Page 1

Dirk Lechtenberg Dr. Hansjörg Diller Dirk Lechtenberg, Dr. Hansjörg Diller

Linked content-wise to the first volume, Volume 2 comprises a series of fact sheets. Each one analyses one of the – in part – diverse wastes or other substances with regard to suitability as an alternative fuel or raw material for the clinker or lime burning process. Each material is classified in accordance with the European Waste Catalogue. Among others, the composition, occurrence, information on health, safety and environment are presented. Comprehensive information on possible necessary refining, recommendations for storage and dosing offers assistance in daily tasks dealing with alternative fuels and raw materials. For technical and economic planning in the employment of alternative fuels and raw materials for cement and lime plants, descriptions are complemented by detailed information on the influence on the production process, CO2 reduction as well as by calorific value considerations.

for the Cement and Lime Industry

The Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials Handbook is the most comprehensive reference work on alternative fuels and raw materials for the cement and lime industry to date. It brings together research results from the most diverse sources combined with the knowledge and long-term pertinent experience of the authors in an indispensable guide on alternative fuels and raw materials. This Handbook is primarily aimed at technologists, engineers as well as industry decision makers who use alternative fuels and alternative raw materials or who plan their implementation.

Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials Handbook

The substitution of fossil fuels by alternative fuels in the cement and lime industry is increasingly coming into focus for companies. The reason for this is a growing general awareness of both the necessity for sustainable limitation and control of CO2 (and other) emissions as well as of the increasing shortage of fossil fuels. Yet the implementation of alternative fuels is a complex undertaking which requires taking into account a broad range of factors.

volume

2

ISBN 978-3-7640-0551-1

Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials Handbook for the Cement and Lime Industry volume 2


Dirk Lechtenberg, Dr. Hansjรถrg Diller

Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials Handbook for the Cement and Lime Industry

volume 2


Dear Reader, The continuation of the Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials Handbook is ready. The great interest shown and the broad acceptance gained on publication of the first volume were both stimulus and motivation to expand the compilation of further fact sheets on alternative fuels and raw materials for the cement and lime industry – at the accustomed high technical level and in a clearly structured manner. Practical examples from many projects – including our own – form a valuable complement to theoretical descriptions. We wish you great reading enjoyment and trust that also this volume will offer much valuable support while planning the production or utilisation of alternative fuel and raw material projects. We will gladly place ourselves at your disposal should you have any suggestions or questions relating to the topics dealt with.

MVW Lechtenberg & Partner


Dirk Lechtenberg Dr. Hansjรถrg Diller

Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials Handbook for the Cement and Lime Industry

volume 2


VLB-Meldung Lechtenberg, Dirk Diller, Dr. Hansjörg: Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials Handbook for the Cement and Lime Industry Publisher: MVW Lechtenberg Projektentwicklungsund Beteiligungsgesellschaft mbH, 2012 Düsseldorf: Verlag Bau+Technik GmbH ISBN: 978-3-7640-0551-1 by Verlag Bau+Technik GmbH Postfach 120110, 40601 Düsseldorf This work (including all elements thereof ) is protected by copyright. Any and all use or exploitation thereof beyond the strict limits of what is permitted under the German Copyright Act (Urheberrechtsgesetz) without the permission of the publisher (MVW Lechtenberg Projektentwicklungsund Beteiligungsgesellschaft mbH) is prohibited and maybe be criminally prosecuted. The foregoing applies particularly to any and all duplication, translation, microfilming and storage and processing in IT systems. While the publisher has taken all reasonable care in the preparation of this book, the publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions from the book or the consequences thereof. The advice and strategies may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Products and services that are referred to in this book may be either trademarks and/or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher and authors make no claim to these trademarks. Print: B.o.s.s Druck und Medien GmbH, 47574 Goch Cover and text design: Krzysztof Spychal, Pre-Press Studio, www.spychal.pl Published and © by MVW Lechtenberg Projektentwicklungs- und Beteiligungsgesellschaft mbH, Solinger Strasse 19, 45481 Mülheim/Ruhr, Germany Project team: Dr. Hansjörg Diller, Anna Heiß, Joanna Korneluk-Bruns, Dirk Lechtenberg, Sarah-Christina Sureck info@lechtenberg-partner.de www.lechtenberg-partner.de

4


Preface Volume 2 of the Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials Handbook which you have before you is the continuation of Volume 1 which was published early in 2012. It continues with the series of fact sheets and encompasses both sludge and pulverulent alternative raw materials as well as wastes of both biogenic and industrial origin which are suitable as alternative fuels or raw materials. The book at hand affords detailed descriptions covering a multitude of wastes employed above all in the cement industry and, to some extent, also in the lime industry. Each fact sheet presents a self-contained chapter. The structure of all fact sheets is identical, which on the one hand offers an enhanced overview and orientation and on the other hand, an easier comparison. Each fact sheet begins with a classification of the material according to the European Waste Catalogue followed by a general description regarding occurrence and appearance. The reader discovers in which production process each waste material arises and, insofar as the corresponding data were ascertainable, also in which volumes it is available in various countries and in which parts of the world. In addition, these details are complemented by compilations of key producers and associations which open up further, country-specific information sources for the reader. The illustration of current disposal and recycling processes conveys to the reader a picture of potential markets for each waste material. Special attention in the form of a subchapter of its own is devoted to the environmental and technical safety aspect of dealing with each material. This encompasses recommendations on health and safety measures when collecting, processing and utilising these materials. An essential part of the fact sheets deals with the composition and technical combustion characteristics as well as with the influence on cement or lime quality. This book gives plant operators comprehensive, practical tips and suggestions as to how they can process and employ the respective materials. Instructions on storage as well as on conveying and dosing of processed alternative raw materials or fuels are given. The possible economic utilisation of the respective materials is illustrated by mock substitution calculations. With this volume at hand the decision maker in industry is given comprehensive guidance when selecting alternative fuels and raw materials. Recommendations on important aspects such as quality control, health and safety and the environment are conveyed. This does not mean that every material can be employed in all plants without restriction, for each type of alternative fuel or raw material must categorically be subject to both a detailed analysis and an examination of suitability.

