Rapid development and integration of information technology in TOSEL ,TEFL ,AND ESL Over the last 50 years, and especially during the last 20 years, the ELT field has seen a dramatic change in our views of the role of English language teaching. English educators have realized that many language learners know more than two languages. English is not simply their second language anymore. With this awareness, acronyms for the field have also evolved— from TESL (teaching English to second language learners) to TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages), from Western English to English as an international language (EIL). The term TENOR (teaching English for no obvious reasons) has been replaced by TESR (teaching English for social responsibilities) and CLT2 (communicative language teaching, contextualized language teaching). Nowadays, more and more research and discussions have focused on the issues of “World Englishes” and English as a lingua franca (ELF) rather than simply referring to any English spoken outside of the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Australia as EFL. (. Brown, H. D. (1994, March). On track to century 21. Plenary talk at the 24th Annual Convention of TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages), San Francisco, USA.) Researchers have examined how computers enhance the instructed acquisition, e.g., pronunciation (Eskenazi 1999), grammatical structures (Collentine 2000) and lexical items (Laufer and Hill 2000). Broader skills areas are also receiving attention; e.g. Chun and Plass (1997) examine
reading comprehension skills, Negretti (1999) uses conversational analysis in web-based activities, and Sullivan (1998) explores the connections among reading, writing, speaking and critical thinking. The recent rapid development of technology and the use of cell phones and different multimedia devices have opened endless possibilities for teachers to teach English and access information. The Internet, YouTube, Web.2.0, e-books, and various websites have changed how we prepare our lessons and instruct our students. Now, with ready-made materials at the touch of a keyboard button, it is a lot easier to bring real-life issues to the classroom and have a meaningful discussion. Appropriate integration of technology in the classroom encourages students to use language in many different ways. Furthermore, learners from different parts of the world can get connected and exchange ideas via the Internet and other media devices. Students may know more than their teachers about how to use technology, and yet they need proper guidance from the teachers on how to select, analyze, and utilize the right information to achieve their learning goals . Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence. Bristol, United Kingdom: Multilingual Matters. Recent studies indicate a growing trend towards using the computer as primary research tool, either to elicit data (e.g. Holliday, above) or to record data indirectly. For example, Liou (1995)
reports on using computers to record interactive processes. Wright (1998) is studying the effect that playing simulations has on L2 development. Ehsani and Knodt (1998) explore various speech technologies that might assist in oral language research. Murphy-Judy (1998) includes articles on pronunciation and on-line writing. Hulstijn (2000) provides an excellent summary of computerelicited data collection techniques and how computerised tools record learner production. With a medium that can record each keystroke, compare huge text corpora and create audio and video files with easy-to-manage technology, researchers should find many new data sources to investigate language acquisition. Chapelle (2001) provides a useful overview of CALL and second language acquisition. Technology is everywhere, entwined in almost every part of our lives. It affects how we shop, socialize, connect, play, and most importantly learn. With their great and increasing presence in our lives it only makes sense to have mobile technology in the classroom. Yet there are some schools that are delaying this imminent future of using technology in the classroom as the valuable learning tool it is. The following are very core reasons why technology is taking up the teaching of English Language: If used correctly, it will help prepare students for their future careers, which will inevitably include the use of wireless technology. Integrating technology into the classroom is definitely a great way to reach diversity in learning styles.
It gives students the chance to interact with their classmates more by encouraging collaboration. Technology helps the teachers prepare students for the real world environment. As our nation becomes increasingly more technologydependent, it becomes even more necessary that to be successful citizens, students must learn to be tech-savvy. Integrating technology in education everyday helps students stay engaged. Todayâ€™s students love technology so they are sure to be interested in learning if they can use the tools they love. With technology, the classroom is a happier place. Students are excited about being able to use technology and therefore are more apt to learn. When mobile technology is readily available in the classroom, students are able to access the most up-to-date information quicker and easier than ever before. The traditional passive learning mold is broken. With technology in the classroom the teacher becomes the encourager, adviser, and coach. Students become more responsible. Technology helps students take more control over their own learning. They learn how to make their own decisions and actually think for themselves. Student can have access to digital textbooks that are constantly updated and often more vivid, helpful, creative, and a lot cheaper Students may receive hours of listening input at the computer, with appropriate comprehension
questions, easily controlled repetition and immediate playback. The main disadvantage is the lack of verbal interaction and negotiation of meaning, although this may change with newer technologies. On the internet students can self-access much authentic listening content; see, e.g., www.voa.gov (Voice of America) and www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/ (BBC World Service). Many content CD-ROM and DVDs also provide audio files for the written texts, so that students may listen as they read, often a rare opportunity (particularly for adult learners) to hear the rhythms and accents of the language as written and spoken by native speakers. Real English, a CD-ROM series, incorporates input for beginners from over 850 videotaped interviews of native speakers from three continents (for a full description and ordering information for the program, see the Real English website, www.realenglish.tm.fr). Speech-recognition technology, although still far from perfect, allows students to control computer actions with speech input. Although accepting such a wide range of accents as to be useless for pronunciation correction, speech-recognition activities allow the shy student to speak up. Many programs, including Dynamic English (1997) and ELLIS (1998), use this technology.
Newer technologies allowing, e.g. voice and video email, will no doubt play a role in the design of speaking activities in future.