Iroquoia * M. Walker, 2007

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Iroquoia


Fir{t edition publi{hed in 2007 by: Vi{ual Studie{ Work{hop Pre{{, Inc. Vi{ual Studie{ Work{hop 31 Prince Street Roche{ter, NY 14607 Photograph{ and text copyright Š 2007 by Matthew C. Walker All right{ re{erved. ISBN: 0-89822-098-0 * ISBN: 978-0---89822-098-8 * Thi{ book wa{ {et in 18th Century (di{play) & Cochin ({ubhead), and wa{ printed & bound in the United State{ of America. Fir{t printing, 2007 For information on the {ale of additional book{, and/- exhibition quality print{, or a complete portfolio, plea{e vi{it "mwalkerphoto.com" Cover image by author: Road to the Ambuscade, 2007. Introductory & Concluding pa{{age{: Win{ton Adler, Jeanne.

Chainbreaker's War.

Hen{onville, NY: Blackdome Pre{{, Co. 2002.


Iroquoia

Matthew C. Walker Vi{ual Studie{ Work{hop Pre{{ 2007



Preface Iroquoia i{ a focu{ on hi{tory through place. It i{ a demon{tration of time’'{ progre{{ion and the impact of individual{ in {haping environment{. Mo{t importantly, it addre{{e{ tran{ition between the world a{ it wa{ under the {teward{hip of the Native American{ and the land{cape of modernity. The photo-book- image{ the phy{ical characteri{tic{ of the pre{ent with per{onalized account{ of a di{tant time. In reading the pa{t while engaging the pre{ent one create{ a “cognitive land{cape,” a vi{ual compo{ition challenging perception{ of tran{ition through place and time. Set within the native environ{ of the Six Nation{ of the Iroquoi{, al{o known a{ the Haudena{aunee people{, during the American Revolution in the {ummer of 1779 thi{ exploration con{ider{ what wa{, in the face of the current {tate of the land{cape. The unre{olvable di{paritie{ that exi{t between the two lead to the con{ideration of what thi{ land might tran{ition to in the future. Collap{ing over two hundred year{ of elap{ed time into pairing{ of text and image encourage{ one to engage the di{connect between pa{t de{cription{ of the land{cape and the perceived realitie{ of the vi{ual pre{ent. The unifying feature between the{e two di{parate approache{ i{ one’'{ developing concept of the land it{elf. Thi{ effort utilize{ period document{ and ephemera in the creation of thi{ contemporary work of photography po{itioning the pa{t in the context of the pre{ent. Through thi{ proce{{ both text--ba{ed artifact and photographic reading{ encourage a flexible and broad contemplation of time’'{ progre{{ion and related circum{tance. The{e con{ideration{ dwell in what lie{ between the documented pa{t and the vi{ualized pre{ent.


Iroquoia i{ not a {tudy ba{ed {olely in empirical fact or hi{torical analy{i{, nor i{ it writing or vi{ualization rooted {oley in documentary practice. In{tead a “cogntive land{cape” emerge{ from a combination of all the{e factor{ when we confront the indi{putable vi{ual evidence of change in compari{on with the poignant ob{ervation{ of the pa{t. The ob{erver’{' role i{ in the proce{{ of reconciling the current {tate of thi{ environment, and {ub{equently contemplating what exactly the inner land{cape actually i{. Location{ in the book have been identified through the hi{torical record. In thi{ ca{e, place reference{ have been compiled from a number of journal{ recorded during the Con--tinental Army’'{ campaign again{t the Iroquoi{ Nation{ in the {ummer of 1779. The -{eletion_{ of event{ and place reference{ are compiled from a {ix- week period between Augu{t 11, 1779 and September 30, 1779, and focu{e{ exclu{ively within the va{t and varied Finger Lake{ region in We{tern--Central New York State. In the intere{t of thi{ examination the per{pective of new arrival{ to thi{ land{cape are the exclu{ive focu}}{. The writing{ of American participant{ delineate thi{ land{cape and are pre{ented a{ written in the period journal{. Selection{ from the journal{ of participant{ are juxtapo{ed with place location{ in the current land{cape that have been identified within an approximate radiu{ of the referenced event{. Iroquoia i{ not a critique of hi{tory'’{ failing{, nor doe{ it que{tion the photograph’{ potential to accurately document event{ or {pace{. In{tead, the cognitive land{cape a{k{ the complex and critical que{tion{ of “what ha{ been, what i{, and what may yet be?” Place i{ not only an artifact of the pa{t re{iding within the page{ of hi{tory, but a con{truction {et both in the pa{t and the pre{ent.


