Protected as long as long as they do not take PRESENTATION POINTS ON REPORTING action adverse to that status. War correspondents accredited to the armed ON ARMED CONFLICT forces are equally protected but must have Trends in Conflict 1800's – 1950's : International armed conflict, identity cards. world war scenarios Combatants mainly military and armed soldiers During Conflict Journalists are protected against guarding national sovereignty Should not be object to direct attack 1960's: National liberation wars 1980's – mid 90's : civil wars, non international Journalist can cover conflict through pictures,, video and any other means. armed conflict Late 2009 to date – date: civil unrest, fight for Torture, mutilation, outrages upon personal dignity. democracy, civil liberties Journalists Rights Right of access to information Freedom of transmission Freedom of movement Do these rights exist during conflict? The Main Role of Media in Reporting Conflict Maintain human dignity Report accurately Impartial reporting (Report on both sides of the story) Maintain ethical standards while reporting (Glorifying aspects of war is not ethical) Understand the context of the conflict Features in Modern Conflict 1. 'Self / ethnic determination mantra, Often low intensity in nature 2. Often resource related, fought by insurgents / irregular troops 3. Fuelled by illegal weapons / devices, features child combatants, targets civilians / civil objects, often protracted. Measures for Protection of Journalists A deliberate attack, which causes the death or injury of a journalist, would constitute a serious breach of the Protocol, that is to say, a War Crime (ART. 85, Parag 3 (e) of Protocol 1. Protection of Journalists in IHL In Chapter 3, Article 79 of Additional Protocal 1: Journalists on dangerous missions have the same protection as civilians.
In Situations of Internal Disturbance No legal instrument guarantees freedom of expression or the right to information in time of crisis Provisions concerning the prohibition of arbitrary arrest, the right to fair trail etc remain in force even under exceptional circumstances ICRC Support to Journalists Working in Armed Conflict and other Situations of Violence 24 hour hotline Seek information from parties to the conflict
Inform the government or press after the family approves. Request for the journalist to be visited bz ICRC and a doctor. Enable the journalist and his family communicate Repatriation Recent Example The ICRC recently handed over Romeo Langlois to France after being released from Colombian rebels. Safety Measures WHO? Media Staff Employer Military & Security governments IO & NGOs WHAT? Safety and 1st Aid Training Preparation Safety rules Information Equipment Insurance Experience Debriefing or Counselling