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Chapter 2 Organizational Diversity

Michael A. Hitt C. Chet Miller Adrienne Colella Slides by R. Dennis Middlemist


10 Nasehat Ali bin Abi Tholib          

1. Dosa terbesar adalah "Ketakutan". 2. Rekreasi terbaik adalah "Bekerja". 3. Musibah terbesar adalah "Keputusasaan". 4. Keberanian terbesar adalah "Kesabaran". 5. Guru terbaik adalah "Pengalaman". 6. Misteri terbesar adalah "Kematian". 7. Kehormatan terbesar adalah "Kesetiaan". 8. Karunia terbesar adalah "Anak yang sholeh". 9. Sumbangan terbesar adalah "Partisipasi". 10. Modal terbesar adalah "Kemandirian".


Knowledge Objectives 1. 2. 3.

4.

Define organizational diversity and distinguish between diversity management and affirmative action. Distinguish between multicultural, plural, and monolithic organizations. Describe the demographic characteristics of the U.S. workforce and their implication for the composition of the workplace. Discuss other changes that are occurring in the U.S. business environment that increase the importance of managing diversity effectively.


Knowledge Objectives 5.

6. 7.

Understand why successfully managing diversity is of extreme importance to high-involvement work organizations. Discuss the various roadblocks to effectively managing a diverse workforce. Describe how organizations can successfully manage diversity.


Strategic Importance of Organizational Diversity 

Improves – – –

corporate culture recruitment relationships with clients and customers

Builds competitive advantage – – –

Understand and serve diverse customer base Heterogeneous teams deal better with complex problems and challenging tasks More commitment to organization’s mission


Diversity Defined ď Ź

ď Ź

Diversity is a characteristic of a group of people suggesting differences among those people on any relevant dimension. Diversity is a group characteristic, not an individual characteristic.


Characteristics that Create Diversity in the Workplace      

Gender Race Ethnicity Age Personality Geographical diversity

Structural diversity – –

    

Role Functional responsibility

Religion Social class Sexual orientation Education Experience


Exhibit 2.1

Affirmative Action Programs vs. Diversity Management Programs Affirmative Action

Purpose

Diversity Management

To prevent and remedy discrimination

To create an inclusive work environment where all associates are empowered to perform their best

Assimilation

Assumes individuals will individually assimilate into the organization; individuals will adapt

Assumes that managers and the organizations will change (i.e., culture, policies, and systems foster an all-inclusive work environment)

Focus

Recruitment, mobility, and retention

Creating an environment that allows all associates to reach their full potential

Cause of Diversity Problems Time Frame

Does not address the cause of problems

Attempts to uncover the root causes of diversity problems

Temporary, until there is appropriate representation of disadvantaged groups

Ongoing, permanent changes

Exhibit 2-1

Adapted from Exhibit 2.1: Differences between Affirmative Action Programs and Diversity Management Programs


Context of Organization Diversity Multicultural organization ď Ź

An organization in which the organizational culture fosters and values cultural differences

Plural organization ď Ź

An organization that has diverse workforces and takes steps to be inclusive and respectful of people from different cultural backgrounds, and diversity is tolerated but not fostered

Monolithic organization ď Ź

An organization that is demographically and culturally homogeneous


Forces of Change    

Workplace demographics (see next slide) Increase in the service economy Global economy Requirements for teamwork


Exhibit 2.2 Projected U.S. Population Demographics Percentage by Race or Hispanic Origin 2000 2010

2030 2050 Forces of Change: Demographics

White, alone Black, alone Asian, alone Other, or more than one

81.0 12.7 3.9 2.5

79.3 13.1 4.6 3.0

75.8 13.9 6.2 4.1

72.1 14.6 8.0 5.3

Percentage by Age

2000

2010

2030

2050

0-4 5-19 20-44 45-64 65-84 85+

6.8 21.7 36.9 22.1 10.8 1.5

6.9 20.0 33.8 26.2 11.0 2.0

6.7 19.5 31.6 22.6 17.0 2.6

6.7 19.3 31.2 22.2 15.7 5.0

Percentage by Sex

2000

2010

2030

2050

49.1 50.9

49.1 50.9

49.1 50.9

49.2 50.8

Male Female Source: U.S. Census Bureau. 2004. http://census.gov/ipc/usinterimproj/.