5


Content

Content Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 List of Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 List of Chemical Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Agriculture films” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 1.1 1.2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

2

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 AFR composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 AFR analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 AFR ash composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 4

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 4.1 4.2 4.3

39 39 41 43 43 44 44

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Recycling, current use and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Use as alternative fuel in a cement or lime plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Bagasse” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 1.1 1.2

2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

7


Content 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

3 4

Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AFR composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AFR analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AFR ash composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58 59 60 61

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 4.1 4.2 4.3

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Use as alternative fuel in a cement or lime plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Bamboo” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 1.1 1.2

2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 AFR composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 AFR analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 AFR ash composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 4

71 72 74 75 75 76

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 4.1 4.2 4.3

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Use as alternative fuel in a cement or lime plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Calcium fluoride sludge” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 1.1 1.2

2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

8


Content 2.3 2.4

3 4

Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 AFR composition and analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 4.1 4.2 4.3

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Use as alternative raw material in a cement plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Carpets and rugs” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 1.1 1.2

2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 2.4 AFR composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 2.5 AFR analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 2.6 AFR ash composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

3 4

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 4.1 4.2 4.3

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Use as alternative fuel in a cement or lime plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Coconut shells” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 1.1 1.2

2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 2.4 AFR composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 2.5 AFR analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

9


Content 2.6

3 4

AFR ash composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 4.1 4.2 4.3

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Use as alternative fuel in a cement or lime plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Coffee bean husks” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 1.1 1.2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

2

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 2.4 AFR composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 2.5 AFR analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 2.6 AFR ash composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

3 4

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 4.1 4.2 4.3

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Use as alternative fuel in a cement or lime plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Foams” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 1.1 1.2

2

10

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 2.4 AFR composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 2.5 AFR analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 2.6 AFR ash composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166


Content 3 4

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 4.1 4.2 4.3

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Use as alternative fuel in a cement or lime plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Glycerine from biodiesel production” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 1.1 1.2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

2

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 2.4 AFR composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 2.5 AFR analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 2.6 AFR ash composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

3 4

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 4.1 4.2 4.3

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Use as alternative fuel in a cement or lime plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Labels” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 1.1 1.2

2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 2.4 AFR composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 2.5 AFR analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 2.6 AFR ash composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

11


Content 3 4

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 4.1 4.2 4.3

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Use as alternative fuel in a cement or lime plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Lime residues” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 1.1 1.2

2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 2.4 AFR composition and analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

3 4

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 4.1 4.2 4.3

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Use as alternative raw material in a cement or lime plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Meat and bone meal” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 1.1 1.2

2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 2.4 AFR composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 2.5 AFR analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 2.6 AFR ash composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

3 4

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 4.1

12

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248


Content 4.2 4.3

Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 Use as alternative fuel in a cement or lime plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Municipal solid waste” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 1.1 1.2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

2

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 2.4 AFR composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 2.5 AFR analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 2.6 AFR ash composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268

3 4

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 4.1 4.2 4.3

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Use as alternative fuel in a cement or lime plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Nappies” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 1.1 1.2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284

2

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 2.4 AFR composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 2.5 AFR analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 2.6 AFR ash composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

3 4

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 4.1 4.2

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294

13


Content 4.3

Use as alternative fuel in a cement or lime plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Oil mud drillings” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 1.1 1.2

2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 2.4 AFR composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 2.5 AFR analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 2.6 AFR ash composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

3 4

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 4.1 4.2 4.3

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 Use as alternative raw material in a cement plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Packaging materials” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 1.1 1.2

2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 2.4 AFR composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 2.5 AFR analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 2.6 AFR ash composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335

3 4

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 4.1 4.2 4.3

14

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 Use as alternative fuel in a cement or lime plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338


Content 5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Paper fly ashes” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 1.1 1.2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343

2

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 2.4 AFR composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348

3 4

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 4.1 4.2 4.3

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 Use as alternative raw material in a cement plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Plastics” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 1.1 1.2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

2

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 2.4 AFR composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 2.5 AFR analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 2.6 AFR ash composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

3 4

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 4.1 4.2 4.3

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 Use as alternative fuel in a cement or lime plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382

15


Content

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Power plant ashes” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 1.1 1.2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386

2

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 2.1 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 2.4 AFR composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391

3 4

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 4.1 4.2 4.3

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 Use as alternative raw material in cement plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Rice husk” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 1.1 1.2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406

2

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 2.4 AFR composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 2.5 AFR analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 2.6 AFR ash composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414

3 4

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 4.1 4.2 4.3

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 Use as alternative fuel in a cement or lime plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421

16


Content

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Roofing felt” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 1.1 1.2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424

2

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 2.4 AFR composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 2.5 AFR analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 2.6 AFR ash composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430

3 4

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 4.1 4.2 4.3

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 Use as alternative fuel in a cement plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Spent cell linings” also known as “Spent pot linings” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 1.1 1.2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442

2

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 2.4 AFR composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 2.5 AFR analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455 2.6 AFR ash composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456

3 4

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 4.1 4.2 4.3

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 Use as alternative fuel in a cement plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464

17


Content

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Spent solvents” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 1.1 1.2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468 AFR picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469

2

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469 2.1 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473 2.4 AFR composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473 2.5 AFR analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473 2.6 AFR ash composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478

3 4

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482 4.1 4.2 4.3

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483 Use as alternative fuel in a cement or lime plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Synthetic gypsum” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491 1.1 1.2

2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 2.4 AFR composition and analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501