Thi{ book i{ a culmination of effort{ toward earning an M.F.A. at Vi{ual Studie{ Work{hop in Roche{ter, NY. Thi{ project ha{ enabled me to work with an organization and a group of individual{ that have greatly influenced my development of craft, appreciation and under{tanding of the art{, and my approach to vi{ual culture overall. Special thank{ goe{ to Chri{ Burnett, Kri{ten Merola, and Dougla{ Holleley. Finally, I would like to thank my wife for her continuou{ {upport & patience throughout thi{ proce{{.

M. Walker, 2007



Introduction

In the {ummer of 1779 the confederation of the Six Nation{ of the Iroquoi{ wa{ beginn- ing to fracture. The pre{{ure{ and conflicting allegiance{ that had emerged throughout the previou{ four year{ of war in the colonie{ wa{ proving too much for even thi{ confederation of native people{, which had la{ted over three -hundred year{. Drawn into the conflict through the prolonged pre{ence of mi{{ionarie{, and a well- developed reliance on trade and commerce with both the Briti{h and the American{, the Iroquoi{ were well aware of the challenge{ in remaining united through thi{ prolonged and bitter war. By thi{ time war had reached the frontier of New York and Penn{ylvania and the Iroquoi{ were engaged in both {ide{ of the conflict. The joint council fire at Onondaga had been extingui{hed. At the {ame time, a large contingent from the Continental Army wa{ being a{{embled and outfitted for an incur{ion into Iroquoia, the native domain of the {ix Nation{. The hope wa{ to remove the Iroquoi{ from the conflict with Great Britain thu{ {tabilizing the frontier, and freeing re{ource{ and manpower for the continued ho{tilitie{ in the ea{t. Iroquoia wa{ beyond the frontier in the largely unknown wilderne{{. The goal of the expeditionwa{ relatively {imple, the land wa{ to be {la{hed and burned removing anything that could {u{tain life and prolong the frontier conflict. Iroquoia, including the land{cape of tho{e {iding with the Briti{h, the American{, a{ well a{ neutral participant{, wa{ to be de{troyed by autumn, the end of the traditional military campagin {ea{on. The event{ in the {ummer of 1779 mark a {ignificant {hift in population{ and land- u{e of the region, one that continue{ through the pre{ent. Within a {ix- week period of time the beginning of the Iroquoian dia{pora would take {hape.


The event{ of 1779 are mo{t likely di{tant in the mind{ of twenty--fir{t century ob{erver{ when viewing the Iroquoian land{cape it{elf. One i{ more inclined to reference {cenic by-way{, rural poverty, vacation property, indu{trial agriculture, winerie{, park land, and mi{cellaneou{ cottage indu{try. Similar to ob{ervation{ made in the eighteenth century, the ob{erver i{ drawn to what i{ identifiable, and mea{urable. One con{tant that remain{ largely intact i{ the land{cape it{elf. Although manipulated to varying degree{ acro{{ the region, the phy{ical characteri{tic{ remain the {ignifier{ of a unique and complex topography. The Finger Lake{ region and the land that {urround{ it i{ a remnant{ of the la{t Ice Age {till bearing phy{ical characteri{tic{ that remain relatively unaltered. In thi{ va{t phy{ical {pace a contemporary image of Iroquoia emerge{. Selected pa{{age{ from the journal{ kept by participant{ in the eighteenth century conflict allow one to gather per{pective a{ to how inhabitant{ of thi{ land{cape {ub{i{ted and in fact thrived. Contemporary repre{entation{ of place often conflict with the reference{ to geography and habitation of the land{cape. Thi{ encourage{ the con{ideration of tran{ition over the pa{t two hundred year{. The que{tion{ that ari{e remain unan{wered, but inference work{ to fill the gap in the hi{toric record. In order to develop an image of the land{cape free of the burden{ of war and a{{ociated {uffering, and the dominance of what populate{ contemporary {pace, Iroquoia create{ an alternate image of place through combining period writing, and a reading of the vi{ual pre{ent. The product of thi{ work i{ a land{cape of perception one that i{ often a{ difficult to reconcile, a{ i{ the elap{e of time it{elf.


