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HIJRAH April 2013 | Quarterly | Allah guides to Himself those who turn to Him. (42:13)

HIJRAH:

Your Companion On the Journey to Allah

UMMAH NEWS: NFL Players Leave Football for Hajj p5 // Latina Immigrants Spreading Islam p8 // WHOLE LIFE: Be a Glowstick p18 // Thrive, Don’t Just Survive In Prison p14 // Keeping In Touch

with Your Children p41 // Why Muslim Fathers Need to Man Up p49//FATAWA p55


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Publisher: Hijrah is published four times per year by the Muslim Link, a non-profit newspaper based in College Park, Maryland. Hijrah is a non-profit news magazine dedicated to serving the incarcerated Muslim community in the United States. The Muslim Link is a nonprofit project of the Darus-Salaam community in Maryland, USA. Contributors are not necessarily affiliated with Hijrah, the Muslim Link, or Dar-us-Salaam. The views expressed in Hijrah do not necessarily reflect those of Dar-usSalaam or Muslim Link management or their underwriters. Dar-usSalaam and Muslim Link are not responsible for the accuracy of information presented by advertisers, or for the religious compliance of events, products, or services published in Hijrah. LETTERS TO HIJRAH: Due to extremely limited resources, Hijrah is unable to respond to letters from readers. SUBSCRIPTIONS: Hijrah costs $5 per issue. Make checks payable to ‘Hijrah’ and send to the address below. Families and friends of inmates can also pay online at www.sijn.us. Sharia Advisors: Sheikh Salah as-Sawi Imam Safi Khan This publication contains the names of ALLAH (Subhanahu wa ta’ala). Please keep, recycle, or share it with others Hijrah PO Box 596 College Park, MD 20741 Website: www.sijn.us The Muslim Link. All Rights Reserved 2013

With Humility, We Present Hijrah Bismillah, Alhumdulillah, not find sectarianism, clude living beings, they was salaatu was salaamu groupism, or nationalism must not show the face. ‘alaa rasoolillah. in the pages of Hijrah. This is in keeping with Islamic guidelines. It is with humility and grat- Our pages are devoted to itude that we present the helping you on your path We also welcome cover art. first issue of a new publi- to Allah. Debating and la- We would love to display a cation for the incarcerated beling doesn’t serve that reader’s version of how our Muslim community in the purpose and our readers cover should look, comUnited States. will not find that in Hijrah. plete with your version of our masthead or logo with Hijrah is a news magazine This publication is open to each new issue. This is your dedicated to providing Is- inmate contributions. Send paper so put your stamp on lamic information, positive us your articles. We can’t it ! and uplifting content, and print your name in Hijrah practical advice to brothers due to prison guidelines, Subscribers are needed to and sisters striving to make so you will have to be ok help grow this new publitheir way to Allah under with being an ‘anonymous’ cation. At $5 per issue, we the constraints of prison contributor. need about 500 subscribwalls. ers just to meet print costs, Contributions can be any so encourage your friends Whether its news about length, but should avoid to subscribe and get their the Muslim ummha, ad- divisive or controversial own copy. vice on skill building for issues of a political or relicareers outside prison, gious nature. Poetry, short We are open to your ideas dealing with family issues, stories, and humor are wel- for content and articles, so or maintaining a healthy come. write to us and give us adlifestyle, Hijrah will be an vice. excellent resource for you, Ex-offenders living outside In Shaa Allah. are also welcome to offer We’ve started on this jourtheir advice to brothers and ney, and we ask that you The Islamic content found sisters struggling to make come along. With Allah as in Hijrah is -- to the best of the transition to society. our Guide, we have a great our knowledge -- based on journey and beautiful desthe Qur’an and the authen- We also welcome your art- tination ahead of us, In tic sunnah as understood work -- but no arabic cal- Shaa Allah. by the early generations ligraphy and no drawings of the Muslim ummah. or paintings of people or -- the Hijrah Team That said, our readers will animals. If you want to in-


Hijrah | April 2013 | 3

UMMAH NEWS

Street Sweeper’s Life Transforms In Makkah By Habib Toumi, Gulf News Bureau Chief November 3, 2012

Saudi news site Sabq reported. The two men were from a wealthy family in Bangladesh, but the older brother had refused to give Manama: An expatriate working his sibling his share of the inherias a street sweeper in Makkah tance estimated at 17 million Sausaw his life change in a blink dur- di riyals (Dh16.64 million) in cash ing the Hajj season after his es- in addition to several properties. tranged brother sought to make amends for wronging him by re- The older man even managed to turning his share of the family have his younger brother sent to fortune. prison whenever he asked for his share. The younger brother, disThe Bangladeshi man was sweep- appointed and dejected, opted to ing Taneem Street in Makkah leave Bangladesh and work as a when an old man wearing the Ih- sweeper in the holy city of Makkah. ram cloth of Haj pilgrims crossed As it turns out, the sweeper has the busy road and embraced him become a millionaire in his home warmly much to the perplexity of country. passersby. However, the sweeper returned the embrace, indicating He told the people who gathhis familiarity with the older man. ered around him and his brother that he had forgiven his brother The embrace in fact was between who had apologized profusely for two brothers who had not seen mistreating him and that he was each other for more than five ready to return home. years in the aftermath of a bitter dispute over inheritance rights,

According to the news site, the younger brother said he was ready to forget the past and move forward with his new life. “I will always be kind with the poor and He reportedly looked for his broth- the needy,” he said. “I have learned er in several places to ask for his a lot about deprivation and povforgiveness and make amends for erty in the last five years. I will all the years of deprivation he was always be fair with everyone after forced to endure. He even offered I lived through years of injustice,” financial rewards to whoever he said in Arabic, a language he could help him locate his brother. learned during the time he spent sweeping the streets of Makkah. The older man said that he had been diagnosed with cancer and that he was not sure how long he would live.

Sunni Islam's Al-Azhar Eyes 'Better Relations' with New Pope

In 2006, Pope Benedict sparked fury across the Muslim world when he recounted an anecdote in which the Muslim Prophet Mohammed was described as a warmonger who spread evil teachings by the sword.

Sunni Islam's highest seat of learning, Al-Azhar, said on Thursday, March 14, 2013 that it wants "better relations" with the Vatican under Pope Francis.

Dialogue resumed in 2009, but was again severed after Benedict strongly called for protection of Christian minorities following a January 2011 suicide bombing at a church in Alexandria, Egypt's second city.

"We are hoping for better relations with the Vatican after the election of the new pope," Mahmud Azab, adviser for inter-faith affairs to AlAzhar imam Ahmed al-Tayyeb, told AFP. "As soon as a new policy emerges, we will resume the dialogue with the Vatican which was suspended in early 2011," Azab said. "We congratulate the Church of St Peter and all Catholics around the world."

At the time, Al-Azhar said it would cut ties again with the Vatican over what it called Benedict's "repeated treatment of Islam in a negative way, and his claims that Christians and others are oppressed in the Middle East." [Source: AFP/GlobalPost, March 14, 2013]


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‘1001 Inventions’ Spotlights Muslim Innovation Christopher Torchia Associated Press For generations, the lore of “One Thousand and One Nights” helped shape Western notions about Muslim culture. The collection of tales described an exotic world of harems and flying carpets, Sinbad and monsters, Aladdin and the jinn, Ali Baba and the 40 thieves. Now an exhibition about innovation in Muslim civilization seeks to highlight what organizers say is an overshadowed period of history, a golden age in which advances in engineering, medicine and architecture laid groundwork for Western progress from the Renaissance until modern times. In a play on the old stories, it is titled: “1001 Inventions: Discover the Muslim Heritage in Our World.” Cultural Pride At Work The show seeks to be strictly academic, and shuns political or religious pronouncements. But the robust response of many young Muslims suggests a thirst for cultural pride against a contemporary backdrop of conflict and suspicion between the West and Muslim countries. “Originally, it was aimed at the Western public,” said Salim Al-Hassani, organizer of the British exhibition and a professor of mechanical engineering at Manchester University. “But we found that when people from the Muslim world, when they see it, they get fired up, especially the young people who are in search of identity.” It’s a slick production, with an introductory film featuring a “Harry Potter”-like fantasy sequence with Sir Ben Kingsley, the Oscar-winning actor, as a mysterious figure who dispels three skeptical students in a library of preconceptions about the past. The centerpiece of the show is a replica of an elaborate “elephant” clock that symbolized a multicultural spirit and pioneered modern automation and robotics. It used Greek water-powered technology, and the figures of an Indian elephant, an Egyptian phoenix, a Persian carpet, Chinese dragons and men in Arabian dress.

It was designed 800 years ago by AlJazari, a Muslim engineer in what is today southeast Turkey. Other giants of innovation during the 1,000-year period that began in the seventh century were physician Al-Zahrawi, whose innovations shaped European surgery, and Fatima Al-Fihri, whose multi-subject institute of learning, with no gender restrictions, laid foundations for the modern university.

The display coincides with the Islamic holy month of Ramadan; the tent stays open until 3 a.m. to welcome a nocturnal crowd. There is no admittance fee. The project was created by the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation, an academic group based in Britain. Funding came from the Jameel Foundation, a British charity linked to Abdul Latif Jameel Co. Ltd., a Toyota car distributor based in Saudi Arabia.

History Of Innovation A Show On The Road “There is a perception that Islam was always backward and made no contribution to the world of science,” said visitor Sule Seda Tezer, who was especially pleased to note the high profile of women in the displays. “The West has a phobia about Islam. I think there is an effort to break the phobia and build better ties between the East and West.” With [updated 100,000+] followers, the “1001 Inventions” Facebook page echoes her enthusiasm. “Come to Algeria!” and “we are waiting 4 u in Damascus” are among the posts. From Saudi Arabia, Abdull-Kareem Andeejani wrote: “Will you ever come to open in Riyadh? Please? I want to know more of my own history, I see it as highly important to look back in time, so that we can pick up what we have forgotten.” The exhibit has interactive features designed to attract children, and details research in optics, music and algebra from Muslim civilizations that once encompassed parts of Europe and ranged as far as China. One curiosity is a replica of the flying machine of Abbas ibn Firnas, who constructed a winged framework near Cordoba in Spain and flew briefly before injuring himself. Centuries later, Leonardo da Vinci worked on his own flying designs. In Istanbul, at least 6,000 people a day - up to twice that on weekends - file daily into the exhibition tent in front of the former Byzantine church of Haghia Sophia, and near the fabled Blue Mosque, built during the Ottoman Empire.

The exhibition had a successful run at the Science Museum in London [Los Angeles, Washington D.C., Doha] earlier this year and will move to the New York Hall of Science after ending its seven-week Istanbul stint on Oct. 5. It arrived hurriedly in Turkey after Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan saw it in London and said he was eager to host it. “There was an attempt to impose a history that jumped from ancient Greece straight to the Renaissance period,” Erdogan said at the opening ceremony last week. “Later on, some Western scientists

made a praiseworthy effort to acknowledge the contributions of Islamic civilization to the history of science.” Erdogan leads an Islamic-oriented government that has cut away at the power of traditional elites with a strongly secular background. He has also sought to elevate the memory of the Ottoman Empire, whose attempts at Western-style reform failed to stem its collapse in the early 20th century. Ehsan Masoud, author of “Science and Islam: A History” and editor of a research policy newsletter in Britain, said scientific innovation in Muslim lands began to decline as Islamic empires grew weak and poor, and Western colonial powers expanded. “It’s fair to say that history is written by the victors,” Masoud said. “Quite understandably, Western nations are hardly going to start crediting the people they’ve defeated.”

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Hijrah | April 2013 | 5

NFL Players quit careers for Hajj more. And we had to go for it.”  By Brian Brown Put simply, this is just another striving, improbable, poetic American Dream story: How a family, venerating work and education, traveled from the notorious South Central LA of “Boyz In The Hood” to settle in Spielberg Americana in the shadow of the soaring San Bernardino Mountains—a family with not one but two brothers recruited to play Division I football at Washington State University, followed even more notably by NFL careers.  But this story has taken many more remarkable turns.  In  a remarkable journey from Southern California to Saudi Arabia,  [this is] the story of Husain and Hamza Abdullah,  who, at their athletic peak … associated with America’s most glamorous, most  popular sport … walked away, for the glory of God.  “We’ve been playing football since we were 8 years old,” Husain Abdullah told Carillo, “from Pop Warner to high school, and to college, and into the NFL.  And although we’re knocking down all these barriers, doing things that people said you can’t do, all of a sudden, it was like there’s more to life than this. There’s

Their motivation arrived over a lifetime, and all at once. This past spring, Husain and Hamza felt an urgent need to more fully address the pillars of their Islamic faith, including the most difficult test of all, the Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca, an annual concentration of humanity unequaled on the planet.  In so doing, 27-year-old Husain (who had become a starter with the Minnesota Vikings), and 29-year-old Hamza (an established seven-year veteran last with the Arizona Cardinals) would sacrifice annual paychecks in the range of a million dollars.  Instead, cognizant of their platforms as NFL players, they decided not only to seek greater spiritual fulfillment, but also to nurture a greater tolerance of their Islamic faith by spreading a greater understanding of its truths.  “In Islam,”   Hamza Abdullah said, “the first word revealed was iqra, which means read or recite.  So it’s incumbent on all Muslims to gain knowledge.  And, you know, if someone comes and asks me a question, ‘Hamza, what’s the five pillars of faith in Islam,’ I should be able to tell you:  Shahadah, the declaration of

faith: Salat, the five prayers a day; Zakat, giving alms to the poor; Ramadan, fasting during the month of Ramadan; and then finally the Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca.”  Like many American Muslims, the Abdullah brothers have been falsely associated with versions of Islamic extremism they don’t recognize.  On Sept. 11, 2001, Hamza was a sophomore at Washington State, where he was an electrifying presence on the team’s defense.  He received a call at 6 a.m. from a teammate telling him to turn on the TV and watch the breaking news about the attack on the World Trade Center towers.  Not long after that day, both brothers would find themselves equated with the 9-11 hijackers—men with a distorted view of Islam and a deep hatred of America … men with whom the brothers had nothing in common.    “I think 9/11 was an educational opportunity,” Hamza says. “It sounds crazy to say that. But it opened eyes for a lot of people, including myself. And people would ask me about Islam. They’d ask: ‘Can you guys kill people?’ And I would ask them: ‘In what book does it say that

you can go and do acts of terrorism?’ The Quran doesn’t say that. Islam is a religion of piece. This past year, accustomed to thorough preparation and high performance, the brothers have been machine-like in their faithfulness. Along with their older brother Abbas, they spent the holy month of Ramadan on a multistate, cross-country tour: reaching 30 mosques in 30 days, but also stopping at food kitchens and holding teaching sessions with youth groups. The climax of this year surrendered to the glory of God was the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudia Arabia, known as the Hajj. There, the brothers joined a multitude of millions.  “The first thing we noticed in Mecca was how much the other Muslims we met love Americans,” said Hamza. “They absolutely adore us.  When you say, ‘America,’ they love you.  And you really felt proud, like a sense of: ‘That’s my nation.  That’s my country.’ And, you know, a lot of the times that kind of gets lost in translation: that Islam is our religion, yes.  But our country is the United States of America.”  Will Hamza and Husain Abdullah, with the quiet force of their personalities and the depth of their integrity, be welcomed back into the NFL? “We’d love to have Husain back,” said Vikings head coach Leslie Frazier. “A lot of things have to fall in place. But the door is not closed.” “Time and time again, Hamza’s going to be the guy that’s going to encourage you,” said Cardinals veteran All-Pro safety Adrian Wilson. “He’s always said that football isn’t about him. It’s about playing for your brother. It’s about playing for the guy that’s beside you.”  Hamza offered these thoughts after his return from Mecca:  “You know, we’re playing football, America’s number one game.  We went on a road trip.  What’s more American than a road trip?” But this was hardly any ordinary road trip, this story about a remarkable leap of faith. [Adapted from MSNBC]


6 | Hijrah | April 2013

An Interview with Dr Ahmad Kewaso Sengendo, the rector of the Islamic University, Uganda Islam reached Uganda in 1844, where the first group of Muslim traders came to Uganda through the east African coast — they were mainly from Oman. Because they were traders, they did not spend a lot of time in Dawah in Uganda, but with Islam being a practical religion, these traders used to pray, and used to fast. The Africans who were helping them used to see what these Muslims were doing and would learn Islam. Eventually, Islam started spreading to other parts of the country and now the Muslim community in Uganda constitutes 30 per cent of the population— that’s about 10 million people, because the population of Uganda in about 33-34 million. So, Uganda has more Muslims than Libya, and more than many other Arab countries. Since historical times, the official number of Muslims has always been lower than in actuality. I can recall the first census was in 1959, the per centage of Muslims was officially stated to be 10 per cent. To this day, they say that the Muslims are about 12 per cent, when clearly the rate of population growth is much higher in Muslims than Christians. So we believe that the official figures are deliberately lower, but many studies indicate that Muslims make up at least 30 per cent of Uganda. If you go to the neighboring countries, Tanzania is 65 per cent Muslim, but you never hear about it at all — it’s a Muslim majority country, Kenya is about 40 per cent, Ethiopia is supposed to be about 55 per cent Muslim, Malawi is about 40 per cent. So, these are sizable Muslim minorities, and in some cases majorities, but because of the lack of effective education, many of these Muslims have not been able to play an effective role in the socio-economic situation of their countries, and that is where the real strategic thinking must be, how to empower Muslims in Africa to be able to get a good education, knowledge, profession, and of course good Islamic values and morals so that they can better contribute to their country, and to also show a good image of Islam. This is where the chal-

lenge is — empowering the Muslims with knowledge and skill to be able to fend for themselves and also contribute to the socio-economic development of their countries. In 1972, there was an attempt to unite Muslims, so the United Muslim Supreme Council was created. That is the official body representing Muslims. Unfortunately, like in other countries, the Muslims find that in spite of that structure, the Muslims are always divided for one reason or another. We have much work to do amongst ourselves; to be able to unite ourselves, resolving our differences, and working together for the common good. That being said, with every problem, there are advantages. You just need to look for them. That kind of disunity has enabled Islam to expand. It’s miraculous; Allah works in many different ways. When the Muslims are in one group, and they disagree and separate into two groups, both of these groups remain Muslim. One group will build a mosque, and the other will build a mosque as well; where you would have had one mosque, now you have two. One group will build a school, and another will build a school as well; where you would have had one school, now you have two. So, in the process of this apparent problem, there are many advantages, which in the long run, could be useful for Muslims, Allah knows best. Nonetheless, unity is important. Africa is an interesting continent. First of all, it is the only continent where the Muslims are a majority; Africa is a Muslim continent. In my country, Uganda alone, we have over 60 tribes. Is there a particular tribe that is more Muslim than another? Not really, especially in eastern Africa. In some tribes there are few Muslims, in others there are many Muslims. If you take West Africa for instance, most of the Hausa are Muslims, while the Igbo would not have many Muslims. In Uganda specifically, most Muslims are from a tribe called Baganda, we also have tribes in the west Nile region who are Muslims. When it comes to other tribes like the Karamojong, who are cousins of the Maasai, there are not many Muslims, but in the coast, due to the influence of the

Middle East, you find many Muslims. So basically, many Muslims live in urban areas as opposed to rural areas, because of trade. But by and large, you would not be able to find a tribe where there are no Muslims—this is the beauty of Islam in Africa.

strides in the field of education. The

The Christian missionaries came to Uganda about 33 years after Islam, but because they were well organized as missionaries, they were able to spread Christianity very fast. Wherever they went they would build a church, build a hospital, and a school. In the process, they were able to overtake the Muslims in numbers. When the British colonial-

We as Muslims have a duty to improve the image of Islam and to project the correct image of Islam. ists came, they assisted the Christian missionaries. So, as of now, Uganda is a Christian majority country; the Muslims are a sizable minority, but hanks to God, the political system enables the Muslims to practice their religion freely. We have no hindrances, we can build our own schools, build mosques, we can teach our children Islam, women can wear hijab, and we can do many other Islamic activities.

number of schools has increased. We also have a university, which was the first private university in Uganda. We have many Muslims in trade. We have many mosques. In agriculture, the Muslims are also there. In business, we have many Muslims engaged in businesses.

The majority of people are Christians. Muslims hence sometimes feel left out in some aspects of social life and political life. For instance, out of a cabinet of 69 ministers, there would only be 6 Muslim ministers. In the field of education, the Muslims were left behind, so much so that at the time of independence, there were only 2 Muslim graduates, but thanks to God and thanks to the various efforts including that of the Islamic University in Uganda the number of Muslim graduates has increased, and Muslims are able to play a more effective role in the socio-economic development of Uganda.

Of course, the level of poverty among the Muslims is still high, which is a major concern that we need to be able to address. This poverty is mainly due to the low level of education, which is what we are trying to address as of now, especially among the Muslim girls. Generally in Africa, women are left behind in education among other aspects, but among the women, the Muslim women are even worse off. So we are trying to make some deliberate attempts to address the issue of education and healthcare among women. Now, a hospital is being built, where some female Muslim doctors have started a clinic where the women can go and be able to get some attention. We are working on many other aspects. The odds are many, but Thanks to God there is progress. Given the fact that the political leadership does not interfere in the affairs of Muslims, that gives us the capacity to be able to move forward in a

The Muslims have made tremendous

>>> INTERVIEW pg 7

Tell us about the role Muslims play in Uganda?


Hijrah | April 2013 | 7 more coherent and strategic way. The Islamophobia virus has spread to all parts of the world. There are many good Muslims, who do good things to improve the image of Islam, but there are also Muslims who do wrong things that are out of the fold of Islam, and it would be wrong to associate that with Islam; just as we have Christians who do good things and Christians who do bad things. The person responsible for the Oklahoma [atrocity] was not a Muslim, the people who committed atrocities in Sarajevo in Bosnia and Herzegovina were not Muslims. We as Muslims have a duty to improve the image of Islam and to project the correct image of Islam. There are many Muslim who do not understand Islam and do things in the name of Islam. We also have Christians who do not understand Islam and think that they do. Once we have this cocktail of ignorance, and social and economic pressures, you have a recipe for worldly competition and many social evils. But we must all try to find a common ground, because theoretically, the dividing line between Islam and Christianity is very thin and very porous. As a Muslim, I cannot be a Muslim unless I believe in Jesus, in his miraculous birth, in the miracles he performed with God’s permission, and his second coming. Where the Muslims differ fundamentally is when the Christians say that Jesus is the son of God. Muslims would then say: no, he is an honorable prophet of God, yes born miraculously, but that is not the biggest miracle; Adam, the first man, he did not have a father or mother. So we have many common aspects with the Christians and in many cases the Jews. It is up to us as human whether we want to concentrate on the things that bind us together or the things divide us. If we were to concentrate on what binds us together, we would be able to make the world a better place for all of us. How involved are the Ugandan Muslims in media? Well, media is one of our weaknesses, but now, everyone is realizing the power of media. There have been some efforts in media however. We have FM radio stations that are operated by Muslims; even though, they are few compared to the Christian stations, but they are able to convey the message of Islam. We are not involved in print media yet, there are

The Muslim community in Uganda constitutes 30 per cent of the population—that’s about 10 million people, because the population of Uganda in about 33-34 million. few, but they are not consistent. We also do not have a television station yet. However, in the Islamic University, we have a department of mass communication, where we train many of our students in mass communication, and are now working on starting our own FM radio station. The government has already approved a license for us, we bought some of the equipment, but we need assistance in buying the remaining equipment and to put up our own towers. We are making strides, but we are still way behind in that area, which is extremely crucial. Tell us about the Islamic University? The Islamic University in Uganda is an institution established by the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), which is based in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. It was established to address a historical imbalance. The colonialists in east Africa, just like elsewhere, deliberately left out the Muslims in education. Muslim heads of states met in 1974 in Lahore, Pakistan to discuss what went wrong with the Muslims. They realized that one of the problems facing Muslims was lack of education; and subsequently they decided to set up Islamic universities: Two in Africa, one in Niger to support the French speaking countries, and one in Uganda to serve the English-speaking African countries. Of course they also established one

each in Pakistan and Malaysia, and many other Islamic universities. However, even though the decision was made in 1974, the university did not start until 1988 — that’s a gestation period of 14 years. When we started in 1988, we had 80 students, and two- degree programs. Since then the university has developed to serving 7,000 students from 21 countries. So far, we have had 13,000 graduates, who are now serving in the public and private sector. In Uganda, one of the governmental ministers was a student of ours, we also have over 20 members of Parliament, many in the civil services, the police, the army, and the commander of the Ugandan air force was also a former student of the Islamic university. Of course, we also have non-Muslim students as well in the Islamic University; about 30 per cent of ours students are Christians. We have 6 faculties: The faculty of Islamic studies and the Arabic language, the faculty of education, arts and social sciences, management studies, science, and the faculty of law. We also have a center for post-graduate studies.

You would even find in some schools Christians teaching Islam. Now, we have enough Muslim teachers to run all our schools and more. We are now exporting some of our teachers to other countries. As I said previously, our students were able to contribute to society greatly. Thanks to God, the social impact of the university is real. The university also enjoys much legal support from the government. The challenges are still many. The funding of the university is still not very good, because we get limited funding from the OIC, along with a few donations from AlNahyan Foundation of Emirates, and the Zakat House of Kuwait, along with Iqraa and other organizations. But, by and large, we are 90 per cent dependent on student tuition fees, which is a problem, because many of the students come from poor backgrounds, and about 20 per cent of them fail to pay their fees. It is very painful to see a bright young girl or boy who could have become a future professor failing to move forwards due to poverty. Source: www.islamoline.com

Our graduates have played a very significant role. For instance, earlier, before we started graduating teachers from our university, even in a Muslim secondary school all the teachers were Christians.


8 | Hijrah | April 2013

NATIONAL NEWS

Latina Immigrants: The New Ambassadors of Islam By Wendy Diaz, Muslim Link Contributing Writer

in the United States in 2011, a six-percent increase over the year 2000.

Tucked away in a quiet rural neighborhood in Somerset, New Jersey is the brown brick building that houses the New Jersey Chapter of the Islamic Center of North America’s (ICNA) WhyIslam Project. Within its confines, in a second floor office with rose-colored walls, sits the administrative assistant and only female employee of the department, Nahela Morales.

Morales believes Latina immigrant women are drawn to Islam because of the sense of “belonging” they find within the Muslim community. “Many immigrants are here by themselves and when they come into the mosque and see faces smiling, they feel welcome,” she says. “Is-

In a long black garment and gray headscarf, Morales sits in front of a computer entering notes and taking phone calls from the program’s hotline, 1-877-WhyIslam, a resource for individuals to ask questions about Islam. Morales, a Mexican immigrant and recent convert to Islam, is the national Spanish-language outreach coordinator for WhyIslam, a project of ICNA that disseminates Islamic information nationwide. But Morales is also taking her teachings beyond the border: She recently led a trip to bring Islamic literature, food and clothing to Mexico. Morales is part of a growing movement of immigrant Muslim converts from Latin America – many of whom are women -who are now helping to bring the religion back to their home countries. Latina Immigrant Women Finding a Place in Islam According to WhyIslam’s 2012 Annual Report, 19 percent of the 2,862 converts it assisted in 2011 were Latinos, and more than half of those (55 percent) were women. These statistics are based on data gathered from the 2,862 converts the organization worked with in 2011. The 2011 U.S. Mosque Survey, which interviewed leaders at a sample of 524 mosques across the country, found that the number of new female converts to Islam had increased 8 percent since 2000, up from 32 percent to 41 percent. The report also found that Latinos accounted for 12 percent of all new converts to Islam

Wilfredo Ruiz, an attorney and political analyst on the Islamic world, as well as a Muslim chaplain, affirms that women

Muslims and Latino immigrants are living side by side in urban neighborhoods across the country, in states such as California, Texas, Florida, New York, and Illinois, which according to data from the Migration Policy Institute host the largest number of immigrants from Latin America.

lam teaches that a Muslim is a brother to another Muslim, and that brotherhood is very appealing.” Experts say the phenomenon of a growing number of Latino immigrants converting to Islam is due in part to migration trends. Muslims and Latino immigrants are liv-

he says. According to The American Mosque 2011 Report, these five states also have the highest number of mosques in the U.S., reflecting a growing Muslim presence there.

are embracing Islam at a higher rate than men. A native of Puerto Rico, Ruiz converted to Islam in 2003 and currently resides in South Florida, where he works closely with various non-profit organizations including the American Muslim Association of North America (AMANA). “More women than men convert, both in AMANA offices and in the mosques in

While Protestantism may have fewer intermediaries than Catholicism, Latinos come to Islam because they believe in a concept of God that acknowledges Him as the Most Powerful and therefore, needs no son,”

ing side by side in urban neighborhoods across the country, in states such as California, Texas, Florida, New York, and Illinois, which according to data from the Migration Policy Institute host the largest number of immigrants from Latin America. Combined, these five states constituted 72.5 percent of the total foreign-born population from Latin America in the United States.

Southern Florida,” Ruiz says. Latina immigrants, he says, can feel exploited both in Latin America and the United States. The higher status afforded women in Islam and their modest dress, he believes, offers a sensible alternative. “I have heard from Latina women saying that they seek protection, and they find [that] protection and respect in Islam,”

Juan Galvan, executive director of the Latino-American Dawah Association and author of Latino Muslims: Our Journeys to Islam, believes that Islam also may have a special appeal because it reveals to them what he calls a more profound understanding of monotheism. “Most Latino Muslim converts have had personal experiences with Muslims that first drew them closer to Islam,” he explains. “These Muslims may be their friends, acquaintances, classmates, coworkers, bosses, marriage partners, or others. By interacting with Muslims, a non-Muslim learns about Islamic monotheism for the first time.” Because Islam emphasizes God’s, or Allah’s, oneness, Galvan says, it presents Latinos with a unique alternative to traditional Christian theologies that accept the existence of holy deities – Jesus, the Holy Spirit, saints and miracle workers -- which are connected to, yet distinct, from God. “While Protestantism may have fewer intermediaries than Catholicism, Latinos come to Islam because they believe in a concept of God that acknowledges Him as the Most Powerful and therefore, needs no son,” says Galvan, who is himself a Mexican-American who converted to Islam in the summer of 2001. Morales’ path to Islam: Mexico to U.S. to Mexico Morales found her own place in Islam after a turbulent past. In 1979, Morales’ mother risked crossing the border into the United States illegally and alone, leaving her infant daughter behind in Mexico under her grandmother’s care. When Morales was 5 years old, she was finally reunited with her mother, who by that time had settled in Los Angeles. Mother and daughter gained amnesty under the Immigration Reform and >>> IMMIGRANTS pg 9


Hijrah | April 2013 | 9

>>> IMMIGRANTS, from pg 8 Control Act of 1986. However, even as a U.S. citizen, Morales recalls feeling out of place. “It was a very difficult adjustment since I did not speak English,” says Morales. “I remember entering the school system and not being able to communicate with my teachers or peers. I wanted to go back home [to Mexico].” Adding to her difficulties, Morales was the victim of years of neglect and abuse at home, and as a pre-teen she was removed from her mother’s custody and placed in foster care and group homes, until ultimately she was able to settle on her own and finish college. She moved to New York in 2001. Shortly after her relocation, the Sept. 11, 2001 terrorist attacks occurred at the World Trade Center. When news reports blamed Muslim extremists, Morales began to research Islam. “I was watching the news and they were always showing [Muslim] people shouting ‘Allahu-akbar,’ God is great, so I thought, if your God is so great, why is he allowing you to kill people? If Muslims say Islam [is about] peace, then this doesn’t make sense.” She decided to find the answers herself and purchased a copy of the Quran, Islam’s holy book. Morales also began befriending Muslim women on MySpace. “They were so nice, and I became more curious. One of the Muslim women I met happened to be Puerto Rican, and she got in touch with someone in California that could send me an information package about Islam with books, a Quran, a prayer rug, and a hijab [headscarf].” Morales continued to make contact with Muslims through the Internet and searched online for the closest mosque to her new home in North Bergen, New Jersey. She began visiting the mosque and eventually converted in 2003, and continues to be an active member of the North Hudson Islamic Educational Center, or NHIEC. NHIEC is situated in a predominantly Hispanic neighborhood and 30 percent of its congregants are Latinos. The Latino influence is so great that the mosque of-

fers simultaneous Spanish translation of its Friday sermons and Islamic studies classes, and even hosts an annual “Hispanic Muslim Day.” During one of her visits to the NHIEC mosque in 2009, a WhyIslam worker overheard Morales speaking Spanish and he asked her if she would be interested in a bilingual position with the company. “I asked [God] to please send me a job where I would be able to worship and wear my veil. I knew right then my prayer was being answered,” says Morales.

