of Michigan) and B.A. degrees in Languages and Law, UFPE, Recife. He taught at PUC-SP (1966-1979) and at UFPE (1980-2003) until his retirement as Professor Emeritus of Linguistics. He also taught at UFPb and at FAFIRE (now Faculdade Frassinetti do Recife). Was Director of the Centro de Linguística Aplicada Yázigi (São Paulo), a visiting scholar at the University of Texas-Austin, a visiting professor at the University of Ottawa, taught at the English Language Institute University of Michigan. Had a Fulbright Visiting Professorship of Portuguese at the University of Georgia. Because of diverse professional interests he has published Criatividade no Ensino de Inglês (São Paulo: Disal Editora, 2004), Nurturing Nonkilling: A Poetic Plantation (Honolulu: Center for Global Nonkilling, 2009), Dignity: A Multidimensional View (Dignity Press, 2013). He is a contributor to the Handbook of Conflict Resolution (2014), to the pioneering English for Diplomatic Purposes (2016) and author of the e-book Rhymed Reflections: A Forest of Ideas/Ideals (Recife: ABA Book, 2017, ISBN 978-85-6435107-3). Available on Amazon.com). Co-founder of ABA Global Education, Recife. His current interests are Peace Linguistics and Pedagogy of Positiveness. e-mail: email@example.com Twitter: @fgomesdematos
POR QUE EU LEIO A NEW ROUTES? Comecei a dar aulas num mundo sem celular, sem computador, e sem internet. Para os mais jovens, deve ser um cenário tão distante quanto a Revolução Industrial ... Ampliar conhecimento significava investir em livros – e foi assim que a Disal entrou em minha vida: pensava em comprar um livro, lembrava da Disal. Ler New Routes é uma extensão natural deste vínculo, que não se restringe mais a somente ampliar conhecimento: é, também, onde encontro depoimentos
de pessoas queridas, admiradas de perto ou de longe; é onde comprovo o quão importante é pertencer a uma comunidade; é onde vejo surgir uma nova geração de talentos, que nos inspiram e motivam a continuar em busca de ... conhecimento! Indico, recomendo e agradeço por tantas conversas enriquecedoras que começaram com “Você leu na New Routes?” Mônica Motomura é Coordenadora Acadêmica da Up Language Consultants. São Paulo / SP.
ANUNCIE NA NEW ROUTES, A REVISTA DOS PROFISSIONAIS
DE IDIOMAS. COM DIVULGAÇÃO ATIVA POR MAIS DE 3 MESES, VOCÊ SERÁ
VISTO POR MILHARES DE PESSOAS.
Para mais informações, envie um email para firstname.lastname@example.org ou ligue para 11 3226-3111
by Leticia Moraes
INTEGRATING PROJECTS INTO TEENAGE CLASSES
INTEGRATING PROJECTS INTO TEENAGE CLASSES The idea of using project-work with teenagers is not new and it seems it will be around for a while. This popularity did not come by accident; after all, projects have a number of benefits for the learning process and for the development of the teenager as a whole. Some of these advantages, as described by Bohlke (2014), are that projects: • • • • •
Favour the Integration of skills in a natural way; Encourage creativity and collaboration among learners; Foster responsibility and discipline; Encourage the development of research and information-gathering skills; Are suitable for cross-curricular work.
Besides that, project-work can also be a powerful ally to encourage reflection and critical thinking, as well as raise learners’ awareness of cultural diversity (Moraes, 2017).
16 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
From my experience, I have also noticed that the completion of a project may foster learners’ sense of achievement, and its outcome represents concrete evidence of learning, which may help parents understand better the work done in the classroom. We cannot neglect, however, that the implementation of project work may also be quite challenging for the teacher. As Bohlke (2014) describes, projects: • • • •
can be time-consuming; depend on access to authentic material; depend on receptiveness of participants; demand planning and management skills from teachers.
Apart from that, since different schools and language institutes have different procedures, teaching beliefs and syllabus to be followed, the teaching context itself may raise
by Leticia Moraes
different issues related to the successful implementation of projects. Of course, these challenges do not mean we have to ditch the idea of working with projects. On the contrary, identifying potential problems is the first step to deal with them. You will find below some ideas to deal with these challenges and use the flexibility of projects to overcome them. Guide learners in the process Project work is an invaluable opportunity to go beyond language learning and foster the development of 21st century skills, such as critical thinking, information literacy, social skills and collaboration (P21 Partnership for 21st Century Learning, 2015). However, just putting teenagers in a situation where they would need these kinds of skills may not be enough to actually develop them. Students need guidance. Therefore, although project work is essentially student-centered, teachers have a vital role in the background so as to help learners to: • • • • •
find and select reliable information; reflect critically about the content of their project; plan; get organized; interact with their peers in a collaborative way.
Teachers are essential to guide learners during the project, so that they benefit from it and learning can happen.
as to cater for my learners’ profile and access to information/ material? Length: How many lessons will learners need to complete the project? How much time of each lesson will they need? Interaction: Are students going to work in groups? Pairs? Individually? If it is in groups or pairs, how are these going to be defined? If the work is going to be individual, how will interaction among learners be encouraged? When and where: When and where are learners going to do the research and production of the project? In class? In the computer lab during the lesson? As homework? A combination of these? Language: What kind of language will my learners need? Will they need to revisit any aspect of the expected language? Will they need to learn anything new? How will I cater for emergent language needs? Steps: How am I going to organise the project in steps? How am I going to communicate these steps to learners? Assessment: How is the project going to be assessed? Is it going to be part of learners’ formal assessment? How are the assessment criteria going to be communicated to students? Decisions regarding assessment, however, can be quite complex, thus deserving to be looked into in a bit more detail.
Use projects as an assessment tool Plan ahead As obvious as it may seem, we cannot take planning for granted. This is key to the success of a project. If this is done thoroughly, many of the challenges mentioned above can be minimised. From my experience, here are some questions that can be helpful when planning for this kind of work: • •
Topic: How current and relevant is it for my learners? Is it engaging for their profile? Outcome: What is going to be the final product of this project? What will be done with it after it is ready (e.g. exhibition, presentation to other groups/ classes, sent to parents)? Model: Do I have a model of the outcome to show to my students? Will I show an example from a former student? Will I show them an authentic sample? Will I construct a model with them step by step? Access: Do my students have access to the material and information they need to do this project? If not, can I provide them with this information/ material? How can I adapt the original idea so
As I mentioned above, how the project is going to be assessed is an important part of planning but this may be a multifaceted issue depending on the teaching context and beliefs regarding assessment. To start with, grading projects may be a challenge itself. As Pinter (2006) explains “it is very difficult to assign grades to project work because of the need to acknowledge both individual work and group effort”. Other questions that may also arise when thinking of grading a project are with regard to what exactly is going to be taken into account when assigning it a grade. The final outcome? The process as a whole? The quality of the research made? Only linguistic aspects? Students’ interaction? Because of that, many times projects are used as a tool for informal formative assessment, helping teachers gather information about learners’ development and informing them of areas that would need more attention. In this case, the formal grade would come from other assessment tools, such as tests. From my experience, however, teenage learners and their parents are usually concerned about grades and tend to expect to see the effort they put in their projects converted into a number. Many times, this happens because students
New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 17
by Leticia Moraes
and parents see grading as a synonym of assessment. Thus, no grading means no assessment. What can we do then? We can either start working on raising their awareness of the fact that informal assessment can contribute to learning, or include projects into the grading system. Grading or not grading seems to be the first big decision regarding the assessment of projects. Once this is made, it is important to define which elements are going to be considered during the assessment. A practical idea that can help us assess and grade projects is to break it in smaller parts. After all, projects are complex activities which involve a series of steps (McKay, 2005). Thus, depending of the project and on the focus of the work, we can assess, for example: • • • • • • • •
Quality and breadth of the research Selection of information Oral production during the making of the project Written production Oral production during the final presentation Creativity and originality Team work Task achievement
These may have different weights in the composition of the grade for the project depending on the teaching context and the established grading system. As I mentioned before, the decisions regarding assessment are not that simple, but it is essential to make them at the beginning of the process. Besides, it is also important that learners are aware of the assessment criteria from start, even if you choose to assess the project informally not assigning it specific grades. This kind of communication is necessary to align expectations, thus contributing to students’ engagement and avoiding frustration. Besides that, it is important to give learners clear feedback on their work so that they understand their current performance and their grade, or what they need to do in order to have a good result in the formal assessment.
of topic, outcome and language. The differences will lie mostly in the quality of the work done. Semi-structured projects: here, although there are some elements that are pre-defined, students can decide how they are going to deal with some aspects of the project. They can, for example, choose the format of the outcome (poster, podcast, video, blog post, presentation, etc.). Similarly, the project may have a pre-defined objective and outcome, but students may have freedom to decide which topic they want to talk about. Thus, there is more variety in terms of the result of the project, as different students may focus on different topics, use different language, or come up with different formats for the outcome. Unstructured projects: the project here is totally defined by learners, from its topic to its outcome and how it is going to be shared with the learning community. Besides, the language work done emerges totally from the choices made by learners.
