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Standing on Tradition RAG RUG TECHNIQUES

September 18, 2012 thru April 13, 2013

In partnership with the Range Fiberart Guild


Minnesota Discovery Center presents

Standing on Tradition: Rag Rug Techniques September 18, 2012 - April 13, 2013 In partnership with the Range Fiberart Guild {Exhibit Booklet} 3


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© 2013 MINNESOTA DISCOVERY CENTER PHOTO CREDITS: WILLIAM J. BUTKOVICH PHOTOGRAPHY


Dear Readers, It’s clear to me reflecting back on the rag rug exhibit project that generations after the first pioneers of Minnesota, especially those living in Northern Minnesota, are devoted to their ethnic roots or have returned to it by taking up the crafts of their grandparents. The making of rugs out of rags was one practical way to reuse old fabric, keep a house warm, and decorate the home in the cold and isolated northern land. Early immigrants to Northern Minnesota brought with them knowledge of rug making and passed on this folk art from one generation to the next and neighbor to neighbor. Standing on Tradition: Rag Rug Techniques Exhibit and programs and events started out of that passion to rekindle interest in a humble art. This project has been successful in reenergizing rug makers and inspiring curiosity and use in new techniques. As a newcomer to the Iron Range with its ethnic diversity, it has been a joy to be immersed in this colorful tradition and history. For me, this project has been personally fulfilling and promising of Minnesota and Iron Range legacies. As a daughter of immigrants and growing up in the diverse neighborhoods of Saint Paul, Minnesota, I longed to also connect with my own Hmong heritage. There were many times throughout the exhibition and programs when I find parallels in my life with the lives of the men and women who shared their rag rug experiences and stories. We all feel a connection to our ancestors through the process of working with traditional crafts and coming full circle by collecting historical artifacts that physically tie us together. Especially rewarding for me is to see one woman take up weaving after inheriting her aunt’s stash of cut rags and loom, making over 40 rugs in the span of four months. She met with another weaver who showed her how to warp her loom and hopes to teach and encourage others. And so, this tradition will continue. The Minnesota Discovery Center and the Range Fiberart Guild partnered to install this massive exhibit. We received 176 submissions representing 83 artists and collectors in Minnesota. Of those 165 rugs from 75 artists are on display. This book is a memento of the Standing on Tradition: Rag Rug Techniques Exhibit held at Minnesota Discovery Center from September 18, 2012 – April 13, 2013. Although we wished to highlight every single rug and artist in the book, with limitations to our abilities, we instead opted for an overview of the exhibit, highlighting the techniques and just a few artists. Revisiting traditional folk arts enrich our lives and our communities. My hope is that this interest in hand-worked crafts continues to grow and expand from rag rugs to other mediums of art. Best, Mai Nhia Vang

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Blending of Tradition and Modern Before the industrialization and mass production of textiles, cloth was highly valued. Worn cloth has been prized and recycled into a second use since the cloth making began. In the United States, making rugs from “rags” was one of the ways old materials were reused. Rug makers give “rags” a new life by weaving, braiding, hooking, crocheting and knitting, prodding, twining, sewing, and painting. Standing on Tradition: Rag Rug Techniques Exhibit, focuses on 75 Minnesota rug makers and thirteen different techniques. The culmination of these traditional techniques are built on thousands of years of development and passed on to the makers. This exhibit not only displays the diversity of techniques but also the skillful and clever ways rugs are made to beautify the home. This collection of rugs was made between the 1920 and 2012. The blending of traditional techniques with modern designs and materials come together in this exhibit, showcasing the artistry and creativity of its maker. The historical rugs of the past and rugs of today are studies in color, texture and design. Whether made from silk kimonos, rags found on the streets of Minneapolis, a fox fur coat, neckties, selvage ends, old clothes or new purchased material, the “rag” rugs of this exhibit reflect traditions adapted to today’s society.

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EXCEPTIONAL RUGS AND ARTISTS Choosing which rugs and artists to highlight in this book was a difficult task because all of the rugs on exhibit were of high quality in artistry and technique. We highlight here three exceptional rugs: Patchwork Rug by Debbie Cooter, Solar Flame by Wynne Mattila, and Ely Lake Ice by Carol Sperling.

