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vaJa SaqaraSvili

da ars taZari xelTuqmneli...

Tsu - 1 0 0 2018


avtorisagan Tbilisis iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis saxelmwifo universiteti erTgvari sasicocxlo fenomeni, sulis ganzomilebiT saero eklesiaa, sadac misi aswlovani istoria sunTqavs, ikiTxeba... dasaZirkvlebis dRidan, wmin­daTawminda samlocvelod moevlina sruliad saqarTvelos, ZvelTaZvel qalaqs... da gadaiSala Cveni qveynis uTvalsawiero, TvalSeudgami biografiis kidev erTi STambeWdavi, lamazi furceli... aigo maradiulobis simbolo, kera samecniero azrovnebis, akademiuri kulturis, erovnuli cnobierebisa. cotam Tu daijera maSin TeTri taZris mSeneblobis keTilad dagvirgvinebis, Tumc misi xvalindeli dRis Rrmad swamda universitetis aRmaSenebels da sulisCamdgmels – niko cxvedaZes, gonis karnaxiT, rwmeniT rom Wvretda momavals, Canafiqris siswores, namdvilobas. saerTo saqmis Tavgamwevma moRvawem – niko cxvedaZem, udidesi mxneobiT, sadReRamiso mecadineobiT, aRaSena taZari mSvenieri da xelTuqmneli... da rac dro gadis, miT sagrZnobi xdeba pirTeTri eriskacis sidiade da mniSvneloba. droa, namdvilad droa, ukeT Seicnos erma, axalgazrdobam qarTul saqmeTa meaRape-Semwirvelis, muSa-vaziviT moamage moRvawe amagdari, vinac rom saqarTvelos msaxurebaSi Caiwva, Caixarja. maradisoba daicavs mis saxels. vaJa SaqaraSvili mwerali, publicisti

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niko cxvedaZe _ aRmaSenebeli aRmaSenebeli _ ase uwoda didma iliam Tavis erT-erT uaxloes TanamebrZols – nikoloz cxvedaZes, niSnad didi Rvawlisa da damsaxurebisa eris, samSoblos winaSe, eriskacs, visac rom gansakuTrebuli adgili aqvs damkvidrebuli me-19 saukunis meore naxevrisa da me-20 saukunis dasawyisis qarTvel sazogado moRvaweTa Soris. marTlac, rom udidesia misi damsaxureba qarTveli xalxis kulturisa da gansakuTrebiT, saxalxo ganaTlebis ganviTarebis saqmeSi; 40 wlis manZilze dauRalavad, uangarod emsaxura qarTvelTa Soris ganaTlebis aRmSeneblobis, inteligenciis aRzrdisa da eris TviTSegnebis amaRlebis saqmes. niko zebedes Ze cxvedaZe 1845 wlis 27 ianvars moevlina wuTisofels. mama – zebede cxvedaZe, Tavisi droisTvis sakmaod ganaTlebul kacad iTvleboda. mas Tbilisis sasuliero saswavlebeli daumTavrebia da mtkiced hqonia `gulSi Canergili qarTuli mwignobrobisa da ganaTlebis pativiscema da Svilebis aRzrdis siyvaruli~. deda – mariam kavsaZis asuli keTili, saTno bunebis adamiani yofila – `mwignobari, amasTan didad moyvaruli wera-kiTxvisa~ (Jurnali `ganaTleba~, 1910 w. #10, gv. 465). 4-5 wlis asakidan kavTisxevs dasaZirkvlebulan, sadac mamamisi – zebede cxvedaZe mRvdlad gaumwesebiaT. (sxvaTa Soris, sofel kavTisxevSi im orRobes, sadac cxvedaZeebis saxli dgas, dResac mRvdliaanT Casax-

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vevad moixsenieben – SeniSvna avtoris – v.S.). patara nikom pirveldawyebiTi ganaTleba ojaxSi miiRo, 9 wlisa sasuliero saswavlebelSi Seiyvanes. - `patara niko xarfuxSi cxovrobda erTi somxis dedakacis saxlSi da iqedan dadioda sasulieri saswavlebelSi. rogorc soflis Rarib mRvdels, nikos mamas Zalian gauWirda Svilis xarji TbilisSi, magram ras izamda, didi survili hqonda Svilis gamozrdisa da amis gamo, yvela tvirTs itanda (Jurnali `ganaTleba~, #10, 1910 w.). nikom sasuliero saswavlebeli warCinebiT daamTavra da swavla Tbilisis sasuliero seminariaSi gaagrZela, sadac iezuituri sistema – jaSuSoba, abuCad agdeba, `sulSi CaZvromis~ ideologia iyo gamefebuli. aseT pirobebSi, bunebrivia, niko ver SeZlebda safuZvliani codnis miRebas, amdenad Tavad, amasTan mtkiced mohkida xeli TviTganaTlebas, raSic SemdgomSi aqtiurad daexmara didi qarTveli pedagogi da TvalsaCino sazogado moRvawe – iakob simonis Ze gogebaSvili. - ` me da cxvedaZem, - werda g. ioseliani, - male gavicaniT iakobi, xSirad davdiodiT masTan, darigebas gvaZlevda da sxvadasxva wignebi mogvqonda misgan sakiTxavad~ (`iakob gogebaSvilis saxsovrad~, - 1913 w. gv. 261). niko cxvedaZem 1865 wels, warCinebiT daamTavra Tbilisis sasuliero seminaria da umaRlesi ganaTlebis misaRebad saxelmwifo xarjiT, moskovis sasuliero akademiaSi gaigzavna, sadac (1865-69 w.) xarbad daewafa mecnierul codnas. - `niko cxvedaZe, - werda Jurnali `nakaduli~ 1911 wels, - moskovis umaRles saswavlebelSi Tavisi Cveuli mxneobiT daewafa mecnierebaTa SeTvisebas da sul mokle xanSi SromismoyvareobiTa da niWiT miiq-

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cia profesorebis yuradReba~. 1870 wels niko cxvedaZem daicva disertacia sasuliero akademiaSi, risTvisac mas RvTismetyvelebis kandidatis xarisxi mieniWa. amave wels Tbilisis sasuliero seminariis maswavleblad dainiSna, sadac daxvda `qarTveli stankeviCis~ – iakob gogebaSvilis cnobili wre, romlis birTvsac sergi mesxi, Ggiorgi wereTeli, akaki wereTeli, anton furcelaZe da sxvani warmoadgendnen... -`niko cxvedaZe aqtiurad Caeba wris saqmianobaSi,~ – gadmogvcems niko arboeli (niko lomouri). Tavis kerZo werilSi ivane gomarTelisadmi, niko lomouri Tbilisis sasuliero seminariaSi Tavisi mowafeobis periodis Sesaxeb werda: - ~am dros aq moRvaweobdnen iakob gogebaSvili, niko cxvedaZe, giorgi ioseliani. es pativcemulni pirni TavianTis erovnul-demokratiuli azrovnebiT Zlier gavlenas axdendnen maSindel seminarielebze, uRviZebdnen mecnierebaTa Seswavlas, sxvadasxva wignebis kiTxvas~. (`literaturuli gazeTi~ – 1938 w. #17). niko cxvedaZe iakob gogebaSvilTan erTad, daucxromlad zrunavda seminariis moswavle-axalgazrdobaSi 60-iani wlebis mowinave ideologiis Setana-gavrcelebisTvis. am mizniT maT Seadgines materialuri Sinaarsis wignebis katalogi darvinis, ruris, dreperis, boklis, molebotis, puSkinis, lermontovis, gogolis, progresuli mimarTulebis Jurnalebis `sovremennikis~, `oteCestvennie zapiskis~ da sxvaTa SemadgenlobiT. isargebles ra seminariis reqtoris, arqimandrit

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viqtorinis erTgvari gulubryvilobiT, biblioTeka radikaluri ideebiT damuxtuli literaturiT gadaavses, romlebsac sistematurad awvdidnen axalgazrdobas ... iakobisa da nikos aseTi moqmedeba SeumCneveli rodi darCenia uwmindes sinods, romelmac 1872 wels seminariis Sesamowmeblad revizori b. zinCenko gaagzavna. zinCenkos iakobisa da nikos saqmis gaxsnaSi gamge-dambezRebeli maswavlebeli kovrovi exmareboda, magram reviziam amjerad veraferi gaawyo, ver miakvlia `borotmoqmedTa kvals~ (?!). amiT frTebSesxmulma iakob gogebaSvilma da niko cxvedaZem ufro meti moindomes. gamcemloba jaSuSebmac gaaaqtiures. 1879 wels rusifikatorma da qarTvelTa moZulem pobedonoscevma sinods urCia, seminariis `gamokvlevaze~ mievlinebina gaqnili da gaiZvera ober-jaSuSi, amasTan ciliswamebis didostati, vinme kurski, romelsac mieca sagangebo davaleba – sabolood moespo da aRegava pirisagan miwisa seminariis kedlebSi moqmedi radikaluri dajgufeba; am saswavleblidan moekveTa iakob gogebaSvili da niko cxvedaZe, romlebic Segirdebs RvTisadmi, samSoblosadmi rwmenas, sasoebasa da siyvaruls unergavdnen. Tavad revizor kurskis gaunaTleblobis dasaxasiaTeblad isic kmara, rom mas `vitiaz v barsavoi koJe~ da `vetxvis travisani~ (P.S. misi transkripciiT), sxvadasxva Txzulebani egona. igi seminariaSi maSin mivida, roca i. gogebaSvili loginad iyo Cavardnili. am garemoebiT isargebla kurskim da avadmyof gogebaSvilze aRmaSfoTeblad cilismwamebluri aqti Seadgina, sadac lanZRavda ara marto mas, aramed niko cxvedaZesa da T. turiaSvils; igi werda: `1867-68 wlis dasawyisidan seminariaSi damrigeblad Sedis turiaSvili, xolo sami wlis Semdeg cxvedaZe. isini, oriveni, yovelmxriv Tanamoazreni iyvnen.~

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kurski daJinebiT amtkicebda, rom seminariasTan arsebobda `qarTuli partia~, romelic separatistul muSaobas eweoda. am partiis sulisCamdgmelad, organizatorad, gogebaSvilTan erTad niko cxvedaZes, giorgi ioseliansa da Tedo turiaSvils asaxelebda, rameTu misive mtkicebiT `yvela zemoxsenebuli piri Tavisi warmoSobiT, eniT, zne-CveulebiTa da erovnuli TaviseburebebiT qarTvelia?!~ saboloo jamSi, 1874 wels iakob gogebaSvili, rogorc politikurad arasaimedo piri, `mesame muxlis ZaliT~, samsaxuridan moxsnes da niko cxvedaZesac samudamod daatovebines seminaria. niko erTxans kerZo gakveTilebiT cxovrobda, Semdgom istoriis, geografiisa da pedagogikis maswavleblad dainiSna TbilisSi arsebul amierkavkasiis institutSi. Tavis gamosvlebSi xSirad imeorebda ingliseli filosofosis frensis bekonis sityvebs – `codna aris Zliereba, anu Zala~ da xalxsac sruliad gasagebi qarTuliT, naTlad da misawvdomad uxsnida swavla-ganaTlebis, skolebis qselis gaSlis udides mniSvnelobas... qarTuli mowinave inteligenciis, pirvelyovlisa, gogebaSvilis gundis SemadgenlobaSi daibada azri saxalxo ganaTlebis dargis Zireuli reorganizaciisa, agreTve ganaTlebis Sinaarsis wminda erovnul niadagze dafuZnebis, rusifikatoruli marwuxebisgan skolis mTlianad ganTavisuflebis Sesaxeb. ra amocana dgas sasoflo saswavlebelTa winaSe? - iyo SekiTxvebi da `iveriis~ furclebze niko cxvedaZe pasuxobda: - `sasoflo saswavlebelma unda ganaRviZos mowafeebSi yvela sulieri Zala, aamoqmedos bavSvis niWi-