It is possible to notice that structured projects are much more controlled and, consequently, easier to plan and manage. They may also be interesting in contexts where project work is a novelty, for example. Unstructured projects, on the other hand, are highly personalised and allow more room for addressing learners’ specific needs and interests, which may favour students’ engagement and lead to more meaningful learning. The level of syllabus flexibility of the teaching context can influence the choice of how structured the project is going to be. Thus, if what has to be covered during the term is pre-determined, you can opt for using it as your starting point, analysing the content of the course and then devising a project that would make it possible for you to cover all these aspects. If the syllabus is more flexible, the concept of the project may also be more open to negotiation. Here are four examples of how different projects with different degrees of flexibility and structure can emerge from reading the same text:
Use the flexibility of projects in your favour 1. Projects can be dealt with in very different ways, which can favour their adaptation to a variety of teaching contexts. Thus, they can vary in terms of structure and their level of integration with the course. In this regard, as Stroller (2005) explains, we can classify projects as structured, semi-structured and unstructured. •
Structured projects: in this kind of project, teachers define all the characteristics of the project. Thus, the topic, outcome and expected language are predefined and presented to learners. The result of the project is very similar among learners in terms
18 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
Structured: after working with a text about a deaf student and CAN for abilities, learners are told they are going to produce a poster about deaf children, what they need and how we can help them. Students are encouraged to use the language they have just studied. Semi-structured: after working with a text about a deaf student and CAN for abilities, students produce a poster about a disability/ special need of their choice. Students are encouraged to use the language they have just studied, but there is room for emergent language related to the special need they choose.
by Leticia Moraes
Semi-structured: after working with a text about a deaf student and CAN for abilities, students decide on the best way to share information about what deaf children need and how to help them. Students are encouraged to use the language they have just studied, and, depending on how they decide to share the information, there is room for work on the features of genre. Unstructured: after reading a text about a blind student and talking about this topic, students decide to investigate it in more details. Thus, they discuss ways of sharing information about disabilities and the disability(ies) they want to focus on. They also decide on a final product.
As you can see, project-work is flexible enough to allow teachers in different contexts to integrate them into their lessons. Besides, depending on the teacher’s experience and the needs of specific groups of teenage learners, it can be used in different ways to foster learning. Reference: Bohlke, D. 2014. Fluency-Oriented Second Language Teaching in Celce-Murcia, M., Brinton, D. M. & Snow, M.A. (eds.) Teaching English as a Second and Foreign Language. Heinle Cengage Learning (121-134). McKay, P. (2005) Assessing Young Language Learners. Cambridge University Press: 163-164 Moraes, L. 2017. Developing lower secondary learners’ awareness of cultural diversity through projects. TEYLT Worldwide, Issue 1, 2017 (48-49) P21 Partnership for 21st Century Learning. 2015. P21 Framework Definitions. http://www.p21.org/storage/ documents/docs/P21_Framework_Definitions_New_ Logo_2015.pdf. Pinter, A. (2006) Teaching Young Language Learners. Oxford: 139-140 Stroller, F. L. 2005. Project Work: A Means to Promote Language and Content. In Richards, C. & Renandya, W. A. Methodology In Language Teaching – An Anthology of Current Practice (107-19).
The author Leticia Moraes is an Academic Coordinator at Cultura Inglesa São Paulo. Currently, she is also Joint Events Coordinator of the IATEFL YLTSIG. Leticia has taught English for more than 15 years, has been involved in teacher training and course development, is a Delta, ICELT and Anaheim TESOL Certificate holder.
New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 19
by Jack Scholes
BODY IDIOMS TO THUMB A RIDE / A LIFT PEDIR CARONA FAZENDO SINAL COM O POLEGAR LEVANTADO We can thumb a ride back. Podemos pedir carona para voltar.
TO BE ON SOMEBODY’S BACK CRITICAR E ABORRECER ALGUÉM REPETIDAMENTE; ENCHER O SACO
TO KICK (SOME) ASS VENCER, MOSTRAR CAPACIDADE COM FORÇA E FIRMEZA
He’s on my back again about that report I haven’t done yet. Ele está me enchendo o saco por causa do relatório que ainda não fiz.
Let’s go in there and kick some ass! Vamos entrar lá e mostrar a nossa capacidade!
Quando se quer pedir a alguém que pare de criticar e aborrecer, diz-se: Get off my back! Pare de encher o saco! UP TO YOUR EYES / EYEBALLS IN SOMETHING SOBRECARREGADO, MUITO OCUPADO COM ALGO I’m up to my eyeballs in financial reports. Estou sobrecarregado com relatórios financeiros. MY LIPS ARE SEALED “SOU UM TÚMULO”; “MEUS LÁBIOS ESTÃO SELADOS” “For God’s sake don’t tell her you saw me here!” “My lips are sealed.” “Pelo amor de Deus, não conte a ela que você me viu aqui!” “Sou um túmulo.” Em inglês, quando se assume o compromisso de não contar um segredo a ninguém, diz-se My lips are sealed - literalmente, “Meus lábios estão selados”. UNDER SOMEBODY’S THUMB SOB O CONTROLE OU A INFLUÊNCIA DE ALGUÉM She’s got her husband completely under her thumb. Ela tem o marido completamente sob controle. 20 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
To kick (some) ass, ao pé da letra “chutar a bunda”, equivaleria ao sentido positivo da expressão brasileira botar pra quebrar. Usa-se também o adjetivo kick-ass para qualquer coisa ótima, excelente. Exemplo: It was a real kick-ass party! Foi uma ótima festa! KNEES-UP (UK) FESTA Are you going to the knees-up on Saturday? Você vai à festa no sábado? (TO HAVE) A SKINFUL (UK) (TOMAR) MUITA BEBIDA ALCOÓLICA, ENCHER A CARA
PIZZA-FACE ALGUÉM MUITO MARCADO PELA ACNE; ESPINHUDO; “CARA DE CHOKITO” Hey, pizza-face, where were you? Ei, espinhudo, onde é que você estava? O termo pizza-face (“cara de pizza”) é um apelido cruel, usado principalmente por adolescentes, para pessoas cujo rosto (cheio de espinhas, pústulas, inchaços e imperfeições em geral) lembra muito uma pizza de queijo derretido. Usa-se também crater-face (“cara de cratera”). SHUT YOUR MOUTH / FACE / TRAP / GOB (UK)! “CALE A BOCA!”; “FECHE A MATRACA!” Oh, shut your trap! Ah, cale a boca! Essas expressões são todas ásperas e grosseiras.
We had a skinful last night. Nós enchemos a cara ontem à noite. A skinful (literalmente, “uma pele cheia”) significa cheio de bebida, o suficiente para ficar embriagado.