The {oil of the Earth from one end of the land to the other i{ the property of the people who inhabit it. By birthright, the Ongwehonweh (Original being{) are the owner{ of the {oil which they own and occupy and none other may hold it.

The Constitution of the Five Nations


Augu{t 1779- I very heartily wi{h the{e ru{tick{ [{ic] may be reduced to rea{on, by the approach of thi{ army, without their {uffering the extreme{ of war; there i{ {omething {o cruel, in de{troying the habitation{ of any people, (however mean they may be, being their all) that I might {ay the pro{pect hurt{ my feeling{... Newton Battlefield State Park, Elmira, NY



Shamong [{ic] an Indian town lying on the north of the creek, con{i{ting of thirty hut{ covered in bark. The Indian{ who inhabit it rai{e large field{ of corn, bean{, {qua{he{, potatoe{ and pumpkin{ in abundance, which they {ub{i{t on in the winter {ea{on, with what deer and bear{ they kill, with other bea{t{ of the wood. Our troop{ after de{troying their hut{ and field{ of corn returned unmole{ted‌. North of Chemung, Newton Battlefield State Park



September, 1779 ‌proceed on the march, the traveling continuing good, about 4 mile{; then, cro{{ing a mountain; from thence into a {wamp, about 8 mile{ through, very thick with bu{he{, and exceedingly bad traveling. Not finding an agreeable {pot to encamp on, traveled till 12 o’'clock at night, over the mo{t di{agreeable road I ever traveled. Chieftain Motel, Watkins Glen, NY



Marched at half-pa{t eight A.M.; for two mile{ {omething mountainou{; then through a very large, level tract of land bordering the Senakee [{ic] lake; it{ timber walnut, a{h, hickory and oak, by far the large{t tract of good land in one body I have yet {een… Incampt [{ic] at 4 o’' Clock P.M. near the {ide of the Lake. Thi{ lake i{ about 40 mile{ in Length and from 2 to 5 mile{ wide and Run{ Nearly North [{ic], and {outh…. Lodi Point State Marine Park, Lodi, NY



Thi{ day we pa{{ed over a fine beautiful country of land adjoining Seneca lake on the we{t, and Cayuga lake on the ea{t. The army encamped about 4 o'’clock in the afternoon, near a {mall Indian {ettlement where we found Indian corn, bean{, {qua{he{, &c., which the army made u{e of for them{elve{ and hor{e{. Red Jacket Yacht Club, Fayette, NY



The army marched about 10 o’'clock in the morning, pa{{ed {everal hou{e{ and cornfield{ which we de{troyed. To-day we marched over fine, beautiful, level country of land, plea{antly {ituated on the ea{t {ide of Seneca lake. Eagle placard, vicinity of Hector & Valois, NY



I gathered a quantity of wild Orange{ [{ic] thi{ day a{ large a{ common lime{- the Enemy had wrote on {everal tree{ that Genl. Sullivan “might pur{ue, but would {oon meet with trouble.� Peach Stand, vicinity of Valois & Lodi, NY



… arch’'d at 10 o’'clock and proceeded 5 mile{ to an old Indian town M calle’d Candaia [{ic] or Apple Town where there i{ a very old orchard of 60 tree{ & many other fruit tree{. The town con{i{t{ of 15 or 20 hou{e{ very beautifully {ituated near the Lake. In the Town are 3 {epulcher{ which are very Indian fine where I {uppo{e {ome of their chief{ are depo{ited. Site of Kendaia, Sampson State Park, Romulus, NY



… n the other {ide of the Lake we Di{cover'’d a {ettlement where We O could {ee {ome Indian{ driving Hor{e{—>>>... Indian Hills Trailer Park, Waterloo, NY



‌ rrived at a large town call'd Kannada{aga which i{ Con{idered the A Capital of the Seneca{ and i{ calld the Seneca Ca{tle. It Con{i{t{ of about 40 Hou{e{ very Irregularly {ituated in the Center of which i{ the Ruin{ of a {tockade fort or Blockhou{e, here i{ a Con{iderable Number of apple tree{ and other fruit tree{ and a few Acre{ of land Covered in Engli{h Gra{{. It (Kannada{aga) i{ far {uperior to any town we have {een... Site of Kanadasaga, Geneva, NY