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Patchwork Rug Debbie Cooter Two Harbors, MN 24” x 46” 2011 “I was introduced to rug weaving 27 years ago as a folk art. The tradition of using recycled clothing to weave decorative and household items appealed to both my creative and thrifty nature.” - Debbie Cooter When Debbie Cooter first learned to weave rag rugs it was the recycling of used material that interested her. Since then she has woven hundreds of rugs and experimented with a variety of weave structures. She works mostly with color and texture and currently has rugs on display in the Rosepath and Patchwork warp threadings. Debbie learned how to weave Patchwork patterned rugs from Jane Evans, a Canadian weaver who has written over 40 articles on weaving. The Patchwork Rug uses twice the number of warp threads than regular rag rug weaving. The blocks of color are created with a variation of warp faced (warp thread color) and weft faced (weft rag color) areas. This is a versatile weave which can create countless design possibilities with block and color changes. Today, Debbie uses a combination of new and recycled fabric as she continues to experiment and play with pattern and color to create rugs that are a blending of a traditional folk art with a contemporary look.

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Solar Flame Wynne Mattila Minneapolis, MN 27” x 58” 2005 “My weaving is functional - I create rugs to be enjoyed and used. My weaving is spiritual - I work with my hands to create something tangible that embodies beauty and spirit.” - Wynne Mattila Wynne Mattila grew up in a Finnish community where rag rugs covered wood floors and she feels a connection to her Finnish heritage through weaving. Using exquisite color combinations she creates contemporary designs with the traditional Finnish rag rug weaving techniques. Color, contemporary & perfection are three words which come to mind when viewing Wynne Mattila’s rugs. Her rugs are interpretations of nature through color. The Solar Flame rug for example has red, orange and yellow variations from twenty-one different fabrics. She interprets solar flame with these fabrics and the combination of arranging them with endless color possibilities.

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Wynne begins with an idea for the rug, yet is open to design and color changes as the weaving progresses and the colors interact. Wynne uses new material cut in one inch strips for the rags and Finnish cotton seine twine for the warp set at 5 threads per inch. For the Solar Flame rug she wove with a traditional alternating three shuttle technique.


Ely Lake Ice Carol Sperling Eveleth, MN 26” x 51” 1999 “...When ice forms on lakes with amazing groaning and singing sounds that fill the air.” - Carol Sperling In 1974, Carol Sperling founded the Range Fiberart Guild. She has taught and led study groups in all stages of textile making including spinning, weaving, and felting. One summer the “Ethnic Weavers” study group from the Range Fiberart Guild learned and used the Reverse Block Twill. It was described in the Swedish Rag Rugs, 35 New Designs book. The technique uses a basic twill threading that allows a weaver to determine a reversing point for the diagonal pattern of the twill and have the diagonal move in the opposite (or reverse) direction—the slant that points to the right becomes a slant pointing to the left. This weave can, with individual ingenuity, produce many patterns. Carol used the Reverse Block Twill in her Ely Lake Ice rug. The warp is a blue cotton/polyester blend and the weft is white corduroy. The corduroy’s variation in color adds an element to the rug that reminded her of the variations in color in ice. Even though her rug was cut off the loom in the summer, she was working on finishing it in early November. Her thoughts were “about life beneath the patterned ice, unseen by winter moons waxing and waning in the winter skies.” To show this she appliqued the stages of the moon and fish to the borders. “[The moon] represented the sky above the winter ice, and the appliqued fish represented the life forms beneath the winter ice on the bottom of the rug.”

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The Katri Saari Loom, which turned 100 years old in 2012, continues to be used by weavers at the Minnesota Discovery Center. One hundred years ago, in the isolated Iron Range region where comforts of running water, heat, and resources were scarce, the loom provided women with a way to reuse old clothing and fabric to make rugs that kept their homes warm. The women from five Finnish families commissioned Victor Riepponen, the husband of one of the women, to build them a “tree loom” to share. Its natural curves, formed from the root of a spruce tree, were just the right height and length. He hand split the curved piece for the sides and another piece for the legs. The loom was made entirely from wood — even the brake was a hand carved ratchet. Each woman paid in $2 for the loom. Each woman would use the loom for a couple of months, and then it would be transported by horse-drawn wagon to the next family. Katri Saari received the loom after purchasing a farm from one of the families and was the last owner of the loom. Katri inspired many weavers including Range Fiberart Guild’s study group, “Ethnic Weavers,” who wove many examples of traditional weavings on her loom. Her weavings, at first, were very practical using any scrap of fabric to make an item. But she had an affinity for keeping alive the traditional Finnish patterns and designs and knowing the patterns by memory, she wove them into her life in Idington, MN. Her knowledge of Finnish folklore and traditions made her a resource known widely. Scholars and researchers sought her out to learn about historical Finnish life. Katri died in 1984 at the age of 91; nine of her rag rugs are in the Minnesota Discovery Center collection. Jeanne Maki, granddaughter of Katri Saari, loaned the tree loom to the Minnesota Discovery Center so that it could be “kept in use.” Ruth Koski, a student of Katri Saari, has also played an important role in preserving Katri’s weavings and loom. Today, the weavers demonstrate on the Katri Saari Loom at the museum to keep the ethnic patterns alive and to teach them to others. 13