Mexican immigrant and Muslim convert, lives in fear as a result. Duarte, who is now 30, has been in the United States since the age of 7, but she is still undocumented. Her family crossed the border and moved to Chicago in 1990. She was able to attend school as her parents worked. When she finished high school, Duarte was left with no other choice but to work. “I figured that there was no possibility of furthering my education because I’d lack assistance due to my status,” she explains. She landed an administra-

Mexican Americans are the category of Latinos that make up the largest percentage of the Latino Muslim converts in the U.S.,”

She has been working with them for more than three years, and recently led a campaign to deliver Islamic literature and audio, clothing, and toiletries to a needy Muslim community in Mexico City. Morales’ family members in Mexico, who are mostly Catholic, were not accepting of her decision to practice Islam or of her modest style of dress. They accused her of turning her back on her culture. However, in her most recent trip to her hometown of Cuernavaca, she took the opportunity to talk to them more about her religion. “It is obvious that Islam is still very strange in Mexico,” Morales said, “But it is also very clear that people want to learn about it.” Since her visit she says her family has become more supportive. Far from Home: Living as an undocumented Latina Muslim in Chicago “Mexican Americans are the category of Latinos that make up the largest percentage of the Latino Muslim converts in the U.S.,” says Juan Galvan. Since 9/11, Muslims and Latinos, especially Mexicans, have been affected by stricter immigration laws throughout the United States. In Chicago, Illinois, Isabela Duarte, a

tive position in a social services agency. However, as a result of the recession and state cuts, Duarte lost her job. “That’s when my real struggles began. I searched for jobs everywhere. Immigration laws became tougher; therefore most places of employment denied me any type of opportunity regardless of the experience I had.” She settled for babysitting jobs, where she could be paid under the table. In the winter of 2008, while her parents, who are still undocumented, faced foreclosure, unemployment, and a divorce, Duarte had an emotional breakdown. She began searching for a remedy for her stress, and after browsing the Internet and finding a YouTube video of Quran recitation, she decided to look into Islam. Her best friend, who was Puerto Rican, had already become a Muslim, and Duarte followed in her footsteps. She attended the local Islamic center to openly declare her faith and was warmly received by the women in the mosque, who gave her scarves, books, and a copy of the Quran. Now as an immigrant and a Muslim, she continues to struggle with her status. “This is my home. Chicago has been my home and I don’t recall any other,” she says when asked about returning to Mexico. But she has found a community among other Latino Muslims, and

participates regularly in events held by the Latino Muslims of Chicago, an Islamic group that serves the needs of Latinos. Limited by her immigration status, however, her own local outreach efforts cannot expand beyond her immediate family so she reaches out to others through her Facebook page, where she posts information about Islam in the form of articles and videos. Muslims Back Home According to the Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion and Public Life, over the next 20 years, the only region where the percentage increase in the number of Muslims will be greater than it was over the last 20 years is the Americas, largely due to immigration to the U.S. and Canada from South Asia, the Middle East and North Africa. In North and South America, the estimated Muslim population in 2010 was 5,256,000. This number is expected to more than double by the year 2030. Liliana Anaya, a Muslim convert from Colombia and a graduate of American University in Washington, D.C., is familiar with the trend. The mosque in her hometown, Barranquilla, Colombia, reports an average of four conversions a month. Anaya’s journey as a Latina immigrant in America began when she was in college. She entered the United States on a student visa and transferred to Rollins University in Orlando, Florida to study English and complete her undergraduate degree in political science and international relations. Anaya converted to Islam in June 2002 after taking a course on theology. When a Muslim classmate told her that Jesus was not the son of God, she began reading the Quran and called a local mosque to find out more. “I wanted to refute him and prove him wrong,” she says. “It was more of an act of rebellion because in my mind, I never really believed Jesus was God’s son. I thought he was just a special person who came with a message.” After taking classes in the mosque and learning about Jesus’ standing as a prophet in Islam, she declared her testimony of faith. >>> IMMIGRANTS II pg 11


10 | Hijrah | April 2013

ISLAMIC MANNERS

Breaking Bread as Brothers By Shaykh Abu Aaliyah And hold fast, all together, to the rope of God, and do not become divided. [3:103] The Qur’an further insists: The believers are indeed but brothers. So make peace and reconciliation between your brethren. [49:10] Brotherhood (ukhuwa) is a great principle of Islam. It is a brotherhood obliged by God. It is a brotherhood, the bonds of which are rooted in love of God and love in God. Islam’s teachings all ensure that these bonds are allowed to flower and flourish, and that whatever stands in the way to prevent this, or to incite discord or division between Muslims, is disowned by the shari‘ah. Hence the Holy Qur’an says about things that may incite schism or friction between Muslims: The Devil seeks only to cast enmity and hatred amongst you by means of alcohol and gambling, and to turn you from remembrance of God and from [His] worship. Will you not then abstain? [5:91]

Islam not only explains the ideals of brotherhood, it lays down specific teachings and measures that help to make it a reality in our lives. Among that which helps nurture a deep and abiding sense of brotherhood are: Firstly, remembering that God has made the life and honor of every believer sacred and sacrosanct. It is forbidden to harm a Muslim’s honor or repute, as it is to harm their life or their property. Let us remind ourselves about this foundational fact with the following hadith: ‘Do not envy one another; do not inflate prices one to another; do not turn your backs on one another; and do not undercut one another - but be, O God’s slaves, brothers. A Muslim is the brother of another Muslim: he doesn’t oppress him or forsake him, nor does he lie to him or hold him in contempt. Piety is right here (pointing to his breast thrice). It is evil enough for a person to hold his brother Muslim in contempt. The whole of a Muslim, for another Muslim, is inviolable: his blood, his property and his honour.’ [Muslim, no.2564]

Importance of Cleanliness Muhammadullah Qasimi ArticlesBase.com Cleanliness and purification is one of the great privileges of Islam. It has evolved a wonderful system that encompasses Muslim life on individual and social levels. Islam places great emphasis on cleanliness, in both physical and spiritual terms. The attention to hygiene is the aspect which is an unknown concern in any other religion or philosophy before Islam. While people generally consider cleanliness a desirable attribute, Islam insists on it, making it an indispensable fundamental of faith. Cleanliness is an essential part of Islamic life and in fact the meaning and spirit behind the concept of cleanliness is much beyond the superficial concept

of the conventional cleanliness. In the Holy Quran, there are a number of verses which shed light at the importance of cleanliness: “Truly, Allah loves those who turn to Him constantly and He loves those who keep themselves pure and clean.” (Al Baqarah 2:222) At another place Allah says: “In it (mosque) are men who love to clean and to purify themselves. And Allah loves those who make themselves clean and pure.” (9:108) Cleanliness and purity has been emphasized by various means in hundreds of Hadith of the Prophet (peace be upon him). In a Hadith he said: Cleanliness is half of faith. (Sahih Muslim Book 2, Number 0432) The importance of cleanliness can be

Secondly, to make it a part of our daily spiritual habit of supplicating for the well-being of Muslims. One hadith says: ‘The du‘a of a the Muslim, for his brother [Muslim] in his absence, is always responded to.’ [Muslim, no.2733] In fact, so great an act is it, and so sacred is the life of a believer, that the Prophet, peace be upon him, declared: ‘Whoever seeks forgiveness for the believing men and women, God records for him a good deed for every believing man and woman [he prays for].’ [Al-Haythami, Majma‘ al-Zawa’id, 10:210] Thirdly, another way to arouse love of fellow believers in our hearts is to devote some time of our day, each day, in their service or khidmah, in whatever capacity we can. So dear is this dedication and service to God, that one celebrated hadith says: ’God helps His servant as long as the servant continues to help his brother.’ [Al-Bukhari, no.2442; Muslim, no.2580] Fourthly, trying not to end the day with rancour in our hearts against any Muslim, but striving to rid ourselves of this noxious disease whenever it arises. The following du‘a from the Qur’an is a powerful medicine for such a thing: “Our

estimated from the fact that the books of Hadith as well as the Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) start with a chapter on cleanliness. There are two terms used in Islamic literature: taharah and nazafah. Taharah (Cleanliness from physical impurities) is required by Islam to be observed by each and every Muslim in his and her daily life while nazafah (neatness) is a desirable attribute. There are two kinds of cleanliness; physical and spiritual. As far as physical cleanliness is concerned, it is of two types. One which is related to human body and the other is related to environment, water, house, road and public places. Muslims are required to observe cleanliness from the excretions of the [privates]. Semen, sperm, urine, menstruation, vaginal fluid, stool and blood are impure and require compulsory modes of cleanliness. Muslims wash their genitals after passing urine and

Lord! Forgive us and our brethren who preceded us in faith, and leave not in our hearts any rancour or ill-will towards those who believe. Our Lord! You are Kind, Compassionate.” [59:10] Fifthly, doing one’s utmost to follow the Golden Rule: ‘None of you truly believes until he loves for his brother what he loves for himself.’ [Bukhari, no.13; Muslim, no.45] But if one fails to live up to this lofty standard, then to never fall below the minimum level of behaviour with others – which was taught to us by the great pietist, Yahya b. Mu‘adh al-Razi: ‘Let your dealing with another believer be of three types: If you cannot benefit him, do not harm him. If you cannot gladden him, do not sadden him. If you cannot speak well of him, do not speak ill of him.’1 Allahumma allif bayna qulubina wa aslih dhata baynina waj‘alna min al-rashidin. Amin! ≈

Cited in Ibn Rajab, Jami‘ al-‘Ulum wa’lHikam (Beirut: Mu’assasah al-Risalah, 1998), 2:283.

1

secretion and take bath every time they have intercourse with their spouses. Muslims also enjoined to use water, not paper or anything else after eliminating body wastes. They are categorically prohibited to have intercourse during their menses. A Muslim is obliged to make ablution if exposed to minor impurities. This means he must wash off those parts of the body (like hand, feet, face, nostrils etc) which are commonly exposed to dust, dirt and environmental pollution. Before every prayer (at least five times a day) and before recital of the Quran, Muslims are asked to perform this ablution. Likewise, Muslims are enjoined to have a Ghusl (bath) after ejaculation, intercourse, menstruation and [childbirth]. While at many other occasions, bathing is recommended as for Friday >>> CLEANLINESS pg 11


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Hijrah | April 2013 | 11

2. Wash your private parts thoroughly with water.

3. Perform wudu’ (ablution) except for washing of your feet, which you can do later after bathing the body. Sniff water up your nose up to the point where bone goes from soft to hard. Gargle three times. 4. Starting with your head wash the entire body, first the right side, followed by the left. 5. Wash the body 3 times. The minimum is once. Make sure your clean your belly button and behind earrings and rings. Every inch of the body must be wet.

Recite Upon Completing The Ghusl

Allah humma ja’alnee minattawabeena wa ja’alnee minal muthahhareen ‘O Allah, make me of those who return to You often in repentance and make me of those who remain clean and pure.’

6. Wash feet.

>>> CLEANLINESS, from pg 10

ber of Hadith that lay special stress on cleaning the teeth, hands and hair.

prayer, festival days, in Hajj etc.

Apart from body, Islam requires a Muslim to keep his clothes, houses and streets clean. In fact a Muslim cannot offer his prayers with unclean body, clothes or using dirty premises. They are asked to use clean water and keep it safe from impurities and pollution. The particular chapter of taharah starts with the classification of water and goes on to describe how water gets impure or polluted.

Muslims are duty bound to keep the nails clipped, to remove hair from the armpit and from the pubic area as a matter of routine practice. Muslim males are required to get circumcised to avoid even faint traces of urine entrapped in the foreskin of the genitals. They are also instructed to trim their moustaches in order to avert oral intakes. Islam has directed attention in taking care of mouth by using any purifying agent like miswak. Brushing the teeth (once or twice a day) is very recent development of near past, but Muslims are accustomed this herbal brush for the past 1400 years, five times a day prior to each ablution. There are a num-

Sahih Bukhari Hadith no: 248 Narrated / Authority of: Aisha Whenever the Prophet took a bath after Janaba he started by washing his hands and then performed ablution like that for the prayer. After that he would put his fingers in water and move the roots of his hair with them, and then pour three handfuls of water over his head and then pour water all over his body. Sahih Bukhari Hadith no: 249 Narrated / Authority of: Maimuna (the wife of the Prophet) Allah’s Apostle performed ablution like that for the prayer but did not wash his feet. He washed off the discharge from his private parts and then poured water over his body. He withdrew his feet from that place (the place where he took the bath) and then washed them. And that was his way of taking the bath of Janaba.

lah’s curse and the people’s curse, saying: “Beware of the three acts that cause others to curse you: relieving yourselves in a watering place, on foot paths or shaded places.” (Abu Dawud, No 26)

Moreover, Islam instructed Muslims to maintain the cleanliness of the roads and streets. This is considered a charity to ridding the streets of impurities and filth. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) strictly warned against it and considered it one of the reasons to provoke Al-

Apart from physical cleanliness, Islam emphasizes on spiritual cleanliness. This means that one is free from polytheism, hypocrisy and ill manners, love of wealth, love of fame and other carnal desires. The emphasis in Islam is more on the cleanliness of the inner-self that is heart, mind and soul. The external cleaning process and rituals in reality are the preparatory ground work to obtain the more important task and that is cleanliness of the inner-self, which is the ultimate goal of the religion. Islam requires the sincere believer to sanitize and purify his entire way of life. The directives of Zakah (alms) and fasting are

>>> IMMIGRANTS II, from pg 9

plied for U.S. citizenship.

teaching classes.

After finishing her undergraduate studies, Anaya attended American University to complete a Master’s Degree in international peace and conflict resolution. She got a job at a non-profit organization offering mediation for criminal, district, and county court systems in northern Virginia. During this time, she met her husband, a Muslim convert from Argentina, and together they ap-

While Anaya was expecting their first child, she decided to travel back to her country to give birth. After their arrival, she and her husband discovered the Othman bin Affan Mosque in Barranquilla, a small Muslim community that lacked adequate resources. Because Anaya’s husband had earned a degree in Islamic Propagation from Umm Al Qura University in Saudi Arabia, they became involved in the mosque, organizing and

“I felt that Muslims in the states are already part of the fabric of the society,” Anaya describes, “But here [in Colombia], we are in the baby steps. If I want something, I have to create it. If I want Islamic classes for my children, I have to create them.” Anaya and her husband are now in the process of establishing an Islamic school for the Muslims in Barranquilla,

nothing but to purify ones wealth and soul. Cleanliness is the pathway to health and strength. Islam wants a healthy and strong Muslim society which is immune against infectious diseases and is capable of understanding and applying God’s message and carrying it away to the whole world. The Holy Quran says: You are the best community that hath been raised up for mankind, enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong, and believing In Allah. (Surah Aal-Imran, 3/110) In view of the significance of cleanliness in Islam, Muslims should have the highest standard of cleanliness and personal hygiene of all the people in the world.

and both have renounced the possibility of settling in the U.S., due to their involvement with the mosque in Colombia. “The Muslim community here needs us, so we can’t move,” Anaya says. This story was made possible by a grant from Atlantic Philanthropies, and was produced as part of New America Media’s Women Immigrants Fellowship Program.


12 | Hijrah | April 2013

WHOLE LIFE

Be a Glowstick By Wael Abdelgawad IslamicSunrays.com When you buy a glowstick, it’s just a tube of inert plastic with some liquid inside. It doesn’t look like anything special. It certainly does not glow. When you put it under pressure, however – when you bend it – a transformation occurs. A capsule inside the glowstick is crushed, and the stick begins to shine.

This is a good example for the mu’min – the believer. Life puts us under pressure, but if we rise to the challenge then we become more than we were. We become stronger, wiser, and more compassionate to others (because we know what pain feels like). We begin to shine with a new inner light. Maybe, just like the glowstick, there’s something inside us that needs to be crushed in order for us to reach our full potential. Ego? Arrogance? Selfishness? Greed? Attachment to material goods?

And maybe the pressures of life are Allah’s way of crushing that obstacle inside us, so that our true light can start to shine. “Do the people think that they will be left to say, “We believe” and they will not be tried? But We have certainly tried those before them, and Allah will surely make evident those who are truthful, and He will surely make evident the liars.” [Quran, Al-Ankaboot (The Spider) 29:2-3]

The key is that Allah does not try us in order to hurt us. Allah Himself is not in need of our character development, or our striving, or the results of our trials. It’s for us. However He tests us, it is for our own benefit. So next time you feel yourself being pressured and bent, remember: it’s just a bend, not the end. Good things are coming, and with sabr (patience) you will come out better than before, Insha’Allah.

Ibn Juzayy on Repentance by Shaykh Abu Aaliyah Our Imams have said that repentance (tawbah) is the starting point of one’s journey to God. Masters of the inward life say:  inna’l-dhunub hijabun ‘ani’lmahbub - “Indeed sins veil one from the Beloved.” To this end, the Qur’an instructs: And repent to God, O you of faith, that you may be successful. [24:31] Tawbah – stemming from the word to “turn” or “re-turn” – is to turn away from sin. In other words, it is the act of turning away from other than God, to God. Without repentance, our sins rapidly mount-up to form veils of darkness upon our hearts, until they become so filthy or opaque that they become blinded to divine light: It is not the eyes that become blind, but it is the hearts in the chest which become blind. [22:46] Also in the Qur’an: No! They have rust on their hearts because of what they do. [83:14]. The following is a succinct treatment sketching something of the mood, manners and prerequisites of repentance. Written by Ibn Juzayy al-Kalbi (d.741H/1340CE) as part of his acclaimed Quranic exegesis, al-Tashil li ‘Ulum alTanzil – “The Facilitation of the Sciences of the Revelation” –  it is a masterful

précis of the subject. Particularly useful is the way in which he depicts the degrees of repentance, thereby allowing the believer to deepen his “re-turning” to God and make the upward ascent to Him: “And repent to God, O you of faith, that you may be successful. [24:31] Repentance is an obligation upon every legally-responsible believer according to the evidences in the Book, the Sunnah and the consensus of the [Muslim] nation (ummah). It has three obligations: (1) Feeling remorse over the sin due to disobeying God, not due to some harm that may have come to one’s wealth or self. (2) Refraining from the sin as immediately as possible, without procrastination or slackness. (3) Resolving not to repeat it again; but if one does, then one renews the resolve. It has three proprieties: (1) To acknowledge one’s sin along with feeling utterly broken. (2) To increase in entreating God and asking for His forgiveness. (3) To increase in doing good works so as to erase past wrongs. It has seven degrees: (1) Repentance of disbelievers from disbelief. (2) Repen-

tance of the sincere ones from major sins. (3) Repentance of the upright ones from minor sins. (4) Repentance of the devout worshippers from slackness. (5) Repentance of wayfarers from the defects and vices of the heart. (6) Repentance of the high-minded, scrupulous ones from doubtful matters. (7) Repentance of those spiritually witnessing God from being distracted from God.” Al-Tashil li ‘Ulum al-Tanzil (Beirut: Maktabah al-‘Asriyyah, 2003), 3:122. Ibn Juzayy on Remembrance of God Masters of the inward life tell us that remembrance of God, or dhikr, is the cornerstone of the spiritual path, the key to sanctification (wilayah) and the weapon of the seeker. In fact, it is the goal behind all acts of worship, as the Qur’an itself states: Establish prayer for My remembrance. [20:14] Dhikr is for the heart to feel the presence of the One being remembered, by freeing it of distractions, maintaining its constant attentiveness and making it fully aware of what the tongue is uttering. For the best dhikr, and one yielding the greatest fruit, is one that involves the heart and tongue together; if not, then the heart; and then just the tongue.

In his customary minimalist fashion, Ibn Juzayy al Kalbi distills for us the reality of dhikr. While commenting on God’s words: Remember Me and I shall remember you [2:152], he wrote: ‘Know that remembrance of God (dhikr) is the best of all works in general, even if in some hadiths other acts, like the prayer, are given superiority. For this is only due to what they contain of the meaning of dhikr and of being present (hudur) with God. The proof for the superiority of God’s remembrance can be seen from the following three angles: Firstly, the texts that are related about its merits over all other works. The Messenger of God, peace be upon him, said: ‘Should I not inform you which of your deeds is best? Which purifies you most before your Sovereign? Which raises you higher in rank and is better for you than giving away gold and silver; better than facing your enemies that you might slay them or be slayed by them?’ They said: O Messenger of God, inform us! He replied: ‘The remembrance of God.” [Tirmidhi, no.3377] The Messenger of God, peace be upon him, was once asked: Which deed is >>> repentance pg 14


Hijrah | April 2013 | 13

Reflections at the Onset of The New Hijri Year By Abu Esa Naimatullah December 16, 2012 [Editor’s note: November 15, 2012 was the start of the new Hijri year, Muharram 1, 1434] With the advent of the New Year, I always find it beneficial to reflect on ones actions and achievements in the previous year and make some plans for the coming year, alongside that all-important firm resolve to set realistic resolutions to carry out insha’Allah, and hopefully turn it in to a year of ‘ibadah and happiness.

between the truth and falsehood.” And

previous year, good and bad; they look

At such an occasion when we open a new chapter in time, it is a good opportunity for everyone to reflect – on time itself.

“Account yourselves now before you are accounted.” This means identify your weak points and failures now and rectify them quickly before the key audit comes. Let us first remind ourselves of the history of what exactly the “Hijri Year” is: The Hijri year is based upon the first year that the Prophet (sallallhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) made the migration from Makkah to Madnat’l-Munawwarah. It is narrated in al-‘Uqd’l-Duriyyah of ibn ‘bidn (2/335) that the reason for the starting of the Hijri calendar was that Sayyidina ‘Umar b. al-Khattb (radhy Allhu ‘anhu) was presented with a contract that was printed with “valid only until Sha‘bn”. ‘Umar asked, “Is that the Sha‘bn just gone or the coming Sha‘bn?” Because of that, he ordered for the date to be included and the Companions of that time agreed to start the date from when the Prophet (sallallhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) made Hijrah, and they chose the first month to be Muharram. This calendar was started in 17h as confirmed by Imm al-Nawawi. It is also narrated from Ibn ‘Askir on the authority of Sha‘bi (al-Shamrkh f ‘Ilm’lTrkh, Imm al-Suyti, p. 23) that the Companions realised that a calendar was required but they differed on when to start it from. Some suggested the advent of the Prophethood whereas others suggested the death of the Prophet (sallallhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) but ‘Umar said, “No, rather we’ll start from his migration for it was that which distinguished

The one thing that we’ll all regret later is not using our time wisely – not using the limited hours we’ve been given in this temporal world to increase our good deeds to provide evidence for us and using these few hours to seek forgiveness for our bad deeds in order to not stack up the evidences against us.

thus it was so established. So that’s the history of the Hijri Year. Now what to do when it comes upon us. At such an occasion when we open a new chapter in time, it is a good opportunity for everyone to reflect – on time itself. Normally when it comes to the Gregorian New Year such as [2013] in modern day non-Islamic civilisations, it is from their Sunnah to do a few things: they review everything that happened in the

to the future and try to re-affirm their plans in the long-term; and finally, they pledge to make key changes in their lives for the better. The Muslim Ummah should recognize that it has a greater obligation with respect to these reflections. In fact, such reflections should be occurring on a daily basis, and not just on the 1st of January. In any case, at least for those who aren’t in this excellent habit of self-audit and accounting ones internal state and performance of good

deeds regularly, then the beginning of Muharram provides a nice opportunity to actually think about what we’re doing with ourselves. This accounting of course was the natural action of the Prophetic Generation, and we know that ‘Umar (radhy Allhu ‘anhu) said: “Account yourselves now before you are accounted.” This means identify your weak points and failures now and rectify them quickly before the key audit comes. And it won’t be KPMG or Accenture doing that auditing, and it won’t be an audit where you can fiddle the sums, tick the boxes yourself and blog your way out, but rather this will be the Day of Standing, the Day that the real hisb will be done. We all know this as Muslims but we conveniently forget it, or worse ignore it. Surely then, now that the mind is fresh at the beginning of this new dawn, we should recognize that this is our life we’re talking about, our Deen and our future? The one thing that we’ll all regret later is not using our time wisely – not using the limited hours we’ve been given in this temporal world to increase our good deeds to provide evidence for us and using these few hours to seek forgiveness for our bad deeds in order to not stack up the evidences against us. We don’t want to be those who: As for the one whose book will be given to him from behind his back, he will pray for death, and will enter the blazing fire. He had been joyful among his people. He thought he would never revert (to Allah). No! Indeed his Lord was watchful over him. (al-Inshiqq, 10-15) And: As for him who will be given his book in his left hand, he will say, ‘Oh, would that I had not been given my book, and I had never known what my account is!’ (al-Hqqah, 25-26) And: And the book (of deeds) will be placed (before them), then you will see the guilty people scared of its contents and saying, “Woe to us! What kind of book is this?! It has missed nothing, minor or major, but has taken it into account.” Thus they will find whatever >>> REFLECTIONS pg 15


14 | Hijrah | April 2013

Thrive, Don’t Just Survive in Prison By Umm Zaynub This article is based on an internet based seminar the writer attended by a non-Muslim author Michael Santos, a former inmate who survived 25 years of imprisonment without getting into a fight. He earned his bachelor’s and a graduate degree while in prison, got married during his incarceration and has successfully rehabilitated back into life outside the prison walls. Most of this is practical advice that will, with the help of Allah, assist in your surviving your jail term with dignity and a future. Ask yourself what can I do, in this decade, to make a meaningful difference in my life. Draw strength from inside. If you use the penitentiary to define yourself, you will fail. He explained that many prisoners will place value on their lives inside the prison, and this is not fruitful, especially for those who do not have life terms and know that they will eventually leave. Santos says that when he began serving his term, recklessness and irresponsibility characterized his life. So he decided to replace those two vices with the virtues of discipline and responsibility.  “With that end in mind, I focused on steps I could take to make my transformation self-evident,’ he writes on his blog. Santos encourages inmates to move through their term in a strategic way. If you have a long prison sentence, he suggests focusing on the first ten years. “Since I could not think of a quarter century inside, I focused on the first

>>> REPENTANCE, from pg 12 best? He replied: ‘Remembrance of God.’ It was said: Is remembrance better even than jihad in the path of God? He said: ‘Even if he should smite the non-believers until his sword breaks and blood flows, the one who remembers God is of a loftier rank.’ [Tirmidhi, no.3376] Secondly, God, Exalted is He, wherever

ten years. During that decade, I wanted to earn a university degree.  That sounds easy enough, but high-security penitentiaries are not quite the same as universities.  On more than one occasion, I had to walk through puddles of blood.  I had to stay focused through lockdowns, mass violence, and the deafening noise of hatred.  There was not any monotony,” says Micheal Santos. The objective is to go through your individual journey in a position of strength by knowing the answers to the following questions. What is my goal? How do I define success while in prison, what do I want to accomplish, what am I willing to pay for it? Everyone else will move, your cellmates, friends, guards, and staff. Everyone will have changes in their lives. The only constant that you will have You is yourself and your Lord, Allah. Stay away from card tables, avoid gambling (it is forbidden in Islam). Commit to fitness but do so alone. Learn the deen with others but do not get involved into arguments about religion. politics etc. During the imprisonment, convince yourself that you are going to make it through with minimal exposure to problems. Michael succeeded in doing this by positioning himself and keeping his interaction with the prison population to a minimum. Being around the other prisoners increases the risk level and the chance of conflict.

system works and its policies. Using the following three principles, Michael got through his first decade. I Had To Work To Educate Myself To strengthen your commitment to your goal, start with a job. Santos chose to work 7-3 at an office. Even if, the job pay is low, it can help with the cost of living in prison while keeping a connection with the outside. Participate in every educational opportunity that is available and that you can afford. Santos wrote to universities and earned his bachelor’s degree through Mercer College and Ohio University. He completed his graduate degree from Hofstra University. He says that by earning academic degrees, he distinguished myself in positive ways. “The degrees opened opportunities to build higher levels of support from people in society.  With that support, I could create new opportunities, all of which empowered me, making me feel as if I were living a life of relevance, creating new meaning every day.” Find Ways To Contribute To Society If you can volunteer at the hospital. Santos volunteered to watched over people who were suicidal for 7 years.

mix in with the crowd. The values and motives very different inside the prison to the outside,” says Santos. Build A Strong Of Support Network Outside “When prisoners advised me to forget about the world beyond prison boundaries and focus on life inside of the boundaries I dismissed it at once. Their reasoning is that while inside, prisoners lack the capacity to have any influence on the world outside,” writes Santos, “They call attention to the paucity of visiting opportunities, the minimal phone access, the regulations and restrictions that are such a major part of prison life. Despite those restrictions, an individual who wants to emerge from prison successfully, with values, skills, and resources in place, should follow a coherent plan that will empower him.” Understand Prison Culture and Staff His Book “Earning Freedom,” he describes the experiences of inmates who served time in prisons of every security level. To triumph over those types of environments, prisoners must focus on how they can use resources around them to strengthen their core values, build new skills, and accumulate resources that will help them. “Because returning to society after months or years in prison can be extremely difficult.” If a person anticipates the challenges, s/he can position himself to overcome. In order to succeed, they must understand the culture of con-

He has a holistic message which is larger than just avoiding problems and includes understanding how the prison

“I didn’t watch TV, I didn’t play table games, or team sports. This is how I avoided conflict in prison. People try to

He instructs us with remembrance, or extols it, stipulates that it be done profusely and abundantly: Remember God abundantly. [33:41]Those who remember God abundantly. [33:35] This is not the case for any other deed.

– expressed in hadiths that speak of “sitting” and “being with” God. Says God: ‘I sit with the one who remembers Me.’ Also: ‘I am as my servant thinks Me to be, and I am with him when he remembers Me.’ [Bukhāri, no.7536]

His presence (al-qurb wa’l-hudur). What a tremendous gulf there is between the two stations. What a difference there is between one who takes his reward from behind a veil, and one who is drawn close and becomes of the elite lovers!’

Thirdly, remembrance has a quality particular to it and it alone: being present in the loftiest Presence (hudur fi’l-hadrat al-’aliyyah) and arriving at closeness

People intend by their dhikr one of two stations. For the general Muslims, it is to earn rewards (iktisab al-’ujur); for the elite, it is to draw near to God and be in

At-Tashil li ‘Ulum al-Tanzil (Beirut: Maktabah al-’Asriyyah, 2003), 1:159-60

>>> THRIVE pg 16


Hijrah | April 2013 | 15

Who Do You Call On? By Sr. Rahma www.muslimahsource.org You get a paper cut or something pricks you – what is the first thing that that comes out of your mouth? What is the first thought that comes to your mind? Sometimes you may find yourself not being able to get beyond the sharp pain in your hand, but the most beautiful moments or most beneficial to you are those of a moment when something occurs in the blink of an eye and you’re able to return and call out to Allah. Many scholars of our time and of the past have constantly reiterated the fact that the believer is always

>>> REFLECTIONS, from pg 13 they did present before them, and your Lord will not wrong anyone. (al-Kahf, 49) None of us want to be in a situation like that, and we all know that we have to do more good and refrain from the bad, so what’s holding us back? The answer is a lack of concern and lack of respect for time itself. As for being concerned my friends, then be concerned. Be very concerned. Hellfire. No Paradise. No Brainer. As for time, then here we are at the top of the New Year and we should look to our lifestyles, our priorities and change our lives around what Allah wants from us and not what we want. We’re in the winter now, and it is at this time that although we get the cold and miserable weather especially here in the North, we shouldn’t miss the blessings either! Have you noticed the short days and the long nights? Sayyidina ‘Eesa (‘alayhis-salm) used to say: “The day and night are two treasure troves so look to what you put in them.” Imm Hasan al-Basri said: “Every single

at two points in his or her life: something wonderful and great is happening and thus he should be grateful, or something terrible is happening and he should remain steadfast and be patient. These things do not come easy, and it takes practice and at times years of dealing with many unexpected incidents in our lives. Ultimately, it is by the Tawfeeq of Allah that we are able to turn to Him in our times of need as well as be able to thank Him in our times of ease. There is one ayah that allows me to understand the closeness of Allah to His servants. It is an ayah that allows me to remember the favors

of Allah upon all of His servants, but especially those special servants who believe and serve Him subhanahu wa ta’ala. It is an ayah that helps me in remembering Allah in times of ease and difficulty. It is an ayah that can illuminate the hearts and minds of people who have lost hope in all else, and it is an ayah that draws the obedient servant nearer and closer to Him Jalla Jallaluhu. The concept that Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala is near, and that He is aware of everything that happens to us by His knowledge, and it is Him that is able to elevate all of our sufferings is indeed a great blessing! That ayah is 186 of Surah Baqarah: And when My servants ask you, [O Muhammad], concerning Me – indeed I am near. I respond to the in-

day of this worldly life calls out: O people! I am a new day, and I am witness to all that which is performed in me, and once the sun has set, I will not return back to you until Yawm’l-Qiymah!”

lallhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “The best of fasts after Ramadhn is the month of Allah Muharram, and the best of prayers after the obligatory ones are the night prayers.” (Muslim)

These are the days to fast folks! For those who are obsessed with food then you couldn’t get it easier with such an early sunset, certainly from a hunger point of view. As for controlling your tongue, your eyes and your heart, then there won’t be a shorter period to struggle for than in these winter months.

Clearly then with Muharram upon us, we should respond to this narration with increased fasting and night prayers, especially when it has been made easier for us from His blessings and also because the 9th and 10th of Muharram are to be fasted for the reward of an entire year’s sins being wiped out. Now that’s pretty good business by anyone’s standards.

As for the nights, then no, it’s not just to sleep longer in hibernation for the killer days and nights of the British summer – we’re not bears, we’re humans! – rather it’s an opportunity to start some small habits of the night that we’re not used to like studying extra at night-time, getting up to pray a little tahajjud and feel the real value of what prayer should be, or waking in the morning and taking advantage of the later Fajr times to read some Qur’n before that because: And establish the recital at dawn. Surely, the recital at dawn is well attended. (al-Isr’, 78) Also, with the start of the new month Muharram, know that the Prophet (sal-

Of course, we are not trying to emulate the non-Muslims in how they choose certain times to be good or bad or blessed according to them, but rather we should certainly recognise and believe that Allah jalla wa ‘al closes the lunar Hijri year with the great month of Hajj and ‘ibdah and then He opens the New Year with fasting, praying and ‘ibdah, so the year begins with good and ends with good. And know that Imm alTabarni narrates a Hadth Qudsi which is considered slightly weak by some scholars that the Prophet (sallallhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Allah says, “O Son of Adam! Remember

vocation of the supplicant when he calls upon Me. So let them respond to Me [by obedience] and believe in Me that they may be [rightly] guided. According to some Mufasireen (interpreters of the Quran), a Bedouin came to the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wassalam) and asked if Allah was near and if he should whisper when he spoke with Allah, or whether Allah was far and if he should raise his voice. I’m moved by Allah’s response to this Bedouin in His noble book; Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala responded to this slave and all of us that “Indeed, He is near!” It is a mercy that Allah showed this slave, and through him we are so given the mercy of reaffirm>>> call pg 16

me at the beginning of the Day for an hour and at the end of the day for an hour and I will forgive you for the (minor sins) between that.” (al-Hilyah, 8/213) ‘Abdullh Ibn al-Mubarak in explanation said: “Whoever completes the day in dhikr of Allah, the entire day is written for him as if he was in dhikr.” Perhaps then that we should also seize this moment at the beginning of this new “day” and start it in dhikr and good deeds in the hope that we may end this New Year [1434] in dhikr and good deeds and hopefully be from those that might get the whole year written as if in good deeds! May Allah jalla wa ‘al bless this New Year for us and make it one where we get closer to Him and increase in our worship, and make that worship a benefit for our hearts in this life and our abode in the Hereafter, amn. (based upon Lat’if al-Ma‘rif of Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali)


16 | Hijrah | April 2013 >>> CALL, from pg 15

• You Say

“I am sad and afraid.” •Allah Says

“Verily for the friends of Allah, there is no fear or shall they grieve.” [Surah Yunus 62]

• You Say

“I am lost.” •Allah Says

“And He found you lost and gave you guidance.” [Surah Ad-Dhuha: 7]

• You Say

“My sins are so many.” •Allah Says:

“And who can forgive sins except Allah” [Surah ‘Ale Imran:135]

>>> THRIVE, from pg 14

finement. Newcomers must understand prison is a truly different environment from the outside world. In prison, dignity and respect is different. The person whom everyone ‘fears’ will have the highest ‘respect’. Prison system is a subculture. To, effectively, work with staff and your case workers, Santos had the following tips: Avoid complications with staff. Understand the psychology and job requirements of the guards who enforce the rules. They have to abide by rules that a dictated to them. Remember the culture of confinement; staff members are concerned with one thing, protecting the security of the institution. You need

to know what will work for you and how can you navigate through the term of incarceration. Understanding that you will have obstructions and will be given infractions. Key is to understand how those infractions are issued and plan for them. Be humble. Do not pester the case manager and staff. Be in a position of humility, but do not act needy. This will make things difficult for yourself later. Do not ask for favors of the staff. Case Managers and staff are on guard against manipulation; this is particularly crucial to understand. Do not expect anything from staff members, they do not want to hear about your or your families’ need. They are not your friends. Limit your expo-

ing and reminding us that, when we speak to Him (whether softly or otherwise), out in the open or side an underground cave, He, the Mighty and Majestic is near! Above all, whether we speak out loud our thoughts or ask loudly from Allah, indeed He is all aware of what is in our hearts and our minds. It is a reminder for all of us to seek from the bounties Allah has provided for us, to return to Him for everything (from the smallest of things to the biggest worries), for indeed He will respond! Never should we give up hope that He will respond. Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wassalam) said: “Allah the Exalted said, `I am as My servant thinks of Me, and I am with him whenever he invokes Me.’ The words that Allah uses in this verse are powerful! Allah allows for us as servants to draw near to Him, and to have a relationship with Him regardless of where we’ve been, what we’ve done, what we are now! The doors of mercy are open as He

sure and make the decision to empower yourself. Figure your issues out on your own. You don’t get through your prison term accidentally. You should be thinking, “how can I empower myself without needing the unit team?” It is inevitable that you have conflicts. Try not to demonstrate your level of intelligence or achievements outside the prison. Engage with staff as less as possible. It makes no difference to them. Do not whine, do not state your innocence and do not badmouth the judge. We cannot control people, but we can control our reactions, feel better about yourself rather than playing victim. Stay on a plan. Connection to society is the most empowering tool that ensured Santos’s

says, “When my servant asks”. Listen and ponder over these words. He says “ My servant”. “My” – that means you and I and all of humanity are servants of Allah whether we acknowledge it or not. It bodes us well to acknowledge that we are servants of the Most High, and indeed He will respond! Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala tells us for certain that He will respond. This in itself is a reminder for us regardless of how many times we’ve asked of Him, for different things as well as the same thing, we should never give up. We should call upon Him by His most beautiful names, continue asking as Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala does not specify the time in which He responds, and that is a reminder always that the doors of communication are open from a servant to His Lord! So next time, whether you have a paper cut, some calamity, or even going through the motions of your day, know that Allah is near, and remember to moisten your tongue with His remembrance and glorify Him as He is deserving of it! Till next time, may Allah allow us to remember Him at all times (Ameen)!

goal. What can you do to come out on the other side with a new career? Your goal should not be ‘How can I make my life easier in prison’, but a game plan to advance your life upon release with job opportunities. Understand the challenges ahead and use every opportunity. This is vital for Muslim brothers who have families to support. Do not get involved in contraband there is a huge risk, it can result in a loss of privileges ie. 5 years without telephone. This loss of communication can cost you your family. We pray that you are able to set goals that get you through prison with dignity and use every opportunity to make the best use of the life that Allah has given.


Hijrah | April 2013 | 17

ISLAM & HISTORY

How Muslims Helped Cause the American Revolution of the governed.”

By Firas Alkhateeb LostIslamicHistory.com

John Locke also pioneered the concept of natural rights: the idea that humans all have a set of God-given rights that should not be taken away by any government. In the Declaration of Independence, this is stated as “…they [men] are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”

Today’s American political landscape can be quite a confusing and frightening place. The ideas of the Founding Fathers are commonly cited as the foundation of the nation. The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution are seen as the infallible documents on which American life are based. Freedom, democracy, and liberty are the cornerstones of political and social ideas in the United States. At the same time, however, the rising tide of Islamophobia is making its presence felt. Politicians support the characterization of Islamic life as incompatible with American society. Media “pundits” decry the supposed influence Muslims are having on destroying the basis of American political and social ideas. The truly ironic part of this is that Muslims in fact helped formulate the ideas that the United States is based on. While this article will not argue that Islam and Muslims are the only cause of the American Revolution, the impact that Muslims had on the establishment of America is clear and should not be overlooked. Islamic Philosophy and the Enlightenment The political and social ideas that caused the American colonists to revolt against the British Empire were formulated in a movement known as the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement that argued that science and reason should be the basis of human society, not blind following of monarchs and church authority. On July 4th, 1776, in Philadelphia, the American revolutionaries signed the Declaration of Independence, a document written by Thomas Jefferson and heavily influenced by the Enlightenment, which made official their break from Great Britain and the establishment of the United States of America.