3 4

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503 4.1 4.2 4.3

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503 Use as alternative raw material in cement plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509

18


Content

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Textiles” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515 1.1 1.2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516

2

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519 2.4 AFR composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519 2.5 AFR analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520 2.6 AFR ash composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521

3 4

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522 4.1 4.2 4.3

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522 Use as alternative fuel in a cement or lime plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Tobacco waste” 1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531 1.1 1.2

2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536 2.4 AFR composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537 2.5 AFR analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538 2.6 AFR ash composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539

3 4

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540 4.1 4.2 4.3

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540 Use as alternative fuel in a cement plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543

19


Content

Fact Sheet: Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Used wood” 1 Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547 1.1 1.2

2

AFR description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548 AFR pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549

AFR source and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549 2.1 Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549 2.2 Quantity and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555 2.3 Flow chart of AFR production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556 2.4 AFR composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556 2.5 AFR analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557 2.6 AFR ash composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558

3 4

Harmful substances and hazardous characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559 Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561 4.1 4.2 4.3

Collection and transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561 Recycling, current use and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562 Use as alternative fuel in a cement or lime plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564

5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570

Table of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573 Table of Pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578 Table of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584 Advertisement Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 590

20


Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Agriculture films”

Fact Sheet:

Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Agriculture films”

1

Classification according to European Waste Catalogue EWC

02 02 01 02 01 04

1.1

Wastes from agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture, forestry, hunting and fishing, food preparation and processing Wastes from agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture, forestry, hunting and fishing Waste plastics (except packaging)

AFR description

The use of plastics in agriculture is common practice and it traces back to 1948. Plastic and its use has become important to the industry and was named plasticulture by scientists who have examined its usage [C-1]. Some of the many uses of plastic in agriculture include [C-1]: ƒƒ Plastic film mulches ƒƒ Drip irrigation tape ƒƒ Row covers ƒƒ Low and high tunnels ƒƒ Silage bags ƒƒ Hay bale wraps ƒƒ Plastic trays and pots used in transplant and bedding plant production

Material protected by copyright

37


Fact Sheet [P-1] provides a compilation of a diversity of applications in particular of films and some tapes or nets in the agricultural field:

Use

Crops

Greenhouse covers

LDPE, EVA, PVC

Vegetables and ornamentals

Big tunnels

LDPE, EVA, PVC

Vegetables

Low tunnels

LDPE, EVA, PVC

Strawberries, fruit vegetables

Floating covers

PP, LDPE, EVA

Vegetables

Mulches

LLDPE, LDPE, EVA, PVC

Vegetables

Silage

Silage crops (cereals, lucerne)

Windbreaks

LLDPE, LDPE, EVA, PVC LLDPE, LDPE, EVA, PVC, HDPE, PP LLDPE, LDPE, EVA, HDPE, PP

All crops

Hydroponic sacks

LLDPE, LDPE, EVA

Greenhouse crops

Nets

Table 1: Plastic films used in agriculture (Source: [P-1])

Material

Vegetables, fruit crops

Blanching sheets

LLDPE, LDPE

Blanching crops

Fruit protection bags

LDPE

Fruit crops, banana

Heating tubes

LLDPE, LDPE

Grafting strips

LDPE

Tying tapes

LDPE, PVC

Greenhouse crops Fruit crops, vegetables, vineyards Fruit crops, vegetables, vineyards

Agriculture film types and their characteristics vary according to application. The main polymers are usually low density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), polypropylene (PP) or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) [P-1]. Film thickness can range from 15µm for mulch films to 200µm or even more for greenhouse covers [P-1]. There are really biodegradable films but also partially biodegradable films or even films of controlled photodegradation followed by a questionable fate in the soil [B-5]. The basic materials for the biodegradable films derive from cereals, which is starch, or from cellulose. Especially plastic films are used for greenhouses, walk-in tunnels, low tunnel covers and mulching. For instance, the use of plastic mulching films and tunnels is crucial to the development of intensive and economically viable agricultural and horticultural systems. Plastic mulches are known to increase earlier and higher yields, better weed control and pest management, and increase the efficiency of irrigation and fertilisers [S-2]. Plastic mulching is also used in many dry climate zones in order to prevent evaporation of water – especially in agricultural areas or public areas (e.g. street gutters, verges). The colour of mulch determines the surface temperature of the mulch and the underlying soil. Black mulches absorb most of the ultraviolet, visible and infrared wavelengths of the solar radiation spectrum. [E-1] notes that the key properties of agriculture films are durability, optical (ultraviolet, visible, near infrared, and middle infrared) properties, and the anti-drip – also known as anti-fog – effect. Recent developments in this area include for example UV-blocking, NIR-blocking, fluorescent and ultrathermal films.

38

Material protected by copyright


Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Agriculture films�

1.2

AFR pictures

Picture 1: Left: Rolls of agricultural mulching films for covering asparagus beds in the next harvest season. Right: Covered rows of asparagus beds (Source: MVW)

Picture 2: Left: Straw bales covered with agriculture films. Right: Straw bales packed completely into agriculture films (Source: MVW)

2

AFR source and composition

2.1

Source

Use of plastics in the production of horticultural crops (for example vegetables, small fruits, flowers, tree fruits, and ornamentals) helps diminishing extreme fluctuations in weather, especially temperature, rainfall and wind, which occur in many parts of the world [S-1]. Farmers have to deal with extreme weather conditions during the growing