The author Jack Scholes is the author of many books, including Slang – Gírias Atuais do Inglês, Modern Slang and Slang Activity Book. He is also co-author with Jane Revell of Sucesso nos Exames. His most recent publications are Inglês Rápido, Quick Brazilian Portuguese and Why do we say that? Por que dizemos isso?. All published by Disal Editora. Email: email@example.com
Business English you can take to work today NEW NEW
Starter Student’s Book
with online practice
Elementary Student’s Book
with online practice
David Grant, John Hughes, Nina Leeke & Rebecca Turner
John Hughes & Penny McLarty Business Result 2e Starter SB cover 24_8_16.indd 1
Business Result 2e SB covers 10_8_16.indd 2
with online practice
Intermediate Student’s Book
David Grant, Jane Hudson & John Hughes Business Result 2e SB covers 10_8_16.indd 3
with online practice
John Hughes & Jon Naunton 12/08/2016 15:37
Business Result 2e SB covers 10_8_16.indd 4
Business SECOND EDITION
Advanced Student’s Book
with online practice
Kate Baade, Chris Holloway, Jim Scrivener & Rebecca Turner
Micheal Duckworth, John Hughes & Rebecca Turner Business Result 2e SB covers 10_8_16.indd 5
with online practice
Business Result 2e SB covers 10_8_16.indd 6
Relevant, personalized English practice for business professionals Adaptable content works for your timetable Pick up and teach with ready-to-go resources Get your ﬁrst look at Business Result Second Edition now
How do you say ... in English?
by José Roberto A. Igreja
QUADRICICLO ATV; FOUR-WHEELER Podemos nos referir a um quadriciclo em inglês através do termo ATV, sigla de all- terrain vehicle (veículo para todo terreno). Uma outra palavra usada é four-wheeler, que faz referência às rodas (wheels). ATVs are designed for use on various types of terrain. Os quadriciclos são projetados para uso em vários tipos de terreno. “Riding a four-wheeler on the dunes was pretty exciting”, said Rick to his friends. “Andar de quadriciclo nas dunas foi super emocionante”, disse Rick aos amigos.
EXTRAPOLAR GO OVERBOARD
FESTA BENEFICENTE FUND-RAISING PARTY
Rock stars sometimes go overboard on their demands for their hotel rooms. As estrelas do rock às vezes extrapolam em suas exigências para o quarto do hotel.
They are organizing a fund-raising party to raise funds for the homeless. Estão organizando uma festa beneficente para angariar fundos para os sem-teto.
“I know this is a great sale, but let’s try not to go overboard and buy more shoes than we really need!”, said Sally to a friend at the department store. “Eu sei que esta é uma liquidação ótima, mas vamos tentar não extrapolar ao comprar mais sapatos do que realmente precisamos!”, disse Sally a uma amiga na loja de departamentos. SINAL; ENTRADA; PAGAMENTO INICIAL DOWN PAYMENT The car salesman asked Harry if he could make a 10% down payment of the total cost of the car. O vendedor de carros perguntou a Harry se ele poderia dar um sinal de 10% do valor total do carro. “The down payment corresponds to 5% of the total value of the house”, explained Selena. “A entrada corresponde a 5% do valor total da casa”, Selena explicou.
Uma festa beneficente tem como propósito “angariar fundos” (to raise funds) para alguma causa específica. Daí a forma adjetiva fund-raising. PARAÍSO FISCAL TAX HAVEN Tax havens are characterized by low tax rates and highly reputable banks. Baixas taxas de impostos e bancos de alta reputação são características de paraísos fiscais. Switzerland, Jersey, Bahamas and Cayman Islands are some of the most popular tax havens. Suíça, Jersey, Bahamas e Ilhas Cayman são alguns dos mais conhecidos paraísos fiscais.
CESARIANA CESAREAN SECTION; CESAREAN; C-SECTION According to the World Health Organization, the rate of cesarean sections should not exceed 15% in any country. De acordo com a Organização Mundial da Saúde, a taxa de cesarianas não deve exceder 15% em qualquer país. A c-section is usually performed when a vaginal delivery would put the baby’s or mother’s life or health at risk. As cesarianas costumam ser feitas quando um parto normal possa por em risco a vida ou saúde do bebê ou da mãe. Mary gave birth to twins this morning. She had a cesarean. Mary deu à luz gêmeos esta manhã. Ela fez uma cesariana.
GOLPE; FRAUDE; MARACUTAIA SCAM They made loads of money with the insurance scam. Eles ganharam uma dinheirama com o golpe do seguro.
O autor José Roberto A. Igreja has a BA in English and Literature from PUC/SP. He is the author of Inglês Fluente em 30 Lições; Como se diz em inglês?; What to say when?; Guia Prático para a comunicação em inglês; How do you say ... in English?; Say it all in Brazilian Portuguese!; Fale Tudo em Inglês and Falsos Cognatos - Looks can be deceiving!. He´s also the co-author of Inglês de Rua - American Slang; Fluent Business English; English for Job interviews!; Fale Inglês como um Americano; Phrasal Verbs and American Idioms!, all published by Disal Editora. You can check out his blog at www.faletudoemingles.com.br
22 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
Love it? Hate it?
Stressed? TAKE THE
WORLD TEACHER SURVEY! WorldTeacherSurvey.com Whatâ€™s it really like to be a teacher? Join teachers around the world and take part in the World Teacher Survey. Have your voice heard and help make teaching better for everyone!
Escola em Destaque
HEADWORD LANGUAGE SCHOOL: A ESCOLA DE IDIOMAS QUE SE PREOCUPA COM O SEU APRENDIZADO Em 1996 foi inaugurada em Utinga, Santo André, a primeira unidade da Headword Language School com o propósito de ensinar o idioma inglês considerando o potencial e a capacidade de aprendizado de cada um de seus alunos, levando em conta, para isso, histórico familiar, aptidões e eventuais dificuldades, e em 2005 foi a vez do Parque Novo Oratório ganhar sua unidade. Em 2017, foi inaurgurada a primeira franquia, no Bairro Campestre, também na cidade de Santo André. Atualmente já são quase 1.000 alunos divididos entre as três unidades, onde eles poderão também optar pelos cursos de Espanhol e Alemão. A escola mantém convênio com agências de intercâmbio e presta toda a assessoria necessária aos alunos que se interessam em passar um tempo fora aprimorando seu aprendizado. Nossa missão é levar o melhor ensino em idiomas por um preço justo. Os cursos são oferecidos para crianças a partir dos oito anos de idade (Júnior I e II), a partir dos 11 anos (para adolescentes) e os cursos para adultos. Cada turma tem o número máximo de 15 alunos e os materiais didáticos utilizados são das editoras Cambridge, Pearson e Oxford. Ao final do curso (seis anos, nível avançado) o estudante está apto a se submeter à certificações do Cambridge FCE, da Inglaterra, que comprova a proficiência nas quatro habilidades: ouvir, falar, ler e escrever. A Headword Language School conta com professores bem treinados e motivados, o que estimula o aluno a se comunicar no idioma. Nosso objetivo, além de ensinar, é também estar de forma competitiva no mercado, dando oportunidade ao aluno de ter acesso a uma nova e eficiente opção de ensino de qualidade. 2 4 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
Trabalhamos o conceito de inteligências múltiplas e os diferentes estilos de aprendizagem de cada aluno. Os estilos de aprendizagem são o modo como cada um de nós aprende melhor e as inteligências múltiplas constituem as habilidades que podemos utilizar para aprender qualquer coisa e realizar nossos objetivos. Há uma estreita relação entre estilos de aprendizagem e inteligências múltiplas. Além disso oferecemos atividades que vão além da sala de aula como Acampamento, Cine Pipoca e Eventos Internos. Além de desenvolver capacidades integrais dos estudantes, as atividades extracurriculares aumentam as vivências e permitem acessar novos conhecimentos e formar grupos de amigos para além da sala de aula.
