Cateran Trail Men's Retreat
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Contents Articles Pilgrimage
Spittal of Glenshee
Blairgowrie and Rattray
References Article Sources and Contributors
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Article Licenses License
Pilgrimage A pilgrimage is a journey or search of great moral or spiritual significance. Typically, it is a journey to a shrine or other location of importance to a person's beliefs and faith. Many religions attach spiritual importance to particular places: the place of birth or death of founders or saints, or to the place of their "calling" or spiritual awakening, or of their connection (visual or verbal) with the divine, or to locations where miracles were performed or witnessed, or locations where a deity is said to live or be "housed," or any site that is seen to have special spiritual powers. Such sites may be commemorated with shrines or temples that devotees are encouraged to visit for their own spiritual benefit: to be healed or have questions answered or to achieve some other spiritual benefit. A person who makes such a journey is called a pilgrim. In America, the term pilgrim is typically associated with an early colonial Protestant sect known for their strict rules of discipline. The Holy Land acts as a focal point for the pilgrimages of the Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. According to a Stockholm University study in 2011, these pilgrims visit the Holy Land to touch and see physical manifestations of their faith, confirm their beliefs in the holy context with collective excitation, and connect personally to the Holy Land. In the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, the visitation of certain ancient cult-centers was repressed in the 7th century BCE, when worship was restricted to the YHWH at the Temple in Jerusalem. In Syria, the shrine of Astarte at the headwater spring of the river Adonis survived until it was destroyed by order of Emperor Constantine in the 4th century. In mainland Greece, a stream of individuals made their way to Delphi or the oracle of Zeus at Dodona, and once every four years, at the period of the Olympic games, the temple of Zeus at Olympia formed the goal of swarms of pilgrims from every part of the Hellenic world. When Alexander the Great reached Egypt, he put his whole vast enterprise on hold, while he made his way with a small band deep into the Libyan desert, to consult the oracle of Ammun. During the imperium of his Ptolemaic heirs, the shrine of Isis at Philae received many votive inscriptions from Greeks on behalf of their kindred far away at home. As a common human experience, pilgrimage has been proposed as a Jungian archetype by Wallace Clift and Jean Dalby Clift.
Pilgrimage centres Antiquity Many ancient religions had sacred sites, temples, oracles and sacred groves to which pilgrimages were made.
Bahá'í Faith Bahá'u'lláh decreed pilgrimage to two places in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas: the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad, Iraq, and the House of the Báb in Shiraz, Iran. Later, `Abdu'l-Bahá designated the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh at Bahji, Israel as a site of pilgrimage. Bahá'í pilgrimage consists of visiting the holy places in Haifa, Acre, and Bahjí at the Bahá'í World Centre in northwest Israel, and Bahá'ís can apply to join an organized nine-day pilgrimage where they are taken to visit the various holy sites, or attend a shorter three-day pilgrimage.
Buddhism There are four places that Buddhists make pilgrimage to: • Lumbini: Buddha's birth place (in Nepal) • Bodh Gaya: place of Enlightenment • Sarnath: where he delivered his first teaching • Kusinara: (now Kusinagar, India) where he attained mahaparinirvana (died). Other pilgrimage places in India and Nepal connected to the life of Gautama Buddha are: Savatthi, Pataliputta, Nalanda, Gaya, Vesali, Sankasia, Kapilavastu, Kosambi, Rajagaha, Varanasi.
Ancient excavated Buddha-image at the Mahaparinirvana Temple, Kushinagar.
Other famous places for Buddhist pilgrimage include: • India: Sanchi, Ellora, Ajanta. • Thailand: Sukhothai, Ayutthaya, Wat Phra Kaew, Wat Doi Suthep. • Tibet: Lhasa (traditional home of the Dalai Lama), Mount Kailash, Lake Nam-tso. • Cambodia: Angkor Wat, Silver Pagoda. • Sri Lanka: Polonnaruwa, Temple of the Tooth (Kandy), Anuradhapura.
Tibetans on a pilgrimage to Lhasa, doing full-body prostrations, often for the entire length of the journey.
• Laos: Luang Prabang. • Myanmar: Bagan, Sagaing Hill. • Nepal: Bodhnath, Swayambhunath. • Indonesia: Borobudur. • China: Yung-kang, Lung-men caves. The Four Sacred Mountains • Japan: Kansai Kannon Pilgrimage, Chūgoku 33 Kannon Pilgrimage, Shikoku Pilgrimage, Mount Kōya.
Christianity Christian pilgrimage was first made to sites connected with the birth, life, crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus. Surviving descriptions of Christian pilgrimages to the Holy Land date from the 4th century, when pilgrimage was encouraged by church fathers like Saint Jerome and established by Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great. Pilgrimages also began to be made to Rome and other sites associated with the Apostles, saints and Christian martyrs, as well as to places where there have been apparitions of the Virgin Mary. Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales recounts the tales told by pilgrims on their way to Canterbury and the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket
Orthodox pilgrim in Kiev Pechersk Lavra, Ukraine.
Hinduism According to Karel Werner's Popular Dictionary of Hinduism, "[m]ost Hindu places of pilgrimage are associated with legendary events from the lives of various gods.... Almost any place can become a focus for pilgrimage, but in most cases they are sacred cities, rivers, lakes, and mountains." Hindus are encouraged to undertake pilgrimages during their lifetime, though this practice is not considered absolutely mandatory. Most Hindus visit sites within their region or locale.