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erebani, SeaCvios msjelobasa da am msjelobis magaliTis SemweobiT daayenos isini wminda zneobiT gzaze, miaCvios gafrTxilebas, sifaqizes da sisufTaves, agreTve saswavlebelma bavSvebis Wkua-goneba unda Seavsos namdvili cnobebiT bunebis Sesaxeb; erTi sityviT, sasoflo saswavlebelma sxvadasxva gonivrulis saxsrebiT, meToduri da didaqtikuri SuamavlobiT soflis ymawvilebi fizikurad da sulierad imdenad unda moamzados, rom isini Seiqmnan bolos Wkuadamjdari kacebi, yvelafris advilad gamgebni, rom kursis gaTavebis Semdeg didis siamovnebiT eZebdnen swavlis gagrZelebas da siyvaruliT misdevdnen mdabiur enaze dawerili wignebis kiTxvas, SeeZloT Tamamad laparaki da baasi im sagnebze, romlebic imaT garSemo axveviaT da kritikulad garCeva im crumorwmuneobisa, romliTac agre savsea glexkacis cxovreba. ai, es unda iyves sasoflo saswavleblis mizani da ai, amas unda misdevdes is ganuwyvetliv~. (`iveria~ #35, 1877 w.). niko cxvedaZe realisturad uyurebda ra saxalxo ganaTlebis problemebis praqtikuli gadawyvetis aucileblobas, jer kidev 1869 wels gazeT `droebaSi~ dabeWdil publikaciaSi, saxelwodebiT `werili peterburgidan,~ werda: `oxvriTa da carieli sityvebiT saqme ar gakeTdeba. aq unda cocxali monawileobis miReba... droeba yurSi CagvZaxis ganaTldiT, Torem cudad iqneba saqmeo, Cven ki gulxeli dagvikrefia da ar vcdilobT sazogado ZaliT SevudgeT im damabrkolebeli garemoebis gaqrobas, romelic sdevnis Cvens moswavle qarTvelobas (`droeba~, #37, 1869 w.). batonymobis gadavardnis Semdeg qveyanaSi erTgvarma Tbilma siom dahbera. Zalumad igrZnoboda ganaTlebisadmi ltolva, frTebi gaSales da masobrivi dasaZirkvleba daiwyes sasoflo skolebma, Tumc stiqiuroba da organizebuloba ZirSive hkveTda xalxis mier spontanurad wamowyebul saqmes. saWiro iyo Seqmna ma-

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koordinebeli centrisa, romelic swor, mecnierul mimarTulebas miscemda saxalxo ganaTlebis dargSi mimdinare procesebs, myar niadags Seuqmnida mas... amis Taobaze 1874 wels `droeba~ werda: -`unda vizRoT Cveni dakarguli, unda vuSveloT Cvens awmyos Tu ara, momavals mainc, rasakvirvelia, amis malamo pirveli is aris, rom unda Sedges wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoeba~. 1876 wlidan wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis Camoyalibebaze zrunvas eriskacebma erTad mohkides xeli. iakobma da nikom saqme imiT daiwyes, rom vaxtang TuliSvilis meSveobiT xarkovidan miiRes adgilobrivi wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis wesdeba, romlis safuZvelze saqarTvelos analogiuri sazogadoebis wesdebis SemuSavebas Seudgnen, raSic cnobili sazogado moRvawe da moazrovne, dimitri yifianic Caabes. iakobis avadmyofobis gamo, wesdebis SemuSaveba, praqtikulad niko cxvedaZem da dimitri yifianma itvirTes. `niko cxvedaZe, - werda iakob gogebaSvili, Cveuli energiiT Seudga am saqmesa da yovels SabaTs saRamos daiareboda dimitri ivanes ZesTan da mxolod es ori qarTveli adgenda wesdebulebasa axalis qarTulis sazogadoebisas (i. gogebaSvili, Txzuleba t. 4, 1995 w. gv. 394). n. cxvedaZem da d. yifianma mkafiod gansazRvres da Camoayalibes sazogadoebis wevrTa da Tavad sazogadoebis amocanebi. miuxedavad amisa, sazogadoebis wesdeba i. gogebaSvilma mainc ar miiCnia srulyofil dokumentad, rameTu masSi garkveviT ar iyo

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miTiTebuli, rom sazogadoebis skolebSi swavleba mxolod mSobliur, bavSvTaTvis gasageb – qarTul enaze unda warmarTuliyo. - `wesdebis damTavrebis Semdeg, - werda gogebaSvili, - igi gamovarTvi cxvedaZes da guldasmiT gadavikiTxe. aRmoCnda, rom muxli dedaenaze sagnebis swavlebis Sesaxeb, ar SeetanaT Siga. roca mizezi vikiTxe, cxvedaZem miTxra, rom dimitri ivanes Zes azriT, mag muxls mTavroba ar Seiwynarebs, wesdebas ar dagvimtkicebs da sazogadoebas ver davaarsebTo. me vupasuxe: `Tu eg muxli ar iqneba moqceuli wesdebaSi, sazogadoebis daarseba amao iqneba, radganac biurokratias ufleba miecema swavleba, sazogadoebis skolebSi, rusul enaze moiTxovos da maSin Cveni sazogadoeba qarTvels xalxis ganaTlebas ki ar gauwevs samsaxurs, aramed mis gadagvarebas da mis gonebis dabnelebas daexmareba-meTqi da maSinve Cemi xeliT wesdebulebaSi, romelic dawerili iyo cxvedaZis mier Savad, CavurTe Semdegi paragrafi: `obSestvo dastigaet svoi prosvetitelnoi celi sredstvom organizacii vsevo naCalnovo abuCenia na random, paniatnom dewiam iazike i sposobstvuet abuCeniu ruskomu iaziku~. (i. gogebaSvili, Txz. t. 4, 1995 w. gv. 294). am Sevseba-SesworebiT, wesdeba 123 damfuZneblis xelis moweriT, 1878 wels dasamtkiceblad waredgina mefis nacvals kavkasiaSi, romelic didi brZolisa da sagangebo ganxilvis Semdeg, rac gamoiwvia iakobis mier Setanilma mesame paragrafma, 31 marts mainc iqna damtkicebuli da 1879 wlis 31 marts sazogadoebac Seudga moqmedebas. sazogadoebis pirvel Tavmjdomared Ddimitri yifiani iqna arCeuli, xolo gamgeobis SemadgenlobaSi Sevidnen ilia WavWavaZe (Tavmjdomaris moadgile), iakob gogebaSvili, niko cxvedaZe, ivane maCabeli, aleqsandre sarajiSvili da da rafiel erisTavi.

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amieridan niko cxvedaZis sazogadoebriv-pedagogiuri muSaoba organulad daukavSirda `qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebel sazogadoebas~. igi iyo sazogadoebis gamgeobis mudmivi wevri da am sazogadoebis mravalmxrivad nayofieri kulturul-saganmanaTleblo da saswavlo-pedagogiuri saqmianobis ZiriTadi simZime, ilias usazRvro gadatvirTulobis gamo, swored mas daawva. iTvaliswinebda ra, saqarTvelos saxalxo ganaTlebis dargSi imperiuli politikis damRupvelobas, imas, rom rusi moxeleebi aSkara rusifikatorul politikas atarebdnen, da rom ianovskebi, darskebi, strelckebi da sxvebi erovnuli kulturisa da swavla-ganaTlebis yovel nasaxs ZirSive spobdnen, niko cxvedaZe mxurvaled Caeba `qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis~ muSaobaSi, yvelafers akeTebda imisaTvis, rom qarTul erovnul kulturasa da swavla-ganaTlebas gasaqani, ganviTarebis SesaZlebloba miscemoda. 1881 wlis 21 aprils niko cxvedaZe dimitri yifians werda: - `ianovskim xelmeored daamtkica, Tu ra cudi TvaliT ucqeris Cveni xalxis ganaTlebas, Tu ra cota mniSvnelobas aZlevs sazogadoebis azrs da moTxovnilebas. mgoni yvelasaTvis cxadia, rom saxalxo saswavleblis direqtorma ueWvelad unda icodes skolis ena, xalxis moTxovnilebani, misi xasiaTi, zneoba da Cveulebani. uamisod imas ar SeuZlian moutanos xalxs ganaTlebis jerovani sargebloba, magram yvela es, an ar swams ulianovskis, an kidev swams, magram gangeb sCadis da saxalxo skolebis direqtorebad niSnavs kacebs, romlebmac arc skolis ena ician da arc xalxs scnoben. ai, axla u. strelcki – qarTuli enis ucodinari dainiSna xonis samaswavleblo seminariaSi direqtorad. amis magvarad kidev aq, saqarTvelos gulSi, saxalxo skolebis direqtorad gaamweses uxeiro,

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gamoucdeli, qarTuli enis ucodinari u. darski. am aTi wlis winaT Cven ganmanaTleblebs SeeZloT eTqvaT: `Zlier gvsurs qarTvelTagani daeniSnaT direqtorebad, magram saubedurod qarTvelobaSi ar moipovebian pedagogikis asparezze gamosadegi kacebi~, axla ki amis Tqma ar SeuZliaT, arc erTi qarTveli u. darskize naklebi ar aris. TiToeuli maTgani Wkua-gonebiT, gamocdilebiT, Zlier maRla dgas axal direqtorebze da amisaTvis unda vifiqroT, rom rodesac saxalxo skolebisTvis direqtorebs eZeben, imas ki ar ucqerian, aRmoaCinon marTlac gamosadegi pirni, aramed imas, rom isini iyvnen ueWvelad rusni da es movlena, rogorc ganaTlebuli rusisTvis, ganaTlebuli qarTvelisaTvis – erTi sityviT yvelasaTvis, visTvisac ki Zvirad Rirs xalxisa da saxelmwifos keTildReoba, didi, didi samwuxaro movlenaa~. (saxalxo gazeTi~, 1912 w. # 660). niko cxvedaZe energiis dauzogavad ibrZoda da mis xelT arsebul yvela SesaZlo resurss iyenebda, raTa saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeebi ganaTlebis kerebiT, skolebiTa Tu biblioTekebiT moefina. misi aqtiuri monawileobiT daarsda sazogadoebis skolebi quTaissa da TbilisSi (1880 w.), baTumSi (1881 w.) winarexSi (1882 w.), TianeTSi (1883 w.), Zvel senaksa da xelTubanSi (1897 w.), yalamSaSi (1904 w.) ... aWaris qarTveli mahmadianebisTvis baTumSi qarTuli skolis daarsebis sakiTxi, `qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis~ gamgeobis 1879 wlis 17 noembris sxdomaze, pirvelad niko cxvedaZem daayena: `Cven, qarTvel sazogadoebas, bevri aRqma migvicia am axlad SemoerTebuli (1878 w.) Cveni TvistomebisTvis, magram saqmiT ki jer ar gagvikeTebia ram~ – ambobda igi. rogorc cnobilia, aWaris SemoerTebas gansakuTrebuli aRfrTovanebiT Sexvda qarTveli xalxi, romel-