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SEVEN TECHNIQUES Weaving : Nalbinding : Wagon Wheel : Loop : Hook : Sewn : Braid

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Aune Mannila Collection of Kathy Jackson Woodbury, MN

Log Cabin 30” x 60” 1960s

Edna Johnson Collection of Gerry Kangas Aurora, MN

Untitled

25 ½” x 57” Undated

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Weaving The earliest textiles were found in Turkey dating to 6300 B.C. Although no looms were found on the site, the pieces were finely woven. Assuming that the early textiles were woven on an apparatus like a loom, then weaving has been around for a long time. Weavings require two sets of threads, vertical (warp) and horizontal (weft). Warp threads are placed onto the loom; they must be parallel, no two can cross. The weft threads interweave between the warp threads to bind the cloth together. Depending on the pattern that these warp threads are threaded, different patterns are created when weaving. Color and texture of the weft material also influences the design. In this exhibit weavers used rags or cloth for weft.

Paivi Homola Eveleth, MN

Hollywood Rug 26� x 36� 2012

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Nalbinding/ Tooth Brush Rug Nalbinding is a textile looping technique that pre-dates knitting. The word Nalbinding comes from the Norwegian word “nal” meaning needle. Clothing made in this technique has been found in archeological sites in Scandinavia as well as other parts of the world. A short needle made of bone or wood was used to loop wool in various stitches to make clothing. In the United States, rug makers used a toothbrush for their needle to stitch rags with the Nalbinding technique. The bristle end of a toothbrush was sawed off and filed to a point. The hole in the handle of the toothbrush became the eye for the “needle.”

Ida Mattson Collection of Janet Meany Duluth, MN

Toothbrush rug 25” wide - oval Undated

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Wagon Wheel Rugs Wagon wheel rugs get their name from the wheels once used on wagons by early American pioneers. Spare or old used wagon wheels made a perfect holder for the warp to create a circular rug. Weft materials can be woven or twined on the spokes (warp). Today circular frames are made from a variety of materials including PVC pipe, wood, and metal.

Beverly Anderson Mora, MN

Round Wagon Wheel 46� Diameter 2012

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Loop Technique Knitting and crocheting are two examples of the many looping techniques. Knitted and crocheted rugs form a textured surface which is beautiful and also thick to the touch. Larger sized knitting needles and crochet hooks are used to accommodate the thicker rag materials to make rag rugs. Shaping and color change possibilities are endless.

Anna Faye Crockett Ely, MN

Spiraling Blocks, knit 26� Diameter 2009

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Rug Hooking Technique Evidence of the rug hooking technique has been found in Spain and throughout northern Africa between 507 AD and 1492 AD. In Scandinavian countries, this technique was used since the 1600s. Today, this technique involves pulling loops of yarn or fabric through a burlap, linen, or monk’s cloth with a rug hook. Designers draw on the foundation fabric and start hooking by first outlining the designs and then filled it in. The old “primitive” style of hooking uses wider strips and simpler designs. More detailed designs involve narrower strips for complex patterns with shading and highlighting.

Edythe Karlstrand Eveleth, MN

Noah’s Ark, rug hooking 38” x 26” 1989

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Sewn Rugs Sewn rag rugs begin with a backing of heavy material such as canvas or denim. Fabric pieces are cut in a desired shape such as squares or rectangles and sewn to the backing. When sewn together these individual pieces create a deep texture for the rug. Polyester double weave and fleece are good choices for sewn rugs.