The Enlightenment was driven by a group of European philosophers and scientists who were going against the prevailing ideas of governance in Europe at the time. Among these thinkers were people such as John Locke, René Descartes, Isaac Newton and Montesquieu. John Locke John Locke, an Englishman who lived from 1632 to 1704, promoted some of the most influential ideas of the Enlightenment. He pioneered the idea that humans are naturally good, and are corrupted by society or government to becoming deviant. Locke described this idea in his An Essay Concerning Human Understanding as the tabula rasa, a Latin phrase meaning blank slate. The idea was not original to him, however. In fact, Locke directly took the idea from a Muslim philosopher from the 1100s, Ibn Tufail. In Ibn Tufail’s book, Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, he describes an identical idea about how humans act as a blank slate, absorbing experiences and information from their surroundings. The same idea manifests itself in the life of Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him). He stated that “No child is born except on the fitra.” Fitra here can be defined as the natural, pure state of a person. According to Islamic thought, all humans are born in a natural state of purity, with belief in one God, and that as they grow older, they adopt the ideas and beliefs of the people around them,

particularly their parents. This is the intellectual forerunner of the tabula rasa that Locke learned from Ibn Tufail. Through Locke, this concept would influence the political idea that humans should not be constrained by an oppressive and intolerant government. His ideas, which he borrowed from Ibn Tufail, would end up forming a cornerstone of America’s revolutionary ideas that the colonists in America would be much better off if they were not under the oppressive British government. Locke further expanded on the subject by describing something he called the social contract. In this social contract theory, the people must consent to be ruled by a government that in turn agrees to protect the natural rights of its citizens. This same concept is also seen in 1377 in the Muqaddimah of the great Muslim historian and sociologist, Ibn Khaldun. In it, he states, “The concomitants of good rulership are kindness to, and protection of, one’s subjects. The true meaning of royal authority is realized when a ruler defends his subjects.” Here Ibn Khaldun is explaining one of the main political ideas of the Enlightenment, 300 years before Locke proposes the same argument: that a government must defend, not infringe on, the rights of its citizens. Later, in 1776, the preamble of the Declaration of Independence stated a similar argument: “Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent

While most American and European textbooks promote this as a unique “Western” idea, the truth is that it is far older than John Locke and Thomas Jefferson. Again, in the Muqaddimah, Ibn Khaldun explains: “Those who infringe upon property commit an injustice. Those who deny people their rights commit an injustice.” He goes on to explain that this leads to the destruction of a state, and cites examples from the life of the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) where he forbade injustice. The concepts that a Muslim government should not infringe upon rights was very clear in Islamic law and was a well-accepted idea throughout Muslim empires. Other Philosophers Other Enlightenment philosophers were heavily influenced by earlier Muslims and Islamic ideas. Without going into great detail, the following are some examples: Isaac Newton was greatly influenced by Ibn al-Haytham, the Muslim scientist who pioneered the scientific method, optics, and the laws of motion. In Europe, Ibn al-Haytham was well known, as were his ideas about science and philosophy. Isaac Newton borrowed from Ibn al-Haytham the idea that there are natural laws that run the universe (an idea first proposed by Caliph al-Ma’mun as his rationale for establishing the House of Wisdom in Baghdad). Later Enlightenment philosophers used the idea of natural laws to support concepts of natural rights, the government’s role, and economic systems. All of these >>> revoltion pg 19


18 | Hijrah | April 2013

Muslim Contributions to Science: The Solar System Christians believed that the earth was a sacred sphere, being the birthplace of the son of God (Jesus). Because of this belief, they found the notion that the earth was the centre around which the whole universe revolved exactly in accordance with their religious beliefs. It was this idea of the earth’s sacredness which came in the way of the Christians making any further investigation. Of geocentricity, the Encyclopaedia Britannica (1984) says: “There was no further scope for cosmology in the model, which continued to be taught and used almost everywhere until the 17th century.”

The astronomer who is said to have studied the solar system and presented the heliocentric theory for the first time was a Greek, known by the name of Aristarchus of Samos. He died in 270 BC. However, this theory of the sun being at the centre, and of the earth revolving around it, never gained popularity in those early times. Then came the age of Ptolemy, who lived in the second century AD. Ptolemy’s astronomical system represented the earth as the fixed centre of the universe, with the sun and the moon, and other stars and planets revolving around it. Copernicus, Galileo and Kepler carried out researches which ultimately proved falsity. But it was the Muslims, who first transferred to Europe the concept of the earth being round and the almost correct concept of the causes of the ebb and flow of the tides. This geocentric theory of the universe appeared to be in conformity with the beliefs the Christians had developed af-

ter Jesus Christ. These beliefs were give the final seal of approval at the famous Church Council held at Nicaea, a city in Asia Minor, in AD 325. After the acceptance of Christianity by Constantine the Great (280-337), the faith spread all over Roman territory. Now vested with tremendous power, the Christians

patronized, in particular, the theory of Ptolemy. The curtain of darkness fell over the heliocentric theory of Aristarchus. The wrong concept about the revolution of the earth remained predominant for such a long period of time, it was due to the error of regarding something non-sacred as sacred. The

It was not until 1495 that Copernicus arrived at the conclusion that the earth was not the centre of the universe. After a long period of research devoted to astronomical studies, he was forced to conclude that the planets revolved around the sun. But, fearing the oppo>>> science pg 19

Ten Things You Need To Know About The Kaaba Since then, there has been an average of one major reconstruction every few centuries. The last renovation took place in 1996 and was extremely thorough, leading to the replacement of many of the stones and re-strengthening the foundations and a new roof. This is likely to be the last reconstruction for many centuries (inshā’Allāh) as modern techniques mean that the building is more secure and stable than ever before.

By Dr. Wajid Akhtar Muslimmatters.org There is no place on Earth as venerated, as central or as holy to as many people as Makkah. By any objective standard, this valley in the Hijaz region of Arabia is the most celebrated place on Earth. Thousands circle the sacred Kaaba at the centre of the Haram sanctuary 24 hours a day. Millions of homes are adorned with pictures of it and over a billion face it five times a day. The Kaaba is the epicenter of Makkah. The cube shaped building is at the heart of the most well-known real estate in the history of mankind; it is shrouded in black and its fair share of mystery. Here are just a few things that most people may not know about the Kaaba: 10. It has been reconstructed several times

9. It used to have two doors … and a window

The Kaaba that we see today is not exactly the same Kaaba that was constructed by Prophets Ibrahim ‘alayhissalaam and Ismail ‘alayhissalaam. From time to time, it has needed rebuilding after natural and man-made disasters.

Of course, we all know of the major reconstruction that took place during the life of the Prophet sallahu ‘alayhiwassalam before he became a Prophet. This is the occasion when the Prophet averted major bloodshed by his quick thinking on how to place the Black Stone using a cloth that every tribe could lift up.

The original Kaaba used to have a door for entrance and another for exit. For a considerable period of time it also had a window situated to one side. The current Kaaba only has one door and no window. 8. It used to be multi-coloured >>> Kaaba pg 20


Hijrah | April 2013 | 19

>>> SCIENCE, from pg 18 sition of the Church, he refrained from publishing his findings until 1543. The Muslims, however, did not suffer from the error of regarding as sacred that which was non-sacred. They were in a position to reflect upon matters of scientific interest with open minds, and in a purely academic way. When they found that the heliocentric theory was more rational, they accepted it without any hesitation. Edward McNall Burns writers that the heliocentric theory developed by Aristarchus (310-320 BC), although destined to fall into oblivion for four hundred years, has today become an established fact. This is after many centuries of men’s minds being dominated by Ptolemy’s geocentric theory.

>>> revolution, from pg 17 ideas influenced the Founding Fathers of America who cited them as the basis of the United States. Montesquieu is usually cited as the first to propose the ideas of separation of government into several branches. During his time in Europe, monarchs held absolute power and shared control of the state with no one. The Muslim world had historically never run in such a way. While caliphs in the Umayyad and Abbasid Empires held most of the power, there also existed the idea of shura, which was a council whose job it was to advise the caliph. In those governments there also existed ministers who carried out tasks under the supervision of the monarch. Perhaps the most important however, were the qadis, or judges, who formed a legal system based on Islamic law and were independent of the ruling caliph. This system of government was well known in Europe from the Muslim European states in Spain and Sicily. Coffee All of the philosophical ideas already mentioned would not have had much effect if it were not for a curious black drink that came out of the Muslim world – coffee.

Of all the subjects developed by the Spanish Muslims, there was none brought to a higher degree of perfection than science. In fact, in this field, their successes were such as to have no parallel in history. They distinguished themselves in the fields of astronomy, mathematics, physics, chemistry, medicine, etc. As McNall Burns writes: “Despite their reverence for Aristotle, they did not hesitate to criticize his notion of a universe of concentric spheres with the earth at the centre, and they admitted the possibility that the earth rotates on its axis and revolves around the sun.” The Muslims arriving at the correct hypothesis of the solar system’s functioning was made possible only because Islam had broken down the walls of conditioned thinking which had acted as a barrier to man’s intellectual progress.

During the Middle Ages in Europe, the drink of choice was alcohol. In France and other areas that grew grapes, wine was the dominant drink, while beer and ale were popular further north. Drinking water was actually rare, as it was believed that alcoholic beverages were cleaner than water and more filling. The result of this belief was constant drunkenness among the European population. In Yemen in the middle of the 1400s, a new drink that was made from coffee beans was beginning to become quite popular. The Yemenis were roasting and then boiling coffee beans in water to produce a drink that was rich in caffeine, a stimulant that causes the body to have more energy and the brain to think more clearly. Through the 1400s and 1500s, coffee spread throughout the Muslim world, and coffee shops began to pop up in major cities. These coffee shops became a center of urban society, as people met there to socialize and enjoy the company of others. By the 1600s, these coffee houses had spread to Europe as well. Although there was initial resistance to drinking a “Muslim drink” in Christian Europe, the beverage caught on. The coffeehouses became a central aspect of the Enlightenment, particularly in France. Whereas previously Europeans had been drinking

As soon as this artificial barrier was out of the way, the caravan of human thought began to move on its journey with a hitherto unimaginable rapidity. And thus it brought us finally to the spectacular scientific feats of the present century. In 830 AD, Al-Mamun established in Baghdad his famous Bayt al Hikmah, a combination library, academy and translation bureau, and an astronomical observatory. This work started under the patronage of the stats. Al-Mamun’s astronomers performed one of the most delicate geodetic operation -- the measuring of the length of a a terrestrial degree. The object was to determine the size of the earth and its circumgerence on the assumption that the earth was round. The measurement, carried out on the plain of Sinjar, north of the Euphrated, and near Palmyra, yielded 562 Arabic miles as the length of a degree of

alcohol regularly, they now met in coffee houses, where they discussed philosophy, government, politics, and other ideas that were the cornerstones of the Enlightenment. French Enlightenment philosophers such as Diderot, Voltaire, and Rousseau were all regular customers at the coffeehouses of Paris. Were it not for this drink from the Muslim lands, Europe might never have had the Enlightenment, as the philosophers would never have met to discuss ideas, nor had the mental clarity (due to alcohol consumption) to think philosophically. How Did This All Lead to Revolution? As previously stated, the American Revolution was a direct effect of the European Enlightenment. The theories of rights, government, and the human self that were the basis of Enlightenment took form in the 1700s at the hands of great minds such as Locke, Newton, and Montesquieu. They, however, borrowed their ideas from earlier Muslim philosophers such as Ibn Tufail, Ibn Sina, and Ibn Khaldun. Were it not for their ideas which were rooted in Islam, the Enlightenment may not have been as insightful, or may not have even happened. Added to this was the effect that coffee had on Europe in giving the philosophers a

the meridian -- a remarkably accurate result, exceeding the real length of the degree at that place by about 2877 feet. This would make the circumference of the earth 20,400 mules and its diameter 6500. Among those who took part in this operation were the sons of Musa ibn Shakir and al-Khwarizmi, whose tables, revised a century and a half later by the Spanish astronomer Maslamah Maslamah al-Majrity and translated into Latin in 1126 by Adelard of Bath, became the bases for other works both in the East and the West. In those days, Muslims were so ahead of other nations that when they were driver out of Spain, the astrolabes they left behind, by means of which they had studied heavenly bodies, were turned into the clock tower of a church, as the Christians did not understand their use. Source: Islamawareness.net

forum to expand their ideas and learn new ones. Without the Enlightenment, the American colonists never would have had the intellectual backing they needed to revolt. The ideas of freedom, liberty, and human rights that America is founded on are originally Muslim ideas formulated by Muslim philosophers working with the Quran and Hadith as their basis. While it is not accurate to claim that Muslims single-handedly caused the American Revolution, their contributions and influences cannot be overlooked. Those who claim that Islamic ideas are not compatible with American society must remember that it was those Islamic ideas that helped form American society, freedom, and liberty in the first place. Bibliography: Khaldūn, I. (1969). The muqaddimah, an introduction to history. Bollingen. Morgan, M. (2007). Lost history. Washington D.C. : National Geographic Society. Russell, G. A. (1994). The ‘arabick’ interest of the natural philosophers in seventeenth-century england. Brill Publishers.


20 | Hijrah | April 2013 >>> kaaba, from pg 18

of the stone floating around.

We are so used to the Kaaba being covered in the trademark black Kiswah with gold banding that we can’t imagine it being any other colour. However, this tradition seems to have started at the time of the Abbasids (whose household colour was black) and before this the Kaaba was covered in multiple colours including green, red and even white.

1. It’s not supposed to be a cube shape Yes, ladies and gentleman… the most famous cube in the world actually started out shaped as a rectangle. I’ll give you a moment to pick your jaws off the floor. Right, where were we?

7. The keys are in the hands of one family At the time of the Prophet, each aspect to do with the rites of Hajj was in the hands of different sub-groups of the Quraish. Every one of these would eventually lose control of their guardianship of a particular rite except one. On the conquest of Mecca, the Prophet was given the keys to the Kaaba and instead of keeping it in his own possession; he returned them back to the Osman ibn Talha of the Bani Shaiba family. They had been the traditional key keepers of the Kaaba for centuries; and the Prophet confirmed them in that role till the end of time by these words “Take it, O Bani Talha, eternally up to the Day of Resurrection, and it will not be taken from you unless by an unjust, oppressive tyrant.” Whether Caliph, Sultan or King – the most powerful men in the world have all had to bow to the words of the Prophet and ask permission from this small Makkan family before they can enter the Kaaba. 6. It used to be open to everyone Until recently, the Kaaba was opened twice a week for anyone to enter and pray. However, due to the rapid expansion in the number of pilgrims and other factors, the Kaaba is now opened only twice a year for dignitaries and exclusive guests only. 5. You used to be able to swim around it One of the problems with having the Kaaba situated at the bottom of a valley is that when it rains – valleys tend to flood. This was not an uncommon occurrence in Mecca and the cause of a lot of trouble before the days of flood

Oh yeah, the Kaaba was never meant to be a cube. The original dimensions of The House included the semi-circular area known as the Hijr Ismail.

control systems and sewage. For days on end the Kaaba would be half submerged in water. Did that stop Muslims from performing the Tawaf? Of course not. Muslims just started swimming around the Kaaba. Modern adjustments to the surrounding landscape and flood prevention techniques mean we may never see such sights again. 4. The inside contains plaques commemorating the rulers who renovated it For years many have wondered what it looks like inside the Kaaba. Relying on second or third hand accounts from those who were lucky enough to enter just wasn’t satisfying enough. Then one lucky person who went inside took his camera phone in with him and millions have seen the shaky footage online. The interior of the Kaaba is now lined with marble and a green cloth covering the upper walls. Fixed into the walls are plaques each commemorating the refurbishment or rebuilding of the House of Allah by the ruler of the day. Watch the video below of the only place on Earth that you can pray in any direction you want, the House of Allāh, the first place of worship for mankind – the Kaaba. 3. There are two Kaabas! Directly above the Kaaba in heaven is an exact replica. This Kaaba was mentioned in the Qurʾān and by the Prophet. The Messenger of Allāh said narrating

about the journey of ‘Isra wal Miraaj “Then I was shown Al-Bait-al-Ma’mur (i.e. Allāh’s House). I asked Gabriel about it and he said, This is Al Bait-ul-Ma’mur where 70,000 angels perform prayers daily and when they leave they never return to it (but always a fresh batch comes into it daily).” 2. The Black Stone is broken Ever wondered how the Black Stone came to be in the silver casing that surrounds it? Some say it was broken by a stone fired by the Umayyad army laying siege to Mecca whilst it was under the control of Abdullah ibn Zubair. However, most agree that it was most damaged in the middle ages by an extreme heretical Ismaili group from Bahrain called the Qarmatians who had declared that the Hajj was an act of superstition. They decided to make their point by killing tens of thousands of hujjaj and dumping their bodies in the well of Zamzam. As if this act of treachery was not enough, these devils took the Black Stone to the East of Arabia and then Kufa in Iraq where they held it ransom until they were forced to return it by the Abassid Caliph. When they returned it, it was in pieces and the only way to keep them together was by encasing them in a silver casing. Some historians narrate that there are still some missing pieces

When the Kaaba was rebuilt just a few years before the Prophet received his first revelation, the Quraish agreed to only use income from pure sources to complete the rebuild. That meant no money from gambling, looting, prostitution, interest etc. In the ultimate sign of how deeply mired in wrongdoing the Jahili Quraish were, there was not enough untainted money in this very wealthy trading city to rebuild the Kaaba to its original size and shape! They settled for a smaller version of the Kaaba and put a mud brick wall (called “Hijr Ismail” although it has no connection to the Prophet Ismail (A) himself) to indicate the original dimensions. Towards the end of his life, the Prophet intended to rebuild the Kaaba on its original foundations but passed away before he could fulfill his wish. Apart from a brief interlude of a few years during the reign of Caliph Abdullah ibn Zubair ®, the Kaaba has remained the same shape that the Prophet saw it in. The history of the Kaaba is not just an interesting story from our past. The Kaaba is a real and present symbol that connects all Muslims together wherever they may be. It also connects us to our glorious and not-so-glorious past so that we may derive lessons and feel that we are a part of an eternal mission. In a day and age where Muslims are increasingly disconnected from our history,as well as each other, the Kaaba reminds us of our shared heritage and bonds. It is a symbol of unity in an Ummah sorely in need of it.


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ALLAH & HIS WORDS

How To Memorize The Qur’an Translated by Ammar AlShukry An abridged translation of the work of Shaykh Umar Badahdah: Part I I.  The Beginning Steps There are a number of steps that must be taken at the onset of memorizing, and it may be that one cannot be successful without fulfilling these requirements: 1. Pure intention. A pure intention is the key to the acceptance of our deeds. If the intention is lacking then the actions will not bear the desired fruits, even if they do bring forth some of the fruits. 2. Minimalize sins. Allāh says: “Fear Allāh; and Allāh teaches you” [AlBaqarah: 282] Ibn Mas’ūd radyAllāhu ‘anhu said: “A man may lose knowledge due to a sin that he had committed.” Sins extinguish the light of the heart and cause a person to be prevented from success. Therefore to fear Allāh and have Allāh teach you is a practical approach. The heart  is then filled with the light of īmān, the soul is at ease with what Allāh loves, and the person prepares for this great affair of memorizing the Qur’ān. 3. Sincere commitment. A person who is not fully committed and lazy will not be able to memorize the Qur’ān. This matter requires strong commitment and a person will no doubt have to exchange old habits for new ones, such as decreasing the amount of sleep and increasing in good deeds. Most importantly, a person must equip himself with a will never to give up, so that when encountering the first obstacle, surrender is not an option. 4.   Correct methodology. More shall be explored regarding this topic, inshā’Allāh. Some who set out to memorize the Qur’ān begin with great energy but go about it in the wrong

way. Their energy is soon extinguished and, in many cases, they become incapable of continuing. An example of this is the one who starts by memorizing a sūrah from one part of the Qur’ān and another from some other part. A further example is someone who memorizes juz after juz but not in the original order of sequence. The problem with this method is that a juz that stands alone does not encourage the person to retain it as well as two that are connected (one juz before it or the one after it). Of course, it is beneficial to memorize any Sūrah; however, this is not the most beneficial way for the one who wishes to memorize the entire Qurʾān. Also, one should have a set program for memorizing. Going about it ‘on the fly’ will, in most cases, not bring about the desired outcome. Furthermore, one should consult those who have memorized and those who are currently engaged in memorizing and/ or teaching regarding additional strategies and tips. In short, this is not a solitary effort. 5. A continuous effort. Keep in mind that memorizing the Qur’ān is a great task that requires a lengthy commitment. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was asked what actions were most beloved to Allāh. He said the ones that are most consistent, even if they are small. Remember: a little that is consistent is better than a great deal that is cut off! II. Memorization The method of memorization and its necessary preconditions will be expounded upon below. 1. One page at a time. Firstly, there is the method of memorizing by looking at the ‘whole page’, in which the individual reads the page that he wants to memorize three or five times, with focus and full awareness as to what is being read, so that when he has read the page a number of times, he is able to close the Book and recite from memory. Most likely, he will be unable to recite the entire page flawlessly and will pause often, at which point he is to

open the Book and carry on from where he stopped. This step-by-step process will prevent the memorizer from making the same mistakes: the place that he stopped the first time, he will not stop the second time. This is to be repeated until the memorizer is able to recite the entire page without stopping, so that after he has read the page five times and recited from memory, without impediment, he will have read the page approximately eight or more times. When this occurs, the page should be recited three times in totality, from memory, without error or visual aid from the Book. If the page is read three or five times with attentiveness, and then recited (from memory) between three and five times, then tied it all together three times, the page will be ingrained in your memory in a firm fashion, inshā’Allāh. The benefit of this method is that you will not stop or stumble when you are continuing from page to page. Instead of memorizing disconnected verses and being unable to recall what comes next, you will see the entire page in your mind’s eye. This will help you not only in memorizing but also in future recollection. 2. One verse at a time. The second method is that of memorizing one verse at a time. The memorizer reads one verse a number of times before trying to recite it, and, once successful, moves on to the next verse. When the second verse is memorized correctly, the first and the second are read together, and so on with the third verse until the end of the page, at which point the entire page is recited from memory three times. It is very important to connect all of the verses on a page together. Do not memorize the second half of the page without linking it to the first, as this will cause your memory to stumble later when reciting that page. The difference between the first method and the second is that the second method generally takes longer and is weaker if one does not link all of the verses together. Prerequisites for memorization i) Reading correctly- and in this alone are a number of issues.

a) Correcting the makharij- if Ramadān to you is Ramazaan, if Al-ladheena is read Allazeena then correct your pronunciation of the letters before you start. b) Correcting the harakat- the symbols of I’rab (the damma, fatha, kasra, sukoon) are all very important and it is imperative to learn them correctly. A change in I’rab can change the meaning and thus is worthy of a great deal of attention. Also one must pay attention to the similar sounding words and ‘seemingly’ similar ending verses. ii) Strong Memorization - whatever is newly memorized must have been done so in the strongest manner, free from any mistakes, with the ability to be recited without stopping or stumbling. What is newly memorized is like a foundation on which you build, and if the foundation is faulty or weak than the building will collapse. Just think of how you recite Al-Fātihah and set that as the standard for which to compare everything else that you memorize. iii) Reciting to others- very important. This is what will cause you to discover mistakes that you may have not been aware of in your memorization. If you memorize three to four pages without reciting it to someone than that’s not a problem, however after five pages you should. Do not wait until you have memorized 10 Juz’ filled with mistakes that will be extremely difficult for you to correct! iv) Repetition- doing all of the above will not help you unless you continuously repeat what you have memorized. If you memorize after fajr and wait till the next fajr you will find that you have already forgotten a portion or struggle to recall the ayahs. If you memorize the pages how they were mentioned earlier i.e. 3 times each, you still need to repeat what you have memorized another 5 times throughout the day which will be elaborated on.. v) Connecting with what was previously >>> memorize pg 22


22 | Hijrah | April 2013

Things You Should Know About Allah Imam Luqman Ahmad Lotus Tree Blog Know Beloved that Allah sub’haanahu wa ta’ala is the One and Only True God. He has always Existed, He shall never cease to Exist, and nothing comes into being except by His Divine will, for Allah does whatever He pleases. Nothing exists or ceases to exist except by His desire, for He is Allah, the Living and the Self-Subsisting. The creation of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them came about because of His will, and none of this required any effort on the part of Allah sub’haanahu wa ta’ala, because He, and He Alone, is in complete control of all there is and all that there will ever be.  When He wants something to exist, He simply says ‘be’ and it becomes. That is Allah; there is no god besides Him.

its weight and volume. If an autumn leaf falls to the ground in New Hampshire, then Allah sub’haanahu wa ta’ala is aware of the speed by which it spirals to the ground, its exact color and the detail of its specifications.

There is nothing that goes on in any of the millions of galaxies that are known about, and that are not known about, except that Allah is aware of it happening, before it happens, after it happens and while it is happening. If a snowflake falls in Antarctica, if a rose petal blooms in Stone Mountain Georgia, or if a spoonful of sugar is sprinkled into a cup of coffee in New York City, then be assured that Allah be He Exalted and Glorified, is aware of its shape, its size,

Every attribute of Allah sub’haanahu wa ta’ala is an attribute of completion and perfection. Even the sound of His Holy Name; Allah, stirs the soul, and bends the heart like no other can. Allah is deserving of worship; it is His right, and His right Alone, for He is Allah, the Holy One. So know without a doubt beloved, that Allah has knowledge of the unborn before they are born, that He fashions every fetus while it is in the womb of its mother, He is aware of its perfections and deformities, and He knows every creature by name. That is Allah; He knows your fears, your wants, your hidden secrets, and your every thought, and He is closer to any one of us than our jugular vein. That’s Allah. Be aware beloved that Allah knows your blood pressure, your pulse, your sugar level and your heartbeat with direct measure, and there is nothing like Him, nor is there anyone or anything that can overtake Him. The blood that flows through my veins, and the heart that beats in my breast  is by His command, for He is Allah, the Sustainer. There is no illness except that Allah can heal it, there is no

>>> memorize, from pg 21

you kept a Qur’ān

memorized- this will be discussed later.

c. Leading people in prayer- the ultimate test. This is what will show whether what you have memorized is deeply embedded in your mind, easily recalled, or whether it isn’t.

vi) Helpful activities a. Reciting in superogatory prayers- instead of reciting Sūrat’l-Nās, Kawthar and Ikhlās, recite from what you have memorized that day. If you have memorized a page, divide it into two and repeat it in your nafl prayers throughout the day. b. Reciting at all times- think of all the times in your day where you are waiting for something: your at the bus stop waiting, your on the train waiting, your meeting a friend and your waiting, if

d. Listening to Qur’ānic recitations with tajweed- use this as much as you can and have a set schedule. For example, say you have this much to memorize in a week, or this much to revise. Sometimes you will have heard a recitation so much that when you come to memorize you’ll find that you’ve already memorized it. e. Using the same mushaf- if you are go-

pain except that Allah can relieve it, and there is no problem faced by any human being except that Allah has the ability to solve it according to His will. Know beloved Muslim, that Allah has no partners, he has no son, no boss, no master and no equal or peer. Allah submits to no one, and everything submits to Him. He hears the one who thanks Him and to Him is all praise, for He is the Master of the Day of Judgment and everything that precedes it. Know also that the most beloved human beings to Allah are His Prophets, and that Ibrahim (AS) was His Khalil. And know also, that Allah is Good and He only accepts good, and He has commanded that none is to be worshipped except Him. Everything that Allah does is for a purpose and done in truth. The planet earth spins and orbits it course by Allah’s command and there is nothing in the heavens and upon the earth except that it will come to Allah in submission, either willingly or unwillingly. It is a fact that Allah shall inherit the earth and everything that is upon it, so be advised beloved that Allah knows the seen as well as the unseen, and He, Allahu sub’haanahu wa ta’ala is not limited by time, space, or epoch, for he is the Perfect One, and is free of every defect or shortcoming. That is Allah, He

ing to start memorizing try to keep the same mushaf and don’t change. This is because you picture the page in front of you in your mind, you visualize this āyah being at the top of this page and this Sūrah starting in the middle of that page. If you start memorizing from another mushaf it is likely to cause confusion. f. Engaging as many senses as possibleit is known scientifically that if you use two senses to memorize, your recollection of it will be stronger than if you use only one. And if you use three it is stronger still, and if you use four…etc. How do you use more? Instead of just reading silently, read out loud. While

is the Lord! Therefore, know  that Allah sub’haanahu wa ta’a is not limited in His will, for He wills what He wants. Nor is He limited in His power, for He takes what He wants, nor is He limited in His knowledge, for He teaches whom He wants, nor is He is not limited in His mercy, for He forgives whomever He pleases, for He is Allah, the Victorious, and the Sustainer. He has it written across His throne that His mercy precedes His anger, so know that Allah has power over all things. Bear witness that Allah has created the heavens and the earth in six days, and His Throne was upon water. Everything upon the planet shall eventually perish, and the only thing that will remain is the Face of Allah the Mighty and Glorious God. So bear in mind beloved that were Allah to call people into account for their transgressions, then there would be nothing left on the face of the earth except beasts, but He postpones our demise until an appointed time, and when that times comes, we cannot delay it for not even one iota of time, nor can we hasten it, because He is Allah, the Giver of Life, The  Causer of death, and the One to Whom we shall all return. That is because Allah is the Beginning and He is the End and He has full >>> know pg 23

reading out loud raise your voice so that your ears hear what you are reciting. Now if you can (and this is somewhat difficult) but if you are able to write out what you wish to memorize, this will exponentially increase your memory of it. The sheikh mentions when he went to West Africa he visited some countries like Morocco and Mauritania and others. He found them to still be writing on Alwah (tablets) to memorize Qur’ān. They would write on them and then read what they had written until they had memorized it and then would dunk the tablet in water and erase it, fully confident that what they had memorized would not leave them.


Hijrah | April 2013 | 23

Surah Asr www.islamicbulletin.com “If people deliberate this Surah (Al-Asr), it suffices them.” — Imam Ash-Shafii The importance of holy Surah like AlAsr lies in the fact that it delineates the perfect all-embracing system of human life just as the Creator of mankind desires. Throughout all human history, everywhere and at all times, there has been only one system and way that guarantee happiness and prosperity to all mankind in this present world and the world to come. All other systems and ways have all been conducive to loss, wretchedness and perdition. Allah, All-Mighty, says: “By Al-’Asr (Time)! Verily Man is in loss.” [Qur’an, 103: 1-2] By virtue of the above Verse, Allah puts forward a Divine Oath by “Time,” in the general sense of the word, to man, whose real existence is based on “Time” as substantiated by a number of days: whenever a day elapses, one part of

>>> KNOW, from pg 22 command of all creation. I urge anyone reading this to remember well that Allah is the Truth, He speaks the truth, He guides to the Truth, He judges in truth, He created everything by truth, and He is Guardian over all that there is. Allah cannot be defeated, no force can stop Him, no challenger can best Him, no opponent can oust Him, and no champion can subdue Him, for He is Allah the Originator of the heavens and the earth. Look around you beloved, and you will clearly see that Allah brings the day into the night and He brings the night into the day. He punishes whomever He pleases, and takes revenge upon whomever He pleases, for He is the Strong and the Capable. He is Allah, there in nothing like unto Him. You cannot hide from Allah, you can’t duck Him, you can’t bribe Him, and you cannot speak in His presence on the Day of Judgment except with His permission for He is Allah, the Almighty God. There is no refuge from Allah except to Him, and no one can

man’s life and existence does pass away. Whenever a newly-born day dawns, it calls out: “O son of Adam! I am a new creature and a witness upon your deeds. So make the best of me, for I shall never come back until the Day of Judgment.” Allah, Most Gracious, swears by time to man that he is in inevitable loss in the sense that the elapse of time consumes man’s lifetime, i.e. his capital and the vessel that contains his righteous work, which is, in turn, the price of the Paradise he has been promised. From the commercial point of view loss is to waste one’s capital without gaining a profit in return. But man is able to avoid such loss if he spends his lifetime on the things for which he has been created, namely belief in Allah and His religion, performing deeds of righteousness, recommending one another to the Truth and recommending one another to Patience. To this effect, Allah, Most Merciful, says: “By Al -’Asr (Time)! Verily, Man is in loss, except such as have Faith, do righteous deeds, recommend one another to the Truth and recommend one another to patience.” [Qur’an, 103: 1-3] Firstly: “Except such as have Faith”

withhold what He decides to grant or grant what He decides to withhold for He is the Subtle, and the Apparent. Be aware beloved that Allah be He Exalted and Glorified is Far Above what they ascribe to Him, He never fails, He never falters, He never misses the mark when He aims, and He never over steps past what He intended, for He is the Irresistible and the Wise. He never weakens, He never gets tired, sleepiness never approaches Him, and there is none that can overpower Him. He needs no rest, no sleep, no food or drink, and He is free of all needs. He is Allah, the winds and the waters of the earth are under His command, and there is no god besides Him. He is a Lord upon Whom if you depend upon Him, it is sufficient for you, if you answer His call, you will be uplifted and if you humble yourself to Him, He will raise you in degrees, for He is Allah. It is He that knows the whispers that you have with your own self, and if there are three people in a private meeting, He is the fourth, and if there are five, He is the sixth and if there are less than

In fact, Faith is a kind of link between man — the weak, tiny, petty, perishable, limited creature — with his Creator — the Eternal, Absolute, Perfect One — from Whom all things, including man, derive their existence and survival. By such link with the Upper Infinite World man is liberated from the limits of his petty entity to the vastness of the enormous universe, from the limits of his tiny force to the marvelous gigantic forces of the universe, and from the limits of his short life to endless eternities that Allah, Alone, knows. In addition to providing man with magnificent power and ability, such link with his Lord, the Almighty Allah, enables man to attain real happiness to which he aspires, which is a sublime kind of happiness, a great unmatched joy, and a unique intimacy and friendship with life and existence, which is, in turn, an utmost win. In fact, Monotheism safeguards man from worshipping none but Allah, the Almighty, humbling himself to none but Him, or submitting himself to none but Him. With Monotheism there is only One Power and Only One God (Allah). Monotheism eliminates from human life vain desires and caprices and replaces them

that, or more than that, then He is with them no matter where they are. That is Allah sub’haanahu wa ta’ala; He is the Giving and the Eternal. He is the witness of every word and every occurrence, and if you called upon Him in the pitch of night, He has the ability to respond; for He hears every cry, every supplication, and every praise; and whether you call Him Allah or call Him al-Rah’maan, to Him belongs the beautiful names. Know beloved, that Allah guides who He pleases, and He leads astray who He pleases, and that no one has a monopoly on His guidance; no scholar, no Imam, no group, no country, no ethnicity, no prince and no pauper, for guidance is His, and His Alone; for He is Allah, the Guider and the Magnificent.  If you support Allah He will support you, and make your feet firm. Therefore, be certain that Allah is a Just Lord, He is the Fairest and Most Judicious of Judges, and He wrongs not a single soul and no one can deliver mercy like Him for He is the All Knowing and All Seeing. Allah sub’haanahu wa ta’ala does not love the

with Allah’s Divine Laws and Justice as well as belief in man’s honor and dignity in the sight of his Lord — a prerequisite of Faith which provides man with selfrespect, self-exaltation and nobility of character. Secondly: “And do righteous deeds” True Faith is a positive dynamic reality; and, therefore, righteous deeds are the natural fruits thereof. No sooner is true Faith firmly established in man’s heart than it seeks to manifest itself through performance of righteous deeds. This is because true Faith is by no means a static inactive thing; otherwise it would be either dead or untrue, just like a natural flower that sends forth its fragrance. If there is no fragrance, the flower is artificial or dead. Similarly, righteous work is not a mere accidental act on the part of man, but rather faith-motivated and purposeful work for which all true believers help and counsel one another. Moreover, true Faith is by no means an inactive or passive attitude towards life. It is not mere devotional seclusion or solitude, but, rather, a righteous pur>>> asr pg 25

wicked or deceitful, nor does He burden the slave with more than He can bear for He is Allah, the Rightly Guided. He comprehends sight, yet sight cannot comprehend Him, He is the Light of the heavens and the earth, and to whomever Allah does not extend to him light, then he shall have no light, because that is Allah sub’haanahu wa ta’ala, the Avenger and the Patient. Allah loves the righteous, He loves those who repent and those who purify themselves, and in His hand is all good.  He does not love the crooked, nor the ungrateful, nor does He love every arrogant boaster for He is the Holy and Sublime.   He is Generous Lord, He is Kind; and He gives sustenance to whoever He pleases without measure, for Allah is a Lord Who keeps every promise, fulfills every contract according to His will, and He does not renege on His word, not ever, for He is Allah, the Most High, He is my Lord, your Lord, the Lord of Ibrahim, Moses, Jesus, and Noah, and Muhammad Ibn Abdullah is His Messenger (SAWS).