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ic moiTxovda swavla-ganaTlebis gavrcelebas aWaris muslimanur mosaxleobaSi. `Cven unda gavaxsenoT maT, - wers gazeTi `droeba~, - rom isini tomiT qarTvelebi arian, da rom yvelaze ufro Zlierad erovnul garegnobas maT swavla-ganaTleba gauRviZebs da am miznis misaRwevad qarTuli wera-kiTxvis gavrcelebaa saWiro~. swored niko cxvedaZis dauRalavi, sadReRamiso mecadineobis Sedegad 1881 wlis 25 Tebervals baTumis qarTuli skola daarsda. sikeTis kevrze Semdgarma eriskacebma, irgvliv araerTi qarTuli saqme aajejiles; - qarTulobis uRelSi Seebnen da adamianurobis Rrma xnuli datoves, niSnad mrwamsis sidiadisa. brZolis vels ganaTlebis sarbieli warmoadgenda da es omi xmliTa da abjriT rodi moigeboda! –sulis simtkice, gautexloba, Tavdadeba iyo saWiro. da mainc, gansakuTrebuli damsaxureba niko cxvedaZes mSobliuri kavTisxevisa da misi mezobeli soflis (amJamindeli kaspis raioni) – winarexis skolebis daarseba, maTi Semdgomi ganviTarebis saqmeSi miuZRvis. sakavTisxevo da misi Semogareni, sruliad saqarTvelos erT-erTi ulamazesi, amasTan friad saintereso istoriis mqone arealia. aq mdebare soflebis biografia uxsovari droidan iRebs saTaves. kavTuras xeobis erT-erTi ulamazesi sofeli winarexi XI saukunidan ixsenieba, romelic 1073 wels mefe giorgis uwyalobebia Sio mRvimis monastrisTvis. istoriul wyaroebSi sakmaod mkafiod moixsenieba sofeli kavTisxevic. niko cxvedaZem Tavis Zmis, ioseb cxvedaZisa da ganuyreli megobris - iakob goge-

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baSvilis uSualo monawileobiT, jer 1878 wels, Semdgom - 1882 wels, wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli skolebi gaxsna. niko cxvedaZis Rvawli wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebel sazogadoebaSi martooden skolebis gaxsniT rodi amoiwureboda?! igi, amave dros, biblioTekebis dafuZnebas da qarTuli wignebis gamocemasac Tavkacobda. `sazogadoebaSi~ moRvaweobis periodSi mravali biblioTeka daarsda, kerZod, sami TbilisSi (1892, 1894, 1901 ww.), axalcixeSi (1895 w.), quTaisSi (1898 w.), xonSi (1901 w.), xaragaulSi (1902 w.). aRniSnuli biblioTekebi 1907 wlisaTvis 19500 saxelwodebis wigns iTvlida da 28 000-mde xelmomwers aerTianebda. _ `niko cxvedaZe, _ vkiTxulobT g. lasxiSvilis mogonebaSi, _ Seudarebeli energiis adamiani iyo. arasodes dahklebia gamgeobis sxdomebs. zepirad icoda yvela misi saqmeebi, da Tu sazgadoebam raime gaakeTa, raime simpaTia daimsaxura qarTvel erSi, amaSi udidesi Rvawli swored niko cxvedaZes miuZRvoda~. niko cxvedaZe misTvis Cveuli energiiT maSvralobda meore did qarTul sazogadoebaSic, romelsac `Rarib moswavleTa Semwe Tbilisis guberniis Tavad-aznaurTa sazogadoeba~ erqva. 1878 wlis 8 maiss am sazogadoebis pirveli saerTo krebac Sedga, romelmac airCia `gamgebeli-komiteti~ giorgi erisTavis (Tavmjdomare), konstantine mamacaSvilis (moadgile), vaxtang TuliSvilis, niko cxvedaZis, iakob gogebaSvilis, levan maRalaSvilisa da rafiel erisTavis SemadgenlobiT. `gamgebelma komitetma~ 1879 wlis ianvarSi ukve gaxsna Tbilisis saTavadaznauro skola, rasac aqtiurad

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gamoexmaura `iveria~ da `droeba~, romelnic momxdars afiqsirebdnen, rogorc didmniSvnelovan movlenas, rogorc skolas, sadac mozard qarTvelebs miecemaT saSualeba pirvel-dawyebiTi ganaTleba Tavis dedaenis SemweobiT miiRon.~ Tumc rTuli gaxldaT gza-savali amboxidan amobrunebamde, maWrobidan daRvinebamde.

...da ars taZari mSvenieri, xelTuqmneli... fasdaudebelia niko cxvedaZis amagi Tbilisis universitetis daarsebis da misi aRmSeneblobis saqmeSi. man 1897 wlidan itvirTa Tbilisis qarTuli gimnaziisaTvis sakuTari, axali Senobis agebis urTulesi saqme da Tavisi sicocxlis 14-15 weli, am udidesi erovnuli saqmis xorcSesxmas miuZRvna. 1897 wlis 22 maiss niko cxvedaZem gimnaziisaTvis saWiro Senobis mSeneblobis sakiTxi `Rarib moswavleTa Semwe Tbilisis guberniis Tavad-aznaurTa sazogadoebis~ sxdomaze daayena, ris Taobazec komitetma saWirod scno problemis dadebiTad gadawyveta da gamoitana dadgenileba: `daevalos gamge-komitets miwis syidva, sadac is hpovebs sasargeblod da am miwaze saTavadaznauro skolisaTvis Senobis agebas~ (angariSi `Rarib moswavleTa Semwe Tbilisis guberniis Tavad-aznaurTa sazogadoebisa, 1897 w. gv. 3). aRniSnuli dadgenilebis safuZvelze, niko cxvedaZe Canafiqris ganxorcielebas Seudga.

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1898 wlis zafxulSi niko cxvedaZem naxevar fasad SeiZina solomon bebuTaSvilisa da misi dis – Aanastasia xerxeuliZis kuTvnili varazis xevis gaRma mdebare 14 400 saJeni farTis miwis nakveTi, romlis Sesyidva da gaformeba sul 2 0924 maneTi dajda. aRniSnul faqtTan dakavSirebiT Jurnali `moambe~ werda: `Tbilisis saTavadaznauro skolisaTvis adgili 12 dRiuri ukve nayidia veraze da saxlis aSenebisaTvis fuli grovdeba. es saqme mTlianad ikisra Tavis Tavze batonma cxvedaZem. eWvi ar aris, rom didi, metad didi da Zneli tvirTi ikisra am pativcemulma moRvawem, magram misi erTguleba sazogado saqmisadmi, dauRalavi Sroma da saqmis codna Tavdebia, rom es saqme sasurvelad damTavrdeba. imedi viqonioT, rom mTeli qarTveloba TanagrZnobasa da Semweobas aRmouCens am keTilsa da saSviliSvilo saqmes (Jurnali `moambe~, 1899 w. #1, gv. 86). dawyebul saqmes marTlac bevri qvelmoqmedi da mxardamWeri gamouCnda. jer iyo da aRmSeneblobisaTvis saWiro nakveTi erekle meoris Svilis SviliSvilma mariam vaxtangis asulma jambakur-orbelianma sakuTari iniciativiTa da SuamdgomlobiT naxevar fasSi SeaZenina solomon bebuTaSvilisa da misi dis, anastasia xerxeuliZisagan, Semdgom ki cnobilma mrewvelma daviT sarajiSvilma, sazogado moRvawem ivane bagration-muxranskim, sovdagarma giorgi sxirtlaZem da mravalma sxvam gimnaziis mSeneblobisTvis didZali fuladi Semowirulobani gaiRes. magram yvela rodi uyurebda am sibrtyidan daw-

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yebul did qarTul saqmes. konservatiuli nawili Tavidanve undoblad da eWvis TvaliT Sexvda am saero mniSvnelobis wamowyebas, iTvaliswinebda ra Tbilisis perspeqtiul ganviTarebas, niko cxvedaZe saswavleblis mSeneblobisTvis adgilsamyofels dedaqalaqis farglebs gareT xedavda, risTvisac, SemdgomSi, mkacradac akritikebdnen. - `niko cxvedaZes, - igonebs zaqaria WiWinaZe, - amisaTvis hkicxavdnen mravalni yvedrebiT. veris meliebisa da turebisaTvis uyidnia skolis adgili da qarTveli ymawvilebi verel elibua menaxSire da meSeSeebisaTvis unda garekoso.~ amaze bevrnair masxrobas, dacinvasa da sayvedurebs asmendnen myidvels. meoreni siZviresac swamebdnen. dawuwunebas, kicxvasa da adgilis uxeirobas sazRvari ar hqonda (z. WiWinaZe, `didebuli saqme qarTveli erisa~, 1908 w. gv. 34). magram keTilSobiluri ideebiT gamTbari eriskaci – niko cxvedaZe, am xmebs arad agdebda da Cveuli sidinjiT, mondomebiTa da simtkiciT dawyebuli saqmis bolomde miyvanisaTvis ibrZoda, medgari suliskveTebiT gzidan iSorebda yvelas, vinc xels uSlida, win eRobeboda da gansacvifrebeli energiiT, Ronieri nabijebiT agrZelebda dawyebul saqmes. ai, ras werda niko cxvedaZis Sesaxeb g. bagration-daviTaSvili: - `Tqven ambobT, rom Sorsaao, - ityoda xolme igi, garwmunebT, rom male axlos iqneba, mxolod iqonieT moTmineba da xelis SeSlis nacvlad, damexmareT. Tqven ambobT, rom is Zalian didia Cveni Raribi sazogadoebriobisaTvis, rom Cven ar gvesaWiroeba uzarmazari Senobao. me ki garwmunebT, rom is patara gaxdeba Tavis droze.~ miwis nakveTis SeZena qarTuli gimnaziis mSeneblobis dawyebis erT-erTi mTavari, Tumc aragadamwyveti

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etapi iyo, iniciatorebi, SemdgomSi, ufro rTuli amocanis winaSe aRmoCndnen - ar gaaCndaT mSeneblobisaTvis saWiro saxsrebi, martooden `sazogadoebis~ wevrTa Semowirulobani ki saqmes ver Sveloda. xelgaSlil cxovrebas miCveul qarTvel Tavadaznaurobas miwebi saadgilmamulo bankSi hqonda dagiravebuli da skolis dafinansebisaTvis ar ecalaT. mSeneblobis uSualo Tavgamwevs, xelmZRvanels - niko cxvedaZes, Tbilisis guberniis saadgilmamulo bankis gamgeobis Tavmjdomares – ilia WavWavaZes, mis TanamebrZols iakob gogebaSvilsa da axalgazrda qarTvel arqiteqtor-xuroTmoZRvars svimon kldiaSvils, `qarTuli progresuli inteligenciis Zalze mcire nawilTan erTad, saidumlod hqondaT gadawyvetili, gimnaziis momizezebiT, momavali qarTuli universitetis srulyofili korpusi aRemarTaT, rac bunebrivia, gacilebiT didi Senobis agebas da Sesabamisad, kolosalur dafinansebas moiTxovda. saqme isaa, rom im kvalobaze, amgvari saidumlos gamxela, faqtobrivad, diadi saqmis CaSlas niSnavda, rameTu gaRaribebul qarTvel Tavadaznaurobas saamisod namdvilad ar ecala. ase, rom momavali universitetis aRmSenebloba imdenad gasaidumlda, rom TviT gamge-komitetis zogierTi wevrisaTvisac ki ar iyo gamxelili. mwerali al. jabadari amis Taobaze werda: `didi amagi miuZRvis niko cxvedaZes im saxlis aSenebaSi, gasaocar energias iCenda saWiro fulis SegrovebaSi da TviT Senobis