Bathing ghat on the Ganges during Kumbh Mela, Haridwar
Kumbh Mela: Kumbh Mela is the largest pilgrimage recorded in  history. Kumbh Mela is also credited with the largest gathering of humans in the entire world. The location is rotated among Allahabad, Haridwar, Nashik, and Ujjain. Char Dham (Famous Four Pilgrimage sites): The four holy sites Puri, Rameswaram, Dwarka, and Badrinath (or alternatively the
Pilgrimage to Kedarnath
Pilgrimage Himalayan towns of Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri, and Yamunotri) compose the Char Dham (four abodes) pilgrimage circuit. Old Holy cities as per Puranic Texts: Varanasi formerly known as Kashi, Allahabad formerly known as Prayag, Haridwar-Rishikesh, Mathura-Vrindavan, and Ayodhya. Major Temple cities: Puri, which hosts a major Vaishnava Jagannath temple and Rath Yatra celebration; Katra, home to the Vaishno Devi temple; Three comparatively recent temples of fame and huge pilgrimage are Shirdi, home to Sai Baba of Shirdi, Tirumala - Tirupati, home to the Tirumala Venkateswara Temple; and Sabarimala,where Swami Ayyappan is worshipped. Shakti Peethas: Another important set of pilgrimages are the Shakti Peethas, where the Mother Goddess is worshipped, the two principal ones being Kalighat and Kamakhya. Following is a comprehensive list of Pilgrimage sites: • • • • •
Allahabad Amarnath Arunachala Ayodhya Bhavani, Erode
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Benares Chidambaram Chitrakuta Dakshineshwar Dharmasthala Kedarnath Kumbh Mela Ganga Talao Gaya Guruvayoor Hampi Haridwar Kalahasti Kanchipuram Kanyakumari Kateel Kollur Kumbakonam Kukke Subramanya Kunrakudy Madurai Mahabalipuram Maihar Marudamalai Mathura Mandher Devi temple in Mandhradevi Mayapur Mount Kailash
• Nashik • Nathdwara
Pilgrimage • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Palani Pazhamudircholai Pandharpur Gangotri Pushkar Puttaparthi Yamunotri Rishikesh Sabarimala Shakumbhri Devi Shirdi Sikkal Sivagiri, Kerala Somnath Sringeri Srirangam Swamimalai
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Swamithope Talapady Tanjavur Thiruchendur Tiruchirappalli Thiruparamkunram Thiruthani Thiruvannamalai Tirupati Ujjain Udupi Malai Mandir Vaishno Devi Vayalur Vindhyachal Viralimalai Virpur Vrindavan Badrinath Dwarka Puri Rameshwaram
The last four sites in the list together comprise the Chardham, or four holy pilgrimage destinations. It was traditionally believed that one who undertakes a pilgrimage to all four sites will attain moksha, the release from samsara (cycle of rebirths), at the time of death. The holy places of pilgrimage for the Shaktism sect of Hinduism are the Shakti peethas (Temples of Shakti).
Islam The pilgrimage to Mecca (the Hajj) is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. It should be attempted at least once in the lifetime of all able-bodied Muslims who can afford to do so. It is the most important of all Muslim pilgrimages, and is the largest pilgrimage for Muslims.
Muslim Pilgrims circumambulating the Kaaba during the Hajj
Another important place for Muslims is the city of Medina, the second holiest place in Islam, in Saudi Arabia, where Muhammad rests in Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (the Mosque of the Prophet). The ihram (white robes of pilgrimage) is meant to show equality of all pilgrims in the eyes of Allah: that there is no difference between a prince and a pauper. Ihram is also symbolic for holy virtue and pardon from all past sins. While wearing the ihram in Mecca, a pilgrim may not shave, clip their nails, wear perfume, swear or quarrel, hunt, kill any creature, uproot or damage plants, cover the head for men or the face and hands for women, marry, wear shoes over the ankles, perform any dishonest acts or carry weapons. If they do any of these their pilgrimage is invalid .
Supplicating Pilgrim at Masjid Al-Haram, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
Judaism The Temple in Jerusalem was the center of the Jewish religion, until its destruction in 70 CE, and all adult men who were able were required to visit and offer sacrifices (korbanot), particularly during Passover, Shavuot and Sukkot. Following the destruction of the Second Temple and the onset of the diaspora, the centrality of pilgrimage to Jerusalem in Judaism was discontinued. In its place came prayers and rituals hoping for a return to Zion and the accompanying restoration of regular pilgrimages.
The Wailing Wall is all that remains of the Western wall of the Temple in Jerusalem.
Until recent centuries, pilgrimage had been a fairly difficult and arduous adventure. But now, Jews from many countries make periodic pilgrimages to the holy sites of their religion.
The western retaining wall of the original temple, known as the Wailing Wall, or Western Wall remains in the Old City of Jerusalem and this has been the most sacred site for religious Jews. Pilgrimage to this area was off-limits from 1948 to 1967, when East Jerusalem was controlled by Jordan. There are numerous lesser Jewish pilgrimage sites, mainly tombs of tzadikim, throughout the Land of Israel and all over the world, including: Hebron; Bethlehem; Mt. Meron; Netivot; Uman, Ukraine; Silistra, Bulgaria; Damanhur, Egypt; and many others.
Sikhism The Sikh religion does not place great importance on pilgrimage. Guru Nanak Dev was asked "Should I go and bathe at pilgrimage places?" and replied: "God's name is the real pilgrimage place which consists of contemplation of the word of God, and the cultivation of inner knowledge." Eventually, however, Amritsar and Harmandir Saheb (the Golden Temple) became the centre of the Sikh faith, and if a Sikh goes on pilgrimage it is usually to this place considered the spiritual and cultural centre of Sikhs rather than a pilgrimage.
A Sikh pilgrim at Harmandir Sahib (the Golden Temple) in Amritsar
Zoroastrianism The Zoroastrians take pilgrimage trips in India to the eight Atash Behrams in India and one in Yazd.
Meher Baba The main pilgrimage sites associated with the spiritual teacher Meher Baba are Meherabad, India, where Baba completed the "major portion" of his work and where his tomb is now located, and Meherazad, India, where Baba resided later in his life.
Secular pilgrimage In modern usage, the terms pilgrim and pilgrimage have developed in sense to include sites of secular importance. For example, fans of Elvis Presley may choose to visit his home, Graceland, in Memphis, Tennessee. Visits to war memorials such as the Vietnam Veterans Memorial are often seen as pilgrimages. Similarly one may refer to a cultural center such as Venice as a "tourist Mecca." Historic preservation groups sometimes refer to house and garden tours of antebellum homes as Fall or Spring Pilgrimage. Tickets to these tours are sold to raise funds for preservation activities.
Paris Commune The Père Lachaise Cemetery, where the defenders of the Paris Commune made their last stand and many of them were afterwards summarily executed, is the focus of annual pilgrimages by parties and organizations of the French Left.
