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aomMum? azazmf0g&D 17? 2017

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aomMum? azazmf0g&D 17? 2017

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EkdifiHawmf\ twkdifyifcHyk*¾dKvf a':atmifqef;pkMunf *kPx f ;l aqmifygarmu© Dr. Karl D.Jackson tm; &if;&if;EDS;ESD;EIwfqufpOf (owif;pOf)

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aomMum? azazmf0g&D 17? 2017

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aomMum? azazmf0g&D 17? 2017

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OD;wifrkd;ESihf t&m&SdBuD;rsm;? Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Japan Disaster Relief Team(JDR), Australian Civilian Crops(ACC),Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB),United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affair (UNOCHA), US Forest Service ESihf USAID wdYk

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aomMum? azazmf0g&D 17? 2017

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aomMum? azazmf0g&D 17? 2017

Oya'tawG; a&;yg&ap? tydkif;(56)

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aomMum? azazmf0g&D 17? 2017

EsLuvD;,m;pGrf;tifESifh jrefrmhvQyfppfa&SUc&D; armifyg0g pma&;olonf ]]jrefrmhjyefvnfjynfhNzdK;NrJpGrf;tif tem*wf}} aqmif;yg;udk vlrIpD;yGm;b0 ¶NzdK;wdk;wufrItwGuf r&Sdrjzpfvdktyfaom vQyfppfESifh qufpyfNyD; jyefvnfjynfhNzdK;NrJ pGrf;tifrsm;jzpfMuonfh aea&mifjcnfpGrf;tif (Solar Power)? avpGrf;tif (Wind Power)? blrdtylpGrf;tif (Geothermal Power)? a&vIid ;f ESihf 'Da&pGr;f tif (Wave and Tidal Power)? ZD0ypönf;avmifpmpGrf;tif (Electricity from Biomass)? a&tm; vQyfppf (Hydroelectric Power) wdq Yk ikd &f m tcsuftvufrsm;azmfjyvsuf jyefvnf jynfhNzdK;NrJ pGrf;tifacgif;pOfatmufwGif yg0ifjcif;r&Sdaom wpfcsdef wGif ukefcef;oGm;rnfh uÇmh½kyf<uif;avmifpmt&if;tjrpf ausmufrD;aoG; (Coal)? a&eH (Oil & Gas) ESifh obm0"mwfaiGU (Natural Gas) rsm;ESifhyg qufpyf wifjycJhygonf/ þuJhodkY aumif;Edk;&m&marQmfvifhcsufrsm;jzifh tBuHjyKvsuf&SdMuonfh vQyfppfxkwf,lokH;pGJrIrsm; vkyfaqmif&mwGif umvwpfckü ukefcef;rI&Sdaom &if;jrpf ,la&eD,H (Finite Resource, Uranium) tokH;jyKEsLuvD;,m; pGr;f tif (Nuclear Power) u@vnf;yg0ifaMumif; awG&U &dS onf/ pma&;ol taejzifh vQyfppfxkwfvkyf? o,fydkY? jzefYjzL;jcif;rsm;ESifh qufpyfNyD; avhvm awGU&Sdcsufrsm;tay: tajccHvsuf tqdkyg ]]EsLuvD;,m; pGrf;tifESifh jrefrmhvQyfppfa&SUc&D;}} waphwapmif;udk aqG;aEG;wifjyoGm;rnf jzpfygonf/ uÇmhvlom;tm;vkH; wkefvIyfajcmufjcm;cJh&onfh ordkif;jzpfpOf 1945 ckESpf Mo*kwfv 6 &ufaeYwGif tar&duefavwyf (Enola Gay Mission) bD-29 AkH;BuJav,mOfjzifh *syefEdkifiH [D½dk;&SD;rm; (Hiroshima) NrdKUay:odkY ,la&eD,H-235 trsdK;tpm; AkH; (Uranium-235 Bomb) BuJcscJh NyD; okH;&uftMum Mo*kwfv 9 &ufaeYwGif em*gqmuD (Nagasaki) NrdKUay: odkY aemufxyf yvlwdkeD,H- 239 trsdK;tpm;AkH; (Plutonium-239 Bomb) wpfvkH;BuJcscJhonfh tpDt&DjzpfpOfrsm;udk uÇmu