Material protected by copyright

39


Fact Sheet season which can destroy or harm their harvest. Agriculture films like row covers, low tunnels and high tunnels have the potential of minimising the effect of extreme weather conditions on the crop and accordingly optimise plant growth and development in a sheltered environment [S-1]. Common sources are for instance plastic mulches. They have been used commercially on vegetables for many decades. For instance, muskmelons, tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, squashes, eggplants, watermelons, sweet corn, snap beans, southern peas, pumpkins, and okra will all ripen earlier and produce better yields and fruit quality when grown on plastic mulch. Plastic mulches help growers in extreme northern and high-altitude climates harvest heat-loving crops that were previously impossible for them to grow [B-6]. Also asparagus is cultivated in rows which are covered with foils. Films used for high and low tunnels are another source of alternative fuels. High tunnels, also called hoop houses, consist of an arched or hoop-shaped frame covered with clear plastic. They are high enough to stand in or drive a tractor through. Traditional high tunnels are completely solar-heated, without electricity for automated ventilation or heating systems. Crops are grown in the ground, usually with drip irrigation. Crops that have been grown in high tunnels include specialty cut flowers, lettuce and other greens, carrots, tomatoes, peppers, squash, melons, raspberries, strawberries, blueberries, and cherries [B-6]. Row covers made of clear or white polyethylene are too heavy to float above the crop, so they are supported by hoops. The dimensions of these so-called low tunnels are typically around 14 to 18 inches (approximately 35 to 46cm) high at the apex and wide enough to cover one bed. Low tunnels are commonly used in combination with black plastic mulch for weed control [B-6]. Floating row covers are made of spun-bonded polyester and spun-bonded polypropylene. They are so lightweight that they “float” over most crops without support. The lightest covers are used primarily as insect barriers. They can protect crops such as cabbage and broccoli from loopers and cabbage worms by excluding the egg-laying moths. Eggplant, radishes and other favourites of the flea beetle are easily protected by floating row covers [B-6]. Plastic materials in agricultural applications are subject to the sunlight and therefore to high UV radiation. UV radiation induces photochemical reactions, i.e. the decomposition of plastic materials by generating radical molecules which have an unpaired electron and therefore exhibit high reactivity. These radical molecules break the plastic polymer molecules which end up in a loss of the structural flexibility. The material becomes brittle and the foil disintegrates into sharp fragments. If this happens to mulch films before the end of the cultivation cycle, the disintegrated foil particles can seriously impair the commercial yield of the crop. Durability of films used for greenhouses is an economic issue whether a greenhouse has to be covered every year with new films or whether periods can be extended. Depending on their application, films also have different types of additives, such as thermic fillers, UV stabilisers, antistatic and antifogging additives as well as pigments. According to [B-4] the durability of non-stabilised polyethylene film is only one year or even less. If the film is manufactured with UV stabilisers then the durability extends to some two to three years. In particular in tropical regions only stabilised plastic films can realistically be used.

40

Material protected by copyright


This page is intentionally left blank. Pages 41 – 90 are not part of this extract.


Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Calcium fluoride sludge” solid uranium oxide. The HF can be disposed of by precipitation with lime or used for further purposes. Although it seems to be feasible to obtain calcium fluoride without radioactive contamination this source should not be considered as raw material for clinker production.

2.2

Quantity and availability

While a huge amount of data for natural fluorspar is available only poor information is obtainable about quantities and availability of CaF2 sludges. The identified world natural fluorspar resources achieve around 500 million tons [U-1]. The estimated mine production for individual countries is summarised in the next figure: 3 000

3 000

x 1,000 tons

2 500 2 000 1 500

1 000

1 000 500

30

65

65

80

110

120

130

170

220

450

a in

M

Ch

an or oc co Na m ib ia Sp So ai n ut h Ot A he fri c rc ou a nt rie s Ru ss ia M on go lia M ex ico

st

il

kh

Br az

Ka

za

Ke

ny a

0 Figure 7: Fluorspar production 2010 (Source: [U-1])

About CaF2 sludges, however, merely minimal information is available. In the following some figures are given relating to countries where information was detectable: ƒƒ Over the last few years about 200,000t have been stockpiled from a calcium phosphate production plant in Poland [K-3]. ƒƒ In Taiwan, about 800tpa were produced from the semiconductor industry in 2005 [H-1]. ƒƒ In Germany about 4,000tpa derive from a fluorinated carbon incineration plant. ƒƒ The largest part of the Belgian phosphate industry produces phosphoric acid, fertilisers and cattle food. Three different processing techniques in six large production sites yielded 50Mt of phosphogypsum and 2.7Mt of calcium fluoride sludge, all mainly stored on large deposits [P-1].

Material protected by copyright

91


Fact Sheet

2.3

Flow chart of AFR production

A) Industrial wastewater treatment – precipitation of CaF2 Recycled aluminium treatment agent recovered by second solid-liquid separation

New aluminium treatment agent

Fluorine containing wastewater

First reaction

First solid liquid separation

Substitution

Second solid liquid separation

To first reaction

Discharged water

Calcium treatment agent

Dehydrator CaF2 sludge

Figure 8: Flow chart of CaF2 precipitation from industrial wastewaters according to [K-1]

CaF2 filter cake

B) Fluorinated carbon (FC) incineration plant – precipitation of CaF2 FC

Incineration

Clean gas

Wet scrubber

Ca(OH)2

CaF2 slurry

Dehydrator (chamber filter)

Figure 9: Flow chart of CaF2 precipitation from incineration (Source: MVW)

92

CaF2 filter cake

Material protected by copyright


This page is intentionally left blank. Pages 93 – 112 are not part of this extract.


Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Carpets and rugs” Brominated flame retardants and antimony trioxide may be added as fire retardant chemicals. Carpets can be a major source of volatile organic compounds (VOC) which are released into the ambient air. These VOC may consist of 4-phenylcyclohexene, the chemical identified with “new carpet” odour, and styrene. Carpet emissions of VOC are most pronounced immediately after new carpet is laid, with emission rates falling off rapidly. Sensitised individuals often continue to exhibit symptoms for longer periods [Z-1]. Health impacts resulting directly from such exposure are difficult to elucidate though some observed health effects have been associated with exposure to new carpet. The nature and timing of the reported health symptoms (primarily immediate onset of sensory and pulmonary irritation and central nervous system effects) suggest the possible involvement of chemical off-gasing from carpet system materials [G-1]. Beside the above mentioned possible contamination with finishing materials as fire retardant or conservation carpets contain no hazardous materials. It is worth mentioning that the carpet industry has made tremendous efforts in the production of environmentally friendly carpets, so that only old carpets may contain hazards in minor, negligible concentrations for further utilisation. However, post-consumer carpets exposed to the elements are often soaked with rainwater which can cause bacteria multiplication. These insanitary conditions can affect human health while manually handling such carpets. People should at least wear rubber gloves and a protective mask. While shredding carpets, dust is generated. People in the shredding facility have to obey health and safety provisions. Wearing of protective masks is mandatory. Furthermore, dust may be subject to self-ignition.