Communism In a number of Communist countries, secular pilgrimages were established as an "antidote" to religious pilgrimages, the most famous of which are: • USSR: Mausoleum of Lenin in Red Square, Moscow • PRC: Mausoleum of Mao Zedong in Tiananmen Square, Beijing • Germany: Birthplace of Karl Marx, Trier
Fascism The mausoleum of Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini in Predappio, Italy serves as a pilgrimage site for Italian Neo-Fascists. In post-World War II Germany, considerable efforts were made to prevent Hitler's bunker in Berlin from becoming a similar place of pilgrimage for Neo-Nazis.
Notes  Metti, Michael Sebastian (2011-06-01). "Jerusalem - the most powerful brand in history" (http:/ / www. metti-bronner. com/ Jerusalem. pdf). Stockholm University School of Business. . Retrieved 01July 2011.  Clift, Jean Dalby; Clift, Wallace (1996). The Archetype of Pilgrimage: Outer Action With Inner Meaning. The Paulist Press. ISBN 0-8091-3599-X..  Smith, Peter (2000). "Pilgrimage". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 269. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.  Werner, Karel (1994). A Popular Dictionary of Hinduism. Curzon Press. ISBN 0700710493.  Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs - Hinduism (http:/ / berkleycenter. georgetown. edu/ resources/ traditions/ hinduism) See drop-down essay on "Hindu Practices"  Digitaljournal.com (http:/ / www. digitaljournal. com/ article/ 84149)  Washingtonpost.com (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2007/ 01/ 15/ AR2007011500041. html)  News.bbc.co.uk (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ south_asia/ 6226895. stm)  Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs - Islam (http:/ / berkleycenter. georgetown. edu/ resources/ traditions/ islam) See drop-down essay on "Islamic Practices"  Colin Wilson (1996). Atlas of Holy Places & Sacred Sites. DK Adult. p. 29. ISBN 978-0789410511.  See David M. Gitlitz and Linda Kay Davidson, Pilgrimage and the Jews (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2006) for history and data on several pilgrimages to both Ashkenazi and Sephardic holy sites.  Re-xs.ucsm.ac.uk (http:/ / re-xs. ucsm. ac. uk/ re/ pilgrimage/ sikhism. htm)  Deshmukh, Indumati (1961). "Address in Marathi." The Awakener 7 (3): 29.
Further reading • al-Naqar, Umar. 1972. The Pilgrimage Tradition in West Africa. Khartoum: Khartoum University Press. [includes a map 'African Pilgrimage Routes to Mecca, ca. 1300-1900'] • Coleman, Simon and John Elsner (1995), Pilgrimage: Past and Present in the World Religions. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. • Coleman, Simon & John Eade (eds) (2005), Reframing Pilgrimage. Cultures in Motion. London: Routledge. • Davidson, Linda Kay and David M. Gitlitz (2002), Pilgrimage: From the Ganges to Graceland: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, Ca.: ABC-CLIO. • Gitlitz, David M. and Linda Kay Davidson (2006). Pilgrimage and the Jews. Westport, CT: Praeger. • Jackowski, Antoni. 1998. Pielgrzymowanie [Pilgrimage]. Wroclaw: Wydawnictwo Dolnoslaskie.
Pilgrimage • Kerschbaum & Gattinger, Via Francigena - DVD- Documentation, of a modern pilgrimage to Rome, ISBN 3200005009, Verlag EUROVIA, Vienna 2005 • Margry, Peter Jan (ed.) (2008), Shrines and Pilgrimage in the Modern World. New Itineraries into the Sacred. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. • Sumption, Jonathan. 2002. Pilgrimage: An Image of Mediaeval Religion. London: Faber and Faber Ltd. • Wolfe, Michael (ed.). 1997. One Thousands Roads to Mecca. New York: Grove Press. • Zarnecki, George (1985), The Monastic World: The Contributions of The Orders. pp. 36–66, in Evans, Joan (ed.). 1985. The Flowering of the Middle Ages. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd.
Kirkmichael Kirkmichael (Gaelic: Cille Mhìcheil )is a village in South Ayrshire, Scotland, located between Patna, Maybole and Straiton. Kirkmichael means "The Church of St. Michael".
The village Kirkmichael lies three miles east of Maybole and started life as the focus of a well populated rural parish served by its church. Today it is a strikingly attractive, largely white harled small village set amid the rolling hills of South Ayrshire. It is a ten mile drive south of central Ayr. Its origins date back to the 13th century when John de Gemmelstoun founded a church beside the Dyrock Burn here, which he dedicated to St. Michael. For much of its early life the village was called Kirkmichael of Gemilston, after its founder, but the name was eventually simplified. The village church dates back to 1787 and is a fairly typical T-plan design intended to provide a large number of seats within a fairly small space, all exposed to the full force of the preacher's oratory. The surrounding churchyard reflects its much greater age, though the attractive lich gate leading to it only dates back to 1702, according to the inscription on its bell. The lich gate was intended to accommodate mourners at funerals. Kirkmichael focuses on two intersecting streets, largely occupied by white cottages built for hand-weavers in the 1790s. The most unusual building is the red stone McCosh Hall in Patna Road. This serves as the village hall and in 1898 was gifted to the village by James McCosh, President of Princeton University, whose family came from this part of Ayrshire. At the junction of Patna Road and Straiton Road lies the white-painted Kirkmichael Arms, a long one-storey village inn. It has a pub, a restaurant and one post office.
Guitar festival Possibly the most surprising facet of modern Kirkmichael was its role as the venue as the Kirkmichael International Guitar Festival. From 1999 until 2005 (except 2004 when the event was not held) for 3 days in May, Kirkmichael became Scotland's guitar village and played host to thousands of music lovers from around the world. They came together for a weekend catering to all musical tastes from folk to flamenco and jazz to rock and roll.
Industry The mining industry that dominated much of South Ayrshire left Kirkmichael unscathed. The same cannot be said for many of those employed in the industry, and it is a mark of the village's attractive location and environment that in the early 20th century the large Kirkmichael House, to the south of the village, was converted into a miners' welfare home, while another was opened near Cloncaird Castle to the south east. Both closed in the 1950s.