24 | Hijrah | April 2013

HEART & SOUL

The Goal and Scope of Purification According to the Quran and Sunnah By Shaykh Jamal Zarabozo, Excerpt from his book “Purification of the Soul” Before saying any word about the process of purification, the goal of purification according to the Quran and Sunnah needs to be clearly spelled out. Before setting out on any path it is very important for the person to understand the goal of that path. When he does that, it sometimes becomes very easy for him to recognize the things that may lead him off of the correct path and away from that goal. He may see things that he recognizes not to be helpful to him in achieving his goal-even though others may claim that they lead to the same goal. On the other hand, if a person starts along a “noble path” without a clear conception of his goal he may easily be misled. Furthermore, when a person is seeking a path of purification, it is important that he recognize what is the goal of his purification. An incorrect goal can be very dangerous to his process of purification. One’s only purpose and long-run goal in this life is to worship Allah. This fact that perhaps every Muslim admits to must move from the theoretical, abstract level to the real, applied level in essence, everything else must be sacrificed for this goal. This is the behavior of any human when he has a goal that is of utmost importance in his heart or when he has a love that is more important to him than anything else imaginable. He will be relentless in his pursuit of that goal. One can consider the example of Olympic athletes who practice up to 18 hours a day for ten or fifteen years or the example of those studying for the bar exam and so forth. In the same way, a Muslim must be “relentless” in the pursuit of his goal. Furthermore, though, the goal of the Muslim is much loftier and significant than all of the goals that the non-Muslims pursue so vigorously in their lives. Hence, anything and everything else must be sacrificed for that goal. Or, in

other terms, anything else is secondary and can never take precedence over the person’s long-term, utmost important and ultimate goal. In addition, any other sub-goal or temporary goal must be consistent with the overall goal in one’s life. Otherwise, it is not permissible to pursue those other goals that contradict one’s overall purpose and goal in life. Once a person is, by the grace of Allah, able to identify the one true and worthy goal of his purification, everything else should be made subservient to that one goal. Again, nothing else will be allowed to interfere with that goal or take precedence over it. This is like the example of the Prophet Abraham (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) when he was asked to sacrifice his only son, a son that he had anxiously awaited for many years. His willingness to sacrifice his son and his son’s willingness to be sacrificed was due to the fact that they realized what their purpose and goal in life was. Life together would mean nothing to them if they knew that by so living they were interfering with their entire purpose. Hence, they had the will and the courage to perform the sacrifice commanded by Allah. They had the willingness to sacrifice for the sake of the ultimate goal. Furthermore, this goal should be something consciously on a person’s mind, ruling his behavior and actions on a day-to­day even minute-to-minute basis, above and beyond any of the shortterm and intermediate goals of this life. Indeed, all of the short-term intermediate goals of this life must be subservient to that long-run goal and purpose of a person’s entire being. Indeed, they are not only subservient to that longrun goal but they must be serving that long-run goal. It is saddening to think that a person could realize the true and lofty purpose of his creation and then allow other insignificant goals to deviate him from his ever-important goal and purpose. Sometimes, this swerving from the right

course is very short-term, such as fulfilling a quickly satisfied desire. However, sometimes such may be extremely time and energy­consuming and inconsistent with his final goal, such as putting in hours and hours of practice to become something which is not pleasing to Allah or which is simply not beneficial. In reality, the more that one can focus on his goal, the more he will be able to overcome obstacles and difficulties. This is because his focus will allow him never to lose sight of the “bigger picture.” By constant reminders, such as daily prayers and reading the Quran, a believer should be able to be constantly on guard with respect to his actions and their relationship with his ultimate goal and purpose in life. In fact, the identification of the goal leads to the very important aspect of intention. It is intention that accompanies every single act. Intention is, in fact, the true driving force behind every conscious act that a person performs. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) made this fact clear when he stated, “Surely, all actions are but driven by intentions and, verily, every man shall have but that which he intended. (Recorded by al­Bukhari and Muslim.) Intention is the key. If that intention springs from a clear understanding of one’s goal in life, the resultant actions will be sound and proper, leading to his prosperity and goodness in both this Life and the Hereafter. If that intention springs from a muddled understanding of one’s goal in life or of an undesirable goal in life, it is not surprising that the resultant deeds are evil in themselves and evil for the person himself. The Creation and Role of Humans One of the first things that every human should realize is that this creation as a whole and humans in particular have not been created in vain and without a noble purpose. Allah says in the Quran, “Not without purpose did We create the heaven and earth and all between] such is the thought of unbelievers! But woe

to the unbelievers because of the fire (of Hell)! Shall We treat those who believe and work deeds of righteousness the same as those who do mischief on earth? Shall We treat those who guard against evil, the same as those who turn aside from the right?” (Saad 27-28). There is a purpose to this creation and, hence, those who do righteous deeds are not the same as those who spread evil. Allah has also said, ‘’Does man think that he will be left uncontrolled, (without purpose)?” (al-Qiyaamah 36). In reality, the original, physical creation of the first human was not greatly different from the creation of the other creatures of this world. The physical make-up was from clay and water. This fact is noted in numerous places in the Quran. For example, Allah says, “It is He Who has created man from water. Then He has established relationships of lineage and marriage for your Lord has power (over all things)” (al-Furqaan 54). Allah also says, “We created man from sounding clay, from mud molded into shape’’ (al-Hijr 26). It is in the next stage of the creation or the first human, Adam, in which the real distinction occurred. At this point, humans are made a very separate and unique creature combining a physical aspect and a special spiritual aspect that God bestowed on them. In fact, that is what makes them very different from the other living creatures on this same planet. This stage is described in the verse, “But He fashioned him in due proportion, and breathed into him the soul from Him. And He gave you (the faculties of) hearing and sight and feeling (and understanding). Yet little thanks do you give” (al-Sajdah 9). Even before Allah created this creation, He informed the angels that this creation was to have a special purpose on this earth, succeeding the creations before them. Allah says, ‘’Behold, your Lord said to the angels, ‘I will create upon the earth a successive authority’” (al-

>>> purification pg 25


>>> asr, from pg 23 poseful movement, a positive rightly guided action and a balanced establishment of the ideal human civilization on earth in accordance with Allah’s Divine System and Guidance. Thirdly: “And recommend one another to the Truth” Establishment of the Truth is something difficult; the obstacles are so many, and so are distractors: desires and caprices, interests, circumstances of environment, pressure of work, traditions, customs, covetousness and greed. That is why “recommending one >>> purification, from pg 24

another to the Truth” becomes necessary to remind, encourage, and immunize a believer, and never letting him/her down or extorting any of his/ her rights. Moreover, “recommending one another to the Truth” purifies and safeguards man’s individual tendencies and attitudes, because the Truth can not be established and maintained except in a community of true believers where mutual counseling, cooperation, collaboration, solidarity, help and assistance prevail among its members. By Faith and righteous deeds man attains self-perfection; and by “recommending others to the Truth” he attains perfection to his community. And since existence of this Muslim nation

is based on Allah’s True Religion, which has come to us through authentically communicated revealed Divine Scripture, which is confirmed by the mind, proved by reality, and conformed to by man’s pure original nature. Such Truth has to be firmly established and deeply rooted if the Muslim nation is to maintain its entity, unity and mission. In other words, “recommending one another to the Truth” is a decisive critical issue, because if the Truth does not prevail on earth, Falsehood certainly will. Hence, “recommending one another to the Truth” guarantees preservation of man’s existence and fulfillment of his mission.

mind that Allah has bestowed on humans: (3) A free will to decide between the path of goodness or the path of evil, as well as a limited free will to enact that choice that he has made; (4) A responsibility for the choices he has made, which is a necessary result of being given free will and ability.

quences. All of his deeds and his choices are like a trial wherein he demonstrates whether he is desirous of what is good and proper or not. Indeed. Allah has made this point very clear, “Blessed be He in Whose hands is Dominion; and He has power over all things; He Who created death and life, that He may try which of you is best in deed; and He is the Exalted in Might, Oft­Forgiving” (alMulk 1-2).

Baqarah 30). After Allah breathed into this creation with a spirit from Him and after He had bestowed knowledge upon him, the angels, Allah’s noble creation, were ordered to prostrate to this new creation. Allah says, for example, ‘‘When I have fashioned him (in due proportion) and breathed into him of a spirit from Me, fall down in obeisance unto him” (al­ Another important characteristic reHijr 29). lated to humans is that Allah has put at their disposal all that is created in the Furthermore, Allah says that humans on heavens and the earth. In reality, hutheir own opted to accept the responsi- mans have been created solely to serve bility and trust. Other creations were of- Allah and, to help them to do so, Allah fered this heavy responsibility but they has made all things of the physical cosall refused. It was only humans who took mos under their potential control. Allah this job on. Allah describes this occur- says, “It is Allah Who has subjected the rence in the following verse. Allah says, sea to you, that ships may sail through it “We did indeed offer the trust to the by His command. That you may seek of heavens and the earth and the moun- His bounty, and that you may be gratetains; but they refused to undertake it, ful. And He has subjected to you, as from being afraid thereof. But man undertook Him, all that is in the heavens and on it. He was indeed unjust and foolish” (al- earth: behold, in that are signs indeed Ahzaab 72). Although mankind took on a for those who reflect” (al-Jaathiya 12heavy responsibility, Allah then helped 13). This opens for human a great potenmankind in many ways to fulfill this tial to achieve a tremendous amount of trust (Furthermore, Allah will also re- good. ward mankind in a special fashion when they fulfill this trust.) Given all of these special characterisThat is, along with this came some distinguishing characteristics that set this creation apart from the animals on this earth. Among the most prominent distinguishing features of a human being are the following: (1) A sound, natural disposition that is ready and capable to be directed to the belief in Allah alone as the object of worship; (2) An ability to comprehend and understand manners via the intelligence and

tics, as was mentioned earlier, the human should realize that he has a special and noble purpose and goal in this life. He should realize that his Creator is too wise and lofty to create him simply for sport. “Did you then think that We had created you in jest, and that you would not be brought back to Us (for account)?” (al-Muminoon 115). Hence, he should realize that his actions in this life have a real ramification to them. In this sense, nothing that he does is meaningless or without conse-

It is extremely important for the human to realize this point, that he has a purpose in this life. He must realize that he is not simply an animal that has evolved through benign material processes nor is he a sexually-inhibited driven creature, like Darwin, Freud and others have led so many people to believe. Indeed, this realization may be the first step along the path of purification of the soul. Without realizing this fact, there may be no need, meaning or purpose to purifying one’s soul-if one is just an animal, then it is expected for him to behave like an animal; if nothing is morally wrong or right since there is no God or real purpose to existence, it is expected for people to behave in any fashion they wish. When a person’s eyes are open to the reality of this creation, his purpose and role in it, theoretically speaking, there should be a great and profound effect on his life. Islahi notes that the “first condition [in the process of purification] is the sincere firm resolve to change and reform.” However, that first step may never come about if the person does not realize that he has a very important and noble purpose in this life. Hence, this realization must come first. Once this realization occurs, then there should be an immediate leap to that resolve to change and

Hijrah | April 2013 | 25 Fourthly: “And recommend one another to patience” It is out of Allah’s Wisdom that He, Most Gracious, made this present world an abode of trial with evil and good, and an abode of conflict between Truth and falsehood. Therefore, “recommending one another to patience” is necessary for being successful in such trial and victorious in such conflict. Hence, it is necessary to recommend one another to patience and perseverance against one’s lusty desires and caprices, Falsehood, hardships and grievances. That is why patience is an effective means for overcoming obstacles, multiplying abilities, and achieving objectives.

reform. Karzoon noted: When a person becomes heedless of his goal for which he was created and the role that he has been given, he becomes busy with other goals… This changes them [that is, such people) from their essential human nature and position by which Allah honored them. Due to this contradiction and confusion occurs in the make-up of the human. The human is then dragged into two different directions: the direction of the spirit (rooh) and the direction of the body. Karzoon then notes that the only way to make those waspects compatible is via the teachings of Islam. It is these teachings alone that can properly and in a balanced manner fulfill the needs of both the rooh and the body. Indeed, he continues, this demonstrates the relationship between the purification of the soul and the responsibility to “maintain and rule” this world. The latter is done by righteous deeds upon the path of Allah and it is not done through individual purification while leaving aside the society and the surrounding people. On the other hand, ignoring that path is what leads to the kind of society that exists today, wherein a primary goal is the meeting of the bodily desires while greater and more important ethical and moral issues and needs are being ignored. To be continued


26 | Hijrah | April 2013

Diseases of the Heart Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah Concerning the Ailments of the Hearts and their Cures Indeed all praise is due to Allah, we seek His help, and we seek His forgiveness, and we seek refuge in Allah from the evil of our sows and the evil of our actions. Whomsoever Allah guides, none can misguide, and whomsoever Allah misguides, none can guide. I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except for Allah, the One Who has no partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger. Allah the Exalted said about the hypocrites, In their hearts is a disease and Allah has increased their disease. Surah al-Baqarah (2):10 That He may make what is thrown in by Satan a trial for those in whose hearts is a disease and whose hearts .are hardened.[Surah alHajj (22): 53] If the hypocrites, and those in whose hearts is a disease, and those who spread false news among the people of Madinah cease not, We shall certainly let you overpower them, then they will not be able to stay in it as your neighbors but for a little while.[Surah al-Ahzab (33): 60] ...and that no doubts may be left for the People of the Book and the believers, and that those in whose hearts is a disease and the disbelievers may say, ‘What does Allah intend by this parable?’ [Surah al-Muddaththir (14): 31] ...There has come to you good advice from your Lord, and a healing for that which is in the hearts, a guidance and a mercy for the believers.Surah Yunus (10): 5 7 And We send down from the Qur’an that which is a healing and mercy to those who believe, and it increases the wrong-doers in nothing but loss. Surah al-Isra` (17): 82 ...and heal the breast of a believing people and removes the anger of their hearts...Surah Tawbah (9): 14-15 The disease of the body is the opposite of its being sound and in good health, it is a degeneration that occurs in it

causing a failure of the natural senses of perception and movement. So with respect to its perception either it goes completely such as blindness or deafness, or it perceives objects incorrectly - such as its perceiving something sweet to be bitter or its hallucinating things that have no reality in the real world. With respect to the failure of its movements then examples of this would be the inability to digest food, or the body’s aversion to nourishment that it is need of, or its desire of things that would weaken it,leading to illnesses as a result of these but not leading to death or physical ruin. Instead these failures would lead to suffering of the actual body either as a result of consuming a wrong quantity of something or applying something to the body in the wrong way. Asfor the first, then it could be consuming too little a quantity of nourishment and therefore the body would require more, or it could be by consuming too much and therefore the body, would require it to be removed. As for the second, then it could be like extremely high or low temperatures due to incorrect usage of medicine. The same is true for the disease of the heart for it is a type of degeneration that occurs in it, causing failure in its perception and desires. So with respect to its perception then this is degenerated by its being presented with doubts upon doubts until it cannot see the truth or it perceives the truth incorrectly. Its desires are degenerated by its hating the truth which would be of benefit to it, and loving the falsehood that would cause it harm. So this is why ‘diseases” has sometimes been explained to be doubt and suspicion, as was explained by Mujahid and Qatadah in their commentaries to the verse; In their hearts is a disease and Allah has increased their disease. Surah al-Baqarah (2): 10 And at other times to be the desire to commit fornication as in the case of the verse;…Lest he in whose heart is a disease be moved with desire. Surah alAhzab (33): 32

This is why al-Khara’iti authored a book called, ‘The book of the Weakness of the Hearts Meaning their Diseases,’ meaning by’diseases’ here - the diseases of desire. The sick person is harmed by things that the healthy person is not, so slight heat, cold, exertion or other such things will harm him due to his inability to endure them in his weakened state. Sickness, in general, weakens the one afflicted by making his endurance weak and unable to sustain what he would have been able to sustain in a strong state. So a healthy state is preserved by remaining healthy and is removed by the opposite, and the sickness is made more severe by the presence of conditions similar to those that led to the sickness in the first place and removed by the opposite. Therefore, if a sick person is afflicted by something similar to that which led him to being sick in the first place, then he increases in illness and his endurance be- comes weaker, until maybe he dies. But if he is affected by something that will increase his strength and weaken the illness then the opposite will occur. The disease of the heart is a pain that occurs in the heart such as the anger felt towards an opponent who overcomes you, for this hurts the heart. Allah, the Exalted said,...and heal the breast of a believing people and removes the angerof their hearts...Surah Tawbah (9): 14-15 So the healing for them was by removing the suffering that had occurred in their hearts, and it is said: ‘So and so has healed his anger.’ In the case of retaliation it is said: ‘The close relatives of the killed sought healing/ meaning healing of their grief, anger and sorrow - all of these being sufferings that occur in oneself. Likewise doubt and ignorance cause pain to the heart. The Prophet said, Could they not have asked if they did not know? Indeed the cure for ignorance is to ask. And the one who has doubt in something he has taken on board, causes harm to his heart until he attains knowledge and certainty. Hence it is said to a scholar when he answers in a way that clarifies

the truth: ‘you have healed me with the answer.’ The full text of the hadith is narrated by Jabir bin ‘Abdullah that he said,’’ We went on a journey and a man from amongst us was injured in the head by a stone. After this be had a wet dream. He asked his Companions, ‘Do you find that I have a concession for performing tayammum?’ They said, ‘We do not find any concession, for you are capable of employing water (for purification}.’ So he bathed and as a result died. When we returned to the Prophet he was informed of this upon which he said, ‘They have killed him, may Allah kill them! Could they not have asked if they did not know? Indeed the cure of ignorance is to ask! It was sufficient for him to perform tayammum, sprinkle some water on the wound or put a bandage on his wound .and then wipe over it, and wash the remainder of his body.’”Reported in Sunan Abu Dawud [Eng; Trans 1/89 no, 336] and ad-Daruqutni. The hadith has a da’if sanad but it has a support from the hadith of Ibn ‘Abbas reported Sunan Ibn Majah [no.572] which raises the hadith to the level of hasan, but the last part of the hadith starting with ‘sprinkle some water on the wound’ remains da’if. Refer to Tamam al-Minnah [pg. 131], Sahih Sunan Abu Dawud [no 364], Sahih Ibn Majah [no. 126], Talkhis al-Habir of Ibn Hajr [1/260 no. 201], and `Awn al-Ma`bud of Adhimabadi (1/534+ along with the notes of Ibn al-Qayyim in the margin). [Translator’s Note] Between Sickness and Death Sickness is of a lesser level then death, so the heart dies due to total ignorance but becomes ill due to having fragments of ignorance, and in this case there can be either death, sickness or healing for the heart. Its life, death, sickness and the cure is greater and more vital then the life, death, sickness and cure of the body. This is why the heart becomes sick when presented with doubts and desires, or the sickness becomes more acute. If wisdom and goodly exhortation occur then theses are routes to its correction and cure.

>>> heart pg 27


Hijrah | April 2013 | 27

HADITH QUDSI Hadith Qudsi (Sacrad Traditions) are the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him) as revealed to him by the Almighty Allah. Hadith Qudsi are so named because, unlike the majority of Hadith which are Prophetic Traditions (Hadith an Nabawi), their authority (sanad) is traced back not to the Prophet but to the AlMighty. It is said that a hadith qudsi (Arabic plural ahadith qudsiyyah) is a statement in which Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) reports a statement and he refers it directly to Allah. The hadith Nabawi is a hadith in which one of the Companions reports the Prophet’s statements, deeds, or things that happened in his presence and he approved of it.

Superiority of Monotheism 1) Narrated Abu Dhar (May Allah be pleased with him): Allah’s Messenger (May peace and blessings be upon him) said that Allah (Mighty and majestic is He) said: He who comes with a good deed, its reward will be ten like that or even more. And he who comes with vice, his reward will be only one like that, or I can forgive him. He who draws close to Me a hand’s span, I will draw close to him an arm’s length. And whoever draws near Me an arm’s length, I will draw near him a fathom’s length. And whoever comes to Me walking, I will go to him running. And whoev-

>>> heart, from pg 26 Allah, the Most High, says, That He may make what is thrown in by Satan a trial for those hearts is a disease and whose hearts are hardened.Surah al-Hajj (22): 53 Because this breeds doubts in them and their hearts harden due to their dryness, and are weakened by doubt and become distant from faith and therefore what is thrown in by Satan be- comes a trial for them. Allah, the Most High, said,If the hypocrites, and those in whose hearts is disease, and those who spread false news among the people of Madinah cease not, We shall certainly let you overpower them, then they will not be able to stay in it as your neighbors but for a little while.Surah al-Ahzab (33): 60 ...and that no doubts may be left for

er faces Me with sins nearly as great as the earth, I will meet him with forgiveness nearly as great as that, provided he does not worship something with me. (This Hadith is sound and reported by Muslim, Ibn Majah and Ahmad in his Musnatd). 2) Narrated Abu Sa’id AI-Khudri (May Allah be pleased with him): Allah’s Messenger (May peace and blessings be upon him) said: None of you will have argued for his right in the world more vehemently than the believers who will do with their Lord about their brethren who were admitted into Hell. The Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) added: They will say: O Lord! Our brethren used to offer prayers with us, observe fast with us and perform pilgrimage (Hajj) with

us. But You cast them into fire. The Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) further said: Allah will say: Go and bring out whoever you know from among them. The Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) said: The believers will come to them and recognize them by face. Some of them will be those the fire would have seized up to half of their shanks and some of them up to their ankles. They will bring them and say: O Lord! We have taken out those for whom you gave us order. Then the Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) said: Allah will say: Bring out whoever has in his heart any belief weighing a Dinar (a coin). Then He will say: Take out whoever has in his heart the belief weighing half a Dinar until He will say: Take out whoever has in his heart the belief that equals the weight of an atom. (This Hadith is sound and reported by Nasa’i and Ibn Majah). After narrating this Hadith, Abu Sa’id said: He who does not accept it as true should read this verse: “Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him in worship, but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He pleases, and whoever sets up partners with Allah in worship, he has indeed in-

the People of the Book and the believers, and that those in whose hearts is a disease and the disbelievers may say, ‘What does Allah intend by this parable?’ Surah al-Muddaththir (74): 31

weakness of the sickness, and when it submits to the temptation, the sickness in the heart is satiated.

These people’s heart (which have hardened) have not died as in the case of the disbelievers and the hypocrites, and neither are their hearts correct and pure like the pure hearts of the believers, rather they contain the sickness of doubt and desire. The same applies to (the ones referred to in) His saying: ...Lest he in whose heart is a disease be moved with desire...Surah al-Ahzab (33): 32

The Qur’an is a cure for that which is within the heart, and for the one who has the sickness of doubt and desire in his heart, for it contains clear proofs that distinguish the truth from falsehood, and remove the sickness of false doubts to leave certain knowledge, correct perception and understanding such that the heart sees things in accordance to their reality. It contains wisdom, goodly exhortations both encouraging good and deterring from evil, and stories which contain lessons that necessarily lead to the correction of the heart by making the heart desire what is good for it and detest what is harmful to it. Hence the heart is left desiring that which will guide it, hating that which will deviate it after it used to

Referring to the sickness of desire, for indeed if the correct heart is tempted by a woman it will not incline towards her, contrary to the heart diseased with .desire, for it, due to its weakness, will incline towards what it is tempted with in accordance to the strength or the

The Qur’an is a Cure for the Hearts

vented a tremendous sin.” (4:48) ------------------------------------

Hazardousness of Shirk (joining partners with Allah) 3) Narrated Abu Huraira (May peace and blessings be upon him) that Prophet Muhammad (May peace and blessings be upon him) said: On the Day of Resurrection, Ibrahim (Abraham) will see his father Azar (in such a pitiable condition) that his face will be dark and covered with dust. Then Ibrahim will remind him: Did I not warn you against denying me? His father will reply: Today I will not deny you. Then, Ibrahim will say: O Lord! You have promised not to disgrace me on the Day of Resurrection. So what will be more disgraceful to me than my wretched father. Allah (Mighty and majestic is He) will say: I have forbidden Paradise for disbelievers. Then it will be said: O Ibrahim, Look! What is underneath your feet? He will look and see his father as a Hyena besmeared with dirt caught by the legs and thrown into Hell.

>>> hadith pg 35

desire that which would deviate it and hate that which would guide it. The Qur’an removes all the sicknesses that invoke false desires until the heart becomes pure and therefore its desires become pure and it returns to the natural state (fitrah) that it was created in, just as the body returns to the natural state upon being treated. The heart will be nurtured with faith and the Qur’an such that it will become strong- for indeed the purification of the heart is like the growing of the body. To be continued.... Excerpt from Diseases of the Hearts and Their Cures


28 | Hijrah | April 2013

WORSHIP & BELIEF

Paradise and Hell in the Light of Qur’an and Sunnah By Dr. Umar Al -Ashqar Paradise is the tremendous reward which Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala) has prepared for His beloved (awliyaa) and those who obey Him. It is complete joy and pleasure, where nothing is lacking and nothing can disturb its purity. What Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala) and His Messenger have told us about it makes out heads spin because our minds are not able to comprehend the greatness of such blessings. Listen to the words of Allah in this hadith qudsi:

“I have prepared for My righteous slaves that which no eye has seen, no ear has heard and has never crossed the mind of any human being”. Then the Prophet sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Recite, if you wish: “No person knows what is kept hidden for them of joy as a reward for what they used to do”. (32:17) The joys of Paradise are far greater than the pleasures of this world, which pale into insignificance in comparison. al-Bukhaari reports from Sahl ibn Sa’d >>> paradise & Hell pg 29

Easy Dhikr Amira Murphy Productive Muslim  What is light on the tongue but heavy on the Scale? Dhikr, the remembrance of Allah (glorified and exalted be He). “O You who believe!  Remember Allah with much remembrance” [33:41]. During the hustle and bustle of our frantic lives, the day seems to go by so quickly that it is not until a rare quiet moment late at night that we may realize we have not remembered Allah throughout the day. Apart from the five daily prayers (which themselves are forever threatened to be rushed through or forgotten), did we take a single moment from our day amongst the creation to remember the Creator? A flimsy “Alhamdulillah” may slip from our tongues but little reflection may go with it. The lack of dhikr, or remembrance in Allah, can be blamed on mismanaging time or forgetfulness; but the truth is, we may not truly understand the weight on these short words or phases on our hearts and souls. And the rewards! The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) describes the incentives to remembering Allah through-

out or day. Basically, if you remember Allah in this life, He will remember you (and grant you wonderful things) in this life and the next. The Prophet said,“Allah says: ‘I am just as My slave thinks I am, (i.e. I am able to do for him what he thinks I can do for him) and I am with him if He remembers Me. If he remembers Me in himself, I too, remember him in Myself; and if he remembers Me in a group of people, I remember him in a group that is better than they; and if he comes one span nearer to Me, I go one cubit nearer to him; and if he comes one cubit nearer to Me, I go a distance of two outstretched arms nearer to him; and if he comes to Me walking, I go to him running.”[Sahih Bukhari] Below is a short list of some remembrances that you can incorporate in your day. The goal is to make these beautiful praises of the Creator come up from your heart and roll off of your tongue with ease. 1. Quran: Ultimately, the best dhikr is reading the Quran. Reward: You will be rewarded 10 rewards for every letter read. This prize basically illustrates the weight of the Quran in

terms of where it should be in your life. 2. SubhanAllah or SubhanAllah wa bihamdihi (“I praise Allah (or All praise if to Allah) above all attributes that do not suit His Majesty.”) Reward: A tree will be planted for you in Paradise.  Nice!  Start growing your own forest right now! Another hadith relates that whoever says this 100 times a day, his/her sins will be forgiven even if they were as much as the foam of the sea [Bukhari]. 3. Alhamdulillah (“All praise is for Allah.”) Reward: Your scales will be tipped on the Day of Judgment, full of rewards! 4. SubhanAllah wal hamdulillah, wa la ilahaillAllah wa Allahu akbar “I praise Allah (or All Praise if to Allah) above all attributes that do not suit His Majesty.  All praise is for Allah.  This is no deity worthy of worship besides Allah. Allah is Great.” Reward: This combination of dhikr is the one most beloved by Allah, subhana wa ta’ala.  When you say them, sins fall off of you like leaves off of trees. 5. La hawla wa la quwwata illa billah (“There is no power or might except (by) Allah.”) Reward: You will enter through a special door in Paradise for those who oft use this remembrance.

6. SubhanAllah (x33), Alhamdulillah (x33), Allahu akbar (x34). Can be recited after salat and before you go to bed/sleep. (“I praise Allah (or All praise if to Allah) above all attributes that do not suit His Majesty.  All praise is to Allah.  Allah is Great.”) Reward: We know that this dhikr is said after each salah, but when Fatima (may Allāh be pleased with her) the daughter of the Prophet came to her father requesting a servant to help with the household, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) told her to repeat the dhikr before her sleep and the results would be better than having a servant. 7. Astaghfirullah  (“I seek Allah’s forgiveness.”) Reward: You will get protection from Allah’s punishment.  In Surah Nuh, ayah 10-12, Allah relates the story of Prophet Nuh and how he instructed his people to seek Allah’s forgiveness.  If they would just say “astagfirullah,” Allah would sent them rain in abundance, and increase their wealth and sons, and give them gardens and rivers in Paradise.   8. Ayahtul-Kursi  [2:255]. Reward: When you recite this verse before you go to sleep, Allah sends a guardian to you and no shaytan will come to you until morning.  Those who read this after each salah shall enter Paradise.


Hijrah | April 2013 | 29 >>> paradise & Hell, from pg 28

as-Sa’idee that the Messenger of Allah sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “A space the size of a whip in Paradise is better than this world and al that is in it”. (Fath al-Baari, 6/319, an-Nawawi’s commentary on Muslim 17/166) Because admittance to Paradise and salvation from the Fire are according to Allah’s will and judgement, it is a great victory and tremendous success, as Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala) says: “Only he who is saved far from the Fire and admitted to the Garden, will have indeed attained the object of life [or: been successful]” (3:185) “Allah has promised to believers - men and women - Gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein [forever], and beautiful mansions in Gardens of everlasting bliss. But the greatest bliss is the Good Pleasure of Allah. That is the supreme felicity [or success]”. (9:72) “...and those who obey Allah and His Messenger will be admitted to Gardens with rivers flowing underneath, to abide therein [forever] and that will be the supreme achievement”. (4:13) Admittance to Paradise There is no doubt that the joy of the believers will be incomparable when they are led, group by honorable group, to the blessed Gardens of Paradise. When they reach Paradise its gates will be opened for them, and they will be welcomed by noble angels congratulating them on their safe arrival after suffering so much hardship and witnessing so much horror: “And those who feared their Rabb will be led to the garden in crowds, until, behold, they arrive there; its gates will be opened and its keepers will say “Peace be upon you! Well have you done! Enter here, to dwell therein”. (39:73) In other words, your words, thoughts and deeds were good so your hearts and souls became pure and for that you deserve Paradise.

The Believers Will Be Purified Before They Enter Paradise After the Believers have passed over asSiraat (the bridge over Hell), they will be kept on a bridge between Paradise and Hell, where they will be purified by means of their settling any wrongs that existed between any of them in this world. Then when they enter paradise they will be pure and clean, none of them bearing any ill-will towards another or demanding anything of another.al-Bukhaari reported from Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri radhi ta ‘ala unhu that the Messenger of Allah sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “The believers will be saved from the Fire then they will be kept on a bridge between Paradise and Hell. They will settle their accounts with one another for any wrongs that existed between them in this world, until they are purified and cleansed, and will be permitted to enter Paradise. By the One in Whose hand is the soul of Muhammad, each of them will know his dwelling in Paradise better than he knew his dwelling in this world”. (Sahih al-Bukhaari, Kitaab ar-Riqaaq, Baab al-Qisas Yawm al-Qiyamah, Fath al-Baari, 11/395) Our Prophet sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam will be the first to ask for the gates of paradise to be opened, after Aadam, the father of mankind, and all the other great Prophets refuse this task. The First People to Enter Paradise The first of mankind to enter Paradise will be our Prophet Muhammad sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the first nation to enter Paradise will be his ummah. The first member of this ummah to enter will be Abu Bakr as-Siddiq radhi ta ‘ala unhu. Ibn Katheer quotes a number of Hadith [an-Nihayah, 2/213] that state this such as the report of Muslim from Anas radhi ta ‘ala unhu according to which the Messenger of Allah sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “I will be the first one to knock at the gates of Paradise”. Muslim also reported from Anas that the Messenger of Allah sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “I will come to the gates of paradise and ask for it to be opened. The gatekeeper will ask, “Who

are you?” I will say, “Muhammad”. The gatekeeper will say, “I was ordered not to open the gate for anyone else before you””. Al-Bukhaari, Muslim and an-Nasaa’ee report from Abu Hurayrah radhi ta ‘ala unhu that the Prophet sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “We are the last, but we will be the first on the Day of Resurrection. We will be the first of mankind to enter Paradise”. Abu Dawood reports from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Jibreel came to me, and showed me the gate of Paradise through which my ummah will enter”. Abu Bakr said, “O Messenger of Allah sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, would that I had been with you to see it!”. The Messenger of Allah sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam “But you, O Abu Bakr, will be the first of my ummah to enter Paradise”. Those Who Will Enter Paradise Without Being Called to Account The first group of this ummah who will enter Paradise will be those who were pre-eminent in their imaan, taqwaa, righteous deeds and adherence to the true religion. They will enter Paradise in one rank: the first of them will not enter until the last of them enters, and they will be as beautiful as the full moon. Al-Bukhaari reports from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said:

“Seventy thousand - or seven hundred thousand - of my ummah will enter Paradise; the first of them will not enter until the last of them does so, and their faces will look like the full moon”. (Fath al-Baari, 6/319) It is true that with each one of these seventy, Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala) will give His Prophet seventy thousand. Ahmad reports with a saheeh isnaad from Abu Bakr that the Messenger of Allah sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “I have been given seventy thousand of my ummah, who will enter Paradise without being called to account. Their faces will be like the full moon, and their hearts will be as one. I asked my Rabb, may He be glorified, for more, and He gave me, along with each of them, seventy thousand more”. (Saheeh al-Jaami’, 1/350, no. 1068) Ahmad, at-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Hibbaan report with a sahih isnaad from Abu Umaamah that the Messenger of Allah sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “My Rabb promised me that seventy thousand of my ummah would enter Paradise without being called to account and without being punished, and with each one will be seventy thousand, and three handfuls of people picked up by my Rabb [i.e. it will be a great number]”. (Saheeh al-Jaami’ 6/108, no. 2988). The Prophet sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam described the characteristics of these seventy thousand.