Adapted from Exhibit 2.2: Projected U. S. Population Demographics


Effective Diversity Management in High-Involvement Organizations 

Individual outcomes – – –

Group outcomes – – –

Commitment to the organization Job involvement Satisfaction Decision making Creativity Complex tasks

Organizational outcomes – – –

Productivity Return on equity Market performance


Exhibit 2.3 Law

Federal Laws Preventing Employment Discrimination Employers Covered Who Is Protected

Laws Preventing Discrimination

Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, Civil Rights Act of 1991

Private employers, state and local Everyone based on race, governments, education color, religion, sex, or institutions, employment agencies, national origin and labor unions with 15 or more individuals

Equal Pay Act of 1963

Virtually all employers

Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967

Private employers, state and local Individuals who are 40 governments, education years old or older institutions, employment agencies, and labor unions with 20 or more individuals

Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

Private employers, state and local Individuals who are governments, education qualified and have a institutions, employment agencies, disability and labor unions with 15 or more individuals

Source: U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2002, http://www.eeoc.gov/facts/qanda.html

Adapted from Exhibit 2.3: Federal Laws Preventing Employment Discrimination

Men and women who perform substantially equal work


Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice 

Unfair negative attitudes we hold about people who belong to social or cultural groups other than our own

Discrimination 

Behavior that results in unequal treatment of individuals based on group membership

Modern racism 

Subtle forms of discrimination that occur because people know that it is wrong to be prejudiced against other racial groups and believe themselves not to be racists


Stereotyping Stereotypes ď Ź

A generalized set of beliefs about the characteristics of a group of individuals What thoughts come to mind when you perceive the individuals in these photographs?


Exhibit 2.4 Women

Common Stereotypes Applied to Various Groups of People People with Disabilities White Men

Common Stereotypes

Dependent Passive Uncompetitive Unconfident Unambitious Warm Expressive

Quiet Helpless Hypersensitive Bitter Benevolent Inferior Depressed

Responsible for society’s problems Competitive Intelligent Aggressive Ignorant Racist Arrogant

Black People

Japanese Men

Jewish People

Athletes Underqualified Poor Good dancers Unmotivated Violent Funny

Meticulous Studious Workaholics Racist Unemotional Defer to authority Unaggressive

Rich Miserly Well-educated Family-oriented Cliquish Status conscious Good at business

Sources: M.E. Heilman, “Sex Bias in Work Settings: The Lack of Fit Model,” in B.M. Staw and L.L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 5 (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1983), pp. 269–298; C.S. Fichten and R. Amsel, “Trait Attributions about College Students with a Physical Disability: Circumplex Analysis and Methodological Issues,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 16 (1986): 410–427; T.H. Cox, Jr., Cultural Diversity in Organizations: Theory, Research and Practice (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 1993).

Adapted from Exhibit 2.4: Common Stereotypes Applied to Various Groups of People


Exhibit 2.4 Athletes

Common Stereotypes Applied to Various Groups of People Accountants Arab People

Common Stereotypes: continued

Dumb Strong Sexist Macho Male Uneducated Greedy

Smart Nerdy Unsociable Good at math Bad dressers Quiet Dishonest

Terrorists Extremely religious Extremely sexist Rich Hate Americans Jealous of Americans Don’t value human life

Sources: M.E. Heilman, “Sex Bias in Work Settings: The Lack of Fit Model,” in B.M. Staw and L.L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 5 (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1983), pp. 269–298; C.S. Fichten and R. Amsel, “Trait Attributions about College Students with a Physical Disability: Circumplex Analysis and Methodological Issues,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 16 (1986): 410–427; T.H. Cox, Jr., Cultural Diversity in Organizations: Theory, Research and Practice (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 1993).