4

Collection, recycling and disposal of the AFR

4.1

Collection and transport

Carpets can be found either in carpet mills as a production residue or as part of the bulky waste at construction and demolition waste plants and landfill sites. For the collection of carpet residues from small trade companies a collection system by big bags or containers is established. The bulk density of post-industrial carpet is usually in a range of only around 80 – 120kg/m³ while edge trims have a higher bulk density of 250 – 350 kg/m3 (compare chapter 2.5). Most of the cuts have high canvas content (mainly polypropylene). At the collection points there are usually no possibilities to compress the waste in the containers. Therefore, press containers or 50m³ open top containers are indicated to get higher loads. In most carpet or floorcovering plants there are balers available to compress the post-industrial fibre residues. Post-consumer carpets are usually rolled, thus achieving higher loading capacities. However, there is a big disadvantage of carpet rolls. As a rule, impurities from private household renovation (e.g. residues of putties, concrete, plasters, wet wallpapers, nails) are rolled into the carpets causing troubles in subsequent carpet treatment facilities.

Material protected by copyright

113


Fact Sheet

Picture 15: Soaked carpet residues among other plastic waste (Source: MVW)

In industrialised countries there are many carpet industry collection systems in order to fulfil the producers’ environmental responsibility. For instance, CARE (Carpet America Recovery Effort) organises initiatives in order to promote collection of waste carpets, e.g. from commercial floor dealers or retailers. Tasks would be to collect and bale waste carpets to recycling facilities prior to shipment [C-5].

4.2

Recycling, current use and disposal

Huge quantities of used carpet end up in landfills each year. Initiatives are working on reducing carpet disposal on landfills. For instance, the mission of CARE tries to advance market-based solutions that increase landfill diversion and recycling of post-consumer carpet [C-3]. Carpet Recycling UK drives innovation in end-of-life solutions for carpets [C-4]. Reusing whole carpet “as is” or after simple cleaning is limited to carpets in good condition. Some examples in the USA are provided by [R-1]. However, most of these initiatives are not economic, as separate collection, transport and handling turned out to be too expensive. Therefore, nowadays most of used carpets and post-industrial carpets are used as refuse-derived fuel. Carpets are compact composite structures made from a number of materials that are difficult and costly to separate and reprocess. When dealing with carpet processing waste and rejects, separation of the face fibres from the backing and elimination or separation of the secondary backings (e.g. jute, polyurethane, PVC, bitumen, fillers) is often problematic. A physical separation of carpet materials often involves shearing or cropping of the pile fibres which account for a 1/4 or a 1/3 of all the weight of the carpet. The remainder is often landfilled [M-2]. Reuse of materials recovered from carpet residues in the manufacture of new carpets is quite common. For instance, fibres, if long enough, can be reused for the upper carpet layer. Other recycling routes comprise the use of fibres as an additive to needle felts or acoustic insulation materials. Other material regeneration ideas deal with the utilisation of fibrous waste in composites and laminated structures, in plastic resins, injection and press mouldings as well as inclusion into soil and concrete. Some attempts to utilise carpet waste include synthetic fuel pellets as source of heat and pure wool pellets used as natural fertilisers for plants [M-2].

114

Material protected by copyright


This page is intentionally left blank. Pages 115 – 377 are not part of this extract.


Fact Sheet

Picture 87: Shredding of mixed plastics to a grain size of around 80mm for calciner feeding (Source: Lindner Recyclingtech)

4.3.3 Storage at the plant site Plastics waste should be stored dry, preferably in covered areas. The next picture shows an example of storing bales in a cement plant: Fire protection issues should be considered while storing plastic waste. For instance, storage depths (material densities) of e.g. fluffy plastic waste should not exceed four to max. five metres, as otherwise the danger of excessive compaction and agglomeration of the material exists. Remaining moisture in conjunction with organic residues can initiate self-ignition of the plastic particles especially on excessive compaction. Appropriate fire extinguishers should be available.

Picture 86: Storage of bales (plastic waste) in a cement plant (Source: MVW)

4.3.4 Dosing and feeding systems In general, shredded plastics are dosed by rotary weighers. The material is conveyed pneumatically either to the calciner or to the kiln burner. Also belt weighers and mechanical conveying to the feeding points by tube conveyors have proven themselves.

378

Material protected by copyright


Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Plastics�

Picture 88: Dosing of shredded plastics in cement plants. Left: Rotor weighfeeder. Right: Weighing belt (Source: MVW)

Plastics with a grain size less than around 30mm are fed into the kiln burner. In those cases where the kiln burner is not equipped with dedicated channels, plastics are fed by separate tubes, as shown in the picture on the right. Picture 89: Feeding of shredded plastics by separate burners into the kiln hood (Source: MVW)

4.3.5 Quality influence on clinker and lime By and large, the utilisation of plastic materials has no negative influence on the lime or Portland cement clinker quality if some preconditions are obeyed. The most critical element accompanying mixed plastics is chlorine. The chlorine input into the kiln has to be limited (e.g. by depletion of PVC). An orderly kiln operation is prone to increased coatings which are increasingly formed by inner alkali salt circulations and condensations. Furthermore, alkali salts are known to migrate into refractory bricks which results in stresses and cracks (alkali spalling). Hence, the lifetime of refractories is affected by the chlorine input from plastics. Special attention should be paid to the grain size of the plastics. In particular attention is necessary when plastics are intended to be fed through the kiln burner of a clinker kiln. The material should be two-dimensional. The grain size should be less than 30mm in two dimensions in order to avoid poor burnout of the particles and locally reducing conditions in the kiln charge by smouldering particles.