tm½kHpdkufvm&onfh zsuftm;jyif; EsLuvD;,m;pGrf;tifacwf (Nuclear Age) pwifcJhonf [k rSwf,lEdkifygonf/ [D½dk&SD;rm;NrdKUay:odkYBuJcscJhonfh tPkjrLAkH;\ vQKdU0Suf trnfudk Little Boy [kac: qdkNyD; t&G,ftpm;tm;jzifh tvsm; 10 ay? tcsif; 2 ay&Sd TNT 15,000 wefcefYESifh nDrQzsuftm;jyif;vufeufjzpf onf/ 'kwd,tBudrf em*gqmuDNrdKUay:odkYBuJcsaom tPkjrLAkH;\ vQKdU0Suf trnfukd Fat Man [kac:qdNk yD; tqdyk gAk;H rsm;BuJcsrIaMumifh aoausvlO;D a& 118661 OD;? jyif;xefpGm 'Pf&m&olOD;a& 79130 ESifh aysmufqkH;olOD;a& 3677 OD; toD;oD;&SdaMumif; cefYrSef;cJhMuonf/ ajrjyif{&d,mig;pwk&ef;rdkif twGif; ouf&Sdowå0grsm;ESifh t&m0w¬Kypönf; tm;vkH;eD;yg; ysufpD;cJh&onf/ [D½&kd ;DS rm;a'o? pufr¶I NzdK;a&; jr§iw hf ifcef;r (Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall) wpfckonfom xD;xD;usef&SdcJhonf/ 1945 ckESpf Mo*kwfv 6 &ufESifh 9 &ufaeYwdkYwGif [D½dk&SD;rm;ESifhem*gqmuDNrdKUrsm; ay:odkY tqdkygAkH;rsm;BuJcsrIaMumifh tar&duefESifh *syefr[mrdwfwdkY tMum; av;ESpfcefYMum jzpfyGm;aeaom 'kwd,uÇmppfBuD;rSm qkH;cef;wdkifcJhonf/ EsLuvD;,m;qdkif&macwf\ tPkjrLed,mr (Atomic Theory) udk 1803 ckESpfwGif t*FvdyfvlrsKd; "mwkaA'ESifh ½lyaA'ynm&Sif John Dalton (1766-1844) u pwifazmfxkwfcJhonf/ EsLuvD;,m;pGrf;tif (Nuclear Energy) aemufuG,f&Sd odyÜHynm&yfrsm;? EsLuvD;,m;pGrf;tifay:ayguf vmykH (Discovery o f Nuclear Energy) bmom&yfyikd ;f qdik &f m tao;pdwf udk aemufaMumif;jyefazmfjyjcif;rjyKvdkyg/ 1905 ckESpfwGif xif&Sm;ausmfMum; aom *smreDEikd if zH mG ; MopBwD;,ef;-tar&duefvrl sdK; ½lyaA'ynm&Sif Albert Einstein (1879-1955) \ uÇmausmfodyÜHed,mr (General Theory of Relativity) E= mc2 t& EsLuvD;,m;pGrf;tifzGHU NzKd;rIu@udk taumif txnfazmfco hJ nf[k qdEk ikd o f nf/ pGr;f tifnrD Qxk (Energy Equivalence) (E), ½kyfj'yfypönf; (m) ESifh tvif;a&mifoGm;EIef; (Speed of Light) (c) wdkY\ qufpyfrIjzpfygonf/ ½kyfj'yfypönf; rnfrQyifao;i,fapumrl pGrf;tif nDrQxkonf 30 oef;rDwm? puúefY&Sd tvif;a&mif oGm;EIef;t& tvGefBuD;rm; aom yrmPudk&&Sdaprnfjzpfonf/ cufcJeufeJrI&Sdaom ynm&yfjzpfojzifh qufvufaqG;aEG;jcif;rjyKawmhbJ EsLuvD;,m;pGrf;tifrS vQyfppf&,l okH;pGJEdkifrI tajctaersm;ESifh qufpyfonfrsm;udkom wifjyvdkygonf/ uÇmh EdkifiHtoD;oD;\ vuf&SdESifh tem*wf EsLuvD;,m;pGrf;tifrS vlom;wdkYtm; tusdK;jyKrI qufpyfu@rsm;teuf EsLuvD;,m;"mwftm;ay;puf½kHBuD; rsm;wnfaqmufNyD; vQyfppf&,ltokH;jyK&mwGif xda&mufrI? xdcdkufrIwdkYtay: tajccHvsuf *syefEikd if \ H tem*wfa&mpyfprG ;f tif (Energy Mix) ESihf a&mpyf vQyfppfxkwfvkyfjzefYjzL;rI (Generation Mix) pDrHcsufrsm;udk aumufEkwf azmfjyoGm;rnfjzpfygonf/ vlom;wdkYtwGuf tusdK;jyKEsLuvD;,m;pGrf;tiftokH;jyKrI 'kw, d uÇmppfBuD;NyD;qk;H NyD;aemuf US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) rS tPk j rLpG r f ; tif (Atomic Energy) ud k ES p f z uf & S "m;oGm;odyyHÜ nm&yf (Double- Edged Sword of Science) [k xkwjf yef csuft& uÇmhvlom;tm;vkH; pdk;&drfylyifaMumifhMu&aom EsLuvD;,m; pGrf;tifudk zsuftm;jyif;vufeuftjzpfom pOf;pm;rnfr[kwf[kqdk