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agebis saqmeSi. rasakvirvelia, me vamayobdi, rodesac komitetSi amirCies da Cavebi am saqmeSi. roca Senobis gegmasa da xarjTaRricxvas gavecani dawvrilebiT, cxvedaZes vkiTxe: `batono niko! Tqvens mier dawyebuli Senobis damTavrebas didi fuli dasWirdeba. Senobis proeqtidan naTlad Cans, rom is Senoba gimnaziisTvis Zalian didia, garda amisa, Tqveni xarjTaRricxva mcirea. amiT saxls ver davamTavrebT da bolos SeiZleba didi usiamovneba moxdes, mTel komitets usayvedureben uvicobas, windauxedaobas . . . rogorc komitetis wevri, movale var giTxraT da komitetis krebazec aRvniSno. Sevatye, rom sityvebma daafiqra da TiTqos kidec ewyina. es laparaki Senobis ezoSi mqonda. nikom mklavSi xeli wamavlo, Senobis moSorebiT gamoiyvana da daiwyo: `rac TqviT, yvela marTalia, isic marTalia, rom gimnaziisTvis es Senoba didia, magram raki kiTxva ase daayeneT, gevedrebiT, Cemi naTqvami saidumlod SeinaxeT da SemdegSi damexmareT, rom es didi saqme Sevasrulo. ar vici, movaxerxeb Tu ara, magram darwmunebuli var, rom am SenobaSi qarTuli universiteti iqneba. me rom sazogado yrilobaze vTqva, yvela sulels damiZaxebs da SenobisaTvis erT groSsac ar gamoiReben. me rom namdvili xarjTaRricxva warmedgina, Tqven am Senobas TvaliTac ver naxavdiT. rogorc vatyob, Tqven ar iciT Cveni xalxis ambavi. me mwams, rom TbilisSi qarTuli universiteti gaixsneba da amodena Senobas swored amisaTvis vaSeneb~. niko cxvedaZis nebisyofis simtkices ar hqonda fskeri. es adamiani fesvmagari gvarovnuli, genetikuri birTvis Zlieri amonayari gaxldaT. ukan daxevaze arc ki ufiqria. miznis aRsrulebas ufliT dakisrebuli movaleobis xarisxSi ganixilavda... es iyo brZola saqarTvelos saxelisa da RirsebisaTvis. - `niko cxvedaZe – igonebs grigol naTaZe, - maswavleblebs gveubneboda am Senobis momavalze da xSir-

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ad gvetyoda xolme – ymawvilebo, aq qarTuli universiteti iqneba, qarTuli universiteti`. Cven amaze arafers veubnebodiT zrdilobis gulisaTvis. universitets vin gvaRirsebs? – mivmarTavdiT erTmaneTs da vicinodiT~. (gr. naTaZe, mogonebani, saqarTvelos saxalxo ganaTlebis saxelmwifo muzeumis xelnawerTa fondi # 1773). grZnobda ra seriozul saSiSroebas, niko cxvedaZe mainc Sors gamiznulad axerxebda winsvlas. qarTvel Tavadaznaurobas arwmunebda skolis mSeneblobis aucileblobaSi, xelovnurad azviadebda mSeneblobaSi arsebul sirTuleebs, grandiozulad warmoudgenda gimnaziis mSeneblobis masStabebs da gasaocari simSvidiT asabuTebda mas. icoda, beltis amosaRebad, saiT unda daedo bari. amasTan, niko cxvedaZem icoda, Tu raoden kolosalur TanxebTan iyo dakavSirebuli warmodgenili Senobis mSenebloba da cdilobda ramenairad mieCqmala, droebiT ar gaemJRavnebina, raTa ar daefrTxo damfinansebeli. `- is Senoba, - acxadebda igi – romelic Cvens skolas dasWirdeba, daaxloebiTi gaangariSebiT dagvijdeba 15 000 maneTi~-o. amasTan sazogadoebis krebisgan, man kategoriulad moiTxova sazogadoebis TiToeuli wevri am saSviliSvilo saqmis bolomde miyvanisaTvis darazmuliyo. sagulisxmoa erTi mniSvnelovani detalic. rogorc irkveva, niko cxvedaZes jer kidev karga xniT adre hqonda Cafiqrebuli universitetis Senobis ageba da saamisod seriozulad dauwyia muSaoba. 1897 wels evropuli qveynebidan gamouweria sxvadasxva tipisa da safexurebis saswavlebelTa Senobis gegma-proeqtebi, guldasmiTa da detalurad gascnobia, romelTa Seswav-

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la-Sejerebis safuZvelze qarTuli gimnaziis Senobis sruliad originaluri gegma-proeqtis momzadeba-Sedgena gadauwyvetia. am samuSaoTa Sesasruleblad da TviT mSeneblobis uSualo mwarmoeblad 1899 wels axalgazrda qarTveli xuroTmoZRvari svimon grigolis Ze kldiaSvili mouwvevia, romelsac 1900 wlis SemodgomisTvis ukve mzad hqonia pedagogiuri mecnierebisa da sainJinro-xuroTmoZRvruli xelovnebis maRali parametrebiT warmodgenili gegma-proeqti, romelic erTxmad iqna mowonebuli, da romelic dRevandeli Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis pirvel korpuss warmoadgens ... niko cxvedaZe axla ukve wamowyebuli saqmis uSualo aRsrulebas Seudga. 1900 wlis Semodgomazeve man moiwvia Tbilisis mowinave qarTveli sazogadoebrioba da sazeimod Cauyara safuZveli qarTuli mecnierebisa da kulturis momavali sibrZnis taZars. qarTulma presam sagangebod aRniSna es sasixarulo movlena. ase magaliTad, gazeTi `iveria~ ityobineboda: `14 oqtombers Tbilisis saTavadaznauro skolis gamge-komitetis mier SeZenils adgilzed am skolis axali Senobis saZirkveli Cayares da akurTxeso~ (`iveria, 1900 w. # 225). ase gadaiSala saqarTvelos kulturuli, civilizebuli cxovrebis kidev erTi lamazi furceli, aRorZinda kulturul-istoriul saqme, romlis bolomde

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keTilad dagvirgvineba TiTqmis aravin daijera, magram misi brwyinvale xvalindeli dRe Rrmad swamda sazogadoebriv-politikur muSaobaSi gamobrZmedil saxelovan Tanamemamules, saero saqmeTa Tvali-wyals, baton niko cxvedaZes!.. amaRelvebeli da amaRlebulia cxovreba marTalkac-eriskacisa, Taobebs rom ukafavda gza-savals sinaTlisken, simxneve-SemarTebiT ki zneobriv nimuSs qmnida momavali TaobisTvis. - `kargad maxsovs is dRe, - wers g. lasxiSvili – roca cxvedaZem qarTuli sazogadoeba moiwvia saZirkvlis Cayraze da kurTxevaze, sxvaTa Soris, viyaviT redaqciis warmomadgenlebic... niko cxvedaZe namdvili axalgazrduli enTuziazmiT iyo gatacebuli, magram bevri damswre, skeptikurad iqnevda Tavs da Cumad dascinoda kidec iniciators. sxvaTaA Soris, ceremoniis damTavrebis Semdeg niko Semogvibrunda axalgazrdebs da gviTxra: - `ymawvilebo, girCevT SeiZinoT aq samosaxlo adgilebi, axla axlo-maxlo miwa aq Rirs saJeni ramdensame kapiki, ramdenime wlis Semdeg ki aT Tumnadac aravin mogcemTo. vake maSin warmoadgenda oRro-CoRro ubans da Cvenc zurgs ukan davcinodiT enTuziasts – ras ambobs es adamiani, vis gaugonia aq dasaxleba~... (g. lasxiSvili, `memuarebi~, 1934 w. gv. 150). aRsaniSnavia, rom universitetis fuZis kurTxevaze mravli stumari iyo mowveuli. cxvedaZes moutania qarTuli kulturul-saganmanaTleblo sazogadoebisa da organizaciebis dabeWdili wesdebebi da SuSis carieli boTlebi kargi sacobebiT. yovel maTganSi ramodenime sxvadasxva wesdeba mouTavsebia da isini saZirkvelSi Cautanebia. – `dae, - ambobda igi – Tu Tbiliss

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kidev uweria romelime aRa-mahmad-xanis Semoseva da ganadgureba, da Tu am Senobas moelis dangreva, mtrebma naxon mis saZirkvelSi Cayril boTlebSi Semonaxuli wesdebebi da istorias gadasces, Tu kultura qonda saqarTvelos me-20 saukunis dasawyisSi, riTi sunTqavda qarTveli eri da ras warmoadgenda igi~, - ambobda igi. - `Zlivs vakeze miwis SeZena movaxerxeT, - gadmogvcems iakob mansvetaSvili, - axla SenobisaTvis unda gvezruna, magram saidgan, ra RoniT, fuli sad iyo? gadavwyviteT Cveni sawyali jibeebi gadmogvebrunebina da rac gvqonda, amogvebertya. iyo Sedgenili siebi qarTvel moxeleTa, msaxurTa da ase, groSebiT Sekrebili fuliT CavyareT saZirkveli. amaze xom ver SevdgebodiT, garTulda saqme, fuli bevri undoda, unda sxva Rone gveRona. ai, swored aq iCina Tavi cxvedaZem, amoiRebda niSanSi, visac raime qonebas SeamCnevda, SeuCndeboda da manam fuls ar gamoaRebinebda, ar moeSveboda. arc erTi SeZlebuli qarTveli ar gadaurCeboda cxvedaZis xarks... xerxi icoda, visTan rogor unda misuliyo, visTvis saidan moevlo. rac ufro Sors midioda, miT ufro meti mada eSleboda Cvens nikos. mere mada gaexsna da ori sarTuli oTxad gadaaqcia... wvril-wvrilad Segrovili Semowirulobebi xarjebs ver faravda. Ziebis gzam igi daviT sarajiSvilTan da Cven bankTan miiyvana, romlebmac uxvad gaumarTes xeli da aras zogavdnen am saqmisaTvis~. niko cxvedaZis saqmisadmi siyvarulisa da dawyebuli saqmis bolomde miyvanisaTvis gaRebuli Rvawlis Sesaxeb g. bagration-daviTaSvilic mogviTxrobs: _ `virtuozi iyo saxsrebis gamoZebnaSi, igi fuls gaaCenda iqac, sadac amis araviTari imedi ar iyo. mas