“The first group to enter Paradise will be as beautiful as the full moon. They will not spit, blow their noses or excrete. Their vessels will be of gold, their combs of gold and silver, their incense o aloe, and their sweat of musk. Each of them will have two wives, the marrow of whose leg-bones will be visible through their flesh because of their extreme beauty. There will be no differences or hatred among them (the people of Paradise); their hearts will be as one, and they will glorify Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala) morning and evening”. (Kitaab Bid’ al-Khalq, Baab Ma Jaa’ fi Sifaat al-Jannah, Fath al-Baari,6/318; Muslim, at-Tirmidhi)

Al-Bukhaari reports from Ibn ‘Abbaas that the Prophet said, “I was shown the nations, and I saw a Prophet pass by with a group of his people, and another with a band of his people, another with only ten, another with five, and another on his own (with no followers). Then I looked and saw a large crowd of people. I asked, “O Jibreel, are these my ummah?” He said, “No, but look at the horizon.” So I looked, and saw a huge multitude of people. Jibreel said, “These are your ummah, and those seventy thousand in front will not be called to account or punished.” I asked, “Why?” He said, “They did not treat themselves with branding (cauterisation) or with ruqyaa (charms) and they did not see

Al-Bukhaari reports from Sahl ibn Sa’d that the Messenger of Allah said:

>>> paradise & Hell II pg 30


30 | Hijrah | April 2013 >>> paradise & Hell II, from pg 29

evil omens in things (i.e they were not superstitious): they put their trust only in their Rabb””. ‘Ukaasha ibn Mihsan stood up and said, “Pray to Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala) to make me one of them”. The Prophet sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “O Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala) make him one of them”. Then another man stood up and said, “Ask Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala) to make me one of them”. The Prophet sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, ‘Ukaasha has preceded you”. (Saheeh al- Bukhaari, Kitaab arRiqaaq, Baab Yadhkul al-Jannah Sab’un Alfan bi Ghayri Hisaab, Fath al-Baari, 11/405) These may be the ones whom Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala) has called alMuqarraboon (those nearest to Allah Subhan na wa ta’ala): “And those foremost [in faith] will be foremost [in the Hereafter]. These will be those nearest to Allah [al-Muqarraboon], in the Gardens of Bliss”. (56:1012) More of them will come from the early generations than from the later generations: “A multitude of those [foremost] will be from the first generations [who embraced Islaam], and a few of those [foremost] will be from the later generations”. (56:13-14) The Poor Will Enter Jannah Ahead of the Rich Muslim reports from ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr that the Messenger of Allah sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said “The poor of the Muhajireen will enter Paradise forty years ahead of the rich”. (Mishkaat al-Masaabeeh, 2/663, no. 5235) At-Tirmidhi reported from Abu Sa’eed, and Ahmad, at-Tirmidhi and Ibn Maajah reported from Abu Hurayrah, that the Messenger of Allah said: “The poor of the Muhajireen will enter Paradise five hundred years ahead of the rich of the Muhajireen” (Saheeh al-Jaami’ 4/90, no.4104). Al-Bukhaari reports from Usaamah ibn Zayd that the Prophet said, “I stood by

the gate of Paradise and saw that the majority of those who entered were the poor and wretched. The rich [Muslims] were detained while the people of Hell were ordered to be taken to Hell”. (Sahih al-Bukhaari, Kitaab ar-Riqaaq, BAab Sifaat al-Jannah, wan-Naar, Fath al-Baari, 2/345) Some of the hadith quoted above stated that the poor will enter Paradise forty years ahead of other people while others state that the difference will be five hundred years. The two statements may be reconciled by pointing out that the poor are not all alike, neither are the rich. As al-Qurtubee suggested (at-Tadhkirah, p.470) the poor vary in the strength of their iman and their achievements, and the same applies to the rich. If we think in terms of the first of the poor and the last of the rich to enter Paradise then the time-span will be five hundred years, but if we are thinking of the last of the poor and the first of the rich, then the time span is forty years. And Allah knows best.” (Ibn Katheer, an-Nihaayah, 2/345) The First Three to Enter Jannah At-Tirmidhi reported with a hasan isnaad from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “I was shown the first three to enter Paradise: the Shaheed (the martyr); the one who is chaste and proud; and the slave who worships Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala) with devotion and is faithful and sincere towards his master” (Jaami’ al-Usool, 10/535, attributed to Ahmad, al-Haakim and al-Bayhaqi) The Sinners Among the Believers Will Enter Paradise (i) They will be brought forth from Hell and will enter Paradise by means of intercession. Muslim reports from Abu Sa’eed that the Messenger of Allah sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “The people of Hell will remain there, never dying, and never living. But there are people who will enter Hell because of their sins, and will be killed therein, so that they become like coals. Permission will be granted for intercession to be made, and they will be brought

forth in groups and spread on rivers of Paradise, and it will be said, “O people of Paradise, pour water on them. Then they will grow like seeds in the silt left by a flood”. [Muslim, Kitaab al-Imaan, Baab as-Shafa’ah wa Ikhraaj al-Muwahiddin min an-Naar, 1/172] Muslim also reports from Jaabir ibn ‘Abdullaah that the Messenger of Allah sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Some people will be brought out of the Fire, having been burnt all over except for their faces, and they will enter Paradise”. [Muslim, Kitaab al-Imaam, Baab adna Ahl al-Jannah Manzilatan, 1/178] The people of Paradise will call these people who are brought out of Hell and admitted to Paradise, al- Jahannamiyyoon. al-Bukhaari reports from ‘Imraan ibn Husayn radhi ta ‘ala unhu that the Prophet sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Some people will be brought out of Hell through the intercession of Muhammad sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. They will enter Paradise and will be known as al-Jahannamiyyoon.” [Sahih al-Bukhaari, Kitaab ar-Riqaaq, Baab Sifaat al-Jannah wan-Naar, Fath al-Baari, 11/418. They are also mentioned in a hadith narrated from Jaabir by Muslim, 1/179 and al-Bukhaari from Anas, Fath al-Baari 11/416] According to another sahih hadith narrated by Jaabir: “The Prophet sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “They will be brought out of the Fire through intercession, as if they are tha’areer”. I asked, “What are tha’areer?” He said, “Daghabis [snake cucumbers]””. [al-Bukhaari, Kitaab ar-Riqaaq, Baab Sifaah al-Jannah wan-Naar, Fath alBaari, 11/416] Muslim reports a lengthy hadith from Abu Hurayrah, in which the Prophet sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam describes the Hereafter, and in which he says: “... When Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala) has finished judging mankind, and wants to bringwhomever He wills out of Hell by His Mercy, He will order angels to bring forth those upon who He wishes to bestow His mercy of the people who never associated anything in worship with Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala), and who said, “Laa ilaaha illaah Allah”. The angels will recognise them in Hell, and

will known them by the mark of sujood on their foreheads. The Fire will consume all of a man except the mark of sujood which Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala) has forbidden the Fire to consume. They will be brought forth, having been burned in the Fire, the water of life will be poured on then, and they will grow like seeds left by still after a flood”. [Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab alImaan, Baab ar-Ru’yah, 1/299, no. 182] It was reported in more than one hadith that Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala) will bring forth from hell whoever has a dinaar’s weight of faith in his heart, or even half a dinaar’s weight or an atom’s weight. Moreover, people will be brought forth who never did any good deeds at all. Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri reported that the Messenger of Allah sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala) will admit the people of Paradise to Paradise and He will admit whomsoever He will by His Mercy. And He will admit the people of Hell to Hell, then He will say, “Look for anyone who has the weight of a mustard seed of faith in his heart, and bring him out””. [Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab al-Imaan, Baab Ithbat ash-Shafa’ah wa Ikhraaj al-Muwwahhadeen, 1/172] One of the reports about Hell is the hadeeth narrated by Jaabir ibn ‘Abdullaah radhi ta ‘ala unhu concerning entering Hellfire: “Then intercession will be permitted and they will interceded until whoever says Laa ilaaha illa Allah and has a barley grain’s worth of goodness in his heart will be brought forth. They will be made to stand in the courtyard of paradise and the people of Paradise will start to pour water over them, until they begin to grow like seeds left by silt after a flood. All traces of the Fire will disappear, then he [the person who was brought out of Hell] will keep asking until he is given the equivalent of this world and ten times more”. [Sahih Muslim, Baab adna Ahl al-Jannah Manzilatan, 1/178] Anas ibn Maalik reported that the Prophet sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam >>> paradise & Hell III pg 31


Hijrah | April 2013 | 31 >>> paradise & Hell III, from pg 30

said: “Whoever says Laa ilaaha illaa Allah and has a barely grain’s weight of goodness in his heart will be brought out of the Fire. Then whoever says, “Laa ilaaha illaa Allah” and has a wheat grains weight of goodness in his heart will be brought out of the Fire. Then whoever says, Laa Ilaaha illaa Allah and has an atom’s-weight of goodness in his heart will be brought out of the Fire”. [Sahih Muslim, Kitaab al-Imaan, Baab adna Ahl al-Jannah Manzilatan, 1/182] There are many hadiths that discuss this matter. (ii) Opinions of different groups on intercession. The Khawaarij and Mu’tazilah deny that there will be any intercession to protect those who are guilty of major sins and have been ordered to enter Hell from doing so, or to bring forth those who have already entered. al-Qurtubee said, “This intercession was denied by the innovators, Khawaarij and Mu’tazilah. Their denial is based on their corrupt principles, which are based on what they saw as rational thinking”. [1] These reprehensible ideas which go against the muttawaatir sahih hadith, emerged while the Sahabah were still alive. Muslim reports in his sahih from Yazeed al-Faqeer, who says: “I was infatuated with one of the ideas of the Khawaarij, so a large group of us went out, intending to go for Hajj and then go out to fight the people. We came to Madinah, where we found Jaabir ibn ‘Abdullaah sitting by a pillar, narrated hadith to the people. When he mentioned al-Jahannamiyyoon, I said, “O Companion of the Messenger of Allah, what is this that you are narrating, when Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala) says: “And who You admit to the Fire, truly You cover with shame.” [3:192] and “.... everytime they wish to get away there from, they will be put back thereto..” [32:20] So what is it that you are saying?” He said, “Have you read the Qur’aan?” I said, “Yes.” He asked, “Have you heard about the [exalted] position of Muhammad [i.e. the position to

which Allah Subhan na wa ta’ala would raise him]?” I said, “Yes”. He said, “That is the honored position of Muhammad by which Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala) will bring out whosoever He wishes to bring out”. Then he described as-Siraat [the bridge over Hell] and the passing of the people over it, then said, “I am afraid that I may not have remembered exactly what he said. But he said that people would be brought out of Hell after entering it. He meant that they would come out looking like the wood of the ebony tree; they would enter one of the rivers of paradise and bathe in it, then they would come out looking [white] like sheets of paper”. We turned back and said, “Woe to you! Do you think this sheikh would tell lies about the Messenger of Allah sallal lahu ‘alayhi wa sallam? We turned back [from the views of the Khawaarij] and by Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala) every one of us abandoned this group except for one man”. [Sahih Muslim, Kitaab al-Imaan, Baab adna Ahl al-Jannah Manzilatan, 1/179, no.191] The Khawaarij and Mu’tazilah went to extremes with their claim that people guilty of major sins [al-Kabaair] would never come out of Hell, and that the intercession of those who interceded would be of no avail for them. The Murji’ah went to the opposite extreme by stating that no-one who was guilty of major sins would necessarily enter Hell, and believing that all such people would enter Paradise without being punished at all. Both groups are in conflict with the well-known muttawaatir Sunnah and with the consensus of the Salaf and Imaams of this ummah. Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala) has guided Ahl as-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah to the truth in this matter where others have erred, by His Will. They [Ahl as-Sunnah] believe that those who are guilty of major sins are subject to the will of Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala); if He wills, He will forgive them, out of mercy, and If He wills, He will punish them for His sins then admit them to Paradise by His Mercy. “Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him, but He forgives anything else, to whom He pleases.” (4:48) “Say: O My Slaves who have transgressed against themselves [by committing evil deeds and sins]! Despair

not of the Mercy of Allah, verily Allah forgives all sins. Truly He is Oft-forgiving, All-Merciful”. (39:53) Shirk will not be forgiven, but any other sin is subject to the Will of Allah. The one who repents will be as if he never sinned. The aayaat that the Khawaarij use to prove that intercession will not be accepted actually refers to the kinds of intercession believed in by the mushrikeen. They think that interceding with Allah is like interceding with rulers or authorities on earth, where a person may intercede with someone (an authority figure) without that person’s permission and even if the one in authority is displeased with the one on whos half intercession is made. This is not so in the case of Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala) may He be glorified. Several texts reject this type of intercession, for example: “Then guard yourselves against A Day when one soul shall not avail another, nor shall intercession be accepted from him nor will compensation be taken from him nor shall anyone be helped [from outside]” (2:48) “Then will no intercession of [any] intercessors profit them”. (74:48) “..No intimate friend, nor intercessor will the wrongdoers have, who could be listened to”. (40:18) Several texts explain that no-one can intercede with Allah except with His permission and unless He is pleased both with the intercessor and the one for whom he seeks to intercede: “Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission?” (2:255) “and they cannot interceded except for him with whom He is pleased” (21:28) “And there are many angels in the heavens, whose intercession will avail nothing except after Allah has given leave for whom He wills and pleases”. (53:26). Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala) also says about the angels: “He knows what is before them and what is behind them, and they cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased. And they stand in awe for fear of him”. (21:28)

“No intercession can avail in His presence, except for those to whom He has granted permission”. (34:23) These aayaat reject and refute the kind of intercession believed in by the mushrikeen, i.e. intercession via angels, prophets and righteous people, (“saints”), and confirm only that intercession which takes place with the permission of Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala) and when He is pleased with both the intercessor and the one on whose behalf he intercedes. Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala) is not pleased with the kuffaar and mushrikeen. As for the disobedient monotheists, intercessors will interceded for them, but they will not intercede for a mushrik. Al-Bukhaari narrated that Abu Hurayrah radhi ta ‘ala unhu said, “I said, “O Messenger of Allah, who will be the most happy with your intercession on the Day of Resurrection?” He said, “I thought, O Abu Hurayrah, that no one would ask me this question before you, because I have seen that you are so eager to learn hadith. The one who will be the most happy with my intercession on the Day of Resurrection will be the one who says Laa ilaaha illaa Allah sincerely and from the heart””. [al-Bukhaari, Kitaab ar-Riqaaq, Baab Sifaat al-Jannah wanNaar, Fath al-Baari, 11/418] [1] al-Khawaarij are a sect that emerged after the battle of Siffin; they denounced ‘Ali and Mu’awiyah, and whoever followed them, as kaafirs, and claimed that whoever was disobedient to Allah (Subhan na wa ta’ala) would remain forever in Hell. The Mu’tazilah are the followers of Waasil ibn ‘Ataa’ who believe in the Mu’tazili doctrine that whoever commits major sins will remain eternally in Hell, but does not judge their position in this life. Excerpt from the book Al-Jannah wa an-Naar: Paradise and Hell in the Light of the Quran and Sunnah


32 | Hijrah | April 2013

SHAHADAH STORIES

Why I Became Muslim On September 11, 2001 nations to the topics at hand were ones I never considered nor were they ever presented to me in that fashion. For the first time things made sense and were not only easy to mentally accept, but also spiritually. I recalled a night at the age of 15 or 16 years old, looking up at the sky, my face and shirt wet from tears that ran from my eyes, pleading to God to guide me. After meeting Ahmer and learning about Islam, I felt that cry was answered.

By Hernan Guadalupe Muslim Link Contributing Writer Prior to 9/11, I had been searching for the “truth”, meaning the proper way to worship God. I grew up in a Catholic home, served as an alter-boy, attended Catholic school, and studied a good portion of the Bible in my youth. I always believed in God no matter what stage of my life I was in; be it my Catholic school boy years, my brief dabble at Christianity, my quest for knowledge of Buddhism, Hinduism, and other “isms”, or my research of Darwinism and the Theory of Evolution. Throughout my days prior to 9/11, I felt like I experienced enough of all faiths and ideologies and came to a conclusion that there was a God or a Supreme-Being, but the question that I always asked myself was how do I come closer to Him, how do I worship Him, and how to do I make sense of all the faiths that exist in the world. This was my state-of-mind prior to 9/11. Up to this point I never heard about Islam. It amazes me, when I reflect on my youth, that I did have Muslim friends growing up like Hasan, Mahmood, or Tamir, but I never knew they were Muslim or what Islam was. It wasn’t until 1999 when I first started to learn about Islam and Muslims during my college years at Stevens Institute of Technology in New Jersey. I met a Muslim by the name of Ahmer Siddique who is one of my greatest friends to this day. In the hallway right before we were supposed to take a Chemistry exam I panicked because I felt unprepared and wondered, “how I will get out of this one?” I suddenly overheard Ahmer talking about how he knew what was on the test, so I asked him to help me even though he never met me. Not only did he have the answers to the test that day, but he also had the answers to life, as well. I befriended Ahmer and we became very close that semester. We’d hang out with other common friends and discuss current events, political issues, social issues, and of course religious issues.

Hernan Guadalupe, second from left, poses with friends in front of the pre-9/11 New York skyline. On 9/11/2001, Guadalupe watched the same skyline crumble from his campus across the river. He became Muslim later that day. Photo courtesy of Hernan Guadalupe.

Hernan Guadalupe reads a children’s Islamic book to his two sons in March 2011. The book is the first in a series of books for Spanish speaking Muslim children authored by his wife. Photo courtesy of Hernan Guadalupe. Being that I had a Catholic background, I challenged him with questions on the trinity, the belief of Jesus as God and the son of God, the belief in Mary, signs of the Day of Judgment, along with other controversial topics. They were questions common to me from asking priests and ministers years before only

to realize they didn’t have a clear answer, rather their answers increased my confusion and decreased my desire to affiliate myself to any religion. However, the answers I received from this 18 year old young man were answers I never heard before. The expla-

During the spring of 2000 my relationship with Ahmer was put on hold as I focused on pledging to a Latino fraternity. Later that summer, I became a tutor-counselor for a high school program on campus. It was during this program where I met two bright, young ladies who were different from the rest. Instead of being loud, obnoxious, and fashionable according to society’s standards, they were quiet, mature, and extremely modest in their dress and character. This was the first time I ever came across girls wearing hijab. I felt drawn to them, curious to learn why they did what they did. The funny thing was I don’t recall ever learning about Muslim women in my discussions with Ahmer so I never knew what they looked like or how they dressed. When I think about it now, as I write this, it astonishes me how Allah put people in my life to expose me to Islam bit by bit. I learned a great deal from them, such as the concept of hijab, the concept of modesty and Islam, the history of the Qu’ran and how it has never been changed since it was revealed, as well as how to become a Muslim by saying the declaration of faith or Shahadah. I appreciated everything they taught me even though I was technically the teacher’s assistant and they were my students. However, when it came to learning about Islam, I was their humble student. My admiration for Islam grew more and more, but I didn’t think about accepting Islam yet. Fall of 2000 and spring of 2001 came >>> became pg 33


Hijrah | April 2013 | 33 >>> became, from pg 32 and went. I continued to learn about Islam from conversations with Ahmer, however, I was caught up in the college lifestyle, and didn’t desire to leave my old ways behind in exchange for a devoted life to Allah. I was busy partying, dancing, listening to hip-hop and rap, and hanging out with my fraternity brothers. One big milestone that I do remember, however, was asking Ahmer for a copy of the Qur’an before the summer break. That summer as I worked in New York City, I would take it everywhere I went -- on the subway and on the bus. I’d read as much as I could whenever and wherever I could. I remember sitting next to one of the engineers on the bus and pulling out the copy of the Qur’an. He asked me, “Are you Muslim?” I kindly responded, “No, but I am learning.” He told me he was Muslim and he could answer any questions I might have. Sometimes I wish I could run into that brother now and tell him, “I am Muslim now”. I’m sure he would be so happy. I stuck to this routine for the entire summer, reading the Qur’an on the way to and from work in New York City. After a while I felt overwhelmed with the information. I became more and more scared with every verse that I read. I understood what Islam desired from me, but I was not ready mentally or spiritually to jump into it wholeheartedly. I decided, shortly after that, to stop reading the Qur’an and just focus on other aspects of my life. Soon after, I found myself on campus again starting my 3rd year of college in the fall of 2001. To me it was the same old thing; freshman mixers, social events, parties, orientations, hanging out, and road trips for the first week or two of school. On September 11th, 2001, I woke up and got ready to go to my lab at 8am or so. I walked over to the chemistry lab only to find out that class was canceled. I remember being elated because I now had the opportunity to go hang out or get some extra sleep. I walked back to my dorm room through campus and I remember glancing at the New York City skyline. My campus was just across the

river and the skyline view was a popular feature Stevens offered their students. It was always a beautiful sight and this day wasn’t any different. The sun was out, the sky was clear, and the temperature was awesome, and of course the view to the city was impressive even to someone who’s seen it all his life. I walked into my room and immediately got a call from a friend who told me to turn on the news. She sounded freaked out as I turned on the television only to see that the buildings I just finished glancing at were on fire. I immediately ran upstairs to Ahmer’s room to inform him of the news. He had been sleeping so I rudely awakened him with this devastating information. We turned on the television and watched the news while he got ready so we could go outside and see what was happening. As the news broke stating that a plane crashed into the towers, Ahmer kept saying, “I hope it’s not Muslims.” I didn’t understand why Muslims would have anything to do with this. We went outside to a chaotic, frightened, nervous, and concerned student body. Everyone was outside looking out from Castle Point towards downtown Manhattan. We stayed there for hours, getting updates on the radio or from people. I kept thinking to myself, I hope people are getting out, I hope that help is on the way. I was also scared about the possibility of another plane striking the huge skyscraper we were standing next to that served as the administrative building. After a few hours of tears, cries, concern, and fear, the towers collapsed. It wasn’t until then that reality really hit me. It became clear, at that point, that whoever was in that building was not making it out. There was no way people could survive that. I remember looking at my watch, watching the seconds pass by as if in slow motion. I also remember my conscience talking to me, reminding me how much I have learned about Islam, what my purpose in life should be, how I should be leading my life, and the reality of life and death. I thought to myself all those times that I read in the Qur’an the promise for those who do deeds of righteousness, the rewards with their Lord for worshiping Him alone and living a life according to

His guidelines and standards, as well as the promise for those who disobey Him and His commands. I thought during those seconds about Heaven and Hell, the punishments of the grave, and how I arrogantly kept pushing off the idea of accepting my role as a creation of Allah in order to party, chill, have fun, dance, drink, and “live life.” I remember reflecting about those times where I told myself how Islam is such a beautiful religion, but if I am to accept it, it will be later on in life when I’m old. However, this time, as death stood across the river, I told myself, “Well what if that day never comes?” The people in the towers thought September 11, 2001 was just another ordinary day. They probably thought they were going to have lunch, make it home for dinner, and reunite with their families, children, or significant other. However, Allah had a different plan for them. This day was their last day and they did not have a chance to argue or plea their case. If this was their situation, then what should I think mine will be? Why should I think that I will live a long life, how can I be so sure that I will grow old, how can I be so sure that I will accept Islam once I am “done” having fun. The answer was, I wasn’t sure. These thoughts rushed through my mind in such a brief lapse of time. I was snapped out of this state of deep reflection by Ahmer who tapped me on my shoulder to tell me, “Man, I can’t take this, I need to go pray.” Without hesitation, without even thinking it twice I said, “I’m coming with you.” I followed him to his room and I told him I want to be a Muslim. His eyes filled with joy as he heard this. He taught me how to say Shahadah, how to make wudhu (ablution) and I followed him in my first prayer. I became a Muslim on that day, September 11th, 2001. It was the day my entire life changed. I have not looked back since. The challenges that awaited me from my decision, I confronted with confidence and courage. The backlashes due to the events of 9/11 were difficult, but I had faith that no matter what or who was responsible, Islam had nothing to do with it and Allah would not allow His religion to be degraded regardless how

hard people tried. From that day forth, I have lived my life as a Muslim, learning how to worship and be thankful for the countless blessings that I have been granted in my years of life. Since that time, I’ve been blessed with my younger brother and mother embracing Islam, a wonderful wife who devotes her life to worshiping and pleasing Allah, and with two beautiful sons who are born Muslims. This decade that has passed has been the pinnacle of my life and Allah knows best what awaits me. While some people become saddened by the events that occurred on 9/11, I see it as the day that I realized my purpose in life and had the courage to accept it. I am saddened about the tragedies of that day, without a doubt, however, I believe that Allah is the best of Planners and the wisdom for this event occurring goes beyond the scope of our understanding. One thing is certain to me though; it opened the door for millions of people to learn about Islam and even opened the door for millions to embrace Islam as their way of life, including me. For that, I will always be grateful to Allah. I don’t know what 20 or 30 years down the road has in store for us, but I am confident that I will continue to ask Allah to guide me and keep me on this blessed path. I am certain that I will strive to teach my children about Islam and the events that occurred so that they grow up knowing the history of how Islam went from 20,000 Americans accepting Islam a year to over 100,000 Americans accepting Islam. Allah knows best what awaits us all; all I ask is for Allah to keep my family and I firm upon His path. Hernan Guadalupe lives in Maryland where he works in real estate development and is one of the head instructors of Aqabah Karate. If you would like to share the story of how Allah guided you to Islam, send us an article of up to 1,500 words. Please note that acceptance of your submission is not guaranteed. All rights to your submission belong to Hijrah. Send your submission to: SIJN, Attn: Hijrah, 5301 Edgewood Road, College Park MD 20740.


34 | Hijrah | April 2013

THE BEST EXAMPLE

The Prophet's Sense of Humor Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) is an example for the Muslim to follow in every aspect of life, as it is mentioned in the by Allah the almighty in the Quran "In the Messenger of Allah is a good example for you to follow." [Quran Surah#33 Ayah #21]. Even in joking and having a good sense of humor Rasulullah has set an example for us. It is reported that the Prophet was asked by his companions : "You are joking with us." He said, "But I never say anything but the truth." [Authentically reported in Sahih Bukhari] The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) used to joke, but he never said anything but the truth in his jokes. The Sahabah took the same approach to humor. There are many delightful reports about the jokes exchanged between the Prophet and the Sahabah. Among the stories related in the books of hadith and sirah is the report that the Prophet used to joke with the small child of one of the Sahabah, a boy called Abu 'Umayr, who had a small bird he used to play with. One day he saw the child looking sad, so he said, "Why do I see Abu 'Umayr looking sad?" The Sahabah told him, "The nughar [a small bird, like a sparrow - author] which he used to play with has died, O Messenger of Allah." The Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) began to gently joke with

the child, saying, "O Abu Umayr, what happened to the nughayr?" [Nughayr: diminutive of nughar. - author. In Arabic, this is a play on words, because of the rhyme between the boy's name and that of the bird. - Translator. This story was reported in Hayat al-Sahabah, 3/149] A man came to the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) to ask him to give him a beast to ride. The Prophet jokingly told him, "I will give you the offspring of a

lam)loved him very much, and he (Zahir) was an ugly man. One day the Prophet came to him whilst he was selling some goods. He embraced him from behind. The man could not see him, so he said, "Let me go! Who is this?" Then he turned around and recognized the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam), so he tried to move closer to him once he knew who it was. The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) started to say, "Who will buy this slave?" Zahir said, "O Messenger of Allah , you will find me

"The Companions of the Prophet used to throw melon-rinds at one another, but when the matter was serious, they were the only true men." she-camel to ride." He said, "O Messenger of Allah , what will I do with the offspring of a she-camel?" The Prophet said: "Are ridingcamels born except from she-camels?" [Reported by Imaam Ahmad, Abu Dawud and al-Tirmidhi, with a Sahih isnad.] Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal reported from Anas (radhiallahu `anhu) that there was a man from the desert people whose name was Zahir. He used to bring gifts from the desert to the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) , and in return the Prophet would provide him with whatever he needed when he went out to fight. The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, "Zahir is our man of the desert, and we are his town-dwellers." The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sal-

unsellable." The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, "But in the sight of Allah (subhanahu wa ta`ala) you are not unsellable," or he said, "But in the sight of Allah (subhanahu wa ta`ala) you are valuable." An old woman came to the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) and said: "O Messenger of Allah, pray to Allah (subhanahu wa ta`ala) that I will enter Paradise." He said jokingly, "O Mother of So-and-so, no old women will enter Paradise." The old woman went away crying, so the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, "Tell her that she will not enter Paradise as an old woman, for Allah (subhanahu wa ta`ala) says: (We have created [their Companions] of special creation, and made them virgin-pure

[and undefiled]) [Quran 56:3536]." [Reported by al-Tirmidhi, it is hasan because of the existence of corroborating reports.] One of the ahadith that reflects the Prophet's (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) sense of humor and enjoyment of fun is the report that Imaam Ahmad gives from 'A'ishah who said: "I went out with the Prophet on a journey. At that time I was a young girl and was quite slender. The Prophet told the people, 'Go on ahead,' so they went ahead, then he said to me, 'Come, let us have a race.' So I raced with him, and I won. He let the matter rest until I had gained weight. Later, I accompanied him on another journey. He told the people, 'Go on ahead,' so they went ahead. He said to me, 'Come, let us have a race.' So I raced with him, and he won. He began to laugh, and said, 'This is for that."' The Sahabah saw nothing wrong with joking or having fun, as they saw the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) , their leader and teacher, occasionally doing so. The many delightful stories about their sense of humor reflect the easygoing nature of the first Islamic society, and how far removed it was from narrow-mindedness and gloom. In al-Adab al-Mufrad, Imaam Bukhari reports from Bakr ibn 'Abdillah who said: "The Companions of the Prophet used to throw melon-rinds at one another, but when the matter was serious, they were the only true men." This is moderate, Islamically ac-


Hijrah | April 2013 | 35

ceptable humor, which does not go beyond the bounds of truth, or lessen the gravitas or manhood of a person. Rather, it serves its purpose of refreshing hearts and minds. An example of the Sahabah's sense of humor, which made the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) laugh, is the report given by Imam Ahmad from Umm. Salamah (radhiallahu `anha). Abil Bakr (radhiallahu `anhu) went to do business in Busra, and with him were Nu'ayman and Suwaybit ibn Harmalah (radhiallahu `anhuma), both of whom had been present at Badr. Suwaybit was in charge of food on the journey, and Nu'ayman said to him, "Feed me!" Suwaybit said, "Not until Abu Bakr (radhiallahu `anhu) comes." Nu'ayman was a fun-loving man with a sense of humor, so he went to some people who had brought livestock with them, and said, "Will you

>>> hadith, from pg 27 4) Narrated Anas bin Malik (May peace and blessings be upon him) on the authority of the Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him), who said: Allah

>>> SMILE, from pg 50 that laughter from the bottom of the heart has a deep influence on the child’s growth during his early years. Based on the results of these studies, psychiatrists confirmed that laughter is as important as food and that the child who laughs much grows well. Educational excellence: Psychiatrists always stress the positive influence of a smile on the educational process. They say that fun creates a psychological environment full of happiness and satisfaction, and this releases the

A Bedouin came to the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam). He entered the mosque and left his camel in the courtyard. Some of his Companions said to Nu'ayman ibn 'Amr al-Ansari, who was known as al-Nu'ayman: "If you slaughter it, we will eat it, because we want to have some meat, and the Messenger of Allah will pay for it." So al-Nu'ayman slaughtered it. Then the Bedouin came out and saw his saddle, so he shouted, "They have slaughtered my camel, O Muhammad!" The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) came out and asked: "Who did this?" They said, "Al-Nu'ayman." So he went looking for him, and found him at the home of Duba'ah bint alZubayr ibn 'Abdul Muttalib (radhiallahu `anha), where he had hidden in a ditch and covered himself with palm branches and leaves. A man pointed to where he was and said, loudly, "I have not seen him, O Messenger of Allah." The

Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) brought him out of the ditch, and his face was dirty from where the leaves had fallen on him. The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) asked him, "Why did you do that?" Al-Nu'ayman said: "The ones who told you where I was, O Messenger of Allah, are the same ones who told me to do it." The Prophet (sallallahualayhe wa sallam) began wiping his face and laughing, then he paid the price of the slaughtered camel. [See Hayat As Sahabah, 3/154, 155]

(Mighty and majestic is He) will say to the least tormented person among the people of Hell on the Day of Resurrection: Do you have anything on earth, that you would give as a ransom (to protect yourself against the torment of Fire)? He will say: Yes. Then Allah will

say: While you were in the backbone of Adam, I had demanded you much less than that, i.e. to associate nothing with Me; but you declined and worshipped others besides Me.

Bukhari and Muslim).

mental abilities to learn easily. That is because joyfulness prepares the mental abilities to expand and grow contrary to the environment of sadness and pessimism that gives a despondent impression about life. Smiling attaches the child to his parents:

Dear readers and educators, this shows us that the more a parent is cheerful, the stronger his relationship with his children will be, and vice versa. Allaah The Almighty Says (what means): {And if you had been rude [in speech] and harsh in heart, they would have disbanded from about you.} [Quran 3:159]

If your smile springs from your heart and expresses true love for and admiration of your child, then it will have a good psychological impact on the child and provide him with happy memories and strong love for his parents, particularly if they use eye contact to convey their true love and appreciation to him.

Do not forget to smile at your child when he enters upon you… when you leave the house…when he leaves the house…when you receive him upon returning from school…when you enter upon him returning from work…do not forget to smile when you wake him up and let him see your smile before anything else.

buy a sturdy Arab slave from me?" They said, "Yes." He said, "He has a big mouth, and he may tell you that he is a free man. If that means that you do not want to take him, then forget the matter, and do not cause trouble for me with him." They said, "No problem, we will buy him." So they bought him for ten young she-camels. Nu'ayman brought the animals back, and told the people: "There he is!" Suwaybit said: "I am a free man!" They said, "He has already told us all about you," and put a rope around his neck and led him away. Then Abu Bakr came, and was told what had happened. He and his companions went and returned the animals and took Suwaybit back. They told the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) what had happened, and he and his Sahabah would laugh about the story for a year afterwards.

There is no clearer indication than these and similar reports of the lightheartedness and sense of humor that Islam wants its followers to have. These qualities will make a person good-natured and likeable, which will enable him to win people's hearts. No one needs such characteristics more than the Muslim who seeks to call others to Islam.

Compiled from various sources including the book 110 Hadith Al Qudsi by Shaykh Masood Hasan

(This Hadith is sound and reported by

When you put him to bed, do not forget to smile at him to have the best dreams ever. Smile when you ask him about his faults so he can feel safe and tell you the truth. Finally, smile to immunize your children against feelings of fear and sadness and to turn your relationship with them into an uninterrupted and wonderful series of successful communication. In such a case, they will respond to your directions and long to meet you. They will never think of doing anything that angers you, because they do not want to lose your sweet smile for any reason. [ Source: www.islamweb.net]


36 | Hijrah | April 2013

ISLAM IN ACTION

Why Don’t More Families Recycle?

By Karin Friedemann The Muslim Observer, January 24, 2013

The world is beautiful and verdant, and verily God, be He exalted, has made you His stewards in it, and He sees how you acquit yourselves.” (Saheeh Muslim)

“But waste not by excess: for Allah loveth not the wasters.” (Quran 6:141) One question that has puzzled me since I took shahada 20 years ago, is why I don’t see the Muslims recycling their garbage. Surely, there are exceptions, but I continue to be completely baffled by the general level of environmental disregard. I would have thought that in 20 years, we would have made more progress in terms of our consciousness about the burden we put upon our fellow citizens to cope with our daily waste. Recently I was visiting an Iraqi family for dinner. When I inquired why they preferred to live in America even after the political situation had stabilized back home, they told me that Iraq is a terrible place to live because it’s full of garbage. After dinner, I watched them stuffing a huge bag full of trash from just one meal! I asked them why they don’t make use of the government trash recycling services, now that they live in a country that has curbside pickup. They said they had no recycling bin. I told them you just call the City and they will give you one. They said it didn’t matter because they had a neighbor who hauls away their trash for them so that they don’t have to pay the garbage removal fee. I was truly shocked. Their friend is hauling away their garbage for them as a favor, and they don’t have the decency to reduce their amount of trash? Even though recycling is free and garbage dumping costs money? As I was leaving, I noticed that they actually did have a recycling bin in the garage. It was being used to store baseball bats and other sports equipment. I started feeling resentful, like they came to my country just to fill it with garbage! They’ve been here for ten years, their children were born here. At what point will they start caring about their adopted country enough to recycle their garbage? Don’t get me wrong, they have many good qualities too.

The Muslims’ hesitancy to recycle their garbage is all the more perplexing, since one of the most popular dawah pamphlets continues to be the “Environment and Islam.” It points out Quranic verses such as, “Do no mischief on the earth, after it hath been set in order” (7:56), and applies them to the scientific concept of maintaining a balanced ecosystem. This appealed to me as a young person who was terrified by dire predictions that due to environmental pollution, there would not be enough oxygen to sustain human life on earth within 50 years. The threat of impending planetary doom put the fear of God in my heart and made me want to live more consciously. When I was a child, there was no recycling. Recycling services are something that ordinary citizens and environmental organizations worked and fought hard for. It began with volunteers collecting recyclable trash at various church and school parking lots. People who recycled were often belittled as ridiculous idealists, but they kept struggling and striving to slow the steady stream of trash into our landfills and trash incinerators. Eventually, citizen pressure resulted in recycling programs in many cities. When Ann Arbor, Michigan got its first recycling truck I was 18. I enthusiastically volunteered on the truck for one day, hauling bottles and newspapers from the curb. I gained a lot of respect for all trash collectors, as every muscle in my body

hurt at the end of the day! Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his last speech in support of Memphis Tennessee’s sanitation workers, where he compared their importance to that of doctors, because society relies upon them to protect us from disease. Recycling reduces the amount of rotting material by separating the clean garbage from the gross garbage. Composting food scraps in the garden reduces the amount of rotting waste even more. Yet, recycling is done by just half of Americans daily, and 13 percent don’t recycle at all. Research points to apathy and lack of convenience being the main reasons people neglect their civic duty to reduce their human footprint upon the earth. In many cases, confusion about what can and cannot be recycled plays a large role. Education and peer pressure seem to be the keys to compliance. Pride in home ownership might also go a long way in sculpting attitudes about garbage. In my neighborhood, the streets where most people are renters are usually strewn with garbage while the streets where most homes are owned by their inhabitants are usually clean. People who identify with and value their property are more likely to pay attention to the mess that their garbage creates. Yet, even if we rent an apartment, we can cultivate an attitude of pride in our town, our country, or our planet. People who don’t recycle often feel like their efforts don’t make a difference. It may be that people with a strong sense of self-worth might be more likely to believe that even a small contribution to the recycling bin could be meaningful. Immigrants who feel like it’s fine to pollute America because it’s not “their”

country should be encouraged to participate in the communal health of our country as a matter of self esteem, and as a baby step towards civic engagement. Every community usually has at least one concerned individual. This person should help make recycling convenient at the local masjid or Islamic center by obtaining recycling bins and encouraging people to use them. The City will generally have a list of the types of items they accept that can be printed out from their website. Posting these instructions near the recycling bin might go a long way towards reducing confusion. Youth groups could play a large role in educating parents and creating peer pressure to recycle. We are fortunate enough to live in a country where we have curbside recycling. Those communities who don’t have it, should lobby for it. This could be a great way to join a cause and cooperate with your neighbors about something that helps everyone. Feeling like we are part of a community makes us want to recycle our garbage because of the way our garbage makes us look. It’s embarrassing when you have a huge pile of trash outside your house on garbage day and your recycling bin just has a few newspapers. At the same time, caring about the environment can help us feel connected with others and provide opportunities to work within our community on issues of mutual benefit. Either way you look at it, recycling is a win-win solution for society that goes beyond the immediate material concerns of trash removal.


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MUSLIM FIT

Brain Food: How to Eat Smart By Robin Nixon Live Science It’s common to resolve to lose weight, but any sane person dreads a diet’s dulling effect on the brain.

may react to excess food as if it were a pathogen. The resulting immune response, which occurs irrespective of weight gain, may cause cognitive deficits such as those associated with Alzheimer’s.

In fact, many studies have shown that counting calories, carbs or fat grams, is truly distracting — to the point that it taxes short-term memory. But how we eat can affect our minds at more fundamental levels, too.

Similarly, high blood sugar, coupled with a cognitive task, is associated with elevated cortisol — a hormone known to impair memory in high doses, Gibson said. In other words, don’t get out the flash cards after that second (or third) piece of cake.