References  http:/ / www. linguae-celticae. org/ dateien/ Gaidhlig_Local_Studies_Vol_21_January_2005-a. pdf
External links • Kirkmichael Village Website (http://www.maybole.org/community/kirkmichael/kirkmichael.htm) • Kirkmichael International Guitar Festival (http://www.p3music.com/kmgf/frameset.html) • grid reference NS343089
Spittal of Glenshee
Spittal of Glenshee Spittal of Glenshee
Spittal of Glenshee Spittal of Glenshee shown within Perth and Kinross OS grid reference
Perth and Kinross
Perth and Kinross
Perth and North Perthshire
Perth Mid Scotland and Fife
The Spittal of Glenshee lies at the head of Glenshee in the highlands of eastern Perth and Kinross, Scotland where the confluence of many small streams flowing south out of the Grampians form the Shee Water. For centuries, there has been a hostel or inn at the site and, in modern times, the small village has become a centre for travel, tourism and winter sports in the region, sited at a bend on the A93 trunk road which leads from Blairgowrie north past the Spittal to the Glenshee Ski Centre and on to Braemar. Looking north to the Cairnwell Pass, Spittal of Glenshee is in the foreground.
on a nearby mound.
Inhabitation in the Neolithic period is indicated by a Megalithic standing stone behind the old kirk, and the Four Poster stone circle
Spittal of Glenshee
12 When interest in ski mountaineering revived after the First World War and the Scottish Ski Club was resuscitated in 1929, they restarted weekly snow reports with reporters appointed at Lix Toll near Killin, Dalwhinnie, Braemar and the Spittal of Glenshee. The Dundee Ski Club used the Spittal Hotel as its meeting place, and pioneered improvements, setting up the first ski tows in Britain at Glenshee in December 1950. The hotel burnt down in 1959, but Spittal of Glenshee has continued to provide accommodation near to the slopes.
Standing stone at Spittal of Glenshee
The village also provides a stopping place on the Cateran Trail waymarked long distance footpath which provides a 64 mile (103km)
circuit in the glens of Perthshire and Angus.
References  The Megalithic Portal and Megalith Map: Spittal Of Glenshee Standing Stone (Menhir) (http:/ / www. megalithic. co. uk/ article. php?sid=1271)  Spittal Of Glenshee -Four Poster stone circle (http:/ / www. megalithics. com/ scotland/ spittalg/ spitmain. htm)  Simpson, Myrtle (1982). Skisters. Carrbridge, Inverness-shire: Landmark Press. ISBNÂ 0-9503440-1-X.  Cateran Trail Feature Page on Undiscovered Scotland (http:/ / www. undiscoveredscotland. co. uk/ uswalks/ caterantrail/ index. html)
Blairgowrie and Rattray
Blairgowrie and Rattray Blairgowrie Scottish Gaelic: Blàr Ghobhraidh Scots: Blairgowrie
Blairgowrie town centre
Blairgowrie Blairgowrie shown within Perth and Kinross Population
OS grid reference
Expression error: "7,965" must be numericTemplate:Infobox UK place/trap census)  est. 8,090 (2006) NO178452
Perth and Kinross
Perth and Kinross
Perth and North Perthshire
Scottish Parliament Perth Mid Scotland and Fife
Blairgowrie and Rattray
Blairgowrie and Rattray is a twin burgh in Perth and Kinross, Scotland. Amongst locals, the town is colloquially known simply as "Blair". Blairgowrie is the larger of the two former burghs which were united by an Act of Parliament in 1228 and lies on the south-west side of the River Ericht while Rattray is on the north-east side. Rattray claims to be the older and certainly Old Rattray, the area round Rattray Kirk, dates back to the 12th century. New Rattray, the area along the Boat Brae and Balmoral Road dates from 1777 when the River was spanned by the Brig o' Blair. The town lies on the north side of Strathmore at the foot of the Grampian Mountains. The west boundary is formed by Entrance to Wellmeadow the Knockie, a round grassy hill which is a popular walk and Craighall Gorge on the Ericht. Blairgowrie & Rattray developed over the centuries at the crossroads of several important historic routes with links from the town to Perth, Coupar Angus, Alyth and Braemar. The roads to Coupar Angus and Braemar form part of General Wade's military road from Perth to Fort George. The town's main feature and centrepiece is the Wellmeadow, a grassy triangle in the middle of town which hosts regular markets and outdoor entertainment. Other parks include Rattray's Davie Park, Blairgowrie's J J Coupar Sports Ground and Lochy Park.
The name The name Blairgowrie is from Scottish Gaelic, in which language it is spelt Blàr Ghobharaidh or Blàr Ghobhraidh. The name Rattray is Raitear in Gaelic, and may derive from an English language cognate of Gaelic ràth meaning "fortress" plus a Pictish term cognate with Welsh tref meaning "settlement".
History Early history The area around Blairgowrie has been occupied continuously since the Neolithic, as evidenced from the Cleaven Dyke, a cursus monument 2 miles SSW of the town, as well as a Neolithic long mortuary enclosure 4 miles WSW at Inchtuthil. Several stone circles of this age can also be found in the area, notably the circle bisected by the road at Leys of Marlee, 1 mile to the west of Blairgowrie. Numerous Neolithic and Bronze Age artifacts have been found in the immediate area, including a number of flint arrowheads, spearheads, knives and scrapers found at Carsie, half a mile to the south of The Cleaven Dyke Blairgowrie, and which are now displayed at Perth Museum, and bronze axes, and a bronze sword now in Kelvingrove Museum, Glasgow. The remains of a remarkable Roman legionary fort can be found 4 miles WSW of Blairgowrie at Inchtuthil, dating from the decade 80-90. Unencumbered by subsequent development, this is considered to be one of the most important archaeological sites in Britain.
Blairgowrie and Rattray
Pictish remains are in abundance in this part of Scotland and one of the largest collections of Pictish sculptured stones is housed 5 miles to the East of the town at the Meigle Sculptured Stone Museum. The size of the collection, all of which were found in Meigle, suggests this was an ecclesiastical centre of some importance in the 8th to 10th centuries.