Material protected by copyright

379


Fact Sheet Plastic waste from industries which process resin granules is obtainable as dust. This material can be fed pneumatically through the main burner without having negative impacts on the flame. In general, plastics do not absorb moisture like paper or wood. The low moisture content derives from superficially adsorbed water leaving the high calorific potential nearly unchanged. The ash content of plastics is quite low which is very important for lime manufacturing, especially when producing high grade quicklime and subsequent lime products for sensitive applications (e.g. steel industry). The lime reactivity must not be hampered by absorbtion of excessive fuel ash input. An example calculation shows that the amount of ash intake remains virtually unchanged when lignite dust is used as standard fuel in a rotary lime kiln. The following assumptions are given for this calculation: Specific heat consumption: 1,400kcal/kg CaO Lignite: Net calorific calue: 5,250kcal/kg, ash content: 4% Plastics: Net calorific value: 7,000kcal/kg, ash content: 5.7% (see table 103) For the example substitution scenario a feeding rate of 2t/h of plastics is assumed. Baseline  

Table 109: Influence of plastics ash input into a lignitefired lime kiln (Source: MVW)

Unit

Lignite

Substitution scenario Remaining Plastics lignite 7,000 5,250

Net calorific value [kcal/kg]

5,250

Dosage fuels

[t/h]

11.1

Substitution rate

[%]

24

Ash content

[%]

4

5.7

4

Ash input

[t/h]

0.44

0.11

0.34

Total

[t/h]

0.44

2.0

8.4

0.45

Although the ash content of plastics is higher than lignite the substitution calculation shows that the total ash input remains virtually constant while using plastics, even at higher substitution rates than assigned in the table. This calculation example can serve as a tool for the evaluation of changes regarding ash inputs. Nonetheless, the lime reactivity should always be checked in parallel. In order to appraise the influences on Portland cement clinker quality a simple calculation model can be applied. The following considerations are based on a virtual clinker kiln producing 100t/h at a specific heat consumption of 850kcal/kg clinker. The dosage of mixed plastics from packagings is assumed to be 5t/h (equivalent to some 41% of the total energy supply) for this kiln. The ash composition is taken from table 104, far right column. The simplified calculation considers only the ash content of that proportion of the fuel mix which consists of mixed plastics. For final evaluation the ashes from the other fuels which are utilised in the mix have to be considered respectively. Mixed plastics dosage: 5t/h Mixed plastics ash content: 5.7% Ash input from mixed plastics: 0.285t/h

380

Material protected by copyright


This page is intentionally left blank. Pages 381 – 459 are not part of this extract.


Fact Sheet This means, one tonne of natural fluorspar (87% CaF2) can be substituted by around 3.2 to 4.7 tonnes of SCL. As SCL contains some ammonia, it may contribute to reduction of NOx once fed into the kiln inlet, thus decreasing the needed amount of additional NOx-reducing agent in SNCR.

Biomass-CO2-value SCL has no biogenic carbon content. The co-combustion of SCL does not save any fossilderived carbon dioxide, thus not contributing to greenhouse gas mitigation. However, as SCL produces hydrogen if it becomes wet (e.g. humidity), the avoidance of hydrogen generation by using SCL as alternative material could be an opportunity for indirect greenhouse gas emission reduction. While molecular hydrogen (H2) is not a direct greenhouse gas, it can reduce hydroxide radicals and thus indirectly increase methane CH4 and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) [E-1]. It has to be discussed with local authorities whether hydrogen-avoidance can be recognised in a CDM scheme.

4.3.2 AFR pre-processing Prior to use as alternative fuel in clinker kilns SCL is subject to pre-processing. The preprocessing is done at the smelter’s facility. SCL from the storage is transported to the grinding facility where it is ground in a ball mill. The so-called stage I material (grain size around 60µm, assigned for kiln burner feeding) is transported by special enclosed vessels to the cement manufacturer. However, finely ground SCL develops gaseous product while handling, so SCL is subsequently thermally treated at temperatures of around 600°C. This treatment destroys gas-developing compounds, thus minimising health and safety risks. The following sketch provides an overview of the SCL treatment:

Figure 93: SCL treatment procedure at an Australian smelter (Source: MVW)

Storage

Stage I

SCL storage sheds

Ball mill

Stage II Calciner

Silo

Stage III

KGS

Wet plant

Kiln grade spar storage

Trucks to cement plant

SCL grinding to around 60µm and subsequent calcination is very costly. Therefore, it is suggested to use coarser SCL and another feeding point which is less sensitive than the kiln burner. Crushing of SCL down to less than 10mm and feeding into the backend of a clinker kiln or into the calciner at low rates (some 0.7t/h) showed the viability of this modified treatment and utilisation procedure. However, the refractory parts of SCL cannot be burned in a clinker kiln, so the unburned refractory part will be remaining in the clinker. This phenomenon does not hamper cement grinding. However, if the

460

Material protected by copyright


Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Spent cell linings” also known as “Spent pot linings” clinker is sold to other grinding facilities visual inspection by the customer could give rise to complaints. For kiln back-end or calciner feeding SCL is subject to crushing and screening. The following steps comprise briefly the appropriate treatment: ƒƒ Separation of large SCL parts and foreign parts like metals (Fe, Al) by mechanical means ƒƒ Screening to less than 10mm ƒƒ Crushing of screen overflow to less than around 150 – 200mm ƒƒ Metal separation and non-ferrous separation ƒƒ Screening to less than 10mm ƒƒ Final crushing of screen overflow to less than 10mm ƒƒ Intermediate storage of crushed material (silo or bulk) inside the shed ƒƒ Big bag filling All above operations have to take place inside the SCL storage hall or shed, which should be equipped with a ventilation and de-dusting system. It is advisable to operate dustproof mobile equipment (wheeled loader, excavator). Packing of the crushed SCL (grain size 0 – 10mm) into big bags or silos can be done simultaneously to the processing. It is advised to fill big bags after the processing, after the finished material is degasified and with lower dust emissions, in order to avoid the risk of explosion. The gas generation rate must be carefully monitored during processing and storage as well as during big bag filling.