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Tanxebis Sovnis Taviseburi teqnika hqonda, maxsovs, erTxel is movida CvenTan mxiarul gunebaze. me wamsve mivxvdi, rom man ukve moaswro viRacasTan saqmis gaCarxva da amasve apirebda CemTanac. laparakobda sakmaod didxans gacxovelebiT, TiToeulma Cvenganma kargad icoda Cveni saubris uSualo mizani, me mouTmenlad velodi rodis daiwyebda is Setevaze gadmosvlas, is ki eloda moxerxebul moments SetevisaTvis. bolos Semomitia, magram rogori iyo misi gaoceba, rodesac mowinaaRmdege myisve danebda. rogorc Cans, mas met siamovnebas gvrida saqmis brZoliT aReba da amitom swrafi gamarjveba etyoba ise ar esiamovna... amgvarad, nikoloz zebedes Ze saqmis sargeblobisTvis, aSkarad Zarcvavda yvelas – Tavadaznaurobas, banks, mdidar vaWrebs... konstantine ivanes Ze muxranski, daviT zaqarias Ze sarajiSvili, Zmebi zubalaSvilebi misi msxverpli iyvnen da maTi `Zarcvis~ wyalobiT Cvens sazogadoebas SeeZina istoriuli Senoba. nu aRSfoTdeba am kristaluri qmnilebis roli, Tu me mas `bandits~ vuwodeb. marTalia, mas Tan ar hqonda revolveri da jer ver SeCveoda gamoTqmas `xelebi zeviT~, magram danarCens sxvas yvelafers, rac xmarebaSi hqondaT namdvil banditebs, nikoloz zebedes Ze maTze naklebad ar iyenebda. man Seqmna banditizmis iseTi kategoria, romelic Cvens qveyanaSi sTesavda mxolod bednierebasa da sixaruls~. da ase, amrigad SeuZlebeli SesZlo eriskacma... mSenebloba Tavbrudamxvevi tempebiT daiwyo da 1900 wlis 15 dekembridan 1901 wlis 15 martamde saZirkvlisa da pirveli sarTulis kedlebis amoyvana damTavrda. i yvela Rones xmarobda, iafad Caegdo xelSi saSeni masalebi, muSebs STaagonebda, rom Senoba maTi SvilebisaTvis, SvilTaSvilebisaTvis Sendeboda... sainteresoa erTi detalic, niko cxvedaZe am marTlac sauflo saqmis frTebis SesxmaSi, bolom-

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de cdilobda mTeli saqarTvelo Caeba, moezida ara mxolod qalaqis, aramed soflis mosaxleobac. am mizniT, igi Tavisi mSobliuri kavTisxev-winarex-niCbisis mimarTulebiT gaemgzavra. molaparakeba gamarTa glexTa TemebTan, `moiTxova maTi saqmiani mxardaWera, glexoba gagebiT moekida da gverdSi daudga amagdar qarTvels da ai, 1905 wlis 10 marts sofel kavTisxevisa da niCbisis glexTa warmomadgenlebma miiRes gadawyvetileba TbilisSi, saxelmwifo xarjze, universitetis daarsebis Sesaxeb; ikisres valdebuleba, mis mSeneblobaSi ufro monawileobis miRebis Taobaze. kavTisxevelma glexobam dapireba saqmed aqcia. aqauri saxelganTqmuli kiri da sali klde lastiani urmebis qaravniT zides, romelsac, xSirad, Tavad niko cxvedaZe miuZRoda, - da es yvelaferi aunazRaureblad keTdeboda!.. sakireebi, imxanad, niko cxvedaZis sacxivrebeli saxlis axlos, Tvaladis ubanze yofila, miqanaraanT ubnis zemoT. kiris gamomwvelnic da meurmenic aqauri glexoba iyo. giorgi da badulia SeSaberiZeebi, daviT kavTiaSvili, kotia da gula onofriSvilebi da sxvani, lastiani urmebis qaravniT damwkrivdebodnen Tbilisisaken momavali TelaTgor-niCbis-Zegvis mokle gzaze, - universitetis mSeneblobisaTvis mihqondaT saguldagulod kiri, darCeuli samSeneblo qva. Sromobdnen dReniadag, ofliT zeldnen da kavTisxevuri kiriT aduRabebdnen qarTuli sibrZnis momavali taZris kedlebs. cxvedaZis mier universitetis mSeneblobaze Camoyvanili bevri kavTisxeveli SemorCa universitets, xolo winarexe-

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li mixeil berbiWaSvili saZirkvlis Cayridan mis damTavrebamde, Semdegac ki, am didebul taZars mebaRed SemorCenia da sicocxlec universitetis kedlebSi daumTavrebia... usaxsrobisa da mTel rig siZneleTa gamo skolis mSenebloba Wianurdeboda da sul ufro met saxsrebs moiTxovda. amis gamo mosvenebas ar aZlevdnen, yovelmxriv utevdnen niko cxvedaZes, Seuracxyofdnen kidec erTxel missave TanamgrZnobT usayvedurebiaT misTvis. - `ra gaxda kaco, erTi uxeiro saSualo skolis Senoba? vayriT da vayriT fuls da uZiro ormosaviT ver amogvivsia. an ra saWiroa gimnaziisaTvis aseTi grandiozuli saxli? - nikolozis brge, magrad Sekruli figura uceb Seirya, bibliuri saxe mware Rimilma gaupo: - ras CamacivdiT Tqveni saTavadaznauro gimnaziiT, - mimarTa Tavis mosaubreT, - nuTu samudamod gamoeTxoveT im imeds, rom odesme qarTvelebs SeiZleba TavianTi umaRlesi saswavlebeli hqondeT? me rom varaudSi marto saTavadaznauro gimnazia mqondes, xvalve gadavxuravdio, magram sad moaTavsebT umaRles saswavlebels, vinicobaa dadga is sanatreli wami? axals aaSenebT? vai, rom ver aaSenebT! daamTavra man energiulad xelis CaqneviT. es iseTi xvaSiadis gamJRavneba iyo, rom yvelani gavSriT. ai, Turme saiT hqroda nikolozis ocneba... da am rwmenas, mraval wels, gulSi saidumlod atarebda da dRes pirvelad veRar daitia Tavis arsebaSi is saidumlo gulisnadebi, da aRSfoTebiT wamoRvara igi viwro wreSi~. marTlac SeuZlebeli SeZlo, gulis wveni gaiRo, problemas saxsari mouZebna. asignebani moizida da fexze daayena wasaqcev-CasafuSad da Tqven warmoidgineT, ukve gasayidad mravalgzis gamzadebuli eris didebuli wamowyeba – TeTri taZari!

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mSenebloba kvlav ganaxlda da misi aRmSeneblobis 15 wliani epopea, romelsac saTaveSi batoni niko cxvedaZe edga, triumfiT dasrulda... artur laistis gadmocemiT `ilia WavWavaZes Zlier uyvarda niko cxvedaZe da pativiscemiT epyroboda sazogado, sakeTilo saqmeebSi dauRalavis Sromisa da piradi umwikvlo xasiaTis gamo~ (art. laisti, Jurnali `ganaTleba~, 1918 w. #1, gv. 46). - arasodes damaviwydeba – werda grigol diasamiZe – rogor uyvarda xolme gansvenebul Cvens siamayes ilia WavWavaZes am adgilas misvla, sadac Senobas agebdnen. xSirad gveubneboda xolme, Tqven mere daafasebT nikoloz aRmaSeneblis Rvawlsao~. Tavis mxriv, usazRvro iyo niko cxvedaZis pativiscema didi iliasadmi. es siyvaruli ilias gardacvalebis Semdegac ar Camqrala... Tavs dastrialebda mis saflavs, uvlida da amSvenierebda mas. - ` gazafxulis erT dRes – igonebs prokle kakabaZe – Cveulebriv ramdenime amxanagi amovediT (mTawmindaze), vxedavT, ilias saflavs Tavs dastrialeben, Rrmad moxucebuli kaci gankargulebas iZleva. iqve mdgomi muSa da inteligenti TvalebSi Sescqerian da usityvod asruleben mis nebas, magram ai, uecari cvlileba moxda, TiTqos mexi gavardao - moxuci mTeli taniT akankalda, saxe Seecvala, TvalT cremli moadga da, rac Zali da Rone hqonda, morTo yvirili: - ras Svrebi, adamiano? ras Cadixar, vis adgam gulze fexs, visa? gagegeba, vin aris is? - yviroda moxuci. muSa, romelmac uneburad saflavis Sua adgilas fexi daadga, Sewuxebuli idga. didi bodiSi daWirdaT moxucTan. is keTilSobili kaci niko cxvedaZe gamodga, kaci, romlis Seudrekeli energiis wyalobiT gvaqvs universitetis didebuli Senoba, kaci, romelic gverdSi edga did ilias da massaviT mudam anTebuli iyo mamulis siyvaruliT...~

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1911 wels Semodgomaze niko cxvedaZe, mSobliur sofel kavTisxevSi yofnisas anginiT daavadebula. soflad myof qalaqel eqim sayvareliZesTan ar misula, wamali droulad ar miuRia, angina TavisiT gaivliso, magram avadmyofoba garTulebia da sicxiT gaTanguli, Tbiliss wauyvaniaT... _ `niko mZime avadmyofi mimyavda kavTisxevidan TbilisSi, _ igonebs f. gogiCaiSvili nikos ukanasknel dReebs – etlis rbil savarZelSi mwoliares xeliT vamagrebdi mis pirdapir skamze mjdomi da mTeli gza daZabuli viyavi, meSinoda etlidan ar gadmovardniliyo. vakeze Camosvlisas, roca universitetis mSenebare saxli gamoCnda, magrad CavebRauWe, is Tavs mainc Senobisaken abrunebda da cdilobda wamoweuliyo. es Senoba nikos metjer aRar uxilavs~. niko cxvedaZe 1911 wlis 30 oqtombers (12 noemberi) aResrula da mxcovani eriskaci didi pativiT miabares didubis qarTvel moRvaweTa panTeons. niko cxvedaZem RvTiT miniWebuli sicocxlis norma qveynis samsaxurs miuZRvna. misi Tavdadeba qveynisaTvis iyo uangaro, umwikvlo, amasTan winaaRmdegobebiT aRsavse. arc piradi cxovreba hqonia ia-vardiT mofenili. misi meuRle momRerali iyo, romelmac qmris moRvaweoba jerovnad ver Seafasa da ojaxs msaxiobis kariera amjobina – miatova niko da samiod wlis qaliSvili – elene, SemdgomSi universitetis erT-erTi damaarseblis f. gogiCaiSvilis meuRle da italias miaSura, - rogorc ambobdnen mas laskalaSic umRe-

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ria... sulmnaTi iakobisa da niko cxvedaZis mier ganvlil gzas esoden ubiwod, erTgulad, cota Tu ganvlida... kvalwmindad icxovres da imdagvarad ganvles sawuTro, maRla RmerTis ar eSinodaT, dabla – kacisa, eriskacTa TiToeuli mZlavri nabiji, gulis yoveli amofeTqva qveynis msaxurebaze iyo gaTvlili. Txilis gulTan erTad, Tanabrad inawilebdnen mzes, purs, ocnebebs naTel saqarTveloze. maTi gamyreli bari da niCabi Tu iqneboda, mxolod... da asec moxda. niko cxvedaZis gardacvalebam Rrmad daamwuxra Tavadac ukve dauZlurebuli iakob gogebaSvili. saukeTeso megobris dakargvis gamo didi moraluri dartyma miiRo. isRa moaxerxa, rom miarTva ukanaskneli saCuqari – gvirgvini mravlismetyveli warweriT: `samagaliTo moRvawes, iSviaTi mxneobiT aRWurvils mamuliSvils da Cems guliTad megobars niko cxvedaZes iakob gogebaSvilisagan~. niko cxvedaZisadmi erTguleba iakobma TiTqos imiTac daamtkica, rom megobris gardacvalebidan man sul ramodenime TveRa icocxla da gardaicvala ukanaskneli da erTaderTi surviliT – nikos gverdiT daekrZalaT igi. akakis sityva iakob gogebaSvilis dasaflavebaze: Zmao, iakob! ukanasknelad dagyureb, orkecad mgloviare: giglov, rogorc pirad megobars da ufro metad kidev, rogorc sazogado moRvawes. Cveni megobrobis kavSiri, mag Seni sikvdiliT