Modern History From around 1600 to the turn of the 19th century, Blairgowrie had a fairly stable population, recorded at 425 inhabitants at in the first Pictish sculptured stones at Meigle Museum Statistical Account in 1792. in the second Statistical Account of 1853? notes a disproportionate increase due to an influx of families attracted by the expanding textiles industry Gaelic was declining but still partially spoken in the upper part of the parish at that time, with all speaking English. Blairgowrie was made a barony in favour of George Drummond of Blair in 1634 by a royal charter of Charles I, and became a free burgh in 1809. The town expanded hugely in the 19th century thanks to the employment provided by the many textile mills which were built along the River Ericht, all now closed. By 1870 there were 12 mills along the river employing nearly 2000 men and women and the population had increaed from 400 in the 1700s to 4000. Some of the disused mill buildings can be seen from the riverside walk west from the bridge and from Haugh Road to the east . Keithbank Mill has been converted to apartments. Soft fruit growing, mainly raspberries and strawberries developed in the 20th century and became a very important part of the town's economy with Smedleys opening a cannery in Haugh Road, Adamsons a jam factory in Croft Lane and huge quantities of table berries and pulp being despatched to markets and jam factories throughout Britain. Berry pickers were brought in by bus from Perth and Dundee, and large encampments were set up on farms for pickers from further afield, mainly from the Glasgow area, who made this their annual holiday. They were joined by the travelling community who congregated here for the berry season. One of the best examples was the Tin City at Essendy, which housed workers in a complex of tin huts with its own chapel, post office, shop, kitchens, etc. The coming of the railway revolutionised the textile and soft fruit trade, but the last train ran in the 1960s, and the extensive railway yards are now the site of the Tesco supermarket and Welton Road industrial estate. Blairgowrie had a busy livestock market at the bottom of the Boat Brae but this closed in the 1960s and is now the site of the Ashgrove Court sheltered housing complex. A short distance upstream from the bridge on the riverside path is Cargill's Leap, a historic site where Donald Cargill, a minister and covenanter, escaped Government troops by jumping over the rocky gorge of the River Ericht.
Just outside the Rattray boundary on the A93 is Craighall Castle, the ancestral home of the chieftain of the Clan Rattray. The castle occupies a dominating position on the edge of the gorge above the river but unfortunately is no longer occupied by a Rattray, having been sold in 2010.
Newton Castle, home to the current chieftain of the Clan Macpherson, Sir William Macpherson, and Ardblair Castle, home to the Blair Oliphant family, both have Jacobite history and according to legend are connected by a secret tunnel.
Blairgowrie and Rattray
Economy Much of the expanding population works in the nearby cities of Dundee and Perth. The surrounding area is still the soft fruit centre of Scotland, and the local population increases greatly in summer when Eastern European students flock in to harvest the fruit, mainly raspberries and strawberries. Like the Scottish pickers of old, they are housed in camps on the farms, but these now tend to be residential caravans or cabins rather than huts and tents. Locally based companies include Proctors of Blairgowrie who manufacture and supply insulation, Davidson the Chemists who have a network of retail chemist shops throughout North East Scotland as well as an agricultural and veterinary business, Croles Coachworks, Blairs Laundry, Gordons Caterers, Stagecoach Strathtay buses, Tayside Contracts, PM Forest and Field Engineering, Graham Environmental, and CO-AN Supplies. The main supermarket is Tesco, supplemented by a Co-Operative store which incorporates the Post Office. The main shopping streets are High Street, Allan Street, and the Wellmeadow where there are chain stores and independent shops. Balmoral Garage are Ford agents, and Norman Laing are Peugeot. There are several repair garages. Tourism is probably now the biggest industry, and there are three hotels, the Angus, the Royal, and the Altamount. There are another nine inns and pubs. The local weekly newspaper is the Blairgowrie Advertiser, known universally as "the Blairie", which is now produced and printed in Perth by Scottish Universal Newspapers. The old print works in Reform Street were taken over by Hamilton Scott who carried on for many years as a commercial printer, but they are now mothballed. There are regular Saturday outdoor markets in the Wellmeadow with stalls offering local produce and occasional Continental Markets with traders from all over Europe.
Education The new Blairgowrie Campus opened in Elm Drive in 2009 incorporating Newhill Primary and St Stephens RC Primary. Newhill primary holds about 360 children Bridge over the River Ericht, joining Blairgowrie and Rattray while St Stephens RC primary is a smaller unit holding about 70 pupils. Rattray Primary serves children on that side of the river. Blairgowrie High School in Beeches Road provides secondary education for all round the area.
Public transport Stagecoach Strathtay provide all the bus services to and from Blairgowrie with routes to Perth, Dundee, Alyth, Coupar Angus, Dunkeld, Aberfeldy, Kirkmichael and Glenshee as well as a circular town service. The bus station is opposite the Wellmeadow. The nearest railway station is Perth and the nearest airport is Dundee.
Culture In 1996, Blairgowrie hosted the Royal National Mod.
Sport Football Blairgowrie and Rattray is home to the Scottish Junior Football East Region Premier League side Blairgowrie F.C. as well as the Scottish Amateur Football Association sides Rattray A.F.C  and Balmoral United A.F.C.  which play in the Perthshire Amateur League .