Lorna Kallio Aurora, MN

Oval Red and Blue, sewn 24� x 36� 2012

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Josie Krueger Cook, MN

Wool Oval, braided 60” x 84” 2012

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Braided Rag Rugs Shirley Green

Hermantown, MN

Oval Blues and Reds, braided 34” x 49” Undated

The braided technique is one of the most popular in rag rug making. Immigrants and pioneers saved scraps of fabric and made floor coverings which gave warmth and provided an element of decoration. Colonial women braided in the evening when other chores were finished. Often braided rugs were given as housewarming or Christmas gifts and for church raffles. Among the braided rugs, three-strand-braiding has continued in popularity although there are many different braids that could be used.

Unknown Artist Collection of RFAG 47” x 37” Braided

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List of Contributors

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Hagen, Lynn – Hibbing, MN Herring, Louise – Barb Rinne Collection, Tower, MN

Abramson, Alma – Linda Tuhkanen Collection – Cotton, MN

Heikkinen, Mrs. Eino – Gerry Kangas Collection, Aurora, MN

Anderson, Beverly E. – Mora, MN

Hill, Anne – Ruth Koski Collection, Virginia, MN

Anderson, Vina – Proctor, MN

Hill, Mary – Gerry Kangas Collection, Aurora, MN

Badanjak, Juliane – Virginia, MN

Hoffman, Donna – Vergas, MN

Bartley, Lucy – Lynn Hagen Collection, Hibbing, MN

Homola, Paivi – Eveleth, MN

Baudek, Joyce – Aurora, MN

Johnson, Edna –Gerry Kangas Collection, Aurora, MN

Begich, Alice – Gilbert, MN

Johnson, Winnie – Elk River, MN

Benson, Charles – Minneapolis, MN

Kallio, Lorna – Aurora, MN

Bjork, Jan – Baudette, MN

Karlstrand, Edythe – Eveleth, MN

Brown, Sue – Duluth, MN

Kiviluoma, Karen – Makinen, MN

Cooter, Deb – Two Harbors, MN

Koski, Henrietta – Eveleth, MN

Crockett, Anna Faye – Ely, MN

Koski, Ruth – Virginia, MN

Eliason, Anna Sophia – Bill Schaffer Collection, Hibbing, MN

Koski, Ruth – Heather Licari Collection, Biwabik, MN

Eliason, Lenah – Bill Schaffer Collection, Hibbing, MN

Koski, Janette – Mt. Iron, MN

Erickson, Mary – Mt. Iron, MN

Krohn, Liz – Adele Krusz Collection, Canyon, MN

Glaesemann, Paul – Duluth, MN

Krueger, Josie – Cook, MN

Glaesemann, Marie – Duluth, MN

Kyromaki, Esther – Janet Meany Collection, Duluth, MN

Green, Shirley – Hermantown, MN

Lamppa, Karen – Britt, MN

Gross, Mary J. – Mary Erickson Collection, Mt. Iron, MN

Leuelling, Barb - Angora, MN


Luhta, Joan – Barb Leuelling Collection, Angora, MN

Ronning, Irene – Two Harbors, MN

Maker Unknown - Ladies of the Kaleva Collection, Virginia, MN

Ronningen, Joann – Pine Island, MN

Maker Unknown – Range Fiberart Guild Collection, Virginia, MN

Saari, Siiri – Marvin Saari Collection, Virginia, MN

Maijala, Alana – Virginia, MN

Saari, Katri – Minnesota Discovery Center Collection, Chisholm, MN

Mannila, Aune – Kathy Jackson Collection, Woodbury, MN

Sorenson, Florence – Adele Krusz Collection, Canyon, MN

Mattila, Wynne – Minneapolis, MN

Sperling, Carol – Eveleth, MN

Mattson, Ida – Janet Meany Collection, Duluth, MN

Stacy, Loretta – Princeton, MN

Mattson, Ida – Vesterheim Norwegian-American Museum Collection,

Strand, Thea – Bruce Engebretson Collection, Detroit Lakes, MN

Decorah, Iowa

Syrjamaki-Kuchta, Marian – Duluth, MN

Maxwell, Sandy – Finland, MN

Tilseth, Sarah – Vesterheim Norwegian-American Museum Collection,

Meany, Janet – Duluth, MN

Decorah, Iowa

Minter, Bern – Sue Minter Collection, Mt. Iron, MN

Thorstensson, Edi – St. Peter, MN

Minter, Sue – Mt. Iron, MN

Vanderwerp, Mary – Duluth, MN

Moltzan, Paulette – Vergas, MN

Widen, Julia – Two Harbors, MN

Nelson, Amy – Janet Meany Collection, Duluth, MN

Wovcha, Mary – Duluth, MN

Palcich, MaryAnne - Hibbing, MN Quale, Delores – Wadena, MN Ranta, Peggy – Gerry Kangas Collection, Aurora, MN Reese, Hannah Berge – Shelley Frashier Family Collection, Coleraine, MN Rensink, Kathy – Aurora, MN Rinne, Barb – Tower, MN