4.3.3 Storage at the plant site SCL should be stored in dry and ventilated storages. It is advisable to use water-proof big bags. If the transport distance is short, storage can take place in silos (silo trucks or silo containers) as well. Please note that only designated containers and silos can be used. Possible contacts by employees involved with the unloading of big bags as well as fugitive emissions of SCL dust to the environment have to be prevented.

4.3.4 Dosing and feeding systems In an Australian cement plant, finely ground SCL (some 60µm) passes a rotary weigher before it is pneumatically fed to the main burner. It enters the main burner through a separate channel. Along with SCL, other fuels are fed through separate channels, e.g. fuel oil or coal dust. Another possibility is SCL feeding into the kiln inlet. SPL (grain size less than around 0.15mm) feed was done using big bags that were poured into a screw feeder that directed the material to the kiln inlet. After this trial phase the feeding system was switched to a pneumatic line [D-1].

4.3.5 Quality influence on clinker SCL is well known in the cement industry as an alternative fuel and raw material. SCL influences the clinker chemistry as it contains considerable amounts of fluorine, alkalis, aluminium and silica.

Material protected by copyright

461


Fact Sheet In particular, alkalis limit the use of SCL as AFR in a cement plant. Due to the high alkali content (in particular: Sodium) of SCL the Na2O-equivalent of the clinker will rise. The Na2O in clinker has to be limited depending on the reactivity of the cement (the sulphate optimisation should be reviewed) or on the usage in concrete together with alkali sensitive aggregates. The mineralising effect of fluorine in SCL can reduce the clinker burning zone temperature by almost 50°C which offers twin benefits of recycling the wastes and saving thermal energy in pyroprocessing. Fluoride-containing additives have a major influence on the liquid phase in a kiln, and act as a mineraliser to accelerate the formation of C3S below the regular stability temperature. Fluorides also act as a fluxing agent and cause the liquid phase to appear at a lower temperature. Since liquid formation is essential in the formation of alite (tricalcium silicate, Ca3SiO5, sometimes displayed as 3 CaO • SiO2), fluorides allow the formation of alite in clinker at a lower temperature. Regardless of the appearance of the liquid phase, the activation temperature must be sufficient to form alite. Studies indicate that fluoride acts as a mineraliser and that alite can be formed at temperatures, in practice, in the range of ~ 1,200°C, instead of the normal lower stability limit of 1,250°C when fluoride-additives are added to the kiln [L-2]. Fluoride basically has a two-fold positive effect on the kiln operation by lowering the clinkering temperature, and causing liquid to appear at a lower temperature. Lowering the clinker formation temperature results in energy saving for kiln operations since less fuel is required to elevate the burning zone of the kiln to this lower temperature. This can be especially beneficial to kilns which have feedstock that is difficult to burn. Savings of fossil fuels of up to 15% at the kiln burner were reported. Also the thermal strain of the kiln refractories can be decreased. On the other hand there can be some influences on clinker (e.g. increased resistance to grindability) and cement properties (compressive strength development – less early strength, increased 7 and 28 day compressive strength) occur. Usually the addition of calcium fluoride is dosed to the raw meal to obtain a fluoride content of approximately 0.1%, in some cases up to 0.25% in the clinker [L-2]. Experiences show that setting times are unacceptably long at fluorine levels greater than 0.35%. The clinker colour may shift from grey to pinkish colour. Furthermore, SCL feeding into the kiln inlet or riser duct may give rise to uncontrolled mineralisation, thus provoking build-ups in the preheater. Influences are discussed more in detail in the Fact Sheet “Calcium fluoride sludge”. Having considered all the aforementioned features of SCL one can ask for a practical utilisation rate of SCL. A simple model calculation affords an impression of the impact and substitution rate. A virtual clinker kiln produces 100t/h, with a specific energy consumption of 850 kcal/ kg clinker. SCL is used at a rate of 1t/h. Assuming an average calorific value of 1,790kcal/ kg, the substitution rate achieves 2%. SCL consists of 78% inorganic material, i.e. ash. The chemical influences are shown in the following table:

462

Material protected by copyright


This page is intentionally left blank. Pages 463 – 561 are not part of this extract.


Fact Sheet The collected wood also has different grain sizes. Pellets have a small grain size in comparison with construction and demolition wood or forest wood. Therefore, the used and waste wood can be delivered in sacks (pellets) in bulk or big bags or for large grain size wood directly in lorries.

4.2

Recycling, current use and disposal

The use of wood is manifold. It can be burned by private households or industries especially for heat recovery. According to estimations of [J-2] about 53% of the wood consumed in the world is used for home heating and cooking. In the European Union the EC Landfill Directive and the EC Packaging Directive which aim to reduce the amounts of waste that are send to landfills and encourage reuse and recycling rates are also applicable to the recycling and disposal of waste [M-3]. Therefore, recycling rates of wood waste have been rising over the last decade, according to [M-3]. Moreover, the use of wood pellets in households and the power generating industry is also becoming more common. Such pellets are small pressed wood pieces (see next pictures) and can either be made of virgin and used wood or wood waste like saw dust. For example one large energy producer has erected a large pellet production plant in the USA in 2010 (capacity of 750,000 tonnes of wood pellets per year) in order to serve its own coal-fired power plants for co-incineration of wood pellets [R-1]. Several electricity companies especially in the UK, Netherlands and other European countries receive high subsidies to use mainly wood chips and pellets to reduce the fossil fuel emissions and fossil carbon emissions. In 2011, approximately 4 million tons of wood pellets were imported to the European Union mainly from the USA, Canada and some West African countries.