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gawyvetili xangrZlivi ar iqneba. Cemi dReebic daTvlilia da male dagewevi! magram Senma dakargvam, rogorc sazogado moRvawisam ki samaradiso xazi daasva gulze yovel Segnebul qarTvels. wamodgoma rom SegeZlos axla, dainaxavdi, Tur a grZnobiT yofila Sendami gamsWvaluli amer-imeri! gulwrfelad gigloven didebi da CagbRavis saflavSi mozardi axal-Taoba, rogorc saerTo mamas. amgvari sikvdili sanatrelia! Senze asrulda saRrmTo werilis sityva: `sikvdili marTalTa gansvenebaao!~ Sen warsdgebi pirnaTlad Cven saxelovan winaparT winaSe... da amoudgebi maT gverdSi, saukuno gansvenebiT!... aq ki iRaRadeben Seni naSromni da darCeba samaradisod Sengan gatkepnili gza da vinc im gzas ar gaivlis, is arc qarTvelad ixsenieba. kurTxeul iyos samaradisod is wminda gza da masTan erTad saxsenebeli Seni...amin!... akaki gsiem (goris saxelmwifo istoriul-eTnografiuli muzeumi), 6351/III-13

wuTisofels vin SerCenia, netav? eriskacebma, raxania datoves samzeo, cadamaRlebis Semdegac agrZeleben sicocxles wlebis gareSe eris cnobierebaSi.

epilogis magier STamomavlobam uTuod metad unda daafasos uangaro moRvawis – niko cxvedaZis Rvawli. mravali dacinvis miuxedavad, man aago is Senoba, romelSic amJamad Cven vimyofebiTo – aRniSnavda akademikosi, didi ivane javaxiSvili. -` vin aago es mSvenieri

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mecnierebis taZari? erTma soflis mRvdlis Svilma - nikoloz cxvedaZem, romelic cxovrobda mcire jamagiriT. man moaswro am mSvenieri mecnierebis savanis damTavreba. ambobda, ai, axla dadga is dro, rodesac gveRirsa Cveni universiteti, magram TviTon veRar moeswro am dros, - werda Jurnal `qarTul mwerloba~-Si Tsu profesori aleqsandre cagareli. niko cxvedaZis gardacvalebam mTel erTan erTad didi poeti, ioseb griSaSvilic daasevdiana da sakuTari leqsiT daitira eris diadi moamage. `gawyda simi, daikarga oqros wvima, mgosnis Rimi, mgosnis hangi cremlis zRvaSi CaiZira~.

diax, marTlac rom gvyavdnen eriskacni, ai, swored iseTni, iakobi, niko, ilia, akaki rom brZandebodnen! XIX saukunis saqarTveloSi TiToeuli skolis gaxsna marTlac rom TiTo mogebul brZolas uTanabrdeboda, erovnuli ganaTlebis sistemis Camoyalibeba ki – omis mogebas. da rogorc cnobili mecnieri, akademikosi, batoni zurab cucqiriZe lamazad SeniSnavs, niko cxvedaZe kiriT datvirTul urmebs rom mouZRvoda kavTisxevidan Tbilisisaken, es imas niSnavs, rom igi qarTvel meomarTa laSqars mouZRvoda Tbilisis gamosaxsnelad, rameTu maSin didgoric da basianic, marabdac da krwanisic mxolod da mxolod ganaTlebis sarbielze iyo saZiebeli.

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iakob gogebaSvili da sakavTisxevo iakob gogebaSvili arsebobis mTavar mizans, eris uangaro samsaxurSi xedavda mxolod. misive sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, igi iyo adamiani, visac `sicocxlis umTavres sagnad mSobliuri qveynis bedniereba gauxdia, vinc Tavgamodebulad da Seupovrad ebrZoda dauRalavad yovels dabrkolebas, romelic mis samSoblo qveyanas warmatebis gzaze gadahRobeboda, visac mTlianad dakargulad miaCnia yoveli wami, romelic ar mohxmardeboda mamulze zrunvas, visac edagvis guli mamulis tanjviTa da vin mzad aris RimiliT Seswiros mas Tavisi sicocxle~, - WeSmaritad aseTi iyo `xalxis Svili, Sua qarTlSi dabadebuli da dabadebidan xalxis kalTaSi aRzrdili~ sulmnaTi iakobi, romelmac mTeli Tavisi mgznebareba samSoblos maradisobisaTvis uangaro brZolis sakurTxevelze miitana eris sadideblad... qarTveli pedagogi da eris didi qomagi ver urigdeboda saqarTvelos kolonizacias, qarTveli xalxis mimarT warmoebul rusifikatorul politikas... samarcxvino boZze akravda mefis reaqcioner moxeleebs. carizmisaTvis Tavisi rusifikatoruli, mzakvruli politikis ganxorcielebis yvelaze moxerxebuli baza ki skola iyo, sadac maTive gegmebiT unda aRzrdiliyo imperiisadmi erTgulebis suliskveTebiT gaJRenTili kadri Cinovnikebisa. mozardi Taobis gadagvarebis mizniT, mefis moxeleebma saqarTvelos skolebidan gadevnes yovelive qarTuli, `bavSvebs xelT misces~

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wigni misTvis gaugebar enaze dasazepireblad, ramac mozard Taobas swavlis procesi satanjvelad gadauqcia da bevri yrma garusebis gzas Seayena... uangaro megobroba da samSoblosadmi ukeTesi mermisisaTvis brZola akavSirebda erTurTs or veeba sazogado moRvawes - iakobsa da niko cxvedaZes. niko cxvedaZis ojaxs iakobi jer kidev Tbilisis sasuliero seminariaSi swavlis dros dauaxlovda. aqedan iwyeba am ori didi qarTvelis urTierTdaaxloeba-damegobreba. rogorc qalbatoni elene cxvedaZe-gogiCaiSvilisa gadmogvcems – `dRe ise rogor gavidoda, rom iakobs nikos ojaxSi ar Seeara, nikos ki iakobi ar moenaxulebina~. saqmiT mtkicdeboda ori mamuliSvilis urTierToba... gogebaSvilis ojaxSi qarTveli inteligenciis saukeTeso warmomadgenelTa mier Camoyalibebulma wrem, romelsac `qarTveli stankeviCis~ wres uwodebdnen, didi gavlena iqonia maT saboloo damegobrebaze. niko cxvedaZe TvalisCiniviT ufrTxildeboda ganuyreli megobris – iakob gogebaSvilis janmrTelobas, romelic ukanasknel xanebSi mZime senma Seipyro. urCevda yovel zafxuls emkurnala, daesvena da gamojanmrTelebuliyo. iakobic morCilad ujerebda megobars da yovel zafxuls saagarakod miemgzavreboda. unda iTqvas, rom igi Tavis mSobliur sofel varians erideboda, rameTu missive TqmiT `qariani adgilia~ da gaciebis eSinoda. dasasvenebel adgilTa Soris ki Zalian moswonda surami, borjomi da abasTumani, xolo misi megobris, niko cxvedaZis meore mSobliuri sofeli kavTisxevi gansakuTrebiT xiblavda da izidavda mas. amdenad iakobma aTi zafxuli zedized swored rom sofel kavTisxevSi gaatara, saidanac yovelTvis jansaRi da xalisiani brundeboda Tbiliss. dasaxelebul faqts adasturebs aseve elene cxve-

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daZe-gogiCaiSvilisa, (misi qaliSvili), romelic aRniSnavs `jer kidev Wabukobisas iakobi Tavisufal dros nikosTan erTad xSirad sofel kavTisxevSi (qarTlSi), niko cxvedaZis dedis - mariam kavsaZis asulis ojaxSi atarebda. nikos deda xelgaSliT da siamovnebiT iRebda Tavisi ufrosi Svilis sayvarel amxanags, iakobic aq Tavs kargad grZnobda, mSobliuri ojaxis darad miaCnda. arc dakacebis Semdeg ar uRalatnia iakobs CveulebisTvis. igi sistematurad daiareboda nikos ojaxSi, mudmivi da axlo urTierToba hqonda masTan, xolo zafxulobiT nikos saxlSi calke oTaxi hqonda miCneuli dasasveneblad da samuSaod. niko cxvedaZem Tavis guliTad megobars kavTisxevSi, sazafxulo sacxovreblad dauTmo mzis pirs mdebare erTi oTaxi, romelsac niko cxvedaZis ojaxSi Semdeg iakobis oTaxs eZaxdnen~ (el. cxvedaZe – `mogonebebi~). iakobi Tavisufal dros xalxis wiaRSi atarebda, xanac myudro adgils moZebnida `fiqrTgasarTvelad~. - iakobs – ganagrZobs qalbatoni elene cxvedaZe – gansakuTrebiT moswonda kavTisxevidan axalqalaqisaken (kaspis raioni) mimavali Saragzis maxloblad gaSenebuli buCqnari, sadac igi xis Zirs gaSlil xaliCaze mTeli saaTobiT Jurnal-gazeTebs kiTxulobda. kavTisxeveli glexoba xSirad xedavda iakobs, roca igi ijda da buCqnarSi, xis Ziras isvenebda da kidec saqmianobda. glexebma am buCqnars iakob gogebaSvilis buCqnari daarqves da es saxelwodeba mas didxans SemorCa~.

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meore egzotikuri adgili, romelic gansakuTrebiT xiblavda da uyvarda iakobs, kavTisxevidan oriode kilometriT daSorebuli, sofeli gudaleTi iyo, romelic kavTisxevs TrialeTis mTis momwvano-molurjo kalTebidan mercxlis budesaviT gadmohyurebs da, sadac iakobi kviraSi or-samjer mainc midioda, CeroSi dafenil xaliCaze isvenebda, da am marTlac rom saarako bunebis wiaRSi saqarTvelos naTel, gasxivosnebul momavalze ocnebobda... qalbaton elene cxvedaZis gadmocemiTve, iakobs swored rom am jadoqrul egzotikaSi, bunebis am eniT auwerel da ganumeorebel harmoniaSi, da ara sxvagan, dauweria ukvdavi qmnilebani `kona~ da `iavnanam ra hqmna~. diax, didma iakobma swored aq – gudaleTSi, xazgasmiT minda vTqva, Semdgomi gamocemisaTvis daamuSava ukvdavi `bunebis kari~ da Cveni eris marTlac, rom xelixelsagogmanebeli Zegli – `deda ena~... aleqsandre miqaberiZis gadmocemiT, iakobma gudaleTSive Seadgina mravali werili gazeTSi mosaTavseblad. mas aqve daumuSavebia cnobili da sakmaod vrceli statia `qarTuli~, romelic gazeT `tfiliski vestnikSi~ daibeWda. unda aRiniSnos, rom zemoxsenebuli publikacia eris mecenatma qarTvelTa da somexTa istoriul megobrobas miuZRvna. marTlac, rom RvTis madliani xeli atyvia kurTxeul sofels. vin ar moxiblula misi simSvenieriT, cas mibjenili gorozi mTebiT, mTaTa kalTebze nazardi sicocxlisferi tyeebiT, rZisfrad moCuxCuxe nakadulebiT... gangebam gamoWeda aqaurni, rogorc wuTieri, ise maradiuli sicocxlisTvis, dRemde rom Rirseulad SeunaxavT qveynisaTvis Tavdadebis grZnobac da gancdac...arc xmlis moqneva dazarebiaT, arc guTnis-dedoba, enaze ar SeSrobiaT saTqmel-marTali. ena-piri ver moTvlis maT mier qmnil samadlo saqmeT... salocavebiTac umdidresia RvTivkurTxeuli kuTxe