Whether you are seeking brain food for exams or just want to be at your sharpest ever day, here are five things you should know about feeding your brain:

1. Fuel it up The brain, which accounts for 2 percent of our body weight, sucks down roughly 20 percent of our daily calories. A picky eater, it demands a constant supply of glucose — primarily obtained from recently eaten carbohydrates (fruits, vegetables, grains etc.). Only in extreme instances of deprivation will the brain use other substances for fuel. More recently evolved areas of the brain, such as the frontal cortex (it’s like the CEO of the brain), are particularly sensitive to falling glucose levels, while brain areas regulating vital functions are more hardy, said Leigh Gibson of Roehampton University in England. “When your glucose level drops, the symptom is confused thinking, not a change in breathing pattern,” he said. This is not to suggest that we should constantly slurp soda to keep our brains functioning optimally. On the contrary, high glucose levels slowly but surely damage cells everywhere in the body, including those in the brain, said Marc Montminy of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in California. And according to a recent study published in the Oct. 3 issue of the journal Cell, by Dongsheng Cai and colleagues at the University of Wisconsin, the brain

thereby providing a steadier supply of energy to the brain. Low GI meals, gratefully, also best satiate hunger, writes J.M. Bourre of the French National Medicine Academy inthe September 2006 issue of The Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging. High fiber carbohydrates are relatively low glycemic but combining them with fat or protein can slow absorption even more. For example, the traditional white Wonder Bread is high glycemic; it is digested quickly, causing a stressful, and

The brain accounts for 2 percent of our body weight but sucks down roughly 20 percent of our daily calories. It needs glucose, but of a certain kind and in the right doses.

2. Become a grazer The brain needs Goldilocks portions of energy: not too much, not too little. To optimize brain power, Michael Green of Aston University in England suggests one tactic would be “more frequent but smaller meals.” The brain works best with about 25 grams of glucose circulating in the blood stream — about the amount found in a banana, said Gibson. If trading three-meals-a-day for an allday nibble seems unappealing, unpractical or simply anti-social, read on. 3. Eat lower on the glycemic index (GI) The glycemic index ranks foods according to how they affect blood glucose levels. Pretzels are high on the index, because they cause blood sugar to rise very quickly. Raw carrots, by comparison, have a low glycemic ranking. Carbs in lower glycemic food are broken into glucose molecules more slowly,

brief, spike in glucose levels. Dark fiberrich whole wheat bread is lower on the index; its spike is slightly less sharp. But add some meat or other protein to the bread and the glucose absorption rate becomes a gentle curve. Top it off with a little olive oil and presto: brain-friendly fuel masquerading as a tasty lunch.

to memory formation, he said. Still, “the brain is 60 percent fat,” Green said, and very low levels of cholesterol have been associated with depression, aggression and anti-social behavior. While most people in developed countries need to limit their fat intake, “zero fat is definitely not the way to go,” he said. Essential fatty acids, such as Omega-3s, are proving valuable in treating depression and other psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, as well as benefiting infant brain development, Green said. However, he added, the effect of supplements on a healthy adult brain is controversial. It may be best to stick to natural sources, such as cold-water fish, seeds and nuts. 5. Know yourself Despite broad similarities, food affects everyone’s brain a little differently. For example, Gibson explained, extroverts are more likely to succumb to the “postlunch dip” – that desire to nap, or chug coffee, mid-afternoon. And size matters: Children and the very thin may feel faint or grumpy due to low blood glucose faster than an average-sized adult, explained Montminy.

4. Know your fats

Thinking about brain food is wise. But overall nutritional habits are also important. People who chronically under-eat, over-exercise or regularly skip meals can become fuzzy-headed even after a minor dip in glucose. They become sensitized to not getting enough, Gibson said.

Despite fat’s ability to lower the GI of a meal, not all fats are equal. Trans fats, common in fast food, are the worst. Saturated fats are not great. Unsaturated fat is the healthiest.

But with the Goldilocks approach, there is no need to diet to distraction. “Every single fad diet is total rubbish,” Green said, but there is merit to eating low glycemically.

“People who eat diets high in saturated fat are more susceptible to cognitive deficits,” said Gibson. The increased likelihood of strokes is just one acute example. Rats that gorged on saturated fat for several weeks had obvious damage to the hippocampus — a brain area critical

Source: http://www.livescience. com/3186-brain-food-eat-smart.html

The key is a balanced diet, where all macronutrients — carbohydrates, fats and proteins — are given their due, Green said.


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Dear Ummah Dear Ummah: Isn't it good for for rappers like Rick Ross to talk about Islam and put prison life in the mainstream? Let's be real. Rapper William Leonard Roberts stole the name Rick Ross from real-life drug dealer “Freeway” Ricky Ross who was part of a CIA arms and drug scandal. It's bad enough to lie posing as a bad guy to get paid, but this rapper was not only NOT a gangster, he was actually a prison guard in real life. Let that sink in. Celebrities love to make money with fake thug culture but the realities of the street are not glamorous. Convicts often find in their communities no welcome home. A convict might return to his community a stranger and spend years before he finds a place. Unless he is fortunate to know others on parole who can help him successfully re-enter society— though association among convicts is forbidden on parole—he wanders. Or worse. Convicts watch politics but many cannot vote. Convicts appreciate education but outside, where criminal records often block financial aid, few realize their potential in school. Unless he is willing to do the dirtiest work, if he has no degree or special skill, there is little a convict may do to earn his living. Employers do not ask him what his spirit holds or how much his family is depending on him to provide for them. Convicts look beyond the paycheck for redemption, but before they enter the workplace some doors slam shut. A convict may even feel second-class among his own, in the masjid, where he may not receive the welcome that we ought to share with all Humanity. From marriage some are excluded altogether. We hold so-called “interfaith” breakfasts, but when it comes to convicts...well, they are just converts, right? And if he overcomes all these obstacles, if his determination does not fail, and if his bright outlook does not fade, even then the convict wakes to danger each day and sleeps in deeper shadows

Straight Talk from the Inside Out

each night, for his freedom on parole is fragile and tentative. One slip and it's snatched back. True, he might do it to himself. Why make it harder? And so we could go on giving examples of the rough road that lies ahead for convicts “in the mainstream,” especially Muslims. If this world is a prison for Believers, and if hardship brings ease, then maybe convicts have a head start. What celebrity would trade his fancy chains for these? Dear Ummah: I took shahadah and Allah says He forgives everything that was before that, right? And I'm really a better person now. Why don't people see that? May Allah reward your efforts. Keep it up! Maybe you think we're not paying attention but that's not so. Plenty of folks know someone in prison who wants a second chance. Instead, think about this. Think back to whatever you did and how you got caught, or gave up, and maybe slowly (or suddenly) began to learn life lessons. That's all good. Everyone agrees. Allah forgives those who turn to Him. Now think of the others affected by whatever you did. What positive change has your GED, or good time credits, or other accomplishments made in the lives of these people? It's one thing to make du'a, but it's real to face the ones we wrong and ask that they forgive us. They might not. Do we deserve it? Have we done enough? Change means more than saying “I'm sorry,” and self-improvement really just helps yourself. Think past that. Doing the right thing and keeping clean and building good ideas can be great goals for anyone, especially in prison, and we sincerely believe that your good will have more good in re-

turn. But this is the bare minimum. What more do you have inside? Dear Ummah: In prison we don't have anything but the Mushaf and some Hadith books. How come places don't send us zakat? w OK, prison is a bad place to be sure. And maybe more places can do more for brothers and sisters inside. That's one reason for this publication in your hands right now called Hijrah. But you have the Quran and the Hadith! These are the greatest resources we have. We find in them more value than any treasure and the more we use it the richer the reward. These are books that speak within you, you get to know them as friends. The Quran and Hadith are tools, not entertainment; put them to use for you. Put all sorts of bookmarks in meaningful passages for you to remember well and to find easily when you need a ready map. Enjoy quiet time reading now while you can. Muslims should be close to the Quran and Hadith for in their reading is a spark that lights the spirit. You should have your own and you should have another to share. Touch them and turn their pages—your eyes will thank you for giving them rest and rich scenery. When you read the Quran and Hadith you are not alone; you sit among those who matter most: Allah and His friends. Never mind being a Hafiz or scholar. For now simply read. Allah shall listen to your innermost prayer and you shall hear Allah's answer. Dear Ummah is moderated by a former convict who served nearly two decades in federal prison. He now lives and works on the East Coast of the United States, where he raises a family and actively contributes to the local community. While all letters will be read In Shaa Allah, Dear Ummah can only respond to a few inquires. Write to: Dear Ummah, c/o Hijrah, PO Box 596, College Park MD 20741.


Hijrah | April 2013 | 39

The Supplication Series: Distress, Sadness and Anxiety Bismillah. Every believer suffers from weak or low emaan once in a while; as the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) said, “Emaan wears out in one’s heart, just as the dress wears out (becomes thin). Therefore, ask Allah to renew emaan in your hearts.” [Mustadrak Al Hakim, Authentic] Low emaan can easily plunge one into sorrow and despair, as emaan is a safeguard from this. When one suffers from low emaan, it paralyzes one from doing good deeds and removes the productivity in one’s life and worship. Of the beauties in our deen is that Allah and His Messenger have prescribed actions for us when we are suffering from weak emaan and sorrow, and one of the most potent cures is duaa. This issue’s supplications include two duaas that everyone should memorize to help you during these times of low emaan, sadness, and times of distress. First Supplication The first duaa was narrated by the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) in Saheeh Bukhari. It is narrated in many ahadeeth that the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) would consistently make this duaa, and many of the Companions heard him repeat it over and over. Allahumma inni a’udhu bika minalhammi wal-hazani wal-’ajazi wal-kasli wal-bukhli wal-jubni wa dala’id-dayni wa ghalabatir-rijal. O Allah, I take refuge in You from anxiety and sorrow, weakness and laziness, miserliness and cowardice, the burden of debts and from being overpowered by men. Selected Word Analysis al-Hamm: Hamm means ‘to make uneasy and fill with anxiety’. It is the

type of distress one feels that affects the mind, heart, and body. This sadness worries a person, and one’s sole concern is this sadness. Hamm leaves a person preoccupied with one’s thoughts, going over them again and again in the mind, because it is an anxiety that one has regarding something that may or may not happen. If you have ever felt this type of sadness, that anxious and nervous feeling, you know how debilitating it can be. al-Hazan: Huzn also means sadness but it is different than Hamm. Huzn is grief arising on account of an unpleasant event that has happened, such as the death of a loved one or a distressing

yourself and because of this greediness, this good thing (such as wealth) is never used for good. This word is the opposite of karam, which is to be generous and give in ample amounts. One of the Names of Allah is Al-Kareem; The Most Generous who abundantly gives from his limitless bounty without seeking anything in return.

Selected Word Analysis

Al-Jubni: Jubn literally means ‘to shrink’; from this the meaning of becoming cowardly and fearful is taken.

Takilnee: The “nee” at the end is not part of the word. Takil comes from wakala which means ‘to rely on or depend on’; literally meaning ‘to lean on something’. When this word is followed by “ilaa” such as in this duaa, it becomes the transitive meaning ‘to entrust to’ or ‘to hand over to’. In the case of this specific supplication it means ‘do not leave me to my nafs‘. Tarfata ‘Aynin: This is an expression in the Arabic language which means ‘in the twinkle of an eye’. Tarfah means ‘to blink, wink, squint or twinkle’. The expression in this duaa gives the meaning of instantly or for a single moment. We are asking Allah to not leave us on our own for even the blink of an eye.

Dala’a: This is the word for rib (body part) and its linguistic roots carry two implications: curvature and weight. Therefore here “dala’a ad-dayn” can

Allah purifies you when you experience these emotions or pain. situation. In the Seerah, the year that Abu Talib and Khadija (radi Allahu anha) died is known as ‘Aam al Huzn, the Year of Grief. In the Qur’an, Allah ta’ala mentions many times that the Believers will not “yahzanoon“, have grief, this means that in the hereafter, the believers will not grieve over anything that has occurred in the past. Huzn means ‘to be full of sorrow, mourning, grief, and saddened’. al-’Ajaz: ‘Ajaz means ‘to become weak, to lack strength, to be incapable and a failure’. al-Kasali: Kasl means ‘to be lazy, idle, sluggish, negligent and inactive’. al-Bukhl: Bukhl is ‘to be stingy and greedy’. In the Qur’an, Allah uses this word to describe those who have the wealth to give, but hoard it for themselves and do not give it in charity. Bukhl is to refuse to give something lawful (charity, your time etc) that you have in abundance. It is to prefer it for

either mean the tendency for debt to sway people from righteousness, or the weight one feels when indebted. Ghalabah: Ghalabah means ‘to be overtaken, subdued or overpowered’. It can be used to say “he was overtaken by drowsiness”. Second Supplication The second duaa is narrated by the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) as one of the “Da’waat al Makroob“, the supplications of the distressed. Allahumma rahmataka arju fala takilni ila nafsi tarfata ‘aynin wa aslih li sha`ni kullahu la ilaha ila anta O Allah, it is Your mercy that I hope for, so do not leave me in charge of my affairs even for a blink of an eye, and rectify for me all of my affairs. None has the right to be worshiped except You.

Arjoo: This word is from rajaa which means ‘to hope, long for, request, expect and look forward to’. This word gives a positive tone because the one in distress should be hopeful of the mercy of Allah and expect that Allah ta’ala will take care of his affairs.

Aslih: The root of this word has many meanings but in this duaa it means ‘reformation, restoration, mending, improvement and rectification’. This word is the opposite of fasaad which means when there is imbalance in things. We are asking Allah to make our affairs good for us and rectify our problems. Points of Benefit It is ok to feel these emotions.You are not less of a believer if you have anxiety or feel sadness. The distinction between the believer and non-believer is that the believer remains patient and turns to Allah for assistance. If you are suffering from low emaan, then examine your relationship with Allah. Allah says, “But whosoever turns away from My Reminder, verily for him is a constricted life, and We shall raise him up blind on the Day of


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Resurrection.” (20:124) Allah connects dhikr with experiencing difficulty because dhikr enlivens the hearts. Many times when we slack in our worship, life seem to get harder, so look to your prayer and your recitation of the Qur’an and you may find the answer to your problems. Repent from your sins if you are faced with a calamity because you never know if this calamity you’re facing is a result of your sins. One of the salaf said, “I disobey Allah to find its effect

thing (in the form of trouble) comes to you, don’t say: If I had not done that, it would not have happened so and so, but say: Allah did that what He had ordained to do and your ‘if ’ opens the (gate) for Shaytan.” [Muslim] Complain only to Allah. Many of us turn to venting or complaining to others when we are faced with a hardship, but when we look in the Qur’an, we see that the believers complain only to Allah.

The believer is always in a win-win situation. in the way my animal behaves and my wife [treats me].” Ibn Zayd said, “Sins overcome the hearts until no good can get through to them.” The believer is always in a win-win situation. The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said, “The affair of the believer is amazing! The whole of his life is beneficial, and that is only in the case of the believer. When good times come to him, he is thankful and it is good for him, and when bad times befall him, he is patient and it is also good for him.” [Muslim] Allah purifies you when you experience these emotions or pain. The Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) said, “No fatigue, nor disease, nor sorrow, nor sadness, nor hurt, nor distress befalls a Muslim, even if it were the prick he receives from a thorn, but that Allah expiates some of his sins for that.” [Bukhari] The traits mentioned in the first supplication all point to weakness, so we should make this supplication and also work on ourselves to remove them from our character. The Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) said, “A strong believer is better and is more beloved to Allah than a weak believer, and there is good in everyone.” [Muslim] Do not say “if ” when a calamity befalls you or you did something that you’ve come to regret. The Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) said, “Seek help from Allah and do not lose heart, and if any-

Ya’qub (alayhi salaam) says to his sons when they bring the news that his son was accused of stealing, “So patience is most fitting (for me).” (12:83) But then in the next ayah, Allah describes that he turned away from them and said privately, “Alas, my grief for Yusuf!” And he lost his sight because of the sorrow that he was suppressing.” (12:84) Ya’qub (alayhi salaam) did not

lah and complain to Him Alone. We are bound to be tested and pushed to our limits, each of us to our own level. When Maryam was delivering her son all alone, she said, “Would that I had died before this, and had been forgotten and out of sight!” (19:23) The tafseer mentions that Maryam (alayha salaam) was not only in physical pain and solitude, but also experiencing the pain of ostracism and isolation that occurs when you are telling the truth but no one believes you. She spoke these words at a time when she had already been given the good news of being chosen above all women and that her son would be a Prophet of Allah. This reminds us that even the best people, whom Allah has clearly chosen, are still human. Everyone’s patience and steadfastness is pushed to the limit at one time or another. Everyone reaches a point where they contemplate just giving up, but that doesn’t mean that it’s all over. You must always put your trust in Allah and keep going. Remember, these are

“And never give up hope of Allah’s Mercy. Certainly no one despairs of Allah’s Mercy except the people who disbelieve.” (12:87) say this in front of his family, but it was between himself and Allah. Allah says that he was “suppressing” (in Arabic: kadheem) and this means when someone holds their breath back to control their tears and their agony. It is to the point that they have trouble breathing because they cried so much. He was full of grief but he was not wailing and crying out loud, but rather holding back his anger. When his sons saw how much distress this news has caused him, they said to him, “By Allah! You will never cease remembering Yusuf until you become weak with old age, or until you be of the dead.” (12:85) Then during the height of this anxiety he says, “I only complain of my suffering and sorrow to Allah, and I know from Allah that which you know not.” (12:86) SubhanAllah! It is okay to feel these emotions, and people may see that you are distressed, but turn to Al-

words said by Maryam, the best woman to walk on the earth! This shows us that being patient doesn’t necessarily mean that you won’t ever become overwhelmed, or won’t ever complain, but patience is when you do get overwhelmed and still keep going, and only complain to Allah. (12:85) Have good hopes and thoughts of Allah - acknowledge it wholeheartedly that He only sends what is good for you. The Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) reported in a hadeeth qudsi that Allah (azza wa jal) said, “I am just as My slave thinks I am, (i.e. I am able to do for him what he thinks I can do for him) and I am with him if He remembers Me. If he remembers Me in himself, I too, remember him in Myself; and if he remembers Me in a group of people, I remember him in a group that is better than them; and if he

comes one span nearer to Me, I go one cubit nearer to him; and if he comes one cubit nearer to Me, I go a distance of two outstretched arms nearer to him; and if he comes to Me walking, I go to him running.” [Bukhari] Surely, Allah is the Best of Planners, so find relief that you do not have to decide on your own but rather The One who knows what is in the heavens and earth is the One who Plans your affairs. Think back to those times when you thought one thing was good for you but Allah did not will it for you - remember the sadness you felt - and then later you realized how perfect that plan was for you. In the second duaa, it is as if we are saying to Allah, “O Allah, I know whatever You plan for me is good for me, so please guide me to the best, even if I do not perceive it as so.” “And who despairs of the Mercy of his Lord except those who are astray?” (15:56) Never, ever, dear believer, lose hope in the Mercy of Allah. After Ya’qub (alayhi salaam) tells his sons that he only complains to Allah, he says in the next ayah, “And never give up hope of Allah’s Mercy. Certainly no one despairs of Allah’s Mercy except the people who disbelieve.” (12:87) Only the disbelievers despair in the Mercy of Allah because they are not aware of His Wisdom, His Knowledge, His Most Beautiful Names and Attributes, and that His Mercy extends to all things. Things are not always as they seem. The mother of Musa was told to throw her son in the river; Yusuf was left for dead in a well; Maryam delivered a child alone; Yunus was swallowed by a whale; Ibrahim was thrown in the fire; A’ishah was slandered throughout the city; and Umm Salamah thought no one could be better than Abu Salamah… Yet look at how it turned out for them in the end. So don’t worry, Allah has a plan for you. And Allah knows best. We ask Him to guide us through all of our affairs. [Source: http://www.tayyibaat.com/]


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Keeping In Touch with Your Children By Umm Zaynub Children and family members of men and women in prison are often referred to as the “invisible” population left behind when convicted offenders are sent to prison. (Brink, 2003). Over the years, these numbers are increasing. Today, there are approximately 810,000 incarcerated parents with about 1.7 million children nationwide have incarcerated parents, according to the Annie E. Casey Foundation. They are five times more likely than their peers to be imprisoned, probably before turning 18. “I saw many kids pass through that system that had parents that were incarcerated,” says Idaho Correction Director Brent Reinke who sits on the Criminal Justice Commission and has spent a decade running the Department of Juvenile Corrections. “Unfortunately, many of those young people are now in prison. It is kind of a revolving door.” A Muslim parent understands his enormous responsibility towards the children he has brought into this world as the Qur'an tells him: "O you who believe Save yourselves and your family from a Fire whose fuel is Men and Stones ... "(Qur'an 66:6) Research indicates that facilitating and maintaining contact between incarcerated parents and their children can be beneficial to the child and to the family as a whole. However, parents and children may find it difficult to maintain contact during the incarceration period. According to J. Creasie Finney Hairston, in a report titled Prisoners and Families: Parenting Issues During Incarceration, write that the divisive factors include unaffordable collectcall charges for phone calls made from prison; unsympathetic, hostile and restrictive prison visiting policies; remote and hard-to-visit prison locations and strained family relationships. Incarceration can often crack bonds

that do not heal when the parent is released from prison. Social and family pressures, social stigma and institutional policies make it difficult for children to retain the relationship. Hairston’s review of research conducted on prisoners’ family relationships finds two consistent results. Male prisoners who maintain strong family ties during imprisonment have higher rates of post release success than those who do not; and men who assume responsible husband and parenting roles upon release have higher rates of success than those who do not.

Research shows that "communication between prisoners and their families provides the most concrete and visible strategy that families and prisoners use to manage separation and maintain connections." (Sage Publications) "Your role doesn't stop when you come to prison. I just think it's important that we continue to reach out to them because they're doing this time with me. So, gotta know how they feel doing it with me," says Leon Parry, who successfully parents while in jail for murder.

letters. Write to them specifically. Kids love seeing their names especially on an envelope. Send money if you can, anything is better than nothing. Ask the person taking care of your child to buy them something with the money, a favorite book that you can read together when you do meet. Abu Masud al-Badri said: ´The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) said: 'When a man spends on his family with the intention of pleasing Allah, then it will be counted as Sadaqah (charity) on his part.' (Bukhari and Muslim) Daily Phone calls and or emails- when you call talk, really communicate:

Your role doesn't stop when you come to prison. I just think it's important that we continue to reach out to them because they're doing this time with me.

Amongst the prisoners interviewed for the report, some parents did not want their children to visit them in prison and/or do not any make an effort to contact their children. Others believe that the children’s custodial parents will not welcome such contact, don’t know where their children are, or think such visits will be too emotionally painful. According to Hairston, some parents in jail think that they will be away only a short time and that there is no need for children to visit. Other parents mistakenly believe that there is little that they can do from behind bars.

a. Let them know you made a mistake. b. Let them know your expectations. c. Ask about their grades, their friends, how they are feeling. d. Tell them in advance that the call may hang up after a certain time so they know what to expect. Visitation may help children through their feelings of rejection that often come with the separation of a child and parent. Most children are relieved to see that their parents are okay. They may have a picture of prison that is worse than the reality they see. If they are coming to visit you, share the facilities rules in advance, so they have a successful visit. It is difficult to parent children when you are present in their lives, so it is evitable that parenting in absence is harder. What can someone who is incarcerated do to maintain their relationship with their children? As Imam Luqman of Sacramento, CA says,"Be believing and dutiful parents; by any means necessary……" Here are some tips for those who want to begin or renew their parenting jouney for the sake of Allah: If you don't already do so, send them

Teach them coping skills. Our Lord has made the natural order such that children are inclined towards their fathers for practical and emotional health. Children often take a mother's love for granted but one look of love or pride in their father's eyes can give them do wonders. The true Muslim cannot abandon his children and leave them in poverty and misery, especially when he hears the words of the Prophet sallahualayhi wassalam threatening men who neglect their responsibilities towards their families and warning them of the worst punishment and torment in the Hereafter: It is sin enough for a


42 | Hijrah | April 2013

man to forsake those who are under his care.' (Muslim, Abu Dawud, et al) If possible ask other inmates who have healthy relations with their families for ideas. Make a bookmark for your child, inscribe it with a quote from the Quran. The best thing that you can pass down to your children is guidance; “Were you witnesses when death appeared before Jacob? Behold, he said to his sons: “What will you worship after me?” They said: “We shall worship Your Allah and the Allah of Your fathers, of Abraham, Isma’il and Isaac,- the one (True) Allah. To Him we bow (in Islam).” 2:133 Teach them the supplications for parents, if you have committed severe mistakes then acknowledge them and ask you children to pray for your forgiveness: "O my Lord! Bestow on them (my parents) Your Mercy even as they cherished me in childhood." [Qur'an 17:24)] "My Rabb! Forgive me and my parents and anyone who enters my home as a believer....” [Qur'an 71:28] Memorize the supplications (dua) for children:

"O my Lord! Grant me from You, a good offspring. You are indeed the AllHearer of invocation." Qur'an 3:38. 'A’oozu bikali-maa-til-laa-hit-taammaati min sharri maa kha-laq Wa-lahuw-la Wala-khu-wa-ta El-la-bil-lahil-'Ali-yil-'Azeem [I seek refuge in the Perfect Words of Allah from the evil of what He has created and there is no Power or Might except Allah; the High, the Great] Read three times Make continuous prayers for your children and ask Allah to protect them from harm: "O my Rabb! Make me one who performs prayers and (also) from my offspring, our Rabb! And accept my invocation. Our Rabb! Forgive me and my parents, and (all) the believers on the Day when the reckoning will be established." [Quran 14:40-41)] Write your child a poem about how special they are to you. It can be simple. Make a calendar for your child that you can fill in when you do get a chance to meet. Fill it with milestones about them and yourself.

If your correctional facility has parenting resources make use of them, if you are not doing so already. A majority of facilities have some form of parenting classes. If you can attend any class that they have on parenting and family matters. These programs have reported positive changes including increased bonding between children and parents, increased empathy and better parenting skills. Some jails have enhanced visitation program for parents and children, Girl Scouts behind Bars is one such program, Long Distance Dads, Parenting from a Distance and Head Start are others. Do their caretakers a favor and don't tell your child "if I was there I’d let you stay up and have treats, but since you’re with grandma, you need to go to bed at 8." Don't sabotage their relationship that your child has with the person who’s caring for them while you are away.

Zigzag Crossword Solution

Solution:

M I E N M O T E L

H U D A U M B O E N S U E

A N D Y

S A L A A U M P O N N O P T E E A R R O S T

Resources: Books for parents - Parenting from Prison; Some books for children: Dad’s in Prison by Sandra Cain, Margaret Speed & Zui Mukjia (A&C Black, 1999); Maybe Days: A Book for Children in Foster Care by Jennifer Wilgocki, Marcia Kahn Wright, & Alissa Imre Geis (American Psychological Association, Magination Press, 2001); My Mother and I Are Growing Stronger by Inez Muary (Volcano Press, www.volcanopress.com); Visiting Day by Jacquelyn Woodson (Scholastic Books, 2002); When Andy’s Father Went to Prison by Martha Whitmore Hickman and Larry Raymond, (Albert Whitman & Company, 1990); Amber was Brave, Essie was Smart: The Story of Essie and Amber Told Here in Poems and Pictures by Vera B. Williams; Habibi by Naomi Shihab Nye (Simon Pulse Books, 1999).

According to non-profits who help children maintain ties with their incarcerated parents, some kids say that their parents are better parents then their friends' parents who are not incarcerated.

Crossword Solution #2 C L A M

You can be that parent with the help of Allah. Know that everything is in His Control, the Good and the Bad and just make the best effort.

Solution:

E R E

S H I A R B B R U U S T R E C L L A Y O R G A L C O A G S O

A I D T

G L E E

S E N T S A A T A R Y C R I P P K E P T A N D A N K E S E A W E D X T O T T U C L A O S H U S D A O B E O G C A M R E T H I

D U C A L

S L O P E

E R I E

W E I R

E S P N

D E S K

S I P T E C H A V A R Y S T S E L F R A I T L C T I T L I V L E G I T N E O P E N A G E R B I L S T E A D C A A P R T H R F R E O P A E A N G E T A T C R O W D D C H I N A H E M A G A R M Y L O R A R Y E P I L E S A S M A I M A M C E L I X I R O L I C I T S E E G

G L A D E C A N O N B E N I N C A R L A

I R A F B A T R I D S B Y G L U C O U L A U S E R G H M O E L O B G E N F R E E R A C T A T H B N A C G R G A U S O U S O U G H R T E B B E E F U T L A N

F O U L E D N A D I R M A I Z E B O L T

E S S S A A W Y T B O B L U E A T I D S G E Z E M O P E R A R I S I L S T F E T I Q A T I B L B B Y L Y A

M Y R R H M E C C A

H O P E S C U S H Y

H A L O L E D H A I R O S I S U N A R K P O E T A R L O S T Y T A A

A D O L I M E A T E N D L A I I G R V T A W O E E B A R D T I D E Z U N I N E T S T E E R


Hijrah | April 2013 | 43

Diabetes Management in Correctional Institutions AMERICAN DIABETES ASSOCIATION At any given time, over 2 million people are incarcerated in prisons and jails in the U.S (1). It is estimated that nearly 80,000 of these inmates have diabetes, a prevalence of 4.8% (2). In addition, many more people pass through the corrections system in a given year. In 1998 alone, over 11 million people were released from prison to the community (1). The current estimated prevalence of diabetes in correctional institutions is somewhat lower than the overall U.S. prevalence of diabetes, perhaps because the incarcerated population is younger than the general population. The prevalence of diabetes and its related co-morbidities and complications, however, will continue to increase in the prison population as current sentencing guidelines continue to increase the number of aging prisoners and the incidence of diabetes in young people continues to increase. People with diabetes in correctional facilities should receive care that meets national standards. Correctional institutions have unique circumstances that need to be considered so that all standards of care may be achieved (3). Correctional institutions should have written policies and procedures for the management of diabetes and for training of medical and correctional staff in diabetes care practices. These policies must take into consideration issues such as security needs, transfer from one facility to another, and access to medical personnel and equipment, so that all appropriate levels of care are provided. Ideally, these policies should encourage or at least allow patients to self-manage their diabetes. Ultimately, diabetes management is dependent upon having access to needed medical personnel and

equipment. On-going diabetes therapy is important in order to reduce the risk of later complications, including cardiovascular events, visual loss, renal failure, and amputation. Early identification and intervention for people with diabetes is also likely to reduce short-term risks for acute complications requiring transfer out of the facility, thus improving security. This document provides a general set of guidelines for diabetes care in correctional institutions. It is not designed to be a diabetes management manual. More detailed information on the management of diabetes and related disorders can be found in the American Diabetes Association (ADA) Clinical Practice Recommendations,as well as the “Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes� (4) contained therein. This discussion will focus on those areas where the care of people with diabetes in correctional facilities may differ, and specific recommendations are made at the end of each section. INTAKE MEDICAL ASSESSMENT Intake screening Patients with a diagnosis of diabetes should have a complete medical history and physical examination by a licensed health care provider with prescriptive authority in a timely manner. If one is not available on site, one should be consulted by those performing reception screening. The purposes of this history and physical examination are to determine the type of diabetes, current therapy, alcohol use, and behavioral health issues, as well as to screen for the presence of diabetesrelated complications. The evaluation should review the previous treatment and the past history of both glycemic control and diabetes complications. It is essential that medication and medical nutrition therapy (MNT) be continued without interruption upon entry into the correctional system, as a hiatus in either

medication or appropriate nutrition may lead to either severe hypo- or hyperglycemia that can rapidly progress to irreversible complications, even death. SCREENING FOR DIABETES Consistent with the ADA Standards of Care, patients should be evaluated for diabetes risk factors at the intake physical and at appropriate times thereafter. Those who are at high risk should be considered for blood glucose screening. If pregnant, a risk assessment for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) should be undertaken at the first prenatal visit. Patients with clinical characteristics consistent with a high risk for GDM should undergo glucose testing as soon as possible. High-risk women not found to have GDM at the initial screening and average-risk women should be tested between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. MANAGEMENT PLAN People with diabetes should ideally receive medical care from a physician-coordinated team. Such teams include,but are not limited to, physicians, nurses,dietitians, and mental health professionals with expertise and a special interest in diabetes. It is essential in this collaborative and integrated team approach that individuals with diabetes assume as active a role in their care as possible. Diabetes self-management education is an integral component of care. Patient self-management should be emphasized, and the plan should encourage the involvement of the patient in problem solving as much as possible. It is helpful to house insulin-treated patients in a common unit, if this is possible, safe, and consistent with providing access to other programs at the correctional institution. Common housing not only can facilitate mealtimes and medication administration, but also potentially provides an opportunity for diabetes self-management education to be reinforced by fellow patients.

NUTRITION AND FOOD SERVICES Nutrition counseling and menu planning are an integral part of the multidisciplinary approach to diabetes management in correctional facilities. A combination of education, interdisciplinary communication, and monitoring food intake aids patients in understanding their medical nutritional needs and can facilitate diabetes control during and after incarceration. Nutrition counseling for patients with diabetes is considered an essential component of diabetes self-management. People with diabetes should receive individualized MNT as needed to achieve treatment goals, preferably provided by a registered dietitian familiar with the components of MNT for persons with diabetes. Educating the patient, individually or in a group setting, about how carbohydrates and food choices directly affect diabetes control is the first step in facilitating self-management. This education enables the patient to identify better food selections from those available in the dining hall and commissary. Such an approach is more realistic in a facility where the patient has the opportunity to make food choices. The easiest and most cost-effective means to facilitate good outcomes in patients with diabetes is instituting a hearthealthy diet as the master menu (6). There should be consistent carbohydrate content at each meal, as well as a means to identify the carbohydrate content of each food selection. Providing carbohydrate content of food selections and/or providing education in assessing carbohydrate content enables patients to meet the requirements of their individual MNT goals. Commissaries should also help in dietary management by offering healthy choices and listing the carbohydrate content of foods.


44 | Hijrah | April 2013 The use of insulin or oral medications may necessitate snacks in order to avoid hypoglycemia. These snacks are a part of such patients’ medical treatment plans and should be prescribed by medical staff. Timing of meals and snacks must be coordinated with medication administration as needed to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia, as discussed more fully in the MEDICATION section of this document. For further information, see the ADA Position Statement “Nutrition Principles and Recommendations in Diabetes” (7). URGENT AND EMERGENCY ISSUES All patients must have access to prompt treatment of hypo- and hyperglycemia. Correctional staff should be trained in the recognition and treatment of hypoand hyperglycemia, and appropriate staff should be trained to administer glucagon. After such emergency care, patients should be referred for appropriate medical care to minimize risk of future decompensation. Institutions should implement a policy requiring staff to notify a physician of all CBG results outside of a specified range, as determined by the treating physician (e.g., .50 or .350 mg/dl). Hyperglycemia Severe hyperglycemia in a person with diabetes may be the result of intercurrent illness, missed or inadequate medication,or corticosteroid therapy. Correctional institutions should have systems in place to identify and refer to medical staff all patients with consistently elevated blood glucose as well as intercurrent illness. The stress of illness in those with type 1 diabetes frequently aggravates glycemic control and necessitates more frequent monitoring of blood glucose (e.g., every 4–6 h). Marked hyperglycemia requires temporary adjustment of the treatment program and, if accompanied by ketosis, interaction with the diabetes care team. Adequate fluid and caloric intake must be ensured. Nausea or vomiting accompanied with hyperglycemia may indicate DKA, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical care to prevent complications and death. Correctional institutions should identify

patients with type 1 diabetes who are at risk for DKA, particularly those with a prior history of frequent episodes of DKA. For further information see “Hyperglycemic Crisis in Diabetes” (8). Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is defined as a blood glucose level of less than 70 mg/dl. Severe hypoglycemia is a medical emergency defined as hypoglycemia requiring assistance of a third party and is often associated with mental status changes that may include confusion, incoherence, combativeness, somnolence, lethargy, seizures, or coma. Signs and symptoms of severe hypoglycemia can be confused with intoxication or withdrawal. Individuals with diabetes exhibiting signs and symptoms consistent with hypoglycemia, particularly altered mental status, agitation, and diaphoresis, should have their CBG levels checked immediately. Security staff who supervise patients at risk for hypoglycemia (i.e., those on insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents) should be educated in the emergency response protocol for recognition and treatment of hypoglycemia. Every attempt should be made to document CBG before treatment. Patients must have immediate access to glucose tablets or other glucose- containing foods. Hypoglycemia can generally be treated by the patient with oral carbohydrates. If the patient cannot be relied on to keep hypoglycemia treatment on his/her person, staff members should have ready access to glucose tablets or equivalent. In general, 15–20 g oral glucose will be adequate to treat hypoglycemic events. CBG and treatment should be repeated at 15-min intervals until blood glucose levels return to normal (70 mg / dl). Staff should have glucagon for intramuscular injection or glucose for intravenous infusion available to treat severe hypoglycemia without requiring transport of the hypoglycemic patient to an outside facility. Any episode of severe hypoglycemia or recurrent episodes of mild to moderate hypoglycemia require reevaluation of the diabetes management plan by the medical staff. In certain cases of unexplained or recurrent severe hypoglycemia, it may be appropriate to admit the patient to the medical unit for observation and stabilization of diabetes management.