DISAL SANTO ANDRÉ INDICA: HEADWORD LANGUAGE SCHOOL UNIDADE UTINGA Rua Berna, 170 - Santo André Tel. (11) 4461-4156 / (11) 4461-2428 firstname.lastname@example.org UNIDADE PQ. NOVO ORATÓRIO Av. Araucária, 1257 - Santo André Tel. (11) 4975-7299 email@example.com UNIDADE CAMPESTRE Av. Tietê, 2622 - Santo André Tel. (11) 2988-6974 firstname.lastname@example.org www.headword.com.br
Editora: Cambridge University Press Autora: Liz Dale and Rosie Tanner 294 Páginas ISBN: 9780521149846
Editora: Disal Editora Autor: José Roberto Igreja 168 Páginas ISBN: 9788578441951
Editora: Macmillan Education Autor: Rod Bolitho and Brian John Tomlinson 128 Páginas ISBN: 9781405080033
OUR WORLD 2 - READER 1: ART CLASS - BIG BOOK
BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Editora: Oxford University Press Autor: Jamie Keddie 142 Páginas ISBN: 9780194425797
Editora: Pearson Autores: Betty S. Azar / Stacy A. Hagen 510 páginas ISBN: 9780134661155
Editora: National Geographic Learning Autor: Yuko Okamura 16 Páginas ISBN: 9781133939221
New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 25
SPICE UP YOUR ENGLISH WITH COLLOCATIONS! Adriana G. Fiori-Souza, Adriana C.S. Maciel, Isadora T. Moraes, Mônica M. Gôngora, Sílvia H. O. Flores, Disal Editora, 2016, 232 pages
Even though most English students might not even know what they are, collocations have been plaguing their learning from its very start - to do or to make; to take or to get; to have or to do or to get? A lot of times, a direct translation from the mother tongue is the (wrong) choice which can lead to misunderstanding and even embarrassment. But there’s no need to despair: a group of professors from Londrina very kindly put together a very userfriendly book aptly named SPICE UP YOUR ENGLISH WITH COLLOCATIONS. The book is divided in twelve units, each dedicated to a different slice of this pie we call life: hobbies and leisure, shopping and spending, money and finance, environment and sustainability, cultures and stereotypes, foods and drinks, body image and self-esteem, college and education, movies and entertainment, dating and relationships, jobs and
careers, and travel and tourism. Within each unit, there is a warm up, where some vocabulary related to the theme of the unit is presented, always with its collocates. Each unit always presents a reading activity (Read About It) and a listening activity (Listen to It) usually integrated with productive activities either for speaking or writing. In Learn Collocations in Context learners will see the collocations about the theme in real-life examples. And finally, in Review It All and Lights, Camera, Action, students will be able to review and use the collocations they have learned in conversation. Another feature that caught my eye is the Collocations Index at the end of the book, where the collocations presented in each unit are organized alphabetically by their content words for easy reference. So this part can function not only as a pretty neat summary of what is taught in each unit
but also as a guide to the expressions you need to talk about a specific subject. Finally, because SPICE UP YOUR ENGLISH WITH COLLOCATIONS has audio scripts and an answer key at the end as well, it can be used both by a teacher in a classroom setting and by individual students who are trying to improve their English independently. The presentation of the activities is very intuitive and clear, which also helps self-learners. As a teacher and constant learner of the English language, I certainly recommend SPICE UP YOUR ENGLISH WITH COLLOCATIONS. To use some of the collocations from the book, if you want to learn scores of new words, never flunk a vocabulary test again, and get hints and tips on how to use cool expressions, give SPICE UP YOUR ENGLISH WITH COLLOCATIONS a go!
The reviewer Cris Gontow has been a teacher, teacher trainer and materials designer for over 20 years. She is one of the authors of English Pronunciation for Brazilians - the Sounds of American English, published by Disal Editora, and a number of series for secondary education. She can also be found on youtube at https://youtu.be/uODBfLIC0tA
26 | New Routes® Disal
A WAY WITH WORDS? Below are things that people actually said or wrote! ANNOUNCED AT CHURCH SERVICES OR IN CHURCH BULLETINS
NOTES FROM VARIOUS HOSPITAL CHARTS
SAID IN COURT
The Fasting & Prayer Conference: includes meals.
The patient refused an autopsy.
ATTORNEY: What gear were you in at the moment of the impact? WITNESS: Gucci sweats and Reeboks.
The sermon this morning: ‘Jesus Walks on the Water. ‘The sermon tonight: ‘Searching for Jesus.’ Christine Grant sang ‘I will not pass this way again,’ giving obvious pleasure to the congregation.
The patient has no previous history of suicides. Patient has chest pain if she lies on her left side for over a year. On the second day, the knee was better, and on the third day it disappeared.
For those of you who have children and don’t know it, we have a nursery downstairs.
The patient is tearful and crying constantly. She also appears to be depressed.
Jeremy Taylor and Margaret Wilson were married on November 17 in the church. So ends a friendship that began in their school days.
The patient has been depressed since she began seeing me in 2013.
At the evening service tonight, the sermon topic will be ‘What Is Hell?’ Come early and listen to our choir practice. Pot-luck supper Sunday at 5pm – prayer and medication to follow. This evening at 7pm there will be a hymn singing in the park across from the Church. Bring a blanket and come prepared to sin. Low Self Esteem Support Group will meet Thursday at 6pm. Please use the back door. Weight Watchers will meet at 5pm at St Luke’s Church. Please use large double door at the side entrance. The Associate Minister unveiled the church’s new campaign slogan last Sunday: ‘I Upped My Pledge – Up Yours.’
28 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
Discharge status: Alive but without permission. She is numb from her toes down. While in ER, she was examined, x-rated, and sent home. The skin was moist and dry. Rectal examination revealed a normal size thyroid. She stated that she had been constipated for most of her life, until she got a divorce. Examination of genitalia reveals that he is circus sized. Patient has two teenage children, but no other abnormalities. Skin: somewhat pale but present. Patient was alert and unresponsive.
ATTORNEY: Now doctor, isn’t it true that when a person dies in his sleep, he doesn’t know about it until the next morning? WITNESS: Did you actually pass the bar exam? ATTORNEY: She had three children, right? WITNESS: Yes. ATTORNEY: How many were boys? WITNESS: None. ATTORNEY: Were there any girls? WITNESS: Your Honor, I think I need a different attorney. ATTORNEY: How was your first marriage terminated? WITNESS: By death. ATTORNEY: And by whose death was it terminated? WITNESS: Take a guess. ATTORNEY: Can you describe the individual? WITNESS: He was about medium height and had a beard. ATTORNEY: Was this a male or a female? WITNESS: Unless the Circus was in town I’m going with male. ATTORNEY: Doctor, how many of your autopsies have you performed on dead people? WITNESS: All of them. The live ones put up too much of a fight. ATTORNEY: ALL your responses MUST be oral, OK? What school did you go to? WITNESS: Oral...
16th BRAZ-TESOL INTERNACIONAL CONFERENCE th
19 to 22 July 2018
Find your voice in English
Learn English with TED Talks brings the world of powerful ideas to life in English language learning classrooms worldwide.To learn more, visit NGL.Cengage.com/LearnEnglishwithTEDTalks “National Geographic”, “National Geographic Society” and the “Yellow Border Design” are registered trademarks of the National Geographic Society ®Marcas Registradas.
Visit our stand on Braz-Tesol for your FREE download of the new Learn English with TED Talks app Stand located on ground ﬂoor block L - P6
FAÇA REVISÕES REGULARMENTE “Uma ovelha no curral vale um rebanho inteiro no portão.” Anônimo
Mesmo nosso cérebro sendo incrivelmente poderoso, podemos facilmente esquecer 70% do que aprendemos em apenas 24 horas – a menos que façamos um esforço consciente para se lembrar. Quando aprendemos algo novo, isso vai para a nossa memória de curto prazo. Para movê-lo para a nossa memória de longo prazo, temos de reciclar as informações antes que elas escapem. No seu livro Accelerated Learning for the 21st Century (Aprendizagem Acelerada para o Século 21), Colin Rose e Malcolm J. Nicholl dizem que este processo é como um cão pastor que cerca um rebanho de ovelhas no campo. O cão começa a juntar as ovelhas em um grupo e as leva até a entrada do curral. Se ele apenas deixar as ovelhas na entrada, elas provavelmente irão fugir, e o cão terá de iniciar todo o processo novamente. Para ter certeza de que elas não saiam, o cão deve guiar as ovelhas até dentro do curral e mantê-las lá até que o portão esteja fechado. Então, o que você pode fazer para colocar as suas ovelhas
30 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
no curral? Como você pode mover informações da sua memória de curto prazo para a de longo prazo? A resposta é reciclar as informações com frequência começando imediatamente. O prazo de 24 horas significa que você deve revisar as coisas novas que aprendeu no mesmo dia, o que provavelmente significa na mesma noite. Dessa forma, você coloca as suas ovelhas com segurança no curral. (A propósito, depois disso é realmente benéfico ter uma boa noite de sono. Experimentos têm mostrado que o sono estimula a memória e nos ajuda a processar as informações recém-aprendidas.) Mas isso é apenas o começo. Para manter suas ovelhas no curral, depois disso você precisa rever o material regularmente, gradualmente alongando o espaço de tempo entre as sessões de revisão. É uma boa ideia, por exemplo, ver no dia seguinte, em seguida, novamente após uma semana, um mês, três meses, seis meses e assim por diante.