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qveynisa, ufalTan axlos, maRlobebSi rom moelian sanTlebis damnTebT. - rodesac iakobi saRamos gudaleTidan kavTisxevSi brundeboda, - ganagrZobs qalbatoni elene cxvedaZe, niko cxvedaZe Taviseburi RimiliT SeekiTxeboda mas, - `iakob, marTali miTxari, aba rogor mogwons Cveni kuTxis Sveicaria? xom marTlac saucxoo dasasvenebeli saagarako adgilia? egec Cveni kavTisxevi da Sengan mowonebuli gudaleTi! ` iakobi aseT SekiTxvaze sruliad gulwrfelad da gulaxdilad upasuxebda: `marTali giTxra, Cemo niko, rom mdidar bunebas mTeli Tavisi warmtaci Zliereba, mTeli Tavisi siuxve da silamaze Cveni samSoblos qveynisaTvis miumadlebia, me rom dro da mocaleoba mqondes, gudaleTSi avagebdi sazafxulo saxls da yivelwliv zafxuls am saucxovo sofelSi gavatarebdi. gana ukeTes saagarako adgils kaci sadme mosZebnis?~ niko suliTa da guliT moxaruli iyo, rom mis ganuyrel, guliTad megobars sofeli kavTisxevi da mis garSemo mdebare soflebi ase rigad moswonda~. iakobs aSkarad rgebda kavTisxevis zomieri, SuSasaviT kriala da gamWvirvale haeri... amis gamo didi pedagogi kavTisxevs da mis Semogarens yovelTvis qebiT moixseniebs... - `marTlac, - mogviTxrobs aleqsandre miqaberiZe – iakobs ise rgebda gudaleTisa da kavTisxevis zomieri da saRi haeri, rom igi am soflebs yovelTvis tkbilad igonebda da yvelgan, roca ki sazafxulo agarakebis Sesaxeb laparaki Camovardeboda, kavTisxevsa da gudaleTs didi qebiT da xotbiT ixseniebda xolme.~ arasdros yofila sxvaTa Wirisgan gamdgari; - madly da sikeTe mSvid Zilad, tkbil sizmrad hyofnida RvTismosav, sulmnaT eriskacs. mudam qarTulobis wisqvilze asxamda wyals. moyvasTa wylulTSemxvevi, uangarod jambarobda xelnaklulT, obolT, miusafarT,

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Tavad mciredic hyofnida uflisgan rCeuls. iakobi Rrmad iyo dainteresebuli soflis mSromelTa yofiT, maTi tkivilebiT, miswrafebebiT; cdilobda amoecno glexis gulisnadebi, dakvirvebiT waekiTxa, gulTan mietana da xelic SeeSvelebina. pedagogikis xuroTmoZRvari axlos midioda xalxTan, ubralo adamianebTan; bevrjer kavTisxevel, Tvaladel Tu gudalel glexobasTan saubarSi garTuls, gvarianadac SemoaRamdeboda xolme, Tumc Sin erTob nasiamovnebi da didad kmayofili brundeboda. - `yovel Sexvedrisas, glexi iqneboda igi Tu maRali wodebis adgilobrivi mkvidri, iakobi pirvel salams miscemda da gamarjvebas etyoda xolme. kavTisxeveli glexkacoba, radgan axladmosul moagarakes jer kidev axlos ar scnobda, pirvel xanebSi, masTan gamolaparakebas erideboda, Tumca drom Tavisi gaitana - yovel Sexvedrisas gulaxdilad uziarebdnen safiqrals, TavianT gasaWirs Tu dalxinebas~. fasdaudebelia iakob gogebaSvilis damsaxureba kavTisxeveli da winarexeli mosaxleobis ganaTlebisa da maTi kulturuli yofis aRorZinebis dargSi. didma pedagogma, rogorc kometam, ise gaielva sakavTisxevoSi da Tavisi keTilnayofiereba Seitana mis wiaRSi. - `sazRvargareT, dawinaurebul qveynebSi – uambobda igi aqaur glexkacobas – Tu soflis meurneoba Tavis simaRleze dgas, es mxolod imiT SegviZlia avxsnaT, rom TviToeuli ucxoeli, sanam meurneobas xels mokidebs, wera-kiTxvas swavlobs da meurneobaSi saWiro codnas iZens. Cvenc, qarTvelebma, ucxo qveynis magaliTs unda mivbaZoT da mxolod am pirobebSi SegviZlia Cveni soflis meurneoba jerovnad ganvaviTaroT da wliuri sarCo-sabadebeli sakmarisad ojaxSi SevitanoT? kavTisxevel glexkacobas saqmian rCeva-darigebebs da rekomendaciebs aZlevda; miuTiTebda mecnierebis

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dauflebis, codnis SeZenis aucileblobaze... - `Tu gindaT, rom siRatakes Tavi daaRwioT, Tu gindaT Tqveni meurneoba rigianad waiyvanoT, swavla-ganaTleba miiRoT, amitom SeecadeT mTavrobam gagixsnaT iseTi skolebi, sadac Tqveni Svilebi saWiro codnas SeiZenen da saswavleblis damTavrebis Semdeg gverdSi amogidgebian, Segnebulad mogeSvelebian da Tqvens yovelwliur cxovrebas win wasweven, wera-kiTxvis mcodne adamiani ufro nayofierad awarmoebs Tavis meurneobas, vidre Tqven, roca arc wera-kiTxvis codna SegwevT da arc saWiro swavla-ganaTleba gaqvT miRebuli~ (iakob gogebaSvili, saiubileo krebuli). iakobis damrigebluri, saintereso da mimzidveli saubrebi Zalumad itacebda kavTisxeveli glexobis gonebasa da guls. isini jguf-jgufad iyridnen Tavs da did pedagogs sTxovdnen Semdgom rCeva-darigebas. ganaTlebis keraTa arqonisa da uswavlelobis gamo erTob Seviwrovebuli sakavTisxevo Tavis gulisnadebs xmamaRla da principulad gamoxatavda, moiTxovda gaxsniliyo sasoflo skola. gazeTi `droeba~ 1874 wels werda: `sasircxo kavTisxevisaTvis is aris, rom am sidide, asre SeZlebul sofelSi Skola ar aris, arc banki, es marTla rom samwuxaroa, magram amis pasuxad glexobam miTxra, rom Cvens sofelSi erTi moxerxebuli kaci ar aris, rom saqme iTavoso. Cveni Svilebi gvinda naswavlni iyvnen, magram ra uyoT, eqvsi wlisa rodesac gaxdebian, vercerTi Sin ver darCeba: zogi urems misdevs,

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zogi mwyemsobas, zogi sxva samusaos... kargi iqneboda jer-jerobiT skola gaxsniliyo~. (gazeTi `droeba~, # 435, 1874 w.) sakavTisxevoSi am droisaTvis daaxloebiT xuTasi komli cxovrobda, mosaxleTa Soris wera-kiTxvis mcodneTa ricxvi ki mxolod aTiode kacs Seadgenda, uvicobisa da gaunaTleblobis Sedegad, sazogadoeba zaraldeboda. _ `saocar ambebs gaigebs aq imisTanas, romlis mizezic wignis uvicoba aris... aq mxolod aTiode kaci moipoveba wera-kiTxvis mcodne. eseni arian mediatorebi, moazreni. xSirad naxavT, rom ori glexkaci midis, erTs xelSi uWiravs Casuqebuli dedali da meores veqsilis qaRaldi, eZeben an diakvans, an mRvdels; veqsils daawerineben da dedals gasamrjelod miarTmevdnen~ – werda gazeTi `droeba~. eris iseTi didi patrioti da mecenati, rogoric iakob gogebaSvili gaxldaT, ar SeiZleboda ar dainteresebuliyo kavTisxevelTaTvis skolis gaxsniT. man niko cxvedaZesTan erTad yvela Rone ixmara am saqmis xorcSesasxmelad. maT aqtiuri muSaoba gaSales adgilobriv mosaxleTa Soris sasoflo skolis gaxsnis Taobaze mTavrobisgan nebarTvis misaRebad. rac ufro SemarTebiT miiltvodnen win, diadi miznisken, mzisken, sinaTlisken, miT ufro miwisgulamde Rrmavdeboda maTi erovnulobis fesvi Cveni modgmis uTvalsawiero, TvalSeudgam istoriaSi. cadamaRlebulni, caTasworni, dResac loculoben saqarTveloze. Tavdapirvelad 1874, Semdgom ki 1976 wels maTive iniciativiT Sedga kavTisxeveli sazogadoebis yriloba, romelmac sasoflo skolis gaxsnis Taobaze miiRo dadgenileba. am movlenis Sesaxeb `iveria~ werda: `kavTisxevelma mcxovreblebma mtkiced gadawyvites soflad elementaruli skolis daarseba, ris gamoc Sesdga soflis mcxovrebTa yriloba. yrilobam SeimuSava

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mazris ufrosTan warsadgeni Txovna, romelSic kerZod Caiwera: `Cven, sofel kavTisxevis sazogadoeba... vTxovT mis brwyinvalebas mazris ufross, raTA moaxdinos gankarguleba sofel kavTisxevSi gaxsnas pirveli elementaruli Skola~. (iveria~, # 22, 1877 weli). sakavTisxevos glexobis mcdelobam, gaexsnaT sasoflo skola, imZlavra – 1878 wlis 1 noembers sazeimo viTarebaSi gaixsna kavTisxevis erTklasiani sasoflo skola, romlis pirvel maswavleblad ioseb zebedes Ze cxvedaZe dainiSna. (niko cxvedaZis Zma). skolis gaxsnas ki safuZvlad daedo kavTisxevis sazogadoebis yrilobis 1876 wlis dadgenileba: Seiqmna skolis mzrunvelTa komiteti aleqsandre cxvedaZis, ninika morCilaZis, mose aRapiSvilisa da dimitri SeSaberiZis SemadgenlobiT. skolisaTvis daqiravebul iqna daviT kandelakis saxlis meore sarTuli, romelSic saswavlebeli oTxi wlis manZilze funqcionirebda. 1882 wlis 1 ianvars daarsda agreTve wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis sanimuSo skola sofel winarexSi, romlis saswavlo gegma da wesdebis principuli nawili Tavad iakob gogebaSvilma daamuSava da Tavisi komentarebic daurTo. SemdgomSi kavTisxevis skola, winarexis sasoflo skolasTan erTad, mTels sakavTisxevoSi saxalxo ganaTlebis Cauqrobel kerad gadaiqca. zemoT dasaxelebuli orive skola materialur siRatakesa da siviwroves ganicdida, ris Sesaxebac saarqivo masalebic ityobinebian. naqiravebi Senoba odnavac ver akmayofilebda saswavlo-saaRmzrdelo dawesebulebaTa winaSe dayenebul moTxovnebs, saklaso oTaxebSi iataki ar iyo dagebuli, saxuravTagan ki wvimis nakadi Camoedineboda...Tumc kavTisxevisa da winarexis sasoflo skolebis popularoba dRiTi-dRe izrdeboda. maTken masobrivad ibruna piri sakavTisxevos ymawvilkacobam. saswavleblis daqiravebuli Se-