Correctional institutions should have systems in place to identify the patients at greater risk for hypoglycemia (i.e., those on insulin or sulfonylurea therapy) and to ensure the early detection and treatment of hypoglycemia. If possible, patients at greater risk of severe hypoglycemia (e.g., those with a prior episode of severe hypoglycemia) may be housed in units closer to the medical unit in order to minimize delay in treatment. Recommendations * Train correctional staff in the recognition, treatment, and appropriate referral for hypo- and hyperglycemia. (E) * Train appropriate staff to administer glucagon. (E) * Train staff to recognize symptoms and signs of serious metabolic decompensation, and immediately refer the patient for appropriate medical care. (E) * Institutions should implement a policy requiring staff to notify a physician of all CBG results outside of a specified range, as determined by the treating physician (e.g., .50 or .350 mg/dl). (E) * Identify patients with type 1 diabetes who are at high risk for DKA. (E) MEDICATION Formularies should provide access to usual and customary oral medications and insulins necessary to treat diabetes and related conditions. While not every brand name of insulin and oral medication needs to be available, individual patient care requires access to short-, medium-, and long-acting insulins and the various classes of oral medications (e.g., insulin secretagogues, biguanides, aglucosidase inhibitors, and thiazolidinediones) necessary for current diabetes management. Patients at all levels of custody should have access to medication at dosing frequencies that are consistent with their treatment plan and medical direction. If feasible and consistent with security concerns, patients on multiple doses of short-acting oral medications should be placed in a “keep on person” program. In other situations, patients should be permitted to self-inject insulin when consistent with security needs. Medical department nurses should determine whether patients have the necessary skill and responsible behavior to be allowed self-administration and the degree of supervision necessary. When needed, this

skill should be a part of patient education. Reasonable syringe control systems should be established. It is essential that transport of patients from jails or prisons to off-site appointments, such as medical visits or court appearances, does not cause significant disruption in medication or meal timing. Correctional institutions and police lock- ups should implement policies and procedures to diminish the risk of hypoand hyperglycemia by, for example, providing carry-along meals and medication for patients traveling to off-site appointments or changing the insulin regimen for that day. The availability of prefilled insulin “pens” provides an alternative for off-site insulin delivery. ROUTINE SCREENING FOR AND MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES COMPLICATIONS All patients with a diagnosis of diabetes should receive routine screening for diabetes-related complications, as detailed in the ADA Standards of Care (4). Interval chronic disease clinics for persons with diabetes provide an efficient mechanism to monitor patients for complications of diabetes. In this way, appropriate referrals to consultant specialists, such as optometrists / ophthalmologists, nephrologists, and cardiologists, can be made on an as-needed basis and interval laboratory testing can be done. The following complications should be considered. * Foot care: A comprehensive foot examination is recommended annually for all patients with diabetes to identify risk factors predictive of ulcers and amputations. Persons with an insensate foot, an open foot lesion, or a history of such a lesion should be referred for evaluation by an appropriate licensed health professional (e.g., podiatrist or vascular surgeon). Special shoes should be provided as recommended by licensed health professionals to aid healing of foot lesions and to prevent development of new lesions. * Retinopathy: Annual retinal examinations by a licensed eye care professional should be performed for all patients with diabetes, as recommended in the ADA Standards of Care. Visual changes that cannot be accounted for by acute changes in glycemic control require prompt evaluation by an eye care professional.


Hijrah | April 2013 | 45 * Nephropathy: An annual spot urine test for determination of microalbuminto-creatinine ratio should be performed. Blood pressure should be controlled to 130 / 80 mmHg. * Cardiac: People with type 2 diabetes are at a particularly high risk of coronary artery disease. Cardiovascular disease risk factor management is of demonstrated benefit in reducing this complication in patients with diabetes. Blood pressure should be measured at every routine diabetes visit. SELF-MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Self-management education is the cornerstone of treatment for all people with diabetes. The health staff must advocate for patients to participate in self-management as much as possible. Individuals with diabetes who learn self-management skills and make lifestyle changes can more effectively manage their diabetes and avoid or delay complications associated with diabetes. In the development of a diabetes self-management education program in the correctional environment, the unique circumstances of the patient should be considered while still providing, to the greatest extent possible, the elements of the “National Standards for Diabetes Self-Management Education” (11). Ideally, self-management education is coordinated by a certified diabetes educator who works with the facility to develop polices, procedures, and protocols to ensure that nationally recognized education guidelines are implemented. The educator is also able to identify patients who need diabetes self-management education, including an assessment of the patients’ medical, social, and diabetes histories; diabetes knowledge, skills, and behaviors; and readiness to change. STAFF EDUCATION Policies and procedures should be implemented to ensure that the health care staff has adequate knowledge and skills to direct the management and education of persons with diabetes. The health care staff needs to be involved in the development of the correctional officers’ training program. The staff education program should be at a lay level. Training should be offered at least biannually, and the curriculum should cover the following:

what diabetes is; signs and symptoms of diabetes; risk factors; signs and symptoms of, and emergency response to, hypo- and hyperglycemia; glucose monitoring; ; medications; exercise; nutrition issues including timing of meals and access to snacks.

agement education

ALCOHOL AND DRUGS

Daily management issues * disease process * nutritional management * physical activity * medications * monitoring * acute complications * risk reduction * goal setting/problem solving * psychosocial adjustment * preconception care/pregnancy/gestational

Patients with diabetes who are withdrawing from drugs and alcohol need special consideration. This issue particularly affects initial police custody and jails. At an intake facility, proper initial identification and assessment of these patients are critical. The presence of diabetes may complicate detoxification. Patients in need of complicated detoxification should be referred to a facility equipped to deal with high-risk detoxification. Patients with diabetes should be educated in the risks involved with smoking. All inmates should be advised not to smoke. Assistance in smoking cessation should be provided as practical. TRANSFER AND DISCHARGE Patients in jails may be housed for a short period of time before being transferred or released, and it is not unusual for patients in prison to be transferred within the system several times during their incarceration. One of the many challenges that health care providers face working in the correctional system is how to best collect and communicate important health care information in a timely manner when a patient is in initial police custody, is jailed short term, or is transferred from facility to facility. The importance of this communication becomes critical when the patient has a chronic illness such as diabetes. Transferring a patient with diabetes from one correctional facility to another requires a coordinated effort. To facilitate a thorough review of medical information and completion of a transfer summary, it is critical for custody personnel to provide medical staff with sufficient notice before movement of the patient. Before the transfer, the health care staff should review the patient’s medical record and complete a medical transfer of diabetes management care and facilitate entry into community diabetes care. (E) Major components of diabetes self-man-

Survival skills * hypo-/hyperglycemia * sick day management * medication * monitoring * foot care

SHARING OF MEDICAL INFORMATION AND RECORDS Practical considerations may prohibit obtaining medical records from providers who treated the patient before arrest. Intake facilities should implement policies that 1) define the circumstances under which prior medical records are obtained (e.g., for patients who have an extensive history of treatment for complications); 2) identify person(s) responsible for contacting the prior provider; and 3) establish procedures for summary that includes the patient’s current health care issues. The medical transfer summary, which acts as a quick medical reference for the receiving facility, should be transferred along with the patient. Diabetes supplies, including diabetes medication, should accompany the patient. The sending facility must be mindful of the transfer time in order to provide the patient with medication and food if needed. The transfer summary or medical record should be reviewed by a health care provider upon arrival at the receiving institution. Discharge planning for the patients with diabetes should begin 1 month before discharge. During this time, application for appropriate entitlements should be initiated. Any gaps in the patient’s knowledge of diabetes care need to be identified and addressed. It is helpful if the patient is given a directory or list of community resources and if an appoint-

ment for follow-up care with a community provider is made. A supply of medication adequate to last until the first postrelease medical appointment should be provided to the patient upon release. The patient should be provided with a written summary of his/her current heath care issues, including medications and doses, recent A1C values, etc. SUMMARY AND KEY POINTS People with diabetes should receive care that meets national standards. Being incarcerated does not change these standards. Patients must have access to medication and nutrition needed to manage their disease. In patients who do not meet treatment targets, medical and behavioral plans should be adjusted by health care professionals in collaboration with the prison staff. It is critical for correctional institutions to identify particularly high-risk patients in need of more intensive evaluation and therapy, including pregnant women, patients with advanced complications, a history of repeated severe hypoglycemia, or recurrent DKA. A comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach to the care of people with diabetes can be an effective mechanism to improve overall health and delay or prevent the acute and chronic complications of this disease. Source: Edited from the American Diabetes Association: Standards of medical care in diabetes 2012 (Position Statement).


46 | Hijrah | April 2013

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Hijrah | April 2013 | 47

OC Sheriff ’s Dept to Accommodate Religious Needs of Muslims in Custody Posted on February 13, 2013 Under an agreement just reached by the ACLU of Southern California (ACLU/SC) and the County of Orange, the county will no longer require observant Muslim women in Orange County Sheriff ’s Department custody to remove religious head coverings in full view of male officers, and will provide temporary headscarves for them to wear while they are in custody. “I praise Allah and thank Him that I live in a country where I can practice my religion freely,” said plaintiff Souhair Khatib. “While not everyone understands Islam or what it requires of me, I’m grateful that the U.S. government protects my right to fulfill my duty to Al-

lah, whether at work, on a public street or, yes, even in a sheriff ’s holding facility.”

a court holding facility, rejecting the county’s argument to the contrary.

The ACLU/SC and the law firm of Troutman Sanders LLP sued the county in 2007 on behalf of Khatib, a devout Muslim woman who had her probation on a misdemeanor charge temporarily revoked when she appeared in court to ask for an extension of time to complete community service. When she was booked at the court’s holding facility, a male officer ordered her to remove her hijab — the scarf worn by religious Muslim women. She tried to explain that doing so in front of male strangers would violate her religious beliefs, but was told that officers would do it for her if she didn’t comply. She removed the hijab, and spent most of a day with her hair and neck uncovered in view of male officers and inmates.

“The Constitution protects the right to religious expression of all of us, even if we’ve been accused of a crime,” said Belinda Escobosa Helzer, director of the ACLU/ SC’s Orange County office. “Congress underscored that when it passed RLUIPA to protect prisoners’ religious rights. The county doesn’t escape that just because the holding facility is located in a courthouse.”

In March, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals found that the Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act of 2000 (RLUIPA), which requires prison officials to “protect institutionalized persons who are unable freely to attend to their religious needs,” applied to

Finding a Job After Prison November 1, 2011 by Joyce Richman

others.

Q: “I’ve recently been released from prison and want to get back into my profession. I’ve been trying to re-hone my skills but given my felony record am I just spinning my wheels? What do I say when I’m asked about the lapse in my employment

Address the lapses in your employment history in a truthful and straightforward way. You mentioned “re-honing your skills”. Describe how you’ve continued your education during and following the time you were imprisoned; and the preparations you have made for the career direction you are taking. Describe your past accomplishments and your ability to contribute to the future success of the company you’d like to join.

A:You’re not spinning your wheels, you will find employment, and you will have some real challenges ahead. Let’s start with the first hurdles to overcome, and go from there: Responsible employers will not want to put you, their employees, or the public the company serves, into situations that create the perception, real or imagined, of danger. Therefore, sit down with your parole officer and counselor before you interview. Identify work environments and interpersonal situations to avoid and those that are appropriate to approach. Candidly discuss the reasonable, practical, and emotional concerns that prospective employers and their employees might have, given your recent history. Prepare yourself to respond to those fears in ways that not only demonstrate self-awareness, but also describe the conscious changes you’ve made in your behavior and your ability to respond to

Your challenge, and it’s a big one, is getting the interviewer to focus on what you’re saying and not on where you’ve been and what got you there. To accomplish that, address what concerns them most. Ask prospective employers to ask you any and all work related questions or concerns they have relative to your history in or out of prison. Ask them to describe the challenges they believe you will confront at their place of business. Then answer those concerns in an honest and forthright manner. Q: I’m concerned about the application form. How can I answer the question about felonies so that my job application won’t get tossed as soon as my response

“I’m happy we were able to help Mrs. Khatib protect her First Amendment rights,” said Jennifer Mathis, a partner with Troutman Sanders LLP in the firm’s Orange County office. “The injunctive relief that we were able to obtain in the settlement with the county will also ensure that the First Amendment rights of others will be similarly protected.” As part of the agreement, the county will also train law enforcement officers on the new policy, and pay $85,000 in damages, fees and court costs. [Source: ACLU Southern California]

is read? A: Answer that question and every question truthfully. Will your application be tossed? It’s likely that it will. What can you do about it? There’s more to all of us than can be demonstrated on an application or resume. Talk to the people who know you best, stood by you, and are willing to take a chance on you. Those individuals, directly or indirectly, may know people who hire people. You’re asking for a chance to tell an employer your story: your work history, why you were arrested, what you’ve learned as a result, and your efforts to now make good on the rest of your life. Q: How can I regain my self-respect? My confidence is gone. I’m afraid to get out there and tell my story. What can I do to move forward? A: I’ve never been in your shoes. I cannot begin to know what you feel. But others have been there. Ask your parole officer and your counselor for help in finding individuals who have been able to make a successful transition and who would be willing to talk with you and counsel you through a very tough time. I do know this. A comeback takes time, patience and incremental steps. It takes

the capacity to accept responsibility and accountability for the choices that you’ve made in the past and will make in the future. It requires asking forgiveness from those you have, by intention or omission, caused physical pain or emotional suffering. It takes reaching out to those who are strong when you’re weak and tender when you’re hurt. It takes all that, and enough people who are willing to say, “I’ll give you another chance.” **** Joyce Richman (www.richmanresources. com) has been specializing in executive and career coaching since 1982. She works in a variety of environments including: higher education, manufacturing, sales, marketing, media, technology, pharmaceuticals, medicine, banking and finance, service, IT, and non-profit sectors. A member of the adjunct faculty at the Center for Creative Leadership, Joyce is certified to administer a number of feedback and psychological instruments. Joyce is a weekly guest on WFMY-TV and the career columnist for The Greensboro News & Record. She is the author of Roads, Routes and Ruts: A Guidebook to Career Success and co-author of Getting Your Kid Out of the House and Into a Job. A popular speaker, Richman conducts conducted seminars and workshops throughout the United States, Canada and Europe. Her coaching profile can be found at TheCoachingAssociation.com.


48 | Hijrah | April 2013

Advice from Brothers Who’ve Made It On the Outside: Work It !

assistance that is due to them from the state and federal government. “One brother comes to me and asks me for $20. I told him that I will drive him down to the [DC] office where he can pick up $50 that is due to him as an ex-offender, then I will take out $20 from that and give it to him and keep the rest,” said the Washington DC brother jokingly. “Unfortunately, this wrong thinking makes brothers depend on others and their family members for cash hand-outs, when they could use the assistance and get back on their feet quicker.”

Hijrah staff spoke to a few dedicated and hard working brothers in the Muslim community who served between 3 and 22 years in federal prison. We asked them what advice would they give to Muslim brothers and sisters coming out of prison and back into society.

Other brothers told Hijrah that brothers use the “I don’t want anything from the non-Muslims” as an excuse to be lazy and avoid the hard work and sacrifice it takes to become financially stable.

One brother from Washington DC said brothers need to get out of the wrong-headed mentality that “I won’t take anything from the non-Muslims”. With this wrong thinking, they don’t take grants, financial assistance, job training and placement opportunities, and other social

Al-Bukhari recorded a hadith narrated by Hakim bin Hizam who said the Prophet Sallallahu ‘alyhi wa sallam said, “The upper hand is better than the lower hand (i.e. he who gives in charity is better than him who takes it). One should start giving first to his dependents. And the best object of charity is that which is given by a wealthy

The Power of Words Allah Revealed “Iqra” -- Read -- and He Swore By the Pen. Words are important because they form your thoughts and your views. The Prophet Sallallahu ‘alyhi wa sallam said ‘say something good or keep silent’. Learn words and use them for good. Here are what some well known personalities said about words: Handle them carefully, for words have more power than atom bombs. --Pearl Strachan

say and keep on saying it. --Robert Frost Wise men talk because they have something to say; fools, because they have to say something. – Plato To speak and to speak well are two things. A fool may talk, but a wise man speaks. --Ben Jonson Language has three important uses--it expresses thought, conceals thought, and takes the place of thought. --Unknown Words are plentiful; deeds are precious.-Lech Walesa After all is said and done, more is said than done. --Unknown

Speech is the mirror of the soul; as a man speaks, so he is. --Publilius Syrus

We have too many high sounding words, and too few actions that correspond with them. --Abigail Adams

Be careful of your thoughts; they may become words at any moment. --Ira Gassen

Words calculated to catch everyone may catch no one. --Adlai E. Stevenson Jr.

The trouble with talking too fast is you may say something you haven't thought of yet. --Ann Landers

We do not need to proselytise either by our speech or by our writing. We can only do so really with our lives. --Mahatma Gandhi

No man means all he says, and yet very few say all they mean, for words are slippery and thought is viscous. --Henry B. Adams Half the world is composed of people who have something to say and can't, and the other half who have nothing to

The flood of careless, unconsidered, cheap words is the greatest enemy of the profound word. -- Stephen L. Talbott The words we say will teach if we practice what we preach. --Unknown

person (from the money which is left after his expenses). And whoever abstains from asking others for some financial help, Allah will give him and save him from asking others, Allah will make him self-sufficient.” The brother from Washington DC said that many young brothers in prison spend their time watching TV, playing sports, or just engaging in leisure activities. “Instead of wasting their time, and instead of taking simple jobs like laundry, they should take advantage of the training in prison and learn dry wall, or carpentry, or masonry, or electrical work. Once they get out, they can earn money because an electrician in prison does the same things that an electrician outside of prison does. But brothers waste their time,” he told Hijrah. Former inmate and former Virginia Islamic chaplain Mahdi Bray said the best advice he has for inmates is to do their time wisely, spending in education and training. He also said brothers and sisters need to really look at who they are spending their time with, because good friends will help keep you on the right path.

Among my most prized possessions are words that I have never spoken. --Orson Rega Card The bitterest tears shed over graves are for words left unsaid and deeds left undone.--Harriet Beecher Stowe When you have spoken the word, it reigns over you. When it is unspoken you reign over it. --Arabian Proverb

The true genius shudders at incompleteness - and usually prefers silence to saying something which is not everything it should be. --Edgar Allan Poe The difference between the right word and the almost right word is the difference between lightning and the lightning bug. --Mark Twain

Speak when you are angry and you will make the best speech you will ever regret. --Ambrose Bierce

I am annoyed by individuals who are embarrassed by pauses in a conversation. To me, every conversational pause refreshes. --George Sanders

If you wouldn't write it and sign it, don't say it. --Earl Wilson

The most precious things in speech are the pauses. --Sir Ralph Richardson

When you are arguing with a fool, make sure he isn't doing the same thing. —Unknown

Wisdom is the reward for a lifetime of listening ... when you'd have preferred to talk. --D.J. Kaufman

If it takes a lot of words to say what you have in mind - give it more thought. --Dennis Roth

Great minds talk about ideas, Average minds talk about things, Small minds talk about other people. --Unknown

It is with words as with sunbeams, the more they are condensed, the deeper they burn --Robert Southey

Don't speak unless you can improve on the silence. --Spanish Proverb

Good communication is as stimulating as black coffee, and just as hard to sleep after. --Anne Morrow Lindbergh The real art of conversation is not only to say the right thing at the right place but to leave unsaid the wrong thing at the tempting moment. --Dorothy Nevill

Of those who say nothing, few are silent. --Thomas Neiel Never miss a good chance to shut up. – Will Rogers One of the lessons of history is that nothing is often a good thing to do and always a clever thing to say. --Will Durant


Hijrah | April 2013 | 49

Why Muslim Fathers Have to Man Up Written by Yahya Whitmer There is an old saying that goes “it takes a village to raise a child”. To me, that statement emphasizes the tremendous impact that a child’s environment and peers has on his or her development.

at the popular media that is targeted to youth, such as MTV and hip-hop, and you might get upset with me for understating the problem. And as I often have to point out, the Muslim community is not mystically protected. Just because our children are named Aisha and Mu-

In a hadith narrated by Imam Muslim, the Prophet (alayhis-salaam) mentioned that sheep shepherds are meek and humble, whereas the caretakers of camels are proud and arrogant, indicating that these human beings are influenced by the innate character of the animals that they take care of. In commenting on this hadeeth, the Ulama have long mentioned that if people are susceptible to being influenced by the character of animals, then how much more susceptible must they be to being influenced by other people and cultures? Now, please take time to think about this in relation to the situation with Muslim families today. Take a quick scan of mainstream culture; check out what is playing on TV or in the cinema, what are the popular stories on the internet, see what your average co-worker or potential classmate for your child is talking about. While there are positive nuggets to be found, the overwhelming majority of what is buzzing and rumbling in the cloud of mainstream culture is petty, selfish, and indulgent, and “Muslim” cultures are not exempt from this. This is our new, global village. Our children deserve better. And the only person that can provide them what they deserve is you, Allah willing. “Each of you is a shepherd and each of you shall be asked about his flock”(Bukhari and Muslim) is what the Prophet (alayhis-salam) told us. Was there ever a time in history where this hadeeth has been more pertinent to a Muslim parent? Has there ever been a time where adultery, disrespect for parents, heedlessness of the Creator, rudeness, and intoxication, which are sins condemned by all the world’s major faiths, are not just accepted, but actually advertised to children? I dearly wish that I was exaggerating, that I was some turbaned version of Glenn Beck, but take one long, eye-searing look

answer is that the level of involvement of Muslim Mothers in the upbringing of our Ummah’s children is relatively high; look at Muslim parenting websites, masjid activities geared towards children, etc. and you will find that the majority of participants are mothers. Or even better, speak with the youth of your local community and ask them about their relationship with their parents. When it comes to their mothers, many may even complain that their mothers are too involved, “nosy”, or “smothering”. Ask them about their fathers and you will often get blank expressions, and vague, shy answers that they don’t spend much time together. Our sisters were not meant to bear this tremendous responsibility alone. Children need the unique dynamics that a father and a mother

Ask them about their fathers and you will often get blank expressions, and vague, shy answers that they don’t spend much time together. hammad, or because someone’s great grandfather was a hafiz of the Quran, does not bestow a quasi-magical barrier of protection from society’s ills. Through research and personal accounts, I can guarantee you that our children fall prey to the same immorality that the children of all other communities suffer from. Permit me to lift the veil for just one moment: amongst Muslim youth, I know stories of zina, alcohol and drug use (including kids in Hifz school), apostasy, and even incest. We are not immune! These children needed a protector. They needed a true Muslim Father. Let me address the inevitable question: Why am I talking about Muslim Fathers and not Muslim Mothers? The simple

bring to a family. Allah has created everything with an inherent nature and purpose, as indicated by the Prophet’s statement (alayhis-salam), “People are minerals like the minerals of gold and silver, the best of them before Islam are the best of them in Islam when they obtain knowledge and understanding.” (Bukhari and Muslim). There is a specific role that men are supposed to play in the family, modern gender politics be damned. Failing to live up to that role is failure to be a man. Our Creator said, “men are the caretakers (Qawwamoon) of women” (An-Nisaa’, 34). I understand that this verse has often been used as a bludgeon to enforce female subservience to their husbands, but that is the result of a backwards and impotent culture, and has nothing to do with our Creator’s

intent in revealing this verse. As always, our salvation comes from the Sunnah of the Messenger (alayhis-salam). In dealing with his wives and children, the Prophet (alayhis-salam) demonstrated kindness, consideration, compassion, and patience that would put any modern relationship guru to shame. And he sealed the issue by saying, “The best of you is the one who is best to his family, and I am the best amongst you to my family” (At-Tirmidhi, declared Saheeh by Al-Albaani) emphasizing that his implementation of Qawwamah is the only authentic one, and it is not open to a new American, Arab, Pakistani, or other interpretation. To reiterate: failure to be strong, kind, and caring to your family is failure to be a true man and Believer. There has never been a time when families have been more in need of this strong, caring figure. We live in an age where we can take nothing for granted. Can you wholly entrust your child’s education to the public school system, especially in such an evolving and dynamic world? Thousands of educators and experts have written about the inherent flaws of our school system and those flaws are present in any school that models itself after that system (i.e. Islamic schools). Is the food in our supermarkets safe? Again, the testimony of countless experts highlights significant dangers in the way our food is produced. What about your child’s physical development? Hours and hours of play every day were once typical for a child, but current cultural trends are more likely to steer your child towards hours in front of the TV or computer. And what about their spiritual life? Is it enough to send them to Quran class on Saturday and Sunday? Would memorizing and reciting lines from Grey’s Anatomy be enough to make them competent physicians? What about the immorality promoted by modern media channels that I discussed earlier? The list goes on and on, the challenges are relentless, and Muslim families will be overwhelmed, unless they can come together, cooperate, and help each other in the path to their Creator. This endeavor, like all great endeavors, needs a leader. That leader is supposed to be the Muslim Father. And Allah knows best. Source: muslimdads.blogspot.com


50 | Hijrah | April 2013

Smile Parenting: The Prophetic Approach Lines from the diary of a child speaking about his happy childhood: "My father was always cheerful and his smile never left his face, even in the most difficult situations. This smile meant a great deal to us as it revealed how much our father loves us. This smile used to force us to behave properly and avoid mistakes so as not to anger our father and miss his smile even for a second. “My father’s smile was the source of our psychological balance. It provided us with warmth, confidence, frankness and courage in the face of hardships. May Allaah reward him with the best." Some parents and educators adopt the frowning method in dealing with their children. Hence, they avoid speaking with them cordially or smiling at them. They believe that there should be strict limits between parents and their children so that they can succeed in their upbringing. They think that smiling and cheerfulness with children will spoil them, while frowning and sullenness represent the discipline and resolve that are necessary for any successful upbringing. Unfortunately, we are sorry to tell such people that this is the approach of the weak, who have not mastered the art of entering into the hearts, even the hearts of the closest people to them: their children! People with great souls are the only ones who can always be cheerful with their children, while they control the process of upbringing in such a way that ensures their children are close enough to learn from them and obey their orders within a warm family environment. The wise educator can direct his child through his smile and look, embrace him compassionately, and treat his mistakes with patience. This little smile may be of great importance and influence on the child, especially that he receives it from his source of protection and role model. Cheerfulness is from the guidance of the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:

The guidance of the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, regarding cheerfulness, is amazing. He was always cheerful and used to smile at his Companions. Jareer bin ‘Abdullaah Al-Bajali, may Allaah be pleased with him, said, “Whenever the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, saw me after I had embraced Islam, he would receive me with a smile.” [AlBukhaari] This was not confined to Jareer, may Allaah be pleased with him, as ‘Abdullaah bin Al-Haarith, may Allaah be pleased with him, said, “I have never seen anyone who smiles more than the Prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam.” [Al-Albaani: Saheeh] Umm Ad-Dardaa’, may Allaah be pleased

‘alayhi wa sallam, when we were invited to have food. On our way, we saw Al-Husayn playing with the boys in the street. The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, hurried and opened his arms. AlHusayn started running here and there while the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, was laughing with him. The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, took him and put one of his hands on his chin and the other between his head and ears, then, he embraced and kissed him and said: 'Husayn belongs to me and I belong to him, may Allaah The Almighty love whoever loves him. Al-Hasan and AlHusayn are two of the noblest of men.'" [At-Tabaraani] [Al-Albaani: Hasan] The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, also taught us that a smile may sustain others, especially those who

“Whenever the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, saw me after I had embraced Islam, he would receive me with a smile.” [Al-Bukhaari] with her, said, “Abu Ad-Dardaa’ used to smile whenever he spoke. So I told him to stop doing this for fear that people may think that he was simple minded. However, Abu Ad-Dardaa’, may Allaah be pleased with him, said, ‘I have never seen or heard the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, speaking without smiling.’” Hence, he used to smile whenever he spoke in imitation of the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was very caring, thoughtful and compassionate towards children. It was never reported that he frowned at any child throughout his life; rather, whenever he met them, he would smile at them even if he was accompanied by his honorable Companions. In a Hadeeth on the authority of Jaabir, may Allaah be pleased with him, he said, "We were with the Prophet, sallallaahu

are under our care. The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said: “You cannot please all people with your money, but you could do this through your cheerfulness and good morals.” [Muslim] Is there any of us who does not need to please his children through his cheerfulness and good morals? Is there anyone who does not need to do so today, when he sees that the educator’s mission has become one of the most difficult on earth? The protection of children against immorality and other social problems have become issues that require a great deal of supplication and great balance in the personality of the educator, to be able to sustain his children and establish a successful relationship with them. This relationship serves as gravity that always attracts them to their good origins and strengthens them in the face of the wild storms of immorality that blow from all directions.

This is the default principle in dealing with one’s children: Smiling at our children is the default principle as we learned from the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, while frowning should be an educational punishment that should be used wisely and only when necessary. Certainly, cheerfulness strengthens the relationship between the educator and the child, while frowning causes the child to dislike his parent and weakens their mutual love. ‘Umar bin Al-Khattaab, may Allaah be pleased with him, said, “One should be like a young boy among his family, but when he is needed as a man, he should be so.” The meaning is that cheerfulness and good morals as well as joking with one’s family and children is the best way to lead them, provided that this does not affect the parent’s respect. You may even use what is called “the angry smile” when you punish or blame your child as a form of silent-yet-effective punishment. The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, taught us how to use the smile even when we are angry. Ka‘b bin Maalik, may Allaah be pleased with him, narrated his story when he did not participate in the Battle of Tabook without a valid excuse. He said, “When news reached me that the Messenger of Allaah was on his way back from Tabook, I was greatly distressed… I greeted him, he smiled, and there was a tinge of anger in that. He, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, then said to me: 'Come forward' . I went forward and I sat in front of him. He, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said to me: `What kept you back?’” [Al-Bukhaari and Muslim] Therefore, smile, dear educator! A sense of humor helps children get rid of the feelings of anger and embarrassment. It also spreads happiness in the house and warmth in the heart in addition to providing children with a feeling of safety that they would miss if their educator was one of those who adhere to the frowning method. German psychiatrists’ studies proved >>> SMILE II pg 35


Hijrah | April 2013 | 51

Masjid Al-Haram In Makkah -- Expansion Plan Is Underway!


52 | Hijrah | April 2013 Por el Sheij Saleh as-Sindi (que Allah lo preserve) Profesor de la Universidad Islámica de Madinah, Arabia Saudita La felicidad es un objetivo común que todos se esfuerzan para alcanzar. Filósofos, intelectuales, doctores, y artistas igual, todos están en búsqueda de lo que lleva a la felicidad y la manera de escapar la ansiedad. La realidad es, sin embargo, que las soluciones que se presentan solo logran traer una parte de la felicidad o una felicidad imaginaria. Son más o menos como las drogas que se consumen para sentir un alivio temporal, pero cuando el efecto se acaba, la ansiedad regresa dos veces más fuerte. Este artículo en frente de ti, te invita a la felicidad absoluta y completa y te llevará de la mano al éxito verdadero. Antes de que comiences (a leer), me gustaría tomar un momento y tratar de abrir tu corazón y mente a este concepto (de la felicidad). El individuo inteligente busca la verdad y acepta la verdad y no le importa donde se encuentre. La realidad que no se puede negar es que la felicidad permanente no se puede lograr sino por la creencia en Dios y siguiendo Sus órdenes (guía, mandamientos). Como Él fue el que creó a la humanidad, entonces significa que Él sabe lo que les complace y beneficia y lo que los entristece y lo que les hace daño. Varios filósofos han admitido que las personas religiosas llevan vidas contentas y sin preocupaciones. Así que si creer en Dios le lleva a una persona a la felicidad absoluta y completa, entonces ¿cómo podemos lograrlo? Existen cantidades de religiones y una variedad de credos, y quienes los analicen se darán cuenta que difieren en cuestiones esenciales por lo que es imposible que todas sean correctas. Entonces, ¿Cuál es la religión correcta, y cuál es el credo correcto, con el que Dios está complacido y nos obliga a creer? ¿Cuál de estos credos nos garantiza la felicidad en esta vida y en la vida después de la muerte? Antes de que enfrente estas preguntas, debemos primero establecer una base correcta que luego usaremos para dirigirnos a la religión y al credo correcto: Cualquier individuo inteligente estará

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de acuerdo en que el ser criado en una cierta religión, o en una sociedad particular, y con padres que se adhieren a esa religión, no exige que sea correcta. (Esto es cierto) Mientras no haya otras evidencias sustanciales para demostrar

El Islam es una religión que incluye una serie de características que no existen en otras religiones y contiene evidencias sustanciales que establecen que es la religión verdadera enviada por Dios. Se puede validar la autenticidad de esta de-

¿Buscando la felicidad?

Una llamada a los no-musulmanes

y convencer a lo contrario. Dado que es la inteligencia que nos distingue de los animales, debemos aplicar nuestra inteligencia mientras estudiamos un tema tan grave e importante como este. Un viaje corto en el mundo de las religiones y cambiando a través de los credos diversos es método bueno para alcanzar a la conclusión deseada. Con el fin de ahorrar tiempo y esfuerzo, yo diré con plena convicción y confianza, que no importa cuánto investigues este tema, tú llegaras a una realidad, que la religión verdadera y correcta es el Islam, y en esta religión se encuentra la felicidad verdadera (y completa). Antes de que refutes esta declaración y pares de leer, por favor ten en cuenta que completando el resto (de este artículo) no te hará ningún daño, y posiblemente puede beneficiarte. Tu eres un ser inteligente, y es con la inteligencia que se distinguen las cosas, y tú puedes distinguir la verdad de la falsedad. ¿Por qué el Islam? Es una pregunta importante indicando que la persona preguntando tiene una mente e intelecto sano, para responder yo digo:

claración por medio de reflexión calmada y profunda sobre lo siguiente: El Islam tiene muchos méritos y características y se nos hace imposible explicar todas, pero, yo presentare algunas que se pueden resumir con lo siguiente: Entre los grandes méritos del Islam es que cumple con los aspectos espirituales del ser humano y permite a quienes lo adopten tener una conexión continua con Dios. Esto hace posible poder estar en paz espiritualmente. Protege del caos, de estar perdido, y de estar espiritualmente ansioso o inestable. Otro de los méritos del Islam es que nunca está en contradicción con el intelecto. Todas las legislaciones islámicas y sus veredictos pueden ser reconocidos intelectualmente, y nunca pueden contradecir la inteligencia. Cuando una persona acepta el Islam y se le pregunta por qué lo hizo, él responde: "El Islam nunca me ordeno a hacer algo que después deseaba (o prefería) no hacer, y nunca me prohibió hacer algo que después deseaba (o prefería) hacer." Es difícil aceptar muchos de los principios que están presentes en otras religiones, principios que causan confusión, llevando a la persona a pensar mucho sobre los aspectos esenciales de otras

religiones. Por otro lado, encontramos que el Islam respeta a la inteligencia, y prohíbe la ignorancia y condena la obediencia ciega (es decir la obediencia sin conocimiento o el seguir por seguir sin conocimiento o entendimiento). El Islam une a ambos, la vida religiosa y la mundana, y da atención a lo espiritual y a lo físico. Practicando el Islam no significa que uno tiene que estar aislado siguiendo un comportamiento específico. No prohíbe participar en las cosas buenas de la vida. Al contrario, un musulmán puede ser religioso y también tener una vida normal y participar en las cosas que ofrece la vida, permitiéndole que alcance posiciones altas y lograr alcanzar éxitos mayores. Entre los méritos del Islam está que es una religión completa y comprensiva. Cada aspecto de la vida de una persona se rige por el Islam. No hay ningún problema excepto que se encuentra una solución en el Islam que lo hace posible aceptar y practicar en cada periodo de tiempo o lugar. ¿Cómo no será esto el caso? Es una religión bien organizada, que tiene sus reglas y reglamentos para cada aspecto de la vida, empezando con las reglas de jurisprudencia y mediación, y continuando con las reglas del comercio (que incluye la compra, venta, y el intercambio), reglas sobre las relaciones sociales y matrimoniales, y terminando con las normas acerca de cómo se saluda, la manera de caminar, igualmente las normas de cómo una persona se debe comportar en asuntos personales como el dormir, comer, y la vestimenta. Todas estas normas se tratan en detalle, causando que la mente pause en maravilla. Se debe saber que el Islam hasta da instrucción sobre cómo ponerse y quitarse los zapatos, y anima a la gente utilizar la mano derecha cuando come, bebe, dando la mando, y hasta cuando damos y recibimos artículos. Y en cuanto a los asuntos detestables, por ejemplo el uso del baño, entonces se usa la mano izquierda. Cuando es hora de dormir, el Islam tiene instrucciones maravillosas en relación al dormir y al despertar. Cuando dos musulmanes se encuentran, el Islam rige como se deben saludar; el conductor debe iniciar el saludo con el peatón, los jóvenes deben iniciar el saludo con los mayores, y un grupo pequeño debe iniciar el saludo con un grupo más grande. Esto es solo algunos de los reglamentos comprensivos del Islam para los aspectos de la vida.