b y Va n e s s a P r a t a
THE MAGIC OF THE MOVIES Using movies and series motivates and engages students, besides bringing “real life” language and variety to your classes Have you ever run out of ideas to motivate students, diversify your classes and integrate all the skills in a single lesson? All teachers face these problems occasionally, right? Using movies and series in your classes may be a solution to this! Movies provide authentic listening material, helping teachers to connect the classes to students’ realities. Besides, most people enjoy watching movies, which bring fun and more interest to the classes. Other advantages are the wide range of topics that you can work with and the fact that you can focus on one skill or integrate all of them, by practicing listening to the dialogs, reading the subtitles in English and providing further practice in speaking and writing with follow-up activities. How to work with movies? The first thing to consider is which video to choose. 32 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
Although most movies could be adapted to classroom use - except the ones with violent scenes or pornography, obviously -, we always need to bear in mind our students’ age, background, level of English and, of course, their likes and dislikes when choosing a scene. There are several ways to work with movies in the classroom. If your intention is to practice (or test) listening, the most common exercise is to play the scene without subtitles and ask questions about general comprehension or ask students to focus on specific information or even on a grammar structure or some expressions. Reading the subtitles in English is also valid, if you want to practice more reading than listening or focus on pronunciation, so that students can compare what they listen to with what they read. Speaking activities can be performed while watching the scene (asking students to “dub” it, for example) or after that, in a discussion or debate. You can also practice writing during the movie, asking students to take notes of words and sentences they
b y Va n e s s a P r a t a
understand or to focus on specific vocabulary. Another option is to practice writing as a follow-up activity, asking students to write a paragraph or a composition about the film. Just remember that there is no point in showing the whole movie! Choosing a scene from about 3 to 7 minutes is more appropriate. And don’t overuse movies as well, as they are supposed to bring variety to the class and be an element of surprise to motivate the students. How to prepare a movie activity? Just like any other activity you want to use in class, you need some preparation before working with movies. It’s not just pushing play! First of all, decide whether the movie activity will be integrated with the whole lesson (when you are following a coursebook, for instance) or if it will be an extra class, focusing only on the movie itself. In the first case, the video activity can be used as a warm-up, a presentation or a follow-up activity, among the other activities you will plan for the whole class. Bear in mind that the film or series needs a connection with the whole lesson plan, and that you should have a pre-viewing activity as well. In the second case, the movie activity is the “main reason” of the class, and all other activities will be planned to complement it. Then, it is important to think of a warmup, a pre-viewing, a while-viewing and a post-viewing activity. Additionally, you may have extra activities based on the topic of the movie. Even in this case, the selected scene shouldn’t take longer than 5-7 minutes, although the sequence of activities will last the whole class. What activities can I prepare using movies? Your creativity is the only limit! There are hundreds of possibilities to use movies in the classroom. Here you are a few examples*: Listening activities: as a while-viewing activity, you may ask more general comprehension questions about the story (practicing skimming), questions about specific details or ask students to fill in the blanks with what they hear (practicing scanning). Example of listening activity using The Terminal - scenes: 1-2 (25” to 4’55”):
Airline employee: How ______________will you be staying in the United States? Airline employee: ______________, please?
Could I see your return
Enjoy your stay. Next.
Vocabulary activities: they can be used as a warm-up or pre-viewing activity, preparing students for what they will find in the snippet; a while-viewing activity, so that students relate the meaning of words and expressions to the context; or as a post-viewing or extra activity, in order to expand students’ vocabulary about the topic. Example of pre-viewing activity using the movie The Terminal - scenes: 1-2 (25” to 4’55”). Some of these words are used in the scene: Pre-viewing - Odd words out! Which word does not belong to each list? a) passport - return ticket - airplane - visa b) immigration form - business - pleasure - shopping c) passenger - camera - tourist - visitor Grammar activities: you can prepare grammar activities based on the situation presented in the movie (the example from The Brothers Grimm practices Simple Past and Past Continuous when telling fairy tales) or on the dialogs, especially when a specific tense or function is repeated many times (the second example, from Friends, has several sentences with the third conditional). Example of grammar activity using the The Brothers Grimm - scene: 2 (11’10” to 13’):
While-viewing Watch the scene and order the facts from 1 to 9. ( ) She was picking up some flowers. ( ) The little girl was walking in the forest.
While-viewing Fill in the blanks as you watch the scene. Not all the conversation is printed: Airline employee: What’s the purpose ______________? Business or pleasure?
Just visiting. ______________.
( ) She heard a noise and saw the trees moving. ( ) Something attacked her. ( ) She started to run. ( ) She stung her finger. ( ) She dropped her basket. ( ) She started to crawl. ( ) She fell down.
New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 33
Post-viewing Now, write 3 sentences connecting the information above, using Simple Past and Past Continuous. Follow the example: When (or while) she was picking up some flowers she stung her finger. ____________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ Example of grammar activity using the series Friends episode The one that could have been - season 6 - disc 3 (from the beginning until 2’38”): While-viewing The six friends are talking about how their lives could have been different. Fill in the blanks as you watch the scene (not all the conversation is printed below.) Rachel: Can you imagine if I’d married him? How different would my life be? Ross: I’ve always wondered how my life would be if I had never gotten divorced. Imagine if Carol hadn’t realized she was a lesbian. I bet I’d still be doing my karate. Monica: What if I was still fat? You wouldn’t be dating me, that’s for sure. Joey: Imagine if I had never got fired off Days of Our Lives. Chandler: What if I had had the guts to quit my job? I’d probably be writing for the New Yorker, being paid to be funny. Phoebe: What if I’d taken that job at Merrill Lynch?
b y Va n e s s a P r a t a
Example of speaking activity (Pre-viewing) using the movie The Brothers Grimm – scene: 2 (11’10” to 13’): Pre-viewing Before you watch, discuss these questions with a partner: • Do you know the story of Little Red Riding Hood? Tell your partner about it. • Which other fairy tales do you know? • Do you know the Brothers Grimm? What do you know about them? Writing activities: as a post-viewing or extra activity (maybe as homework), students can write a paragraph or a composition about a topic related to the movie. Example of writing activity (Extra activity) using the movie My best friend’s wedding - scenes: 21-23 (1h17’55” to 1h23’): Writing: my best friend Write a composition about your best friend. Think of these questions to help you write: Who is he/she? When and where did you meet? What is he/she like? Why are you best friends? Etc. These are only a few suggestions so that you can get inspired and prepare your own movie activities! Here, each activity was presented isolated, only to provide as many examples as possible, but obviously they need to be integrated with your lesson plan, as they are shown in the book Movie Activities for English Classes. Ready to use the magic of the movies in your classes?
Ross: Do you guys think if all those things happened we’d still hang out? Speaking activities: as a warm-up or a pre-viewing activity, you may ask students to talk about the plot, in case they know the movie, predict what they will watch or connect the story to the topic they are studying. As a while-viewing activity, students may “dub” the scene, creating their own dialogs, or describe the scene to a partner who is sitting with this back to the screen. As a post-viewing activity, you may ask students to discuss some questions about the topic of the movie in groups, promote a debate or have them present something to the class based on the scene.
The author Vanessa Prata holds a master’s degree in Languages (USP), a specialization degree in Translation Studies (UniberoAnhanguera) and a bachelor’s degree in Journalism (Faculdade de Comunicação Social Cásper Líbero). Author of the book Movie Activities for English Classes (Zannah Editora, 2017), she has more than 15 years of experience in the editorial market, besides working as an English and Portuguese teacher. *The book Movie Activities for English Classes (Zannah Editora, 2017) brings 30 activities with complete lesson plans and answer keys. Available at http://zannah.com.br/produto/movies-activities-for-english-classes.