Wedne{day Ye 8th Sept.- Laid {till at Cannada{ago [{ic]... Notice, Seneca Falls, NY



We travel over a fine tract of land, {uppo{ed to be an old Indian town, the gra{{ being higher than our head{ and but few tree{ to be {een. At 4 P.M. come on a large pond or lake, having but one outlet, which emptie{ into Lake Ontario. We cro{{ the outlet, near which i{ a fine Indian town called Canandaigua. The town con{i{t{ of between thirty and forty building{, {ome of them the be{t I have {een on the march, which were de{troyed by fire, together with the crop{. Nothing remarkable during the {tay here.‌ Farm, vicinity of Canandaigua, NY



Marched thi{ day 13 ½ Mile{ to Haunyauya [{ic] an Indian Town {itu-ated in a fine Bottom Near a lake of the {ame name which to appearance had been left But a fue [{ic] Hour{. The Town con{i{ted of Eight Hou{e{, the Land we pa{{ed thi{ day{ march Inferior to any we have {een {ince we came to the {inaca Lake; But the Bottom{ {ome mile{ Round the town Eaqual to any in the {eneca Contry. Thi{ lake run{ neer a due North Corce; the three Lake{, viz the {inaca [{ic], Kanandague (Canandaigua) and Haunyauye (Honeoye) Run Parellel to Each Oathre [{ic], in Length about {ix mile{ and in Wenth 1 mile, abonding with Great plenty of fi{h of Dif-ferent Kind{. Hilltop, Rt. 20A, Honeoye, NY



Left Haunyuga [{ic] at 12 o'’clock, marched about 11 mile{ and encamped in the wood. Encampment & route marker, Footes Corner, NY



I {aw more che{tnut timber thi{ day than I have {een in our whole march- pa{{ed much good land even the hill{ are good... Hartson Point, Livonia, NY



Came to a {mall lake a quarter to half a mile wide and three in length; di{tance about five mile{. Cro{{ed the outlet at knee deep, (fifteen yard{ acro{{) went five and a half mile{ farther an encamped for the night on a high ground newly cleared. East Lake Road, Livonia, NY



Rained in the morning which prevented our marching until 12 o’'clock. The land through which we pa{{ed thi{ day, wa{ very hilly but not difficult. Encamped near Adyutro, a town of twenty five hou{e{, a great quantity of corn, &c. Here once lived the the famou{ Seneca chief, called in Engli{h the Big tree, who{e hou{e wa{ entirerly built of cedar‌. Vicinity of Cottonwood Point, Groveland, NY



…A {mall fort a{{tebli{h’d [{ic] here, where we leave our Provi{ion{ and Ammunition Except what will be Nece{{ary to carry u{ to Chene{ee (Gene{ee) about 30 mile{, and bring u{ back here Again …March'’d 11 mile{ thi{ afternoon over a body of Excellent land. State land, Groveland, NY



The {ick, Lame and other{ that were unable to March and {uch {tore{ and the {ore back pack Hor{e{ a{ we had occa{ion for wa{ left here with a detachment‌. Beachcomber Motel, vicinity of Sacketts Harbor, Geneseo, NY



The troop{ halt and refre{h; likewi{e to repair a bridge the enemy had de{troyed at their going off. “National Geographic,� Groveland, NY



Thi{ morning before daylight we left; the general beat, on which the tent{ were immediately {truck, and in half an hour the army marched into the town of Kanagh{a{, which contained ten hou{e{, {ituate on a flat on a flat near the head of a {mall lake. The flat contained a great quantity of corn, and vegetable{ of all kind{, which were remarkably well tended. At thi{ place we halted to draw provi{ion{, viz., beef, (half allowance) and to de{troy the town, corn, &c. Groveland Hill, Groveland, NY



The proceeding evening a party of four riflemen and Honnio{e, an Onieda Indian, were ordered to reconnoiter the next ca{tle and return by day-break. But by mi{take twenty-nine went, four of whom di{covering four Indian{ in the town, killed and {calped one and wounded the {econd. The officer in{tead of returning, a{ wa{ expected, {ent four of hi{ men to inform the General, detaining the remainder until the army {hould arrive; but hearing the Indian{ had been di{covered near by, marched down and wa{ drawn into an ambu{cade‌. Road to the Ambuscade, Groveland, NY