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List of Classes and Events Standing on Tradition: Rag Rug Technique’s Exhibit Opening Date: Saturday, October 13, 2012 Guest SpeakerJanet Meany is nationally renowned for her rag rug expertise is co-author of the Rag Rug Handbook with Paula Pfaff. She also publishes The Weavers Friend, a newsletter for rag rug weavers since 1989, and The Loom Manual Library. Her articles have appeared in Interweave Magazines, Shuttle Spindle and Dyepot, Handwoven, Craft Connection, The Weavers Journal, and Handbook Supplements for the Spinning Wheel Sleuth. She is well known for her “Rag Rug Show N’ Tell” which features audience participation showing and discussing their rugs.

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Weaving Traditions – The Ethnic Weave Study Group of the Range Fiberart Guild and Rag Rug Show’N Tell Date: Saturday, November 3, 2012 Guest Speakers Carol Sperling founded the Range Fiberart Guild more than 35 years ago. Her interests include basketry, knitting, weaving, spinning and felting. She has exhibited her work at the Alpena Museum in Michigan, the Minnesota History Museum, Convergence, the Lyric Center for Arts, Minnesota Discovery Center and Hibbing Community College. She has published articles in the Threads magazine and Handwoven magazine. Mary Erickson received her MA at the University of Wisconsin- Superior and is currently a collections manager and exhibit researcher at the Minnesota Discovery Center. She is a fiber artist, and her weavings have been exhibited at Duluth Clinic-Virginia, Women’s Art Registry of Minnesota, Convergence in Washington D.C., Lyric Center for the Arts, Mesabi Range Community College and Tweed Museum during Finnfest.

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ShowN’Tell with Janet Meany. 100-year-old Loom Birthday Party! Date: Saturday, December 1, 2012 Guest Speakers Ruth Koski learned to spin from Katri Saari and to weave from Anne Hill. As a member of the Range Fiberart Guild she took classes in basketry, chemical dyeing, and flax spinning. She began demonstrating spinning and weaving in 1984 at the Minnesota Discovery Center. Jeanne Maki is Katri Saari’s granddaughter. She has loaned the loom to Minnesota Discovery Center. Jeanne is on the Board of the Virginia Area Historical Society and is a writer. She is associated with the Lyric Center for the Arts and hosts a monthly Reading Group. Presentation on Braided Rag Rugs Date: Saturday, January 12, 2013 Guest Speaker Josie Krueger was born and raised in northeast Minnesota to a long family of “recyclers.” Her grandmother taught her how to make crochet rag rugs as a young girl. It was her mother-in-law who was key to teaching her how to make braided rag rugs. She has been braiding rag rugs for 25 years, teaches it locally, and participates in the Cook Farmer’s Market and various craft shows.

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Presentation on Nalbinding an Ancient Technique Date: Saturday, February 9, 2013 Guest Speaker Larry Schmitt has been teaching at North House Folk School for many years, offering classes on nalbinding mittens, hats, and bandweaving. He lives in Madison, Wisconsin and learned nalbinding and other fiber techniques from his parents. Rag Rug Show’N Tell Date: February 16, 2013 Guest Speaker Janet Meany Visit our demonstrators! Saturday, October 20 See various techniques of rag rug making! Saturday, October 27 See various techniques of rag rug making! Saturday, January 26 Visit Paivi and weave on an old loom! Saturday, February 16 Visit Paivi and weave on an old loom! CLASSES Introduction to Beginning Rag Rug Weaving Date and Time: Day 1 Thursday, October 18, 2012 4:00 PM – 8:30 PM Day 2 Saturday, October 20, 2012 10:30 AM – 4:30 PM Day 3 Thursday, October 25, 2012 4:00 PM – 8:30 PM Day 4 Saturday, October 27, 2012 10:30 AM – 4:30 PM Instructors: Carol Sperling and Barb Leuelling 35