34 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
by Gabriel Boiani Barbosa
HAMLET OR HARRY POTTER?
THE BENEFITS OF INCREASED LEARNER AUTONOMY IN EXTENSIVE READING PRACTICES Introduction This study aims to analyze whether an increase in students’ autonomy would prove beneficial to learning, specifically in extensive reading practices. It was motivated by several complaints from CEF A2, B1 and B2 teenage and
36 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
adult students who expressed their dissatisfaction with not having a say in the selection of readers used in their courses and having to work with the assigned classic readers such as the ones by Shakespeare and Jane Eyre. In spite of students’ complaints, the benefits of extensive
by Gabriel Boiani Barbosa
reading as a learning tool have been widely recognized in ELT literature (Grabe, 2009; Brown, 2007; Harmer, 2007), and therefore this practice should not be neglected. However, it has also been argued persuasively that these benefits can only be reaped if the material to be read is self-chosen and genuinely relevant to learners (Scrivener, 2011). Scrivener also states that ‘unabridged old copies of worthy classics are not a good choice’ (Scrivener, 2011:268). Considering these facts, I conducted reading activities throughout a whole year groups, seeking to assess the impact created learners autonomy to choose their reading
extensive with two by giving material.
Methodology The first group (control group, henceforth) was given the same readers regularly adopted in the course. There was no choice whatsoever to be made by students. The second group (experimental group, henceforth) was provided with the opportunity to choose from an array of books available in the school library where the research was carried out. Each chosen book was carefully checked on its suggested proficiency level to ensure that all learners had a challenging but feasible reading task. The two groups had very similar profiles. The control group consisted of three teenage groups (CEF A2 and B2) and three adult groups (CEF B2), totaling 42 teenage students and 40 adult students. The experimental group also consisted of three teenage groups (CEF B1 and B2) and three adult groups (CEF B2 and C1), totaling 39 teenagers and 42 adult students. All students were Brazilians from the same regions. The same activities were conducted throughout the year with both groups. These included, but were not limited to, sharing opinions and recommendations about their readings, reconstructing the stories, considering potential film adaptations, writing reviews, summarizing the plots, and making presentations. At the end of the study period, questionnaires were given to learners, in which students were asked to rate their reading and language improvement (aiming to assess perception of learning) and their enjoyment in doing the activity. They were also asked whether they felt motivated to read and participate in the classroom discussions. Learners were also encouraged to write any comments they wished to make. The average results follow below. Results Teenagers from the control group rated their enjoyment in reading at 3.4 (out of 10), while adults rated it at 5.3. Teenagers and adults from the experimental group rated their enjoyment at 8.2 and 8.6, respectively. Students who were forced to read a certain book had worryingly low perceptions of learning – 4.5 for teenagers and 5.5 for adults, unlike those learners who could select their readers and who rated
their progress at 7.3 (teenagers) and 7.9 (adults). When asked whether they had felt motivated to read, 24% of the students from the control group answered “yes”, whereas 92% of the students from the experimental group answered the same. 78% of the learners who had the autonomy to choose their own material stated that they would have liked to read their book even if it was not an activity of the course. Among the students who did not have such autonomy, this number was 21%. It is also worth noting that 20% of the students from the control group stated that they had not done any reading at all. This percentage was much lower among students from the experimental group: 4%. Students from the experimental group were also asked if they liked being able to choose a book to read. 98% answered “yes”. Conversely, after the study was over, students of the control group were asked if they would have liked the opportunity to choose their reading material. 93% answered affirmatively. Analysis Extensive reading is extremely important for many language skills, and it can lead to improvements in listening, grammar, lexis, spelling and writing, among others (Grabe, 2009). Consequently, it must be tackled as efficiently as possible if learning is to be maximized. Motivation plays an essential role in the effectiveness of all learning (Ur, 2000), and it is not different for extensive reading. Ur argues that when students are motivated, learning becomes easier and more pleasant. This study shows that students who had some autonomy in the task were significantly more motivated and engaged. This seems to corroborate findings in the ELT literature on learner independence, which claim that one of the most effective ways of infusing students with intrinsic motivation is helping them develop autonomy, giving them choices whenever possible (Brown, 2007). Enjoyment in reading was also substantially higher when learners had a choice of what to read. This is particularly important, as it has been proven that ‘our students’ motivation is far more likely to remain healthy if they are doing things they enjoy doing, and which they can see the point of’ (Harmer, 2007:102). Interestingly, the numbers show that learners do not seem to feel they are learning much when they are forced to read something that does not necessarily appeal to them. While this may be untrue – students may be indeed learning a lot without realizing it – this perception really matters. Students tend to feel better when they realize by themselves that they have achieved something important or learned something new, and this perception of learning can have a significant impact on motivation (Celce-Murcia et al., 2014).
New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 37
by Gabriel Boiani Barbosa
It has also been observed that learners who were not granted any autonomy seem substantially more likely to not do any reading outside the class at all (when compared to the ones who had some choice). Not engaging in extensive reading activities outside the classroom can be seriously detrimental to learning, as the actual amount of time students spend reading in class tends to be too little, needing to be supplemented by additional reading practices (Grabe, 2009).
In addition, although perception of learning was markedly higher among students who chose their reading material, the ratings (7.3 and 7.9) could have been higher. Further work is necessary on how to help students realize how much they are learning through extensive reading, if learner motivation is to be kept strong.
GRABE, W. (2009) Reading in a Second Language: Moving from Theory to Practice. Cambridge;
Based on the results of this study, there seems to be a number of benefits in giving learners autonomy to choose the material used in extensive reading practices (as long as the chosen material is appropriate for their proficiency level). These benefits include an increase in motivation, in perception of learning and even in language acquisition. This corroborates what Scrivener and Grabe stated in their works – extensive reading tends to be more successful if students genuinely like what they are reading (Grabe, 2009; Scrivener, 2011). Therefore, it appears to be a good idea to allow learners to select their own reading material. Future studies could delve deeper into the effects this autonomy may (or may not) have on language acquisition.
SCRIVENER, J. (2011) Learning Teaching: The Essential Guide to English Language Teaching. Macmillan; UR, P. (2000) A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and Theory. Cambridge; HARMER, J. (2007) The Practice of English Language Teaching. Longman; CELCE-MURCIA, M. et al. (2014) Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. CENGAGE Learning; BROWN, H. J. (2007) Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy.Longman.
The author Gabriel Boiani Barbosa works at Cultura Inglesa São Paulo and has been an English teacher for 8 years. He holds a CELTA and has spoken in different ELT conferences in Brazil. He has also published articles aimed at helping Brazilian students cope with the level of English required at university.