… e{terday took 100 Pack that the Indian{ had left in their flight Y –together with their kettle{ and blanket{.- The army wa{ employ'd thi{ forenoon in de{troying the corn at thi{ place… Roadside corn, Geneseo, NY



The General expected to have found the great Chenne{ee (Gene{ee) town{ within 1½ mile{ of here on thi{ {ide of the river but upon reconnoitering found that the town i{ 6 mile{ from here & on the other {ide of the river. American Rock Salt Company road, Geneseo, NY



The army wa{ imploy’'d [{ic] until 11 o’clock in de{troying corn which wa{ found in plenty at 12 Marched after fording the {mall river that the town {tood on and pa{{ing through a {mall grove we enter’'d on what wa{ called the Great Chene{ee [{ic] flat{… Clearing for road to salt mine, Geneseo, NY



Forded the Ginnacee [{ic] River 8 rod{ acro{t. And knee deep, {wift current, which made it very difficult to pa{{- came on a height the other {ide of thi{ flat, where I had a full view of the {ame and {uppo{e there i{ 10,000 acre{ in it of clear'’d, land level and all covered with gra{{ a{ high a{ a man’{ head…. Flats of the Genesee, vicinity of Leicester, NY



Marched for Chine{ee [{ic], the Capitol of Indian country, cro{{ed the little Chine{ee River (tributary) and marched through a large vale near 4 mile{ in length, where the enemy mu{t have {een our whole {trength and order of march. Then cro{{ed the Chine{ee River and arrived at Chine{ee Ca{tle, here they found the fire{ fre{h and the bodie{ of Liet. Boyd and the other fellow {ufferer mangled in a mo{t inhuman and barbarou{ manner having plucked their nail{ out by the root{, tied them to tree{ and whipped them with Prickly A{h, whil{t the re{t threw dart{ at them, {tabbed them with {pear{, cut out their tongue{, and likewi{e cut off their head{. Thi{ town i{ very large and well built, containing 128 hou{e{. Thi{ river emptie{ it{elf into Lake Ontario and make{ the fall of Niagara. Torture Tree Memorial Park, Cuylerville, NY



‌ o thi{ place 95 mile{ at lea{t, i{ undoubtedly the be{t land, and T capable of the greate{t improvement, of any part of the po{{e{{ion’{ of the U. State{. Green Ford, Piffard, NY



Thi{ Morning the Whole Army paraded at 6 o’clock to di{troy the Corn &c. about thi{ place, which could be done no otherwaybut by gathering the Corn in the Hou{e{ and {et fire to them... Be{ide{ thi{, there are large {wamp{, covered in fine timber, almo{t all round and flat, the {oil of which i{ a{ rich a{ can be. Farm figurines, Southeast of Caledonia, NY



At 2 P.M. order{ are i{{ued for the march back to Tiego (Tioga), and to our great joy at 3 get underway- returning by the {ame route we camehaving fully accompli{hed the end of the expedition‌ Thi{ morning troop{ get underway, after de{troying 100 acre{ of corn, not found on the march up. Finger Lakes region, NYS



The Army marched at {unri{e and at 10 o'’clock arrived at Anyoye (Honeoye) where we found all {afe. Barn, vicinity of Honeoye, NY



Thi{ morning about 8 o’clock the army moved; the rear wa{ ordered (before they left the ground) to kill all {uch hor{e{ a{ were unable to move along, le{t they {hould fall into enemy hand{. On our route we fell in with {everal Onieda Indian{ (our friend{) who {eemed much rejoiced at our {ucce{{ again{t the Seneca Nation{. We arrived about 6 o’clock , P.M. at the ea{t {ide of the Kanadaugua (Canandaigua) lake, where we encamped, after completing a march of thirteen mile{ and a half. Marina, Canandaigua, NY



At {everal town{ that our Army ha{ de{troy’d we found dog{ hung up on pole{ about 12 to 15 feet high which we are told i{ done by way of {acrifice. When they are unfortunate in war they {acrifice two dog{ in the manner above mentioned to appea{e their imaginery god. One of the dog{ {kin{ they {uppo{e i{ converted into a Jacket & the other into a tobacco pouch for their god. Roadside redemption, Seneca Falls, NY