Picture 128: Wood pellets in different grain sizes (Source: MVW)

Picture 129: Close-up of wood pellets of diameter 8mm (Source: MVW)

562

Material protected by copyright


Alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) review “Used wood” The most common use of waste wood is its recycling. The next table presents recycling methods for wood.

No. 1 2 3

Recovery method Processing of waste wood to wood chips for the manufacture of derived timber products Production of synthetic gas for further chemical use Manufacture of active carbon/industrial charcoal

Permissible waste wood categories A I A II A III A IV Yes

Yes

(Yes)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Table 167: Methods for substance recycling of waste wood (Source: [L-2])

For material recycling of used/old timber the following procedures are in principle suitable according to the German old/used timber regulation, Appendix I (according to [L-2]: ƒƒ Mature timber of the categories A I, A II and limited A III: Processing into wood shavings and wood chips for the production of timber materials. The processing of old timber of category A III is permissible only if lacquer finishes and coatings were largely removed by pretreatment or are removed in the context of the preparation process. ƒƒ Old/used timber of the categories A I to A IV: Production of synthesis gas for further chemical use. Recycling is only permissible in plants approved for this according to § 4 of the federal emission control law. ƒƒ Old timber of the categories A I to A IV: Production of activated charcoal/industrial charcoal. Recycling is only permissible in plants approved for this according to § 4 of the federal emission control law. Timber waste primarily derives from building and demolition waste but also during all stages of a piece of timber from harvesting to sawmilling, as well as from timber processing [M-3]. Old timber is divided into four categories in accordance with the old timber regulation corresponding to the level of its harmful contents or its impurities and in view of its safe recycling or its disposal. An additional category is formed by PCB-containing timber, e.g. insulating or noise protection boards, which need to be disposed of according to the regulations of the PCB/PCT waste ordinance. Thinning wood is also sold as fuel. In addition it can be considered for thermal recycling in heat and power generating plants plus other incineration plants, as long as the waste wood contamination meets the approval criteria of the plants. Timber processing plants play a key role. They reduce in size-defined types of timber in a hammer or impact mill and produce recyclable fractions of various grain size classes by separation or screening. In German politics a discussion has started to promote the “cascade system” for the use of wood, illustrated in the next figure. Cascade means that first of all the use of wood in the furniture/construction industry is recommended and only thinning wood can be directly used as fuel. Only already used wood should be incinerated to produce heat or energy. Repeat utilisation of the same raw material is considered to leverage the regional economy rather than single thermal use of fresh virgin wood as the value chain is expanded by the cascade system.

Material protected by copyright

563


Fact Sheet

CO2

O2 CO2

Thermal utlisaton

Figure 114: Cascade system for the utilisation of wood according to [W-2]

Wood constructions

Recycling

Roundwood

Thinning wood

Saw mills

Timber

If it is not possible to recycle waste wood due to a high proportion of pollutants or other contaminants, disposal in a waste treatment plant (or even wood waste treatment facility) should be considered. In a number of less developed countries landfilling of waste wood is also common practice.

4.3

Use as alternative fuel in a cement or lime plant

Used wood has been proven as fuel in the lime and cement producing industry. It introduces only small amounts of ashes, thus not influencing clinker and particularly lime chemistry. The earliest lime kilns have been supplied with wood as sole fuel. Wood has subsequently been substituted by fossil fuels. In recent years the use of wood has become more and more attractive. Sources of wood-derived fuel used in lime kilns (e.g. rotary and parallel flow regenerative kilns) are not limited to used furniture, but also green wood from plantations is used [P-2]. A very recent example of the use of large amounts of wood is presented by [B-2]: Indeed, it is not about used wood, but it deals with virgin wood. A greenfield cement plant profits from the use of virgin wood from bushes. They are harvested by specialised vehicles called harvesters. The preshredded bushes are finally shredded in a facility next to the cement plant. The high substitution rate of approximately 70% allows for less dependency on imported coal and turns the net carbon dioxide emissions of the cement plant into one of the lowest worldwide.

564

Material protected by copyright


This page is intentionally left blank. Pages 565 – 592 are not part of this extract.


Dirk Lechtenberg Dr. Hansjörg Diller Dirk Lechtenberg, Dr. Hansjörg Diller

Linked content-wise to the first volume, Volume 2 comprises a series of fact sheets. Each one analyses one of the – in part – diverse wastes or other substances with regard to suitability as an alternative fuel or raw material for the clinker or lime burning process. Each material is classified in accordance with the European Waste Catalogue. Among others, the composition, occurrence, information on health, safety and environment are presented. Comprehensive information on possible necessary refining, recommendations for storage and dosing offers assistance in daily tasks dealing with alternative fuels and raw materials. For technical and economic planning in the employment of alternative fuels and raw materials for cement and lime plants, descriptions are complemented by detailed information on the influence on the production process, CO2 reduction as well as by calorific value considerations.

for the Cement and Lime Industry

The Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials Handbook is the most comprehensive reference work on alternative fuels and raw materials for the cement and lime industry to date. It brings together research results from the most diverse sources combined with the knowledge and long-term pertinent experience of the authors in an indispensable guide on alternative fuels and raw materials. This Handbook is primarily aimed at technologists, engineers as well as industry decision makers who use alternative fuels and alternative raw materials or who plan their implementation.

Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials Handbook

The substitution of fossil fuels by alternative fuels in the cement and lime industry is increasingly coming into focus for companies. The reason for this is a growing general awareness of both the necessity for sustainable limitation and control of CO2 (and other) emissions as well as of the increasing shortage of fossil fuels. Yet the implementation of alternative fuels is a complex undertaking which requires taking into account a broad range of factors.

volume

2

ISBN 978-3-7640-0551-1

Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials Handbook for the Cement and Lime Industry volume 2

AFR Handbook Volume 2  

Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials Handbook for the Cement & Lime Industry

Advertisement