Blairgowrie and Rattray Golf Blairgowrie Golf Club was founded in 1889 and has been expanded over the years with much of the design by James Braid. There are now two 18 hole courses, Rosemount and Lansdowne, and a 9-hole course. The substantial clubhouse is on Golf Course Road. Skiing The Glenshee Ski Centre in Glenshee (Glenshee or Gleann Shith which translates from Gaelic as Glen of the Fairies), is some 18 miles to the north at the Cairnwell Pass on the A93 Braemar road which is the highest public road in the UK. Ski-ing started here in the 1930s and in 1957 the Dundee Ski Club built the first T-bar tow. In the 1960s the Glenshee Chairlift Company was formed to make the most of the new leisure facility at Cairnwell. During the "glory days " of the 1970s and 80s the car and coach parks would be full to capacity and lift queues would run into hours. The Glenshee Chairlift Co Ltd was forced into receivership in May 2004 by lack of snow over many winters but a management buyout by Glenshee Ltd and the return of good snow ensured that ski-ing and snowboarding continue at Scotland's biggest ski area which now has 21 lifts spread over 4 mountains and 3 valleys. Rattray The traditional ball game of Rattray no longer takes place, but the Rattray silver ball which was the trophy retained by the winners is still in existence. It is believed to have been donated by Sylvester Rattray of Nether Persie who became minister of Rattray in 1591 and continued there until his death in 1623. The Rattray silver ball is now kept at Perth Museum and Art Gallery. Highland Games Blairgowrie Highland Games are held annually on the first Sunday of September in Bogles Field on Essendy Road. It is noted for its Hill Race and its mass tug o'war where as many contestants as possible from Blairgowrie and Rattray compete against each other. The evening before is known as Braemar Night with entertainment in the Wellmeadow and fireworks along the river. This tradition started in the 1960s to encourage travellers returning from Braemar Highland Games (held on the Saturday) to stop in the town and quickly grew into a huge programme of entertainments, pipe bands, fireworks, funfairs etc. which drew tens of thousands not only returning south from Braemar but on special excursions from Perth and Dundee. The current event is somewhat scaled down but extremely popular with locals. Recreation Centre The council funded recreation centre in Beeches Road was rebranded Live Active Blairgowrie in 2009, but it is still referred to by locals as The Rec. Irrespective of its name this excellent facility provides training and sports facilities and a swimming pool and is ever popular.
Medical Facilities Blairgowrie Community Hospital sits on Perth Road and is a GP-led unit offering a Minor Injury and Illness Emergency Unit, palliative care and step-down care. There are two GP surgeries, Ardblair in Ann St and Strathmore in Jessie St, and a large dental practice in the High St.
Twin cities â€˘ â€˘
Pleasanton, California, USA Fergus, Ontario, Canada
Blairgowrie and Rattray
References  "Comparative Population Profile: Blairgowrie Locality" (http:/ / www. scrol. gov. uk/ scrol/ browser/ profile. jsp?profile=Population& mainArea=blairgowrie& mainLevel=Locality). Scotland's Census Results Online. 2001-04-29. . Retrieved 2008-08-31.  http:/ / www. gro-scotland. gov. uk/ statistics/ publications-and-data  Iain Mac an Tàilleir. "Placenames" (http:/ / www. scottish. parliament. uk/ Gaelic/ placenamesA-B. pdf) (PDF). Scottish Parliament. . Retrieved 28 November 2011.  "Blàr Ghobharaidh - Fiosrachadh Meòire" (http:/ / www. acgmod. org/ branches/ detail/ blairgowrie/ ga). An Comunn Gàidhealach. . Retrieved 28 November 2011.  "I'm No Comin Oot the Noo (and 379 others)" (http:/ / www. tobarandualchais. co. uk/ gd/ fullrecord/ 42617/ 3). Tobar an Dualchais. . Retrieved 28 November 2011.  "Am Mòd Nàiseanta - Ionadan gach bliadhna" (http:/ / www. smo. uhi. ac. uk/ gaidhlig/ mod/ ). Sabhal Mòr Ostaig. . Retrieved 28 November 2011.  "Database" (http:/ / www. gaelicplacenames. org/ databaseresult. php?redirect=true& keyword=blairgowrie& lang=en). Ainmean Àite na h-Alba. . Retrieved 28 November 2011.  Barclay, G; Maxwell, G.S. (1998), The Cleaven Dyke and Littleour: monuments in the Neolithic of Tayside (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=HzvHNKNZSOoC& printsec=frontcover#v=onepage& q=& f=false), Society of Antiquaries of Scotland Monograph Series, Kings Stanley, Gloucestershire: Past Historic, , retrieved 2009-12-02  Barclay, G.J.; Maxwell, G.S. and Mills, C. (2002). "Excavation of a Neolithic long mortuary enclosure within the Roman legionary fortress at Inchtuthil, Perthshire" (http:/ / ads. ahds. ac. uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_121/ 121_027_044. pdf). Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 121: 27–44. . Retrieved 2009-12-03.  Coles, F.R. (1909). "Report on stone circles surveyed in Perthshire (Southeast district), with measured plans and drawings obtained under the Gunning fellowship" (http:/ / ads. ahds. ac. uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ arch-352-1/ dissemination/ pdf/ vol_043/ 43_093_130. pdf). Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 43: 93–130. . Retrieved 2009-12-02.  Canmore database, Carsie (http:/ / www. rcahms. gov. uk/ pls/ portal/ newcanmore. newcandig_details_gis?inumlink=28880), Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland, , retrieved 2009-12-03  Cowie, T; Reid, A. (1986). "Some recent finds of Bronze-Age metalwork from Perthshire" (http:/ / ads. ahds. ac. uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_116/ 116_069_088. pdf). Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 116: 69–88. . Retrieved 2009-12-02.  Coles, J.M. (1959). "Scottish Late Bronze Age Metalwork: Typology, Distributions and Chronology." (http:/ / ads. ahds. ac. uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_093/ 93_016_134. pdf). Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 93: 16–134. . Retrieved 2009-12-02.  Breeze, D.J. (2002), Roman Forts in Britain (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=3INnKGkjZE8C& pg=PA40& dq=inchtuthil#v=onepage& q=inchtuthil& f=false) (2 ed.), Princes Risborough, Buckinghamshire: Shire Publications, , retrieved 2009-12-03  Ritchie, A (1989), Picts: An Introduction to the Life of the Picts and the Carved Stones in the Care of the Secretary of State for Scotland, Edinburgh: HMSO Publications  McDonald, R. (1843), "Parish of Blairgowrie" (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=5u41AAAAMAAJ& pg=PA1197& dq=statistical+ account+ scotland+ blairgowrie#v=snippet& q=blairgowrie& f=false), The new statistical account of Scotland 10: pp. 897–933, , retrieved 2009-12-03  "Mod News: Royal Seal of Approval" (http:/ / www. acgmod. org/ nationalmod/ moddetail/ royal-seal-of-approval). 1 Oct 2010. . Retrieved 21 Sep 2011.  http:/ / www. rattrayafc. co. uk/  http:/ / www. webteams. co. uk/ Home. aspx?team=balmoralunitedafc  http:/ / www. freewebs. com/ perthshireamateurs/ index. htm  Perthshire Diary - The Rattray silver ball - January 30th 1623 (http:/ / www. perthshirediary. com/ html/ day0130. html)  Silver ball of Rattray (http:/ / www. rls. org. uk/ database/ record. php?usi=000-000-496-719-C& searchdb=scran)
External links • • • • •
Blairgowrie & Rattray Community Website (http://www.blairgowrieandrattray.com/) Blairgowrie, Rattray & East Perthshire Tourist and Visitor (http://www.heartofscotland.com/) Blairgowrie & East Perthshire Tourist Association Website (http://www.visiteastperthshire.co.uk/) Blairgowrie & Rattray Community Council Information Guide (http://www.brcommunitycouncil.org.uk/) Blairgowrie & Rattray Photo Gallery (http://www.barryged.co.uk/)
Masculinity Masculinity is possessing qualities or characteristics considered typical of or appropriate to a man. The term can be used to describe any human, animal or object that has the quality of being masculine. When masculine is used to describe men, it can have degrees of comparison—more masculine, most masculine. The opposite can be expressed by terms such as unmanly or epicene. A typical near-synonym of masculinity is virility (from Latin vir, man); and the usual complement is femininity.