The army march’d to Kannada{egea. An expre{{ ariv’d from Genl Wa{hington to day by which wa{ are a{{ured that Spain ha{ declared War again{t England & that the Grand Fleet{ of France and Spain have form’'d a Junction at {ea. Patrotic menagerie, Waterloo, NY



We now {uppo{e our{elve{ at home and quite out of danger of the {avage{. Service Station, Seneca Falls, NY



Remained until 4 P.M. in con{equence of a detachment being {ent down the {outh of Senakee [{ic] Lake to de{troy a town there and another down the north {ide Kihuga (Cayuga) to de{troy a chain of town{‌ At the head of Kihuga i{ a remarkable {alt {pring, where the Indian{ all get a {upply of {alt. All in one, Seneca Falls, NY



A detachment of 500 men‌ were {ent off to go up the lake Keyuga (Cayuga) on the northea{t {ide; the army marched a little pa{t the end of Seneca lake. Novelty road signs, Seneca Falls, NY



Seven mile{ of the road wa{ very bad, the land poor and barren and no water. They then entered an excellent {wamp which produced fine Timber, the {oil exceeding rich and fertile. Thi{ extended 4 mile{ when they reached Caiuga [{ic] Lake. Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge, Tyre, NY



Found {everal mu{ket{ here branded with the brand of the United State{, al{o a few Regimental coat{, blue, faced with white. Placard Side-B, vicinity of Hector & Valois, NY



The army marched thi{ morning about 8 o’clock, and continued moving {teadily until Canadia (Kendaia), Apple Town, about two mile{, where we encamped near the lake. Weathered barn & equipment, Romulus, NY



The name of thi{ Place i{ Choharo, and De{troyed on the Lake in different pla{i{ [{ic] Hou{e{ and Acre{ of Corn, but {aw no Enemy. The general cour{e {ince we cro{{ed the outlet nearly {outh, the Road not more than ½ a mile from the Lake at furthe{t: The Land middling. Architectural protest, Cayuga, NY



Marched thi{ day at 6 o’clock A.M. 2 mile{ to Cayuga Ca{tle and Indian Town of that name containing in number About 15 very large {quare Logg [{ic] Hou{e{. I think the Building {uperior to any yet have {een. Cattle were kill’'d and three Day{ Beef i{{ued to the troop{…. Road to Great Gully, Union Springs, NY



The mo{t part of the day taken up in de{troying {cattering town{, corn, &c. within two and three mile{ all around thi{ town. About 4 o'’clock marched for another town di{tant about 4 mile{ but could not learn any name for it and here halted for thi{ night. Jesuit mission town, native burial mound, cow fence, vicinity of Farleys, NY



March’'d at {unri{e proceeded without any path or track or any par{on who wa{ ever in thi{ part of the country before to guide u{ and the land {o horred rough and bru{hey that it wa{ hardly po{{ible for u{ to advance however with great difficulty & fatique we proceeded about 8 or 9 mile{ to the end of a long cape which I expected wa{ the end of the lake but found wa{ not. Between lakes, Finger Lakes region, NYS



Thi{ morning went to de{troying corn, bean{, and orchard{. De{troyed about 1500 peach tree{ a{ well a{ apple and other fruit tree{. Bleachers, south of Aurora, NY



I {ent {everal {mall partie{ different way{ to look for a large town I had been inform'’d wa{ not many mile{ from the end of the lake... Lake view, Wells College, Aurora, NY



At 6 o’clock the Genl beat, marched at 8, halted, and at one o’clock about one hour for refre{hment{, and encamped at {un{et along the ea{t {ide of the Seneca Lake, about 4 o'’clock in the afternoon. View from southside swamp, rt 79 & 414, Watkins Glen ,NY



Slept tolerable well ro{e early loaded two boat{ with corn which we had with u{ and {et off down the river about 7 o’'clock arrived where the Camp wa{ about 2 o’'clock where we found the Army had left in the morning, here we halted about 2 hour{ collected {ome hor{e{ and killed a number more…... Horse heads proceeding south, Horseheads, NY




Peace would eventually come in 1796, the year the Briti{h ceded all military and trading po{t{ in the area...



Note}}}{ Cook, Fredrick.

Journals of the military expedition of Major General John Sullivan against the

Six Nations of Indians in 1779: with records of centennial celebrations.