Adapted from Exhibit 2.4: Common Stereotypes Applied to Various Groups of People


Problems With Stereotyping 

 

Stereotypes are difficult to dispel, although nearly always incorrect when applied to individuals Guide what information we look for, process, and remember Enduring human quality; we all hold stereotypes


Problems With Stereotyping

Unrealistic Unrealistic assumptions assumptions Stereotype Stereotype

Faulty Faulty decision decision making making

Unfair Unfair treatment treatment Behavior Behavior

Negative Negative effects effects on on interpersonal interpersonal relations relations


Social Identity Social identity ď Ź

A person’s knowledge that he or she belongs to certain social groups, where belonging to those groups has emotional significance

es r u t c u r t S ntity e d I f l e S Sample Adapted from Exhibit 2.5: Sample Self-Identity Structures


Social Identity 

Social identity structure different from that of the majority can be difficult – – – –

Person’s social identity becomes more salient and noticeable May make people feel they have to behave in ways that are unnatural for them in certain contexts Minority group members fear losing this social identity People often evaluate others based on their membership in social groups


Power Differentials Ascribed status 

Status and power that is assigned by cultural norms and depends on what groups to which one belongs – –

High-status individuals speak more and use stronger influence tactics than members of low-status groups People belonging to groups with different amounts of power and status may avoid interacting with one another and may form cliques with members of their own groups


Power Differentials Power Differentials High Status Group

Barriers to benefits of diversity

Low Status Group

• Different ideas and viewpoints are not presented • Undermines diversity efforts by setting the stage for increased conflict among groups


Communication Problems 

Language issues – –

Different languages Different fluency in a language

Cultural norms – – – – – – –

Willingness to openly disagree Importance of maintaining “face” or dignity Definition of “agreement” Time devoted to establishing personal relationships Willingness to speak assertively Preference for written or oral communication Personal space and nonverbal communication


Poor Structural Integration

g

HR

Level

e

l Al s g. on Av ncti Fu les Sa

n eti rk Ma

c an Fin

Percentage of people who are female and/or racial and ethnic minority group members

Top Management

0%

0%

2%

0%

0.5%

Middle Management

0%

1%

10%

2%

3.25%

Supervisor

0%

5%

15%

5%

6.25%

Staff

25%

25%

40%

26%

29%

Line Worker

60%

65%

80%

75%

70%


Good Structural Integration

Level

g

l Al s g. on Av ncti Fu les Sa

e

HR

n eti rk Ma

c an Fin

Percentage of people who are female and/or racial and ethnic minority group members

Top Management

35%

35%

35%

35%

35%

Middle Management

35%

35%

35%

35%

35%

Supervisor

35%

35%

35%

35%

35%

Staff

35%

35%

35%

35%

35%

Line Worker

35%

35%

35%

35%

35%


Effectively Creating and Managing Diversity 

Commitment of the organization’s leaders – – – – –

Communicate message through multiple channels Top leaders personally lead all diversity efforts Vice presidents sponsor employee councils All managers held accountable for advancing diversity initiatives May require associates to be diversity advocates before promotion into leadership positions


Effectively Creating and Managing Diversity 

Integration with the strategic plan –

Define and measure diversity effectiveness     

Associates’ attrition rate Associates’ work satisfaction Increased market share and new customer bases External awards for diversity efforts Satisfaction with workplace climate


Effectively Creating and Managing Diversity 

Associate involvement – – – –

Focus groups Employee satisfaction surveys Cultural diversity audits Informal employee feedback hotlines


Effectively Creating and Managing Diversity 

Individual efforts – – – –

Avoid rushing to judgment about others Take responsibility for being the gatekeeper at meetings Get to know people who are different from you Stick up for others when you see unfair behaviors

Strategic Organizational Behavior  

Focus Recruitment, mobility, and  retention Creating an environment that allows  all associates to reach their full  potential Time Frame T...

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