Literature review Ancient Cicero wrote that "a man's chief quality is courage." Ancient literature goes back to about 3000 BC. It includes both explicit In Greek mythology, Heracles is synonymous statements of what was expected of men in laws, and implicit with Apollonian masculinity. suggestions about masculinity in myths involving gods and heroes. In 1000 BCE, The Hebrew Bible states King David of Israel told his son "Be strong, and be a man" upon David's death. Men throughout history have gone to meet exacting cultural standards of what is considered attractive. Kate Cooper, writing about ancient understandings of femininity, suggests that, "Wherever a woman is mentioned a man's character is being judged – and along with it what he stands for." One well-known representative of this literature is the Code of Hammurabi (from about 1750 BC). • Rule 3: "If any one bring an accusation of any crime before the elders, and does not prove what he has charged, he shall, if it be a capital offense charged, be put to death." • Rule 128: "If a man takes a woman to wife, but has no intercourse with her, this woman is no wife to him." Scholars suggest integrity and equality as masculine values in male-male relationships, and virility in male-female relationships. Legends of ancient heroes include: The Epic of Gilgamesh, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Such narratives are considered to reveal qualities in the hero that inspired respect, like wisdom or courage, the knowing of things that other men do not know and the taking of risks that other men would not dare.
Medieval Jeffrey Richards describes a European, "medieval masculinity which was essentially Christian and chivalric." Again ethics, courage and generosity are seen as characteristic of the portrayal of men (=niela) in literary history. Anglo Saxon Beowulf, Hengest and Horsa are famous examples of medieval ideals of masculinity.
Masculine physical attributes Some researchers argue that a large number of women are aroused mostly by broad chins and shoulders and high cheekbones, though there are cultural differences in those preferences, and arousal may be a indication of socialized notions of attractiveness. Other research suggests that women unconsciously recognize a sculpted physique as indicative of "masculine" discipline, focus and self-control.
During the first half of the twentieth century, men were often associated with images of industrialization
Biology and culture Some gender studies scholars will use the phrase "hegemonic masculinity" to refer to an ideal of male behavior which men are strongly encouraged to aim, which is calculated to guarantee the dominant position of some men over others.
Western trends According to a paper submitted by Tracy Tylka to the American Psychological Association (APA), in contemporary America: "Instead of seeing a decrease in objectification of women in society, there has just been an increase in the objectification of Direct competition of physical skill and strength is a both sexes. And you can see that in the media today." Men and feature of masculinity which appears in some form in virtually every culture on Earth. Here, two U.S. women restrict their food intake in an effort to achieve what they Marines compete in a wrestling match. consider an attractively thin body, in extreme cases leading to eating disorders. Thomas Holbrook, also a psychiatrist, cites a recent Canadian study indicating as many as one in six of those with eating disorders were men. "Younger men and women who read fitness and fashion magazines could be psychologically harmed by the images of perfect female and male physiques," according to recent research in the United Kingdom. Some young women
Masculinity and men exercise excessively in an effort to achieve what they consider an attractively fit and muscular body, which in extreme cases can lead to body dysmorphic disorder or muscle dysmorphia. Although the actual stereotypes may have remained relatively constant, the value attached to the masculine and feminine stereotypes have changed over the past few decades. Those associated with recent work in the study of masculinity from a philosophical perspective view masculinity as an unstable phenomenon and never ultimately achieved.
Masculinity in decline There has been a recent uptick of books, articles and research studies documenting an endocrinological (or hormone) decline in the general male population. Recent analysis shows average testosterone levels receding in men of all ages. In addition, average sperm quality, quantity and even testicle size has seen a marked reduction. Although many theories are presented to why this is happening, from endocrine disruptors, to evolutionary biology, researchers ultimately concede the reason is still unknown.
Development A great deal is now known about the development of masculine characteristics and the process of sexual differentiation specific to the reproductive system of Homo sapiens. The SRY gene on the Y chromosome interferes with the process of creating a female, causing a chain of events that leads to testes formation, androgen production, and a range of both natal and post-natal hormonal effects. There is an extensive debate about how children develop gender identities. In many cultures, displaying characteristics not typical to one's gender may become a social problem for the individual. Within sociology such labeling and conditioning is known as gender assumptions, and is a part of socialization to better match a culture's mores. Among men, some non-standard behaviors may be considered a sign of homosexuality, which frequently runs contrary to cultural notions of masculinity. When sexuality is defined in terms of object choice, as in early sexology studies, male homosexuality is interpreted as A construction worker. "feminine" sexuality. The corresponding social condemnation of excessive masculinity may be expressed in terms such as machismo or testosterone poisoning. The relative importance of the roles of socialization and genetics in the development of masculinity continues to be debated. While social conditioning obviously plays a role, some hold that certain aspects of the feminine and masculine identity exist in almost all human cultures, though this has not been thoroughly substantiated. The historical development of gender role is addressed by such fields as behavioral genetics, evolutionary psychology, human ecology, anthropology and sociology. All human cultures seem to encourage the development of gender roles, through literature, costume and song. Some examples of this might include the epics of Homer, Hengest and Horsa tales in English, the normative commentaries of Confucius. More specialized treatments of masculinity may be found in works such as the Bhagavad Gita or bushidĹ?'s Hagakure. Another term for a masculine woman is butch, which is associated with lesbianism. Butch is also used within the lesbian community, without a negative connotation, but with a more specific meaning (Davis and Lapovsky Kennedy, 1989).