38 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
MAIS CONHECIMENTO PARA VOCÊ! Acompanhe a programação:
disal.com.br/eventos Para mais informações:
por David R. Sousa Fernández
DE LA CLASE MEMORÍSTICA A LA CLASE MEMORABLE: APRENDIZAJE EXPERIENCIAL EN EL AULA DE ELE Recuerdo perfectamente el día que, impartiendo un curso de formación a profesores de español como lengua extranjera, pregunté a los asistentes: “Para ustedes, ¿qué es aprendizaje? ¿Qué les inspira la palabra aprendizaje?” Los docentes, desde su perspectiva metodológica, su formación didáctica o su experiencia, bien como profesores o bien como estudiantes, comenzaron a enunciar una serie de elementos que para ellos estaban intrínsecamente vinculados al concepto de aprendizaje: evaluación, esfuerzo, memorización, práctica, proceso, asimilación… A tenor de sus respuestas, se podía observar cómo bastantes elementos de los que habían enunciado estaban vinculados al trabajo mecanicista, al aprendizaje memorístico o la repetición de patrones, en definitiva, a la perspectiva más clásica del concepto de enseñanza/aprendizaje. Les pregunté entonces, a la vista de los resultados, si recordaban las fórmulas de Física y Química que habían estudiado en el colegio o todas las capitales de países que habían aprendido para los exámenes de Geografía e Historia. Obviamente, habían olvidado la mayoría de estas cosas. Sin embargo, cuando les invité a pensar en alguna anécdota que hubieran vivido en
40 | Nu eva s Ru tas ® D is a l
la escuela o algún profesor que les hubiese marcado, todos recordaban algún caso con nitidez. ¿Por qué recordaban esto y habían olvidado las fórmulas matemáticas o el listado de las capitales de los países? Sencillamente porque aquellos acontecimientos habían activado, de una u otra manera, su sistema límbico, es decir, su “cerebro emocional”. Y es que el recuerdo y, por definición, el aprendizaje están más ligados a la dimensión afectiva que a la capacidad memorística. Una de las disciplinas que se ha encargado de investigar en este sentido es la neuroeducación, definida por Francisco Mora (2014) como la “visión de la instrucción y la educación basada en los conocimientos acerca de cómo funciona el cerebro”. Ya en los años 90 del siglo pasado, Daniel Goleman (1995), tal vez influido por la teoría de las Inteligencias múltiples, de Howard Gardner (1983), promueve el concepto de inteligencia emocional, concebida como una inteligencia basada en el uso individual de las emociones para adaptarse al medio, y la dota de tanta importancia como el coeficiente intelectual para alcanzar el éxito social y laboral. Años después, el profesor David Brierley (2011) comentaba en una entrevista que “solo se recuerda lo que se siente”, algo que sostiene el propio Mora (2014) al afirmar
por David R. Sousa Fernández
que las emociones son la base más importante sobre las que se sustentan todos los procesos de aprendizaje y memoria. Y es que, en el ámbito educativo contemporáneo, donde los buscadores de Internet se han convertido, en muchos casos, en nuestra única fuente de información –rápida e inmediata aunque no siempre fiable–, lo difícil no es el acceso a la información, sino que lo que hacemos con dicha información sea significativo. Sabemos que no es sencillo superar la noción memorística del aprendizaje en favor de un aprendizaje emocional porque para ello necesitamos “activar” la dimensión afectiva de nuestro alumnado, conectar con sus sensaciones, implicarlos en el proceso de aprendizaje, convertirlos en sujetos activos. Si bien, como afirmaba Stevick (2002), “the formal components of the language –its sounds, its vocabulary and its grammatical structures– are inevitably going to be tied to affective components”. El objetivo, por tanto, en nuestras aulas debe ser el de ofrecer actividades posibilitadoras que permitan dinamizar la clase, activar a nuestros alumnos y encender la parte emocional de su cerebro con el fin de que la experiencia y el estímulo funcionen como anclaje en el recuerdo para, de este modo, remplazar al tradicional y perecedero aprendizaje memorístico. El aprendizaje experiencial, definido por Knutson (2003) en el ámbito de la enseñanza de segundas lenguas como “the inclusion of phases of reflection designed to help the learner relate a current learning experience to past and future experience”, se erige como una propuesta de aprendizaje significativo basada, por una parte, en las premisas marcadas por Kolb (1984) con sus conceptos de observación reflexiva y experimentación activa, sumadas a la propuesta de las fases del aprendizaje de Koenderman (2000) que propone construir un marco que facilite el desarrollo de las habilidades comunicativas a través de la práctica significativa. Según Koenderman, cabría distinguir 4 fases:
Fase de participación: los estudiantes comienzan a desarrollar actividades vinculadas a los contenidos que trataron en la fase anterior. Se amplía el repertorio y se comienzan a integrar actividades que facilitan la participación activa del alumnado.
¿Español? ¡Por supuesto! 3 (pp. 66-67) (Ed. Edelsa)
Fase de internalización: en esta etapa los aprendientes empiezan, de manera más tangible, a participar de manera significativa con la lengua. Las actividades contextualizadas permiten reflexionar acerca del uso de la lengua en un entorno determinado y en relación a una temática establecida con la que, previamente, nuestros alumnos ya han tenido contacto. En esta fase, teniendo en cuenta que nos encontramos en aula de enseñanza de una lengua extranjera, se comenzarán a trabajar los pertinentes aspectos lingüísticos, funcionales y pragmáticos de manera activa y vinculados a los conceptos previos que hemos introducido en las anteriores etapas.
Fase de exposición: en esta primera etapa los estudiantes se enfrentan a una presentación inicial de los contenidos con los que van a trabajar. Esto permite la activación del alumnado ante los nuevos estímulos que formarán parte de la secuencia de trabajo que van a iniciar y, además, sirve para estimular el background o conocimiento previo de cada individuo. Esta fase resulta de gran importancia, ya que ayuda al alumnado a enfrentarse a las nuevas experiencias y aporta seguridad al conocer temas, objetivos y metas.
¿Español? ¡Por supuesto! 3 (pp. 64-65) (Ed. Edelsa)
¿Español? ¡Por supuesto! 3 (pp. 68-71) (Ed. Edelsa)
Nuevas Rut as® Dis a l | 41
Fase de transferencia: por último, se vincula lo que hemos visto en clase con el mundo real. Los alumnos deben poder transferir sus conocimientos adquiridos a las experiencias y contextos de su vida diaria. Es decir, deben poder asociar lo que ven en clase con el mundo que hay más allá de las paredes del aula.
por David R. Sousa Fernández
Bibliografía: • Brierley, D. (2011): “Solo se recuerda lo que se siente”, Newspaper interview in El País (Spain). • Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2008): Fluir (Flow), Ed. Kairós. • Gardner, H. (1983): Inteligencias múltiples, Ed. Paidós. • Goleman, D. (1996): Inteligencia emocional, Ed. Kairós. • Knutson, S. (2003): “Experiential Learning in Second-Language Classrooms”, TESL Canada Journal, Volume 20, Issue 2. • Koenderman, M. (2000): “Monitor training manual”, Unpublished document. Sherbrooke, QC: English Language Summer School, Universite de Sherbrooke. • Kolb, D. (1984): Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. • Mora, F. (2014): Neuroeducación: solo se puede aprender aquello que se ama, Alianza Editorial.
¿Español? ¡Por supuesto! 3 (pp. 74-75) (Ed. Edelsa)
Con todo, podemos colegir que nuestros alumnos no solo aprenden mediante la memorización, sino a través de la percepción, la emoción y la activación de los circuitos neuronales vinculados al cerebro emocional que, según la neurolingüística, forma un binomio indisoluble con el conocimiento cognitivo. Para fomentar este tipo de enseñanza cabe impulsar el aprendizaje experiencial como motor de la práctica educativa para, posteriormente, poder transferirlo al entorno de la vida real. En definitiva, y parafraseando a Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (2008): “La meta de estudiar no es sobresalir, obtener un diploma y encontrar un buen trabajo, es comprender qué sucede a nuestro alrededor, desarrollar un sentido personalmente significativo acerca de las propias experiencias”.
• Stevick, Earl W. (2002): “Afterwords: A Collection of Miscellaneous Short Pieces Mostly Written since 1998” (published on the website of the Christian English Language Educators Association [CELEA]).
El autor del artículo: David R. Sousa Es licenciado en Filología Hispánica, Máster en Lengua y Sociedad de la Información y Máster en Mediación Intercultural. También ha cursado los posgrados de Especialista en enseñanza de ELE, Especialista en didáctica del español de los negocios y Especialista en el tratamiento de la literatura, cine, cómic y música para la enseñanza del ELE, entre otros cursos de formación. Fue docente en el Centro de Lenguas de la Universidad de Vigo y profesor asociado en la Escuela Superior de Educación y en la Escuela Superior de Comunicación y Turismo de la Universidad Politécnica de Bragança, en las que impartió diversas disciplinas de ELE y participó en el Máster de Enseñanza de Español e Inglés. También fue responsable académico de un centro de enseñanza de español en Portugal, donde desarrolló labores docentes y de coordinación, además de ejercer como organizador y presidente de tribunal de los exámenes DELE. Ha publicado diversos artículos sobre didáctica, es autor de materiales de ELE -entre ellos, ¿Español?¡Por supuesto! 3 y 4 de la editorial Edelsa- y cuenta con amplia experiencia como formador de profesores. Actualmente es Responsable del Dpto. de Formación y Asesoría Didáctica de las editoriales Edelsa y AnayaELE.