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nobebi swavlis msurvelTa Warb raodenobas ver akmayofilebda. - `bevri ded-mama dabrunda ukan kavTisxevis Skolidan unugeSod, SkolaSi SegirdebisTvis adgilis uqonlobis gamo. Seni Svili unda swavlobdes, kaci gamovides da Cemi Svili ki mama-papasebr iseve oxrad, uswavleli darCes. aba mere Senma Svilma, Cem Svils, TavSi unda Caubagulos?! ara Zmao, raxan Skola dawesda, yvelam iswavlos~ – ase gamoxatavda kavTisxeveli sazogadoebis damokidebulebas skolisa da swavlisadmi gazeTi `droeba~. (gazeTi `droeba~, #5, 1880 weli). niko cxvedaZisa da iakob gogebaSvilis uSualo iniciativiT gadadgmul iqna praqtikuli, amasTan Ronieri nabijebi skolaTa nivTieri bazis gansamtkiceblad. gadawyda, mieRoT zomebi dasaxelebuli sasoflo skolebisTvis axali saskolo Senobebis aSenebisaTvis. am mizniT kavTisxevSi mcxovreb giorgi morCilaZisgan SeiZines miwis nakveTi. skolas wera-kiTxvis sazogadoebam 200 maneTi gamouyo. Tbilisis guberniis saxalxo skolebis direqtorebis – jer streleckisagan, Semdeg ki darskisagan, iakob gogebaSvilis uSualo CareviT, skolam miiRo Semweoba 1150 maneTis odenobiT, Tavad kavTisxevelebma ki saswavleblis sasargeblod 1205 maneTi gaiRes... amasTan, skolis mSeneblobis saqmeSi mTelma sofelma miiRo monawileoba... da saswavleblis tipiuri Senoba, romlis proeqti niko cxvedaZem Tbilisel arqiteqtors Seadgenina. ukve 1881 wels saeqsploataciod gadaeca, ris Sesaxebac gazeTi `droeba~ miuTiTebda: - `kavTisxevis skolis Senoba, romelic `arxiteqtoris~ planiT aris aSenebuli axali saZirkvliT, Ziris sardafiTa da maRla mSvenieris oTxi oTaxiT da erTi ymawvilTaTvis karidoriT, win mSvenieri, movlili ezo-baRiT – amisTana Senoba mTels saqarTveloSi

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arsad iqneba saxalxo skolisaTvis~. (`droeba~, #270, 1881 weli). kavTisxevis sasoflo skolas sul male moupovebia didi popularoba `ara Tu marto sakavTisxevoSi, aramed mTels guberniis sadireqtoroSi, rogorc erT ukeTesTagans sadgoms~. igi gadaiqca sanimuSo sasoflo skolebs Soris. amis Sesaxeb laparakobdnen, qebis statiebs werdnen, msjelobdnen... niko cxvedaZis, iakob gogebaSvilisa da adgilobrivi sazogadoebis SemweobiT, skolam SeiZina saswavlo-sacdeli miwis nakveTi, romelzedac moewyo sanimuSo-sameurneo ganyofileba. `iveriaSi~ iakob gogebaSvili `X~-is (iqsi) fsevdonimiT aRfrTovanebiT miuTiTebda: `sofel kavTisxevis dawyebiTi saswavlebeli, sameurneo ganyofilebebiT, yovelgvaris Sesaferisi mowyobilobiT, CaiTvleba Tavankara skolad mTels tfilisSi. did saintereso sagans ufro Seadgens sameurneo ganyofileba skolasTan, ris aRwerac, vimedovnebT yvela Cvenis bedis msurvels guls wauxalisebda, keTili ganwyobilobiT dauwyeben cqeras amisTana ganyofilebebs. es ganyofileba skolasTan Camoyalibda 1891 wels, daarsda mebaReobisa da mefutkreobis saqmis swavleba. hqonda venaxi, romelSic 1000 Ziri rCeuli jiSis vazi iyo naxarebi, gonivrulad movlili da Seyelili. mowyobilia yovelnairi teqnikuri mcenareebi – bamba, amerikuli fetvi, seli, futkris yvavili... bostneuloba ganuwyvetliv bibinebs mTeli wlis manZilze~ (`iveria~ # 208, 1895 w.). calke aRniSvnis Rirsia skolis pedagogis, ioseb cxadaZis piradi wvlili da damsaxureba, visi uSualo monawileobiTa da RvawliT

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iqna daarsebuli metexis, axalqalaqis, qvemo gomis, xovlis sasoflo skolebi. igi ganuwyvetliv glexobis SuagulSi trialebda, eweoda dauRalav kult-saganmanaTleblo muSaobas. kavTisxevSi misi TaosnobiT Caeyara safuZveli Teatrs, 1880 wels ki Tavis umcros Zma-aleqsandresTan erTad, kavTisxevis samomxmareblo kooperativsac afuZnebs... - `zafxulobiT kavTisxevSi imyofebian xolme pedagogebi i. gogebaSvili, n. cxvedaZe, romlebic yovel egzamenebSi eswrebian da rCeva-darigebas aZleven maswavleblebs; SarSan kavTisxevis skolazed iyo qebis statia i. gogebaSvilisa~ (`droeba~, # 270, 1881 w.) 1880 wlis 5 seqtembers iakob gogebaSvili gazeT `droebaSi~, `axaldabelis~ fsevdonimiT, aqveynebs vrcel statias kavTisxevis sasoflo skolis warmatebuli muSaobis Sesaxeb, riTac kidev erTxel axalisebs mas. 1880 wlis 30 agvistos did pedagogs kavTisxevis sasoflo skolaSi dayenebuli saswavlo-aRmzrdelobiTi muSaoba Seuswavlia, riTac Zlier kmayofili darCenila. - `kargad midis kavTisxevis skolis saqme, - werda igi, - sul ori weliwadia, rac eRirsa sofels skola, magram exlave SesamCnevad Seucvlia feri soflisTvis. ori wlis winaT wignis mcodne aq Znelad ipoveboda, axla ki oTxmocamdis mozardi qal-vaJi gvarianad kiTxulobs da wers. sxvagvari saunjec miuniWebia am mozardTaTvis skolas. midixar orRobeebSi da win gvxvdeba jgufi soflis biWebisa da patara qalebisa. pirsaxis gamometyvelebiT, Tamami qceviTa da cnobismoyvareobiT maSinve gaarCev skolaSi mosiarule bavSvebs sxvebisagan~. (`droeba~, #187, 1880 w.) - `sadac unda Sexvide, - ganagrZobs didi pedagogi, romel muSaobaSic ar unda naxoT skolaSi mosiarule soflis biWi, yvelgan atyob gavlenis kvals: ai, trial mindorze gaWimula qarTuli guTani da uRelze mj-

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domi Tormeti wlis mowafe skolis mxiarul simReras dasZaxis. uaxlovdebiT guTans, arCevT bavSvis sityvebs da didxans ugdebT yurs... sasiamovno gancvifreba ixateba Tqvens saxezed. bavSvi zedized awkrialebs mSvenier leqsebs, sul saukeTeso nawarmoebebs xalxis gonebisas, imisTaneebs, romlebic gonebasac sazrdos aZleven da gulsac avseben kacuris grZnobaTa~. iakob gogebaSvili, pozitiuri ZvrebiT aRfrTovanebiT, aRwers saswavleblis cxovrebiT calkeuli epizodebis mimzidvel egzotikas: `miabijeb tyis pirad da waadgebi amisTana saamur suraTs: saqoneli saZovrad gaSlila Reles aqeT-iqedan, ferdobebze patara mwyemsi 10-12 wlis mowafe skolisa, mwvanezed wamowolila, nidayvebze Tavi daubjenia, parkidan wigni amouRia da Cakvirvebuli kiTxulobs. ai, didi kaklis qveS mogrovda aTiode qal-vaJi, Camwkrivebulan da sulganabulni yurs ugdeben patara biWs, romelsac kaklisaTvis zurgi miuyudnia, yeli mouRerebia da raRazedac gacxarebuli laparakobs. es gaxldaT skolis mowafe, romelic Tavis patara auditorias gacxarebiT uambobs iosebis istorias. daacadeT, rom ori weliwadi kidev ivlian skolaSi es bavSvebSi, da maSin SeiZenen imisTana codnasac, romelsac pirdapiri gavlena eqneba maT materialur mdgomareobaze, da sarCos mopovebazed~. - `xSirad gagvigonia, - werda `iveria~ 1899 wels, imdenad yru da ukan CamorCenilia, rom swavla-ganaTlebas, skolas eWvis TvaliT uyurebs. magram Cvenda sabednierod, eg azri yofila usafuZvlo. gaumarTeT glexs kargi skola, aswavleT, rac saWiroa da Tqven dainaxavT, rom glexi skolasac pativiscemiTa da TanagrZnobiT moekideba da SesaZleblobisamebr xelsac gaumarTavs. am azris damamtkicebel sabuTsac mogarTmevT; sofel kavTisxevs da winarexs TavianTi skola aqvT. am skolebma kidec daimsaxures soflebis yur-

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adReba da pativiscema. xalxi darwmunda, rom skola, swavla-ganaTleba imisTvisac saWiroa da sasargeblo. ramdensame wlis ganmavlobaSi soflis axalgazrdobam icvala feri da xasiaTi, meti sifxizle da sifaqize daetyo sulsa da gulsa da erTxel agznebuli siyvaruli swavlisa skolisagan cxovrebaSi Tan gamohyolia~. (‘iveria~, #198, 1889 w.). iakob gogebaSvilis, niko cxvedaZisa da bunebrivia, skolis maswavleblis, ioseb cxvedaZis damsaxurebad unda CaiTvalos didi RonisZieba, romelic 1888 wels kavTisxevSi moewyo da romelic am skolis daarsebis 10 wlisTavis iubiles mieZRvna.. RonisZiebaze mowveulni iyvnen goris mazris sasoflo skolebis warmomadgenlebi, saswavlo olqis, wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebisa da sxva organoebis pasuxismgebeli pirebi. gansakuTrebiT unda aRiniSnos, rom skolam 10 wlis manZilze - 368 kursdamTavrebuli gamouSva, romelTagan tbilisis saTavadaznauro skolebSi, gimnaziebsa da sxva saswavleblebSi 38 maTgans gaugrZelebia swavla. fasdaudebelia iakob gogebaSvilis amagi kavTisxevis, xovlisa da winarexis skolebis progresisaTvis. cnobili pedagogi ivane giunaSvili, romelic winarexis skolaSi didi xnis ganmavlobaSi moRvaweobda maswavleblad, werda `gogebaSvili CvenSi erTaderTi pedagogia, romelsac Tavisi xangrZlivi Sromisa da Rvawlis gamo dedaenis Sesaxeb CvenSi badali ar hyavs. ra

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iqneboda, rom Cvens skolebs iakob gogebaSvilis `deda ena~ da `bunebis karic~ ar hqondes?! (`saqarTvelos kalendari~, 1905 w. gv. 55) da marTlac... da unda vzardoT beberi, deda-xe fesvTagan amonayari nergi – axali, - Rirseulad davafasoT sulis sazrdo Cveni modgmisa.

vaJa SaqaraSvili mwerali, publicisti, saqarTvelos mweralTa kavSiris wevri

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