onf/ Nidrf;csrf; uÇmhtPkjrLacwf (Peacetime Atom) tmrcHcsuf atmufwiG f vQyfppf"mwftm;xkwv f yk Nf yD; oabFmrsm;? um;rsm;? &xm;rsm;? av,mOfrsm;udk armif;ESifEdkifjcif;jzifh vlom;rsm;twGuf tusKd;jyK vkyfief;rsm;udkyg tokH;jyK vkyfaqmifEdkifrnfjzpfaMumif; azmfjyyg&Sdonf/ o,f,lydkYaqmifrIokH; EsLuvD;,m;pGrf;tif (Nuclear Energy in Transportation) (Oyrm- Nuclear - powered vessels, aircraft) pufrIvkyfief;okH;EsLuvD;,m;pGrf;tif (Nuclear Energy in Industry) (Oyrm- puúLrsm;? yvwfpwpfjym;rsm;? owåKjym;rsm;? a&mfbmjym;rsm;\ txludk vdktyfovdk jzwfawmufxkwfvkyfjcif;)? aq;ynmESifh aq;0g;okH; taxmuftuljyK EsLuvD;,m;pGr;f tif (Nuclear Energy in Medicine) (Oyrm- a&m*g&SmazGprf;oyfjcif;? ukojcif; ponf) EsLuvD;,m;pGrf;tif t&if;tjrpfrS vQyfppfxkwf,lrI (Nuclear Power as a Source of Electrical Energy) ponfwdkYonf vlom;wpf&yfvkH;\ b0&Sifoef ¶NzdK;wdk;wufrItwGuf tokH;csEdkif&ef jzpfonf/ EsLuvD;,m;pGrf;tifenf;ynm (Nuclear Power Technology) EsLuvD;,m;pGr;f tifo;Hk "mwftm;ay;puf½o Hk nf orm;½d;k ustyl&edS o f ;Hk "mwftm;ay;puf½kHrsm; (Conventional Thermal Power Stations) uJhodkYyif ausmufrD;aoG;? avmifpmqD? obm0"mwfaiGU ponfwdkYtokH;jyK avmifuRrf;aom tyl&Sdefjzifh vQyfppf"mwftm;xkwfvkyfay;jcif;yifjzpf onf/ 'DZdkif;ykHpHwl trsdK;tpm; EsLuvD;,m;pGrf;tifokH; "mwftm;ay;puf½kH jzwfyikd ;f ykMH urf;rsm;udk a,bk,savhvmod&EdS ikd Mf u&ef ykH (u) ESihf ykH (c) wdjYk zifh azmfjyxm;NyD; vuf&SdtajctaewGif tqdkyg enf;ynmESifh qufpyfxdawGUrI r&SdonfhtwGuf tao;pdwf&Sif;vif;&ef vdktyfrnfr[kwfyg/

zGHU NzdK;NyD;tzGJU0ifEdkifiHrsm; (OECD) \ EsLuvD;,m;pGrf;tif tokH;jyKvQyfppf xkwf,lokH;pGJEdkifrIudk ykH (*) jzifhazmfjyxm;ygonf/ ykH (*) uÇmhEsLuvD;,m;okH; vQyfppfxkwf,lokH;pGJEdkifrI (2004) (Billions of

watts)