4 2 | Nu eva s Ru t a s ® D is a l
A1 A2 A2+ B1
¿Español? ¡Por supuesto!
PUNTOS FUERTES • Adaptable para cubrir las diferentes cargas lectivas de los programas escolares. • Sigue los niveles del Marco común de referencia. • Secuencia didáctica progresiva y dinámica. • Trabajo sistemático de la gramática. • Presentación y trabajo muy visual y dinámico del contenido léxico. • Actividades de preparación para el DELE. • Atención a la interdisciplinariedad. • Propuestas de trabajo de reflexión sobre valores interculturales y sociales. • Manual digital e interactivo. Y, además, en el libro del profesor, fichas para la Educación especial.
Para más información entre en contacto con: Sara Ganimian Tcharkhetian | Apoio Pedagógico Espanhol email@example.com | Fone: 11 3226-3102
A SÉRIE GUESS WHAT!
No colégio em que trabalho, embora os alunos tenham contato com a língua inglesa desde os 3 anos, apenas quando têm 6, 7 anos passam a ter duas aulas semanais. A série Guess What! foi escolhida pensando em um material denso para preparar nossos alunos a chegarem ao 6o. ano (11 anos de idade) já no nível A1 (segundo CEFRL). O material traz assuntos atuais; vídeos com imagens cativantes, histórias, canções, parlendas, atividades de conversação/dramatização; propõe discussões atuais e imperativas de serem tratadas em sala de aula e proporciona muita interação. Há, ainda, atividades de pronúncia em todas as unidades. As unidades são sempre encerradas com aulas CLIL com um vídeo e uma sugestão de atividade hands on na qual os alunos fazem / constroem algo ou trabalham em grupos em um determinado projeto. Os recursos online são um grande diferencial. A adoção do material permite que os alunos participem de uma sala online na qual o professor pode monitorar seus progressos e os
responsáveis têm a possibilidade de acompanhar todo o curso. Com a série Guess What! os alunos têm a possibilidade de desenvolverem as 4 habilidades (ler, escrever, falar e escutar) de maneira equilibrada e progressiva respeitando as faixas etárias. Usamos Guess What! desde 2016 e além de os alunos e eu nos divertirmos, pude legitimar a eficiência, pois ano passado, apenas dois anos após adotarmos o material, os alunos do level 4 fizeram uma simulação do exame Movers, nível para o qual só estariam plenamente preparados com, pelo menos, mais um ano de estudo.
Como professora, além de me sentir segura de que há um trabalho sólido estar sendo desenvolvido, tenho a satisfação de não me sentir apenas professora de língua estrangeira, pois os temas e valores abordados me fazem explorar meu lado educadora. Posso tratar desde assuntos sobre preservação do meio ambiente a alimentação saudável. Por vezes me sinto professora de História, Ciências, Matemática, Geografia, Artes... É delicioso experimentar minhas diferentes facetas.
O resultado apontou que todos nossos alunos já se encontram no nível A1. Uma constatação incrível para a realidade de um colégio não bilíngue com duas aulas semanais. Ou seja, Guess What!, além de divertido, motivador e atrativo, nos ajuda a desenvolver um trabalho coerente, agradável e de excelência.
Ariadne C. Nascimento é bacharel em tradução Inglês/Francês. Possui licenciatura plena em Inglês, Francês e Português, além de ser mestre em Literatura. Atua como Cambridge oral examiner. Ela leciona no Colégio Santo Agostinho em São Paulo onde estudou a vida toda. Mãe de 3 filhos.
44 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
editionsdidierfle.com /EditionsDidier /editions_didier
VOCABULARY BOOSTER 1. WITTY (adj.)
3. DEBRIS (n.)
5. UPSCALE (adj.)
7. GREGARIOUS (adj.)
9. MAYHEM (n.)
2. OUST/ED/ED (v.)
4. LURE/D/D (v.)
6. RELISH/ED/ED (v.)
8. PLIGHT (n.)
10. LAVISH (adj.)
VOCABULARY BOOSTER 3: EXERCISES
I. Fill in the gaps in the sentences below with a word presented in VOCABULARY BOOSTER. 1. “I wish I could afford to go to__________________ restaurants. I hear the food there is awesome.”, said Jerry to a friend. 2. “I hate movies filled with cold-blooded murderers and __________________.I just can’t stand them.”, said Jill to a friend. 3. “It’s no wonder Jake has a__________________ lifestyle. He comes from a well-off family.”, said Mick to a friend. 4. Everyone looked forward to attending professor Hoover’s __________________and informative speech.
6. Rescuers worked twenty-four seven digging through the __________________in search of survivors. 7. “We need to figure out a way to__________________ more customers into our store.”. said Dan to his partner. 8. “You know I__________________ our time together. I’m sure I will miss you when you leave.”, Gary told Rita. 9. Ray is an outgoing and__________________ guy. He’s always surrounded by friends. 10. Benjamin does volunteer work for an NGO that tries to relieve the __________________of the homeless.
5. Anyone who violates the rules will be __________________ from the group.
II. Choose the synonym. 1. Gregarious
II. 1. d 2. b 3. c 4. d 5. c Answers I. 1. upscale 2. mayhem 3. lavish 4. witty 5. ousted
6. debris 7. lure 8. relish 9. gregarious 10. plight
46 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
A Disal e os seus parceiros BRAZ-TESOL, Cambridge University Press, Cultura Inglesa São Paulo, English This Way, Helbling, i-Study Interactive Learning, Macmillan Education, National Geographic Learning, Play to Learn, Richmond e UP Language Consultants se reuniram mais uma vez para oferecer aos nossos clientes conteúdos de relevância do mundo acadêmico, focados no ensino de idiomas. Higienópolis
Eduardo de Freitas
Always Think Twice - There is more to English Teaching than Meets the Eye!
Tathiane Guilherme 5 reasons why pronunciation must be included in your lessons Teaching Writing - the unicorn skill
Using learner-generated videos in the classroom
How to Motivate Reluctant Readers
Presentation Skills For Teachers
Games! Students Love them
Readers: living a thousand lives in the classroom
As palestras têm 1h30 de duração. Para receber o certificado, contate-nos através de firstname.lastname@example.org Acompanhe a programação no site: disal.com.br/eventos Para mais informações: email@example.com
DISAL HIGIENÓPOLIS | SP
DISAL PINHEIROS | SP
Rua Maria Antônia, 380 Fones: 11 3256-7293 / 3256-0264 São Paulo - SP
Rua Deputado Lacerda Franco, 365 Fones: 11 3816-6096 / 3813-5761 São Paulo - SP
Eventos em outras localidades
22 a 25/05 25/05
VII CONGRESSO NORDESTINO DE ESPANHOL
JORNADA DE FORMACIÓN PARA PROFESORES DE ELE EN EL ENSINO FUNDAMENTAL II*
15 a 17/06 19 a 22/07
9º CONGRESSO INTERNACIONAL DA ABRATES 16th BRAZ-TESOL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
IFRN Campos Natal Central – Natal (RN) INSTITUTO CERVANTES DE SÃO PAULO São Paulo RIO OTHON PALACE COPACABANA Rio de Janeiro (RJ) UCS - UNIVERSIDADE DE CAXIAS DO SUL (RS)
New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 47
APRESENTAMOS OS NOVOS LANÇAMENTOS DA DISAL EDITORA! TALkIng buSInESS josé roberto igreja
O inglês empregado no mundo corporativo com diálogos, vocabulário, expressões idiomáticas e frase usuais. Tudo com muitos exercícios com respostas e um CD de áudio.
pORTuguêS DO bRASIL cOmO LínguA ESTRAngEIRA
LINEI MATZENB ACHER ZAMPIETRO
PORTUGUÊS COMO LÍNGUADO BRASIL ESTRANGEIRA: GRAMÁT
Concebido para auxiliar na aprendizagem do português como língua estrangeira, por meio de explicações simples sobre pontos gramaticais essenciais da língua, seguidas de um grande número de exercícios.
linei matzenbacher zampietro
16 x 23 cm
16 x 23 cm
L IN E I M A Z A M P IE T RTOZ E N B A C H E R
PORTUGUÊS DO BRASIL
COMO LINGUA ESTRANGEIRA GRAMATICA