Downside and failure of concept It is a subject of debate whether masculinity concepts followed historically should still be applied. Researchers such as Care International have argued that there is a harmful downside due to considerations such as the following: • The relationship between masculinity and gender-based violence • The disempowerment and impoverishment of women and the persistence of gender inequalities through men’s violence • The loss of men's dignity and self-esteem when they are taught to behave violently The images of boys and young men presented in the media may lead to the persistence of harmful concepts of masculinity. Men's rights activists argue that the media does not pay serious attention to men's rights issues and that men are often portrayed in a negative light, particularly in advertising.
Pressures associated In 1987, Eisler and Skidmore did studies on masculinity and created the idea of 'masculine stress'. They found four mechanisms of masculinity that accompany masculine gender role often result in emotional stress. They include: • The emphasis on prevailing in situations requiring body and fitness • Being perceived as emotional • The need to feel adequate in regard to sexual matters and financial status Because of social norms and pressures associated with masculinity, Men with spinal cord injuries have to adapt their self identity to the losses associated with SCI which may “lead to feelings of decreased physical and sexual prowess with lowered self-esteem and a loss of male identity. Feelings of guilt and overall loss of control are also experienced.” Masculinity is something that some fear is becoming increasingly challenged, especially in the last century, with the emergence of Women's rights and the development of the role of women in society. In recent years many 'Man Laws' and similar masculinist manifestos have been published, as a way for men to re-affirm their masculinity. A popular example is the Miller Lite Man Laws, and other various sites on the internet offering rules such as: "15. A real man does not need instruction manuals."  Although many of these rules are offered in a humorous fashion, they attempt to define masculinity, and indicate that proper gender is taught and performed rather than intuited.
Risk-taking The driver crash rate per vehicle miles driven is higher for women than for men; although, men are much more likely to cause deaths in the accidents they are involved in. Men drive significantly more miles than women, so, on average, they are more likely to be involved in motor vehicle accidents. Even in the narrow category of young (16-20) driver fatalities with a high blood alcohol content (BAC), a male's risk of dying is higher than a female's risk at the Same BAC level. That is, young women drivers need to be more drunk to have the same risk of dying in a fatal accident as young men drivers. Men are three times more likely to die in all kinds of accidents than women. In the United States, men make up 92% of workplace deaths, indicating either a greater willingness to perform dangerous work, a societal expectation to perform this work, or that women are not hired for this work.
Health care A growing body of evidence is pointing toward the deleterious impact of masculinity (and hegemonic masculinity in particular) on men's health help-seeking behaviour. American men make 134.5 million fewer physician visits than American women each year. In fact, men make only 40.8% of all physician visits, that is, if women's visits for pregnancy are included, childbirth and associated obstetrical and gynecological visits. A quarter of the men who are 45 to 60 do not have a personal physician. Many men should go to annual heart checkups with physicians but do not,
Masculinity increasing their risk of death from heart disease. Men between the ages of 25 and 65 are four times more likely to die from cardiovascular disease than women. Men are more likely to be diagnosed in a later stage of a terminal illness because of their reluctance to go to the doctor. Reasons men give for not having annual physicals and not visiting their physician include fear, denial, embarrassment, a dislike of situations out of their control, or not worth the time or cost. Media encouragement According to Arran Stibbe (2004), men's health problems and behaviors can be linked to the socialized gender role of men in our culture. In exploring magazines, he found that they promote traditional masculinity and claims that, among other things, men's magazines tend to celebrate "male" activities and behavior such as admiring guns, fast cars, sexually libertine women, and reading or viewing pornography regularly. In men's magazines, several "ideal" images of men are promoted, and that these images may even entail certain health risks. Alcohol consumption behavior Research on beer commercials by Strate (Postman, Nystrom, Strate, And Weingartner 1987; Strate 1989, 1990) and by Wenner (1991) show some results relevant to studies of masculinity. In beer commercials, the ideas of masculinity (especially risk-taking) are presented and encouraged. The commercials often focus on situations where a man is overcoming an obstacle in a group. The men will either be working hard or playing hard. For instance the commercial will show men who do physical labor such as construction workers, or farm work, or men who are cowboys. Beer commercials that involve playing hard have a central theme of mastery (over nature or over each other), risk, and adventure. For instance, the men will be outdoors fishing, camping, playing sports, or hanging out in bars. There is usually an element of danger as well as a focus on movement and speed. This appeals to and emphasizes the idea that real men overcome danger and enjoy speed (i.e. fast cars/driving fast). The bar serves as a setting for the measurement of masculinity (skills like pool, strength and drinking ability) and serves as a center for male socializing.
Traditional Masculinity Traditional avenues for men to gain honor were that of providing adequately for their families and exercising leadership. The traditional family structure consisted of the father as the bread-winner and the mother as the homemaker. During World War II, women entered the workforce in droves to replace the soldiers who were sent overseas. While some returned home to resume their positions as homemakers if their husbands survived the war, and others remained in the workplace. Over the decades since, women have risen to high political and corporate positions. This shift has caused an increase in Father with his son women becoming the primary income-earners and men  the primary care-givers --a process author Jeremy Adam Smith calls "the daddy shift" in his 2009 book of that  title. As of 2007, 159,000 dads were primary care-givers and this number is increasing. Dubbed stay-at-home dads, these men are performing duties in the home which are not being done by women. Regardless of age or nationality, men more frequently rank good health, harmonious family life and good relationships with their spouse or partner as important to their quality of life.
Footnotes  Roget’s II: The New Thesaurus, 3rd. ed., Houghton Mifflin, 1995.  "Viri autem propria maxime est fortitudo." Cicero, Tusculanae Quaestiones, 1:11:