uÇmhEdkifiHBuD; 11 EdkifiHESifh usef&SdEdkifiHrsm;\ EsLuvD;,m;pGrf;tif tokH;jyKvQyfppfxkwfvkyfokH;pGJ&SdrIwGif *syef? NAdwdef (UK)? uae'gEdkifiHwdkY onf 1995 ckESpf rwdkifrD xkwf,lokH;pGJrIyrmPrS xdkYaemuf 2003 ckESpf rwdik rf D xkw, f o l ;Hk pGrJ w I u Ykd kd avQmYcsvmcJah Mumif; awG&U &dS onf/ þodaYk vQmYcs csdefwGif awmifudk;&D;,m;EdkifiHonf ododomom yrmP ESpfqausmftxd wdk;wufxkwfvkyfokH;pGJcJhonf/ tao;pdwfudk Z,m; (2) jzifh azmfjyxm;yg onf/ Z,m; (2) uÇmhxyd yf ikd ;f Edik if rH sm;\ EsLuvD;,m;pGr;f tiftok;H jyK vQyfppfxw k v f yk o f ;Hk pGrJ I

ykH (u) ykH (c) Design of Two Common Types of Nuclear Power Plants

Source: Nuclear Power, David E.Newton

EsLuvD;,m;pGrf;tifESifh qufpyf,la&eD,H (Uranium) EsLuvD;,m;pGr;f tifo;Hk "mwftm;ay;puf½Hk wnfaqmufvsuf vQyfppf xkwf,lokH;pGJEdkif&efrSm t"duusonfh ,la&eD,HowåKtmrcHcsuf&Sd&efESifh EdkifiHh"etiftm;? enf; ynmtuRrf;w0if&SdrIwdkY vdktyfonf/ uÇmay: wGif tBuD;rm;qkH; ,la&eD,HowåKodkuf ydkifqdkifEdkifiHrsm; (Nations with the Largest Uranium Ore Deposits) \ pkpkaygif; cefYrSef;yrmPrSm (5288100) wefcefY&SdNyD; MopaMw;vs (Australia)? umZmpwef (Kazakhstan)? ½k&Sm; (Russia) ponfwdkYonf xdyfydkif;EdkifiHrsm;jzpfaMumif; awGU&Sd&onf/ uÇmhEdkifiHrsm;tvdkuf ,la&eD,HowåKodkuf ydkifqdkifrItajc taeudk Z,m; (1) jzifh azmfjyxm;onf/ Z,m; (1)

Source- 1993-1995, Energies Year Book , Powering the Future,D.B. Botkin(1993-1995) - 1995-2003, World Nuclear Association, Nuclear Power, D. E. Newton (1995-2003)

uÇmhEsLuvD;,m;pGrf;tifrS vQyfppfxkwf,lokH;pGJrI (ykH-*)ESifh Z,m; (2) wdkYwGif azmfjyudef;*Pef;rsm;t& uÇmh½kyf<uif; avmifpmpGrf;tif (Fossil Fuel Power) u@rS pGefYcGmí EsLuvD;,m;pGrf;tifqDodkY ul;ajymif;cJhyg vQif pD;yGm;a&;&mwGufajcudkufí vufawGUpepfwusxkwf,l&&SdEdkifaom cefrY eS ;f uÇmh,al &eD,o H u kd f 4 'or 7 oef;wefcefo Y nf aemuf 29 ESpt f MumwGif wdrfjrKyfaysmufuG,foGm;rnf[k azmfjyxm;onf/ uÇmhpGrf;tifcGJa0okH;pGJrI EsLuvD;,m;pGrf;tifokH; vQyfppfxkwf,lrIyg0ifaom uÇmhpGrf;tif cGJa0xkwf,ltokH;jyKrI (World Energy Used 2010 by Fuel Type) tajctaeudk od&SdEdkif&ef ykH (C) jzifh azmfjyygonf/ ykH (C)

uÇmhEdkifiHrsm;tvdkuf ,la&eD,HowåKodkufydkifqdkifrI Source- Uranium 2005: Resources, Production and Demand (OECD-NEA-IAEA) (Chairman of Environmental Studies Program)

u uÇmh Edik if t H oD;oD;\ pGr;f tifqikd &f m jzpfNyD;? jzpfq?J jzpfvmrnfh aemufq;Hk avhvm okawoejyKcsufrsm;udk rSDjirf;í uÇmhpD;yGm;a&; yl;aygif;aqmif&GufrIESifh

Source- Powering The Future( D.B. Botkin)

(qufvufazmfjyygrnf)


aomMum? azazmf0g&D 17? 2017

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aomMum? azazmf0g&D 17? 2017

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