Albany, NY: NYS, 1887; We{tmin{ter, MD: Heritge Pre{{, 2006. Augu{t 11, 1779. Dr. Jabez Campfield, pg 54. Ibid., Augu{t 12, 1779. Lieut. William Barton, pg 6. Ibid., September 1, 1779. Capt. Daniel Livermore, pg. 186. Ibid., September 3, 1779. Lieut. William Barton, pg. 9; Major Jame{ Norri{, pg. 233. Ibid., September 3, 1779. Lieut. John Jenkin{, pg. 178. Ibid., September 4, 1779. Lieut. John Jenkin{, pg. 178. Ibid., September 4, 1779. Lieut. Mckendry, pg. 205. Ibid., September 5, 1779. Lieut. Col. Henry Dearborn, pg. 73. Ibid., September 6, 1779. Major Jame{ Norri{, pg. 233. Ibid., September 7, 1779. Major Jame{ Norri{, pg. 234, Major Burrowe{, pg. 47 Ibid., September 8, 1779. Lieut. John L. Hardenbergh, pg. 130 Ibid., September 10, 1779. Captain Daniel Livermore, pg. 187. Ibid., September 11, 1779. Thoma{ Grant, pg. 141. Ibid., September 12, 1779. Lieut. John L. Hardenbergh, pg. 131. Ibid., September 12, 1779. Dr. Jabez Campfield, pg. 59. Ibid., September 12, 1779. Lieut. William Barton, pg. 11. Ibid., September 12, 1779. Major Jermemiah Fogg, pg. 98. Ibid., September 12, 1779. Major Jame{ Norri{, pg. 235.


Ibid., Ibid., Ibid., Ibid., Ibid., Ibid., Ibid., Ibid., Ibid., Ibid., Ibid., Ibid., Ibid., Ibid., Ibid., Ibid., Ibid., Ibid., Ibid., Ibid.,

September 12, 1779. Lieut. Charle{ Nukerck, pg. 217. September 13, 1779. Capt. Daniel Livermore, pg. 187. September 13, 1779. Thoma{ Grant, pg. 142. September 13, 1779. Lieut. Col. Adam Hubley, pg. 161. September 13, 1779. Major Jeramiah Fogg, pg. 99. September 14, 1779. Lieut. William McKendry, pg. 207. September 14, 1779. Lieut. Col. Henry Dearborn, pg. 75. September 14, 1779. Lieut. Col. Henry Dearborn, pg. 75. September 14, 1779. Lieut. McKendry, pg. 207; Dr. Jabez Campfield, pg. 60. September 14, 1779. {erg’t Major Grant, pg. 113; Major Burrowe{, pg. 48. September 14, 1779. Dr. Jabez Campfield, pg. 60. September 15, 1779. Lieut. Nukerck; Dr. Jabez Campfield, pg. 61. September 15, 1779. Captain John Livermore, pg. 189. September 17, 1779. Major Jame{ Norri{, pg. 236. September 18, 1779. Lieut.- Col. Adam Hubley, pg. 163. September 19, 1779. Lieut. Col. Henry Dearborn, pg. 77. September 19, 1779. Lieut. Col. Henry Dearborn, pg. 77. September 20, 1779. Major Jeremiah Fogg, pg 101. September 20, 1779. Lieut. William Barton, pg. 13. September 20, 1779. Lieut. Thoma{ Blake, pg. 41.


Ibid., September 21, 1779. {erg’t Major George Grant, pg. 113. Ibid., September 22, 1779. {erg’t Major George Grant, pg. 113. Ibid., September 21, 1779. Lieut. Col. Adam Hubley, pg. 164. Ibid., September 21, 1779. Thoma{ Grant, pg. 143. Ibid., September 22. 1779. Thoma{ Grant, pg. 143. Ibid., September 23, 1779. {erg’t Major George Grant, pg 113 Ibid., September 23, 1779. Lieut. Col. Henry Dearborn, pg. 77. Ibid., September 24, 1779. {erg’t Major George Grant, pg. 113. Ibid., September 24, 1779. Lieut. Col. Henry Dearborn, pg. 77. Ibid., September 22, 1779. Lieut. John L. Hardenbergh, pg. 135. Ibid., September 29, 1779. Lieut. Erkurie{ Beatty, pg. 35. Win{ton Adler, Jeanne. Chainbreaker’s War. Hen{onville, NY: Blackdome Pre{{, Co., 2002. Ibid. pg. 147; pg. 200.


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