Knitted Rag Rugs Date: Saturday, October 20, 2012 Instructor: Anna Faye Crockett is a member of the Northern Lakes Arts Association, Ely Weaver’s Guild, Lyric Center for the Arts, and the Range Fiberart Guild. She has been the teacher and creative source for the Knitting Study Group for years. She is an artisan demonstrator at the Minnesota Discovery Center and has been a regular participant in art exhibits for four decades. Make and Take Twined Rag Rug Hot Pad Trivet Date: Saturday, November 10, 2012 Instructor: Alana Maijala is the current President of the Range Fiberart Guild. She is a 4-H alumnus and current 4-H Leader who learned twined weaving at the MN 4-H Adult Volunteer Forum several years ago. She also enjoys other weaving techniques, crocheting, beading and other needle arts. Start a Braided Rag Rug! Date: Saturday, January 12, 2013 Instructor: Josie Krueger Warping a Barn Loom Date: Saturday, January 19, 2013 Instructors: Carol Sperling and Barb Leuelling

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Make and Take Twined Rag Rug Hot Pad Trivet Date: January 19, 2013 Instructor: Alana Maijala Twining on a Wagon Wheel Date: January 26, 2013 Instructor: Bill Schaffer is from the Iron Range and has been weaving Rya and Tapestry since 1998. He has been a member of the Range Fiberart Guild for 22 years. His work has been displayed at the Tweed Museum during Finnfest 2008, at the Courthouse in Hibbing, and at the Lyric Center for the Arts in Virginia, MN. He has taught Japanese Braiding (Kumihimo) and weaving to Home School children, Girl Scouts, Summer Art Camp 4th & 5th Graders at Lincoln Elementary School and Hibbing Elementary where he was an “Artist in Residency.�

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Nalbinding an Ancient Technique Date: Saturday, February 9, 2013 Instructor: Larry Schmitt Locker Hooking Date: Saturday, February 16, 2013 Instructor: Henrietta Koski is an experienced fiberartist from the Iron Range. She is an accomplished quilter and knitter, and her inspirations have spread into more projects than you can imagine. Currently she is a member of the Range Fiberart Guild, Creative Stitches, Loose Knits and Going to Pieces Quilters. She has had her quilts exhibited at Minnesota Discovery Center. Start a Braided Rag Rug! Date: Saturday, February 23, 2013 Instructor: Josie Krueger

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Special thank you to the Range Fiberart Guild members and to all the instructors and presenters who made this exhibit and program such a success. Although there are too many people to list here, several members of the Guild’s sweat and presence has yet to dissipate from the museum including Mary Erickson, Barb Leuelling, Carol Sperling, and Alana Maijala. Their tireless efforts fueled the work for the exhibit and programs that made it such a wonderful success. Thank you to the Ladies of Kelava, Virginia, Minnesota and Vesterheim Norwegian-American Museum, Decorah, Iowa for their generosity in loaning historical and unique rugs to the exhibition. And last but not least, thank you to the artists and collectors whose passion and stories elevate rag rugs to a personal and artistic form. Standing on Tradition: Rag Rug Techniques Exhibit and events are made possible in part by a grant provided by the Minnesota State Arts Board through an appropriation by the Minnesota State Legislature from the State’s arts and cultural heritage fund with money from the vote of the people of Minnesota on November 4, 2008.

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About Minnesota Discovery Center Encompassing 660 acres, Minnesota Discovery Center tells the story of the Iron Range – ‘The Land, The Mind, The People, the Work’ – through exhibits, interpretation, programming and research materials. The Minnesota Discovery Center’s Museum is a 33,000-square foot facility that showcases, interprets and illuminates the Iron Range’s rich past. Minnesota Discovery Center’s Research Center is a 14,000-square foot facility that has become a premier destination for those seeking genealogical and historical data. For more information, please visit www.MNDiscoveryCenter.com or call 800.372.6437 or 218.254.7959.

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MINNESOTA DISCOVERY CENTER MNDiscoveryCenter.com 218-254-7959 800-372-6437 1005 Discovery Drive Chisholm, MN 55719

Telling the story of the Iron Range. The Land. The Mines. The People. The Work.

Standing On Tradition: Rag Rug Technique  

Exhibit Guide