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Entre los méritos del Islam es que establece el bien para la humanidad en todas sus normas y protege del mal, y es la humanidad misma que se beneficia de estas normas. Cuando el Islam prohíbe el alcohol o las drogas, por ejemplo, es solamente por el daño grave que tiene sobre la mente y la salud del individuo. Tú puedes ver el estado de un hombre borracho, ya no es humano excepto en apariencia. Una gran cantidad de asesinatos, disputas, accidentes de tráfico, y violaciones sexuales no pasarían si no fuera por el consumo de estos productos que alteran la mente. El Islam prohíbe relaciones sexuales fuera del matrimonio para que la humanidad evite enfermedades destructivas como el SIDA y las demás, y para qué sociedades puedan ser libres de malos modales y evitar la existencia de generaciones bastardas, en las cuales niños son privados del amor de la madre y la cultivación del padre, una generación que puede resultar ser problemática para la sociedad. El Islam les prohíbe a las mujeres mostrar sus cuerpos en público o en la presencia de hombres extraños, esto es debido a que el Islam considera a las mujeres como seres estimados, perlas valiosas, y no mercadería barata para ser mostrada ante la mirada de todos. (El Islam) Lo hace para proteger a las mujeres de los lobos de la humanidad que solo se preocupan (y les importa) satisfacer sus deseos aunque sea a costa del honor, nobleza, estado, y la pureza de las mujeres. Por otro lado, el Islam permite toda clase de bebidas beneficiosas e inofensivas. Permite a las parejas casadas disfrutar de relaciones sexuales dentro de un hogar feliz. En conclusión, el Islam no limita la libertad. Solo lo regula para el beneficio de la humanidad y la sociedad en la que vivimos. Un aspecto radiante del Islam es que da gran atención a los modales elogiables y le prohíbe a la humanidad la opresión, transgresión, y malos modales. El Islam es una religión de unidad y misericordia. (El Islam) Regula la relación de un individuo con sus padres, parientes, vecinos, amigos, y toda la gente. (El Islam) Siembra los mejor modales en aquel que cree en él y evita que lleve un estilo de vida egoísta. Le exige a que ayude a los demás, a tomar otros en consideración

como a los pobres, a los huérfanos, a los ancianos, y a las viudas. Todos ellos tienen derechos en el Islam que no deben tomarse a la ligera por los musulmanes. Los musulmanes no deben sentir que les están concediendo favores a los demás cuando dándoles sus derechos es más bien una obligación. Es considerado un pecado en el Islam irse a dormir con el estómago lleno sabiendo que su vecino está hambriento.

normas más importantes para aquellos que desean aprender.

El Islam prohíbe incluso que dos personas se susurren en la presencia de un tercero, teniendo en cuenta sus sentimientos. El Islam va aún más lejos obligándonos a tratar a los animales con cariño y prohibiéndonos lastimarlos. De los reglamentos del Islam en estas cuestiones es que se prohíbe el sacrificio de un animal mientras otros animales están mirando, o afilar un cuchillo mientras el animal está mirando, para no matarlo dos veces (es decir para no asustarlo y causarle trauma antes del sacrificio).

El creer en Allah (Dios) solamente, sin asociarle compañeros en adoración:

La honestidad, la fiabilidad, la valentía, la generosidad, la humildad, y el respetar y cumplir las promesas son todos modales y gestos que el Islam exige, además de visitar a los enfermos, asistir a funerales, siendo obedientes y respetuosos a los padres, visitando a los parientes y a los vecinos, y ayudando a los demás. Por otro lado, el Islam totalmente prohíbe la opresión, la mentira, la vanidad, los celos, la burla, el insulto, o el engaño y la traición hacia los demás. No es permisible en el Islam que alguien hable mal de otra persona en su ausencia, incluso aunque lo que se diga sea verdad. (El Islam) Exige a la gente que tome un camino balanceado con relación al gastar el dinero, ni ser derrochadores o tacaños. Durante momentos cuando muchas sociedades protestan sobre la frialdad, el materialismo, la vanidad, y lo demás, encontramos que el Islam tiene las soluciones para todos estos problemas.

Todos los reglamentos y las enseñanzas del Islam son importantes, pero hay algunas que son más importantes que otras, y son los seis artículos de la fe que se deben creer, y los cinco pilares que se deben practicar. Los seis artículos que se deben creer son:

Esto se cumple por medio de creer que Allah sólo es el Creador de este universo y todo lo que existe dentro de él, y que Él es el único que dispone de los asuntos como mejor Le parezca. Dado que este es el caso, por lo tanto la adoración (completa) debe ser ofrecida a Él solamente. La adoración significa realizar las normas del Islam e implementar la legislación del Islam mientras creer que todas las otras religiones son falsas. El creer en los Ángeles: Los Ángeles fueron creados por Allah pero no los podemos ver. Ellos adoran a Allah y nunca lo desobedecen. Allah les ordena que lleven a cabo muchos de los asuntos del universo. El ángel Gabriel, por ejemplo, que la paz de Allah esté con él, les comunica la revelación de Allah a los mensajeros. Otro (ángel) es Mikail, que la paz de Allah esté con él. Él está a cargo de los asunto de la lluvia. Entre los Ángeles también hay algunos que están encargados de escribir las obras de la humanidad, las obras de las que tendrán que rendir cuentas en el Día de la Resurrección. Es esencial creer que estos Ángeles sólo actúan por la orden de Allah y sólo hacen lo que Él quiere. El creer en los libros revelados:

Si lo que ha precedido te ha dado una introducción básica al Islam y algunos de sus méritos, entonces sería apropiado mencionar aquí que el Islam es una religión clara que es fácil de entender, es una religión que tiene sus puertas abiertas y no se cierran para aquella persona que desea que permanezcan abiertas.

Esto se cumple por creer que Allah les reveló libros a Sus siervos conteniendo Sus palabras. Son libros que contienen la receta para la felicidad de la humanidad, aclarando todo lo que le complace a Allah y todo lo que le disgusta. El ángel que está encargado de comunicar la revelación a los profetas es Gabriel, que la paz de Allah esté con él, el mejor de todos los Ángeles. Y luego el profeta comparte la revelación con el resto de la humanidad.

Dado que la comprensión de todos los reglamentos del Islam con un artículo breve como esté es imposible, debemos por lo menos aclarar y exponer sobre las

Allah ha revelado muchos libros, entre ellos están: la Tora que fue enviado a Moisés, que la paz de Allah esté con él, el Zabur (los salmos) que fue revelado a

Hijrah | April 2013 | 53 David, que la paz de Allah esté con él, y el Evangelio que fue enviado a Jesús, que la paz de Allah esté con él, y el Corán que fue revelado a Muhammad, que la paz de Allah esté con él. Uno debe creer que todos estos libros han sido abrogados por el Corán, significando que ahora es el único libro que debe ser obedecido después de la llegada del profeta final (Muhammad). El Corán combina todos los méritos de los libros anteriores y los complementa. Se debe saber que el Corán es una de las evidencias más grandes de que el Islam es la religión autentica, revelada por Allah (Dios) el Majestuoso. El Corán fue revelado hace 1.400 años. Desde ese día hasta hoy, ningún error o contradicción ha sido descubierto en el Corán, ni una letra fuera de lugar. Descubrimientos científicos modernos revelados en el Corán aún se están descubriendo hoy en día. Desde que fue revelado hasta hoy, nada ha sido añadido ni restado del Corán, que no es el caso con las revelaciones anteriores. Es por esta razón que tú puedes coger una copia del Corán en el lejano oriente y descubrirás que es exactamente igual como una copia en el lejano oeste. Si tú te tropiezas con una copia del Corán que tiene más de cientos de años de edad, también descubrirás que dice exactamente lo mismo que uno que se está imprimiendo actualmente, no podrás encontrar ni siquiera una letra de diferencia. Esto es debido a la protección de Allah sobre este libro, un libro que ha sellado todas las demás religiones. Hablar sobre el Corán tomaría mucho tiempo, pero es suficiente para ti saber que no hay nada parecido en términos de literatura, el efecto que tiene sobre la gente, y en términos de pronosticar eventos del futuro e igualmente eventos que han pasado. El creer en los profetas: Esta se cumple por creer que Allah ha escogido a las mejores personas de la humanidad para enviar Su revelación y les ha ordenado que transmitan Su religión a la demás gente. Han habido muchos profetas, entre ellos están: Noé, Abraham, David, Salomón, Lot, José, Moisés, y otros, que la paz de Allah estén con todos ellos. Entre ellos está Jesús, y es imperativo creer que él fue uno de los mejores profetas, y se le debe amar y respetar. Quien lo odie y niegue que fue un profeta no es un musulmán. Asimismo es obliga-


54 | Hijrah | April 2013 torio creer que Allah lo creó de sólo una madre, sin padre, ya que Allah fue capaz de creer a Adán sin madre ni padre. Después de haber mencionado esto, ahora sabemos que Jesús fue un mensajero noble y no Dios, ni es el hijo de Dios. Él predijo la llegada de un profeta que vendría después de él; Muhammad el hijo de Abdullah, el último de los profetas, no habrá ningún profeta después de él. Él es Muhammad, el hijo de Abdullah, que la paz de Allah esté con él, quien fue enviado hace 1.400 años, y es obligatorio para todos, que vinieron después de él hasta el Día del Juicio, creer en él, en su mensaje, y obedecer sus órdenes y prohibiciones. Todos aquellos que han estudiado la biografía de este mensajero están de acuerdo que él es una gran persona, que ha sido concedido por Allah, con los mejores modales y características. Él tenía características que no estaban presentes en nadie antes de él, y no estarán presentes en nadie después de él. Cualquier cosa que leas sobre él, no importa que pequeño sea, confirmará lo que estoy diciendo. Allah también le ha concedido evidencias que establecen la autenticidad de su profecía, que hace imposible dudar este punto. Después de haber sido concedido tales evidencias de su profecía, aquel que niega su veracidad le será imposible también creer en la autenticidad de cualquier otro profeta. La creencia en el Último Día (el Día del Juicio): Esto se cumple por creer firmemente que después de que se acabe esta vida, hay otra vida más completa. Hay una recompensa enorme y lujos maravillosos en ella, igualmente castigos (para aquellos que lo merecen). El lujo está en el paraíso y el castigo está en el infierno. Así que cualquiera que sea justo y crea en la religión del Islam entrará al paraíso, un lugar que contiene lujos y felicidades que no se pueden imaginar. Aquel que entre al paraíso continuará a vivir una vida llena de estos lujos por eternidad, donde la muerte no existe. Y para aquellos que actúan mal y no creen en el Islam, ellos terminarán en el infierno que contiene fuego y castigos que no se pueden imaginar. Todos los fuegos de la tierra y los tipos de castigos no se comparan al castigo del infierno.

DA’WA TO SHARE La existencia del castigo y la recompensa después de esta vida es un asunto que es reconocido intelectualmente, porque es imposible que el mundo exista y después simplemente se reduzca a nada. Esto sería un asunto insignificante, y nuestro Señor, el Creador, no se involucra en asuntos insignificantes. El creer en el decreto divino: Esto se cumple por creer que todo lo que ocurre en este mundo se debe al conocimiento y la voluntad de Allah. Nada ocurre excepto que Él lo desea, lo que Él no desea que ocurra no ocurre. Allah ha escrito todo en un gran libro (las escrituras guardadas y protegidas). Creyendo en el decreto divino también incluye creer que Allah creó todo. Y los cinco pilares que se deben practicar son: El Shahada (la declaración de la fe): Es diciendo la frase que es la llave para aceptar el Islam. Es el contrato entre el siervo y su Señor, haciéndolo parte de esta religión (el Islam): "Ashhadu an la ilaha ila Allah, wa ashadu ana Muhammad abduhu wa rasulahu." Atestiguo que no hay nada que se merece adoración salvo Allah, y Muhammad es Su siervo y mensajero. Esto significa que una persona afirma y reconoce que la adoración se ofrece sólo a Allah, además de actuar de acuerdo a lo que requiere, que la religión del Islam es la religión correcta, que Allah es el único que se merece adoración, que todas las demás deidades y religiones son falsas o han sido abrogadas. El Salat (la oración): Es una combinación de dichos, acciones, e invocaciones específicas y maravillosas. La oración se realiza cinco veces al día y no toma mucho tiempo. De hecho, una oración puede durar menos de cinco minutos. La oración es la conexión entre el siervo y su Señor, le permite al musulmán tener confianza, tener paz mentalmente y espiritualmente, estar tranquilo y sin molestias (mundanas). El Zakat (la caridad): El musulmán rico debe dar una porción pequeña de su dinero a los pobres, 2.5 por ciento de su riquezas, para ser exactos. Es

una cantidad pequeña, pero permite a la comunidad musulmana estar unida y tener misericordia entre ellos. Promueve la hermandad, el amor, y la preocupación entre los musulmanes. Y repito, el Zakat (la caridad), es sólo distribuido por los ricos y no los pobres. El Saum (el ayuno): Lo que significa el ayuno es que la persona abstiene de comer, beber, y relaciones sexuales durante el mes de Ramadán, cada año, desde la salida del sol hasta la puesta del sol. Los enfermos, los que están viajando, y los demás que tienen razones válidas son excusados del ayuno, a ellos se les permite comer y beber pero tienen que recuperar los días que faltaron el siguiente año si sus razones han pasado. Ayunando tiene muchos beneficios para la salud, lo personal, y socialmente. Entre ellos están: darle al sistema digestivo un descanso, permitirle a los musulmanes crecer espiritualmente y practicar los buenos modales, y permitirle a los musulmanes estar conscientes de las necesidades de aquellos que no tienen la habilidad de conseguir suficiente comida para satisfacer sus necesidades durante el año entero. Por resultado, los musulmanes les tratan con humildad y se esfuerzan para ayudarlos. El Hayy (el peregrinaje): Es un acto de adoración que se debe cumplir una vez en la vida viajando a la Meca. Los enfermos y aquellos que no tienen la habilidad financiera para realizar (el Hayy) son excusados. Hay muchos beneficios maravillosos del Hayy; la reunión de musulmanes de todo el mundo en un lugar donde se pueden conocer y mostrarse su amor. Además, los musulmanes realizan una purificación espiritual y rectifican sus costumbres debido a la experiencia en un ambiente tan espiritual durante en Hayy. Esto debería ser una explicación suficiente sobre los méritos del Islam. Les llamo a todos los no-musulmanes que escuchen a una persona honesta que solo les desea el bien. Sálvense antes de que la muerte los tome por sorpresa, pues morir como un no-musulmán es una gran pérdida. ¿Sabes lo que significa morir como un no-musulmán? Significa que entraras al infierno, permaneciendo en él por toda eternidad. Esto es lo que Allah ha prometido para aquellos que mueren como

no-musulmanes. Entonces, ¿cómo puedes ser tan imprudente a un asunto tan grave como este? Te voy a hacer una pregunta, y espero que puedas contestarme sinceramente: ¿Qué tienes que perder si aceptas el Islam? Si aceptas el Islam, tú puedes continuar viviendo tu vida diaria normalmente, pero en una manera más espiritual, organizada y agradable, y después de la muerte, tremenda felicidad y lujo eterno te espera. Si tú alcanzas un nivel de certeza, sabiendo que el Islam es la religión verdadera, pero temes que aceptando el Islam te prohíbe disfrutar de los placeres que no puedes abandonar, entonces compara estos placeres temporales con el placer eterno (del paraíso). ¿Cuál de los dos es más importante? Además, tú puedes aceptar el Islam y poco a poco tratar de reducir tales placeres, y si tú invocas a Allah con sinceridad, Él seguramente te ayudará. En cualquier caso, aceptando el Islam y siendo pecador es mejor que no aceptar el Islam en absoluto. Si el rechazo del Islam es debido a que tienes una personalidad débil, la incapacidad de tomar una decisión importante, temor a lo que gente diga de ti, o de las burlas de la gente; sabed que estos son pensamientos que no son realísticos. Tú no serás el primer no-musulmán que acepta el Islam, muchos lo han hecho. Además, ¿puedes arriesgar tu propio bienestar y felicidad en esta vida y en la próxima simplemente porque temes la burla o la amonestación? Este asunto se merece tu tiempo, contemplación, y reflejo profundo. Mis últimas palabras (para ti): ¡No te pierdas! Le pido a Allah que te bendiga con la verdadera guía. Dr. Saleh Abdul Aziz as-Sindi Uno que te desea solamente el bien. Traducido de acuerdo a la petición del Sheij Saleh as-Sindi para ser impreso y distribuido libremente.


ISLAMIC QUESTIONS & ANSWERS How can a person who is jailed in an underground room pray, while he is chained, heedless about prayer times, and does not know that Ramadan started?. Praise be to Allaah. Firstly: We ask Allaah to grant all Muslim prisoners a rapid release, and to grant them patience and consolation by His bounty, and to fill their hearts with peace and certainty of faith, and to make easy for the Muslims a way of guidance whereby His close friends will be honoured and His enemies will be humiliated. Secondly: The scholars have determined that prayer and fasting are not waived for prisoners and detainees, and that what they must do is to try their best to work out the right times. If the prisoner thinks it most likely that the time for prayer has come, then he should pray, and if he thinks it most likely that Ramadaan has come, then he should fast. He can work out the times by noting the times when he is fed, or by asking the guards and so on.

time for praying and fasting, then his worship will be valid and acceptable, whether he finds out later on that he did it at the right time, or after it, or he does not find out anything, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “Allaah burdens not a person beyond his scope” [al-Baqarah 2:286] “Allaah puts no burden on any person beyond what He has given him” [al-Talaaq 65:7] But if he finds out that he fasted on the days of Eid, he should make them up, because fasting on the days of Eid is not valid.

cause he remains accountable and the ruling still applies to him.

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scholars concerning that.

(ii) If he started fasting If he tries to work it out and he before Ramadaan and he did not fasts, then one of the following find out about that until after it five scenarios must apply to him: had finished. There are two opinions as to whether this is accept1 – The problem continues and able: he cannot find out, so he does not know whether he managed to fast (a) It is not acceptable for Ramaat the time of Ramadaan or before daan, rather he has to make it up. it or after it. In this case his fast This is the view of the Maalikis is valid and he does not have to and Hanbalis. repeat it, because he did his best, and he is not required to do any (b) It is acceptable as Ramadaan, more than that. just as if the pilgrims are uncertain of the day of ‘Arafah and they 2 – The fast of the prisoner coin- observe the standing before the cided with Ramadaan, so that is day. This is the view of some of the acceptable. Shaafa’is.

3 – If his fast happened to be afBut if he finds out later on that ter Ramadaan, that is also acceptthat he prayed or fasted before the able according to the majority of proper time, then he has to repeat fuqaha’. the fast or prayer. 4 – There are two possibilities It says in al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhi- with the fourth scenario: yyah (28/84-85): (i) If he started fasting The majority of fuqaha’ are of the before Ramadaan, and he finds view that if the months all seem to out about that before Ramadaan be the same to a person, the fast comes, then he must fast when of Ramadaan is not waived in his Ramadaan comes, and there is no If he tries to work out the right case, rather it is still obligatory be- difference of opinion among the

5 – If the fast of the prisoner coincides with one part of Ramadaan and not the other; that which coincides with Ramadaan or comes after it is acceptable, and that which comes before it is not acceptable. End quote. See: al-Majmoo’ (3/72-73) and alMughni (3/96) And Allaah knows best.


56 | Hijrah | April 2013

ISLAMIC QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

Will a person be brought to account for whatever crosses his mind of good or evil? Question: Sometimes a person suffers from thinking of some sin, and other thoughts that come from the whispers of the Shaytaan and the nafs. Will he be requited for whatever crosses his mind, and will it be written in his record, whether it is good or bad? Answer: Praise be to Allah. Al-Bukhaari (6491) and Muslim (131) narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said, relating from his Lord, may He be glorified and exalted: “Allah decreed good deeds and bad deeds, then He explained that. Whoever thinks of doing a good deed then does not do it, Allah will write it down as one complete good deed. If he thinks of doing a good deed and then does it, Allah [may He be glorified and exalted] will write it down between ten and seven hundred fold, or many more. If he thinks of doing a bad deed then he does not do it, Allah will write it down as one complete good deed, and if he thinks of it then does it, Allah will write it down as one bad deed.” Al-Bukhaari (5269) and Muslim (127) also narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him), that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, will forgive my ummah for whatever crosses their minds so long as they do not act upon it or speak of it.” Ibn Rajab (may Allah have mercy on him) said: These texts refer to four matters: the recording of good deeds and bad deeds, and thinking of good deeds and bad deeds. This is four matters. Then he said: … The third matter: thinking of good deeds. It is recorded as one complete good deed even if he does not do it, as it says in the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Ab-

baas and elsewhere. … In the hadeeth of Khuraym ibn Faatik it says: “… If a person thinks of doing a good deed but then does not do it and Allah knows that he thought of it and was keen to do it, He records for him one good deed…” [Narrated by Ahmad, 18556. al-Arna’oot said: Its isnaad is hasan. It was mentioned by al-Albaani in asSaheehah]. This indicates that what is meant by “thinking of ” here is the determination and resolve that are usually present when one is keen to do an action, not merely a passing thought that is not accompanied by any resolve or determination. Abu’d-Darda’ said: If a person goes to his bed, intending to pray during the night (qiyaam), then sleep overtakes him until morning comes, what he intended to do will be recorded for him. It was narrated that Sa‘eed ibn al-Musayyab said: If a person thinks of praying, fasting, going for Hajj or ‘Umrah, or going for jihad, then he is prevented from doing that, Allah will grant him the reward of what he wanted to do. Abu ‘Imraan al-Jawni said: It is said to the angel: Record such and such for So and so. He says: O Lord, he did not do it. He says: He intended it. Zayd ibn Aslam said: A man used to go around among the scholars, saying: Who will tell me of a deed that I may keep doing for Allah, for I do not like any hour of the day or night to come to me except I am striving for the sake of Allah, may He be exalted. It was said to him: You have found what you are looking for. Do good as much as you are able to, then when you become tired or you stop doing it, think about doing it, for the one who thinks about doing a good deed is like the one who does it. If the intention is accompanied by words or effort, the reward is ensured and the one who intended it is like the one who does it, as Abu Kabshah narrated that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “[People] in this world are of four types: a person to whom Allah grants wealth and knowledge, so he fears his Lord with

regard to it, upholds his ties of kinship with it, and acknowledges the rights of Allah concerning it – he is of the highest status. (The second is) a person to whom Allah grants knowledge but He does not grant him wealth, so he is sincere in his intention and says: If I had wealth, I would do the same as So and so does. He will be rewarded according to his intention and their reward will be the same. (The third type) is a person to whom Allah grants wealth, but He does not grant him knowledge, so he squanders his wealth without knowledge; he does not fear his Lord concerning it, he does not uphold his ties of kinship with it and he does not acknowledge the rights of Allah concerning it – he is of the worst status. (And the fourth type is) a person to whom Allah does not grant either wealth or knowledge, so he says: If I had wealth, I would do the same as So and so does. He will be requited according to his intention and their burden of sin will be the same.” Narrated by Imam Ahmad, at-Tirmidhi and Ibn Maajah. Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani because of corroborating evidence. The phrase “Their reward will be the same” is understood as meaning that they are equal with regard to the basic reward for actions, but not with regard to the multiplication of that reward. Multiplication of reward is only for the one who actually does a deed, not the one who intends it but does not do it. If they were equal in all regards, a tenfold reward would be recorded for the one who thought of a good deed but did not do it, and this is contrary to all the texts. That is indicated by the verse in which Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning): “Allah has preferred in grades those who strive hard and fight with their wealth and their lives above those who sit (at home). Unto each, Allah has promised good (Paradise), but Allah has preferred those who strive hard and fight, above those who sit (at home) by a huge reward” [an-Nisa’ 4:95]. Ibn ‘Abbaas and others said: Those who sit (at home), above whom those who strive hard and fight are preferred in grades are those who have excuses, and those who sit (at home), above whom those

who strive hard and fight are preferred by a huge reward, are those who do not have excuses. Then he (may Allah have mercy on him) said: The fourth matter is thinking of evil deeds without doing them. In the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas it says that this will be recorded as one complete good deed. Similarly in the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah, Anas and others it says that it will be recorded as a hasanah (good deed). In the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah it says “for he gave it up for My sake” (Muslim, 129). This indicates that what is meant is that if a person was able to do what he thought of of sin, but gave it up for the sake of Allah, may He be exalted, one good deed will undoubtedly be recorded for him for that, because his refraining from committing that sin for that reason is a righteous deed. But if he thinks of committing a sin, then does not do it for fear of other people, or in order to show off to them, then it was said that he will be punished for refraining from it with that intention, because giving precedence to fear of people over fear of Allah is haraam, just as aiming to show off to people is also haraam. If refraining from the sin is accompanied by such intentions, then he will be punished for refraining. Al-Fudayl ibn ‘Iyaad said: They used to say: Refraining from doing something for the sake of people is showing off and doing it for their sake is shirk. But if he tries to do it by all available means then is prevented from doing it because it is not decreed that he should do it, in that case a number of scholars stated that he will be punished for it, because of the hadeeth, “… so long as he does not speak of it or act upon it.” So if a person strives to commit a sin, then is unable to do it, he has acted upon it. Similarly, the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “When two Muslims confront one another with their swords, the slayer and the slain will both be in Hell.” I said – or it was said – O Messenger of Allaah, (we understand about) the slayer, but what about the slain? He said: “He


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wanted to kill his companion.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 31: Muslim, 2888). The words “so long as he does not speak of it or act upon it” indicate that if the one who thinks of a sin speaks of what he was thinking of, then he will be punished for thinking of it in that case, because he has committed a sin with his physical faculties, which is speaking with his tongue. That is also indicated by the hadeeth of Abu Kabshah quoted above, who said: (The fourth type of person) says: “If I had wealth, I would do with it what So and so does”, referring to the one who disobeyed Allah with his wealth. He said: “Their burden of sin will be the same.” Then he (may Allah have mercy on him) said: But if he changes his intention and gives up his resolve for no reason, will he be punished for what he thought of of sin, or not? There are two scenarios: The first is if his thinking of sin was a passing thought that he did not dwell on and it did not take root in his heart; rather he disliked it and was put off by it. This will be forgiven; it is like the awful thoughts or whispers that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) was asked about, and he said: “That is clear faith.” [Narrated by Muslim, 132] When the verse (interpretation of the meaning) “…whether you disclose what is in your ownselves or conceal it, Allah will call you to account for it. Then He forgives whom He wills and punishes whom He wills…” [alBaqarah 2:284] was revealed, that was distressing for the Muslims and they thought that it included these passing thoughts. Then the following verse was revealed, in which it says (interpretation of the meaning): “Put not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear” [al-Baqarah 2:286]. (Narrated by Muslim, 126). This proved that with regard to that which they had no strength to bear, they would not be punished or brought to account for it, and it became clear that what was meant in the first verse was things that they resolved and intended to do. The second scenario is things that one

has resolved and intends to do, that occurred to one’s mind and become established, and one dwells on them. These are of two types: (i) Acts of the heart (that have to do with belief), such as doubting or disbelieving in the Oneness of Allah, or Prophethood, or the Prophet’s mission, and other kinds of disbelief and hypocrisy. These are all things for which a person will be punished and by means of which he becomes a disbeliever and a hypocrite. We may add to these all sins that have to do with the heart, such as loving that which Allah hates, hating that which Allah loves, arrogance, self admiration, etc. (ii) The second type has to do with that which is not actions of the heart; rather they are physical actions, such as zina, stealing, drinking alcohol, murder, slander and so on. If a person persists in wanting to do such things and resolving to do them, but he shows no outward indication of that, then there are two well-known scholarly views as to whether he will be held accountable for that. The first view is that he will be held accountable for it. Ibn al-Mubaarak said: I asked Sufyaan ath-Thawri: Will a person be held accountable for thinking (of committing a sin)? He said: If he has resolved to do it, he will be held accountable. This view was regarded as more correct by many of the fuqaha’, scholars of hadeeth and scholars of kalaam among our companions and others. They quoted as evidence for that verses such as the following (interpretation of the meaning): “And know that Allah knows what is in your minds, so fear Him” [al-Baqarah 2:235] “but He will call you to account for that which your hearts have earned” [alBaqarah 2:225]. (They also quoted as evidence) hadeeths such as that in which the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Sin is that which wavers in your heart and you do not want the people to find out about it” (narrated by Muslim, 2553). They interpreted the

hadeeth “Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, will forgive my ummah for whatever crosses their minds so long as they do not act upon it or speak of it” as referring to passing thoughts and they said: Whatever a person dwells on and it takes root in his heart is included in what he earns and does, so it is not included in this hadeeth. The second view is that he will not be held accountable for mere intentions in all cases. This view is attributed to ash-Shaafa‘i and is also the view of Ibn Haamid among our companions, based on general meanings. Al-‘Awfi narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas something which is indicative of the same view… End quote from Jaami‘ al-‘Uloom wa’lHikam, commentary on hadeeth no 37 (2/343-353). To sum up: If a person thinks of doing a good deed, and it takes root in his heart and he resolves to do that, what he intended to do will be recorded for him, even if he does not do it, although the reward for the one who does do it is better and greater. If a person thinks of doing a bad deed, then refrains from it for the sake of Allah, one complete good deed will be recorded for him. If a person thinks of doing a bad deed, then refrains from it for the sake of people, or he tries to do it but is prevented from doing so, one bad deed will be recorded against him. If a person thinks of doing it, then he changes his intention after having intended it, if it was only a passing thought he will not be held accountable for it, but if it was one of the deeds of the heart that had nothing to do with physical actions (i.e., it has to do with belief), then he will be held accountable for it. If it was a physical action and he persisted in thinking of it and resolved to do it, then the majority of scholars are of the view that he will be held accountable for it. An-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him) said, after quoting al-Baaqillaani’s opinion that the individual will be held accountable in this case:

Al-Qaadi ‘Iyaad (may Allah have mercy on him) said: The majority of the early generation and the scholars, including the fuqaha’ and the muhadditheen, are of the same view as al-Qaadi Abu Bakr, because of the hadeeths which indicate that people will be held accountable for actions of the heart (i.e., that have to do with beliefs). But they said: This resolve will be recorded as one bad deed, and it is not the bad deed that the individual thought of, because he did not do it and he refrained from it for a reason other than fear of Allah. But persisting and resolving in and of itself is a sin, so it will be recorded as a sin, and if he does it, it will be recorded as a second sin. But if he refrains from it for fear of Allah, may He be exalted, it will be recorded as a good deed, as it says in the hadeeth, “for he gave it up for My sake”, thus his giving it up out of fear of Allah, may He be exalted, his striving to overcome his nafs that is inclined towards evil, and his going against his whims and desires is in fact a good deed. The type of thinking of an action that is not to be recorded against the individual is the passing thought that does not take root in the heart and is not accompanied by intention or resolve. End quote from Sharh Muslim, 2/151 Ibn Rajab (may Allah have mercy on him) favoured the view that (when a person commits a sin), it will only be recorded as one sin, without any multiplication, so the punishment is for the sin, and thinking of it is not added to it, because if thinking of it were added to the sin, the individual would be punished twice for committing one sin. We cannot say that this may also be applicable to good deeds and that one does a good deed after thinking of it, he should be rewarded for the good deed but not for thinking of it. We say that this is not correct, because if a person does a good deed, a tenfold reward will be recorded for him, and it may be that some of that is as a reward for thinking of doing the good deed. And Allah knows best. End quote. And Allah knows best. [Source: IslamQA.com]


58 | Hijrah | April 2013

HIJRAH WORD SEARCH Word Search Instructions: Some or all of these countries are hidden in the puzzle. Match the countries with the clues and find them in the puzzle. After you find all the countries, circle the unmatched letters in the puzzle starting from the beginning to find a hidden message from the Prophet Sallallahu 'alyhi wa sallam. AFGHANISTAN ALBANIA AMERICA ANDALUS BAHRAIN BANGLADESH CANADA CHECHNYA CHINA DENMARK EGYPT FRANCE HOLLAND ICELAND INDIA INDONESIA ITALY IRAQ JORDAN KAZAKHSTAN KOREA KUWAIT MALAYSIA MALI MAURITANIA MINDANAO MOROCCO NIGER NIGERIA PAKISTAN PALESTINE PHILIPPINES SAUDIARABIA SENEGAL SOMALIA SOUTHAFRICA SUDAN SWEDEN SYRIA TURKEY UZBEKISTAN XINJIANG YEMEN YUGOSLAVIA

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African country whose Vice-President died in a plane crash in 2005 African nation where some provinces are implementing Sharia law Country whose former, long-time leader was known for his frank criticism of the West Most populous Muslim nation on Earth "Hijaz", home of the holiest sites on Earth Small Arab country that had a land dispute with Iraq which resulted in the first Gulf War Country the US invaded and occupied in 2003 The name of Spain when it was part of the Islamic caliphate The Islamic caliphate held parts of this European nation for some time This north American nation that prides itself on diversity has about 3 million Muslims The late da'ee Ahmad Deedat hailed from this African nation This nation was made part of the lands of Islam by sahabi Amr Bin Al-'Aas Tiny Gulf nation that hosts a US naval fleet base Asia nation fighting attempts by Muslims to secede and form their own government Muslim majority area of the Philippines This massive nation has over 40 million Muslims, a tiny fraction of their overall population A Muslim majority province of China The government of this Muslim nation wants to be included as a part of Europe African nation that has been destroyed by civil war and famine over the last decade West African nation where you can speak French, Arabic, or Wolof This nation used to be East Pakistan Nation whose name means "pure land" in Urdu Arab nation ruled for decades by Hafiz Al-Asad and now by his son Arab nation known for dwellings carved out from mountain sides The land where many Prophets preached, and where the third holiest site in Islam is Former Russian state that recently evicted a major US airbase used to bomb Afghanistan Former Russian state who leader's first name is Islam, but who is fighting Muslims in that country This nation is about 70% Muslim. One of the most famous hadith scholars of our time was from here. Nation that, under US occupation, has regain its status as the #1 opium producing nation Arab nation known for the "khat" chew drug that people use there Arab nation where many of the Arabs speak French as their first language African nation known by scholars as a region where pure Arabic can be learned in the desert North American nation where Muslim citizens are under intense pressure and scrutiny after 9/11 Though they number over 100 million, Muslims are still a minority in this nation Mountainous nation that continues to fight Russia for independence


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Drink slowly zaraafah High __ possibly from alqadus Kayf Al-_____ ? Diverge Sedate North American country __ up (hiding) Nafs Forays Corporate rule mukhayyar "having the choice" What a nurse gives Designation Gummy Misprint System international (abbr.) Ceasar's four For real Would Tires United Nations (abbr.) Lincoln locale Unfold Make Hazes Raiders of the Lost __ ( Harrison Ford movie) yarbu Express disgust Under, poetically Poem creator One's place Long, skinny boat Hotel room cleaners Monte __ Rainy mo. Pound Stick Moldy Air-conditioning need jinn Saltine cracker brand Encomium Set free al-mukhaa "Mocha" [Yemen] Access (2 wds.) Flower stalk leaf Percival nickname Herd together Demise Common girl's name

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Hoopla Bride's dishes hinna Italian herb Ooze Military unit Supernatural Wheat Be at a meeting Seed bread Navigation system qazz "raw silk" Animal insect Caesar’s two Like Stacks Drench Cat New England state Mom "front man" "leader of prayer" "leader" What a person with a cold does Asian country Unhappiness al-'iksiir "philosopher's stone" (via Greek) Ala __ Whats left of the Injill and Torah Poet Legal Sphere Little boy's name Brand of laundry detergent Visualize Merrily Member of an Arizona Indian tribe ___ Braves baseball team Web

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Hostess creation Wing Slow Cheese brand probably zaytuni "of Zaytun" Wishes Toast (2 wds.), a western social custom Hurts The star's name comes from its location at the "left foot" of Orion. It is a contraction of "Rijl Jauza al-Yusra," this being Arabic for "left foot of the Central One". Redden Christmas season in the West also known as this from Greek, ultimately from one of the Semitic languages, but which one is unclear; cf. Arabic murr "bitter" Lukewarm Overcharge Vaunts Rounded part kharroub (arabic) in English Saber Accepted principle Light color Main artery Representative Moses' brother nazeer "parallel" Italian food Deceive Famous Impressionist painter in Europe Undemanding Walk Blood sucker Makkah religious opinion Non __ (not welcome) Skunk-like African animal Showy flower French money Deserve Griminess

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Move away Flightless bird Spooky Thwack Pacific Standard Time Famous western painter Farm credit administration (abbr.) Often poetically Copied Fall mo. Kids cereal brand Cow speak Settee Inhale the odor Skill Fashionable Executive director Day of wk. Mr. Travel term Blossom Extorter Author Poe Drama Ancient Misery Chicken Lump Reward of good deeds in Ramadhan is multiplied this many times according to a hadith in Al-Bukhari Explosive Root beer brand (3 wds.)

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"To the right!" Pressure unit Sound Pain unit The other half of Jima Architect Frank __ Wright Mamma Retort Winder malady Top Quarterback Montana Trail Government agency Greenwich Mean Time Facial twitch North by west Quoter Advertisements Extremely high frequency (abbr.) Glut Roman emperor Baseball team Pepper plant Hazard Vessel Wood cutting tools Full of worms Pat Morning moisture Caviar Find

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Congressional vote Expression of surprise Mouth parts Detail And so forth Unidentified flying object Cheer Uncertain Terminal abbr. The Prophet who could speak with animals Island near Taiwan Nix Living Meet together Entice Broken Wise Man's gift Canned chili brand MGM's Lion Fight Knot Rescue Type of dressing Earth Gyp Dog food brand Good outlook School group Type of partnership A Muslim should not have this ingredient of arrogance Command Also Companion of the Prophet (peace be upon him) known for his wisdom and sharp legal mind Humor Building addition Terror Unrefined metal Bitsy Tote Coffee brand Preceding Absent Trunks Craze Quoted Sporty car brand Had Opposite of avant-garde British meter Content Cooking measurement Football assoc. Sailors Back South by west insect mentioned in Quran as weak lie Ram's mate Pair pagan goddess


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A publication for Muslim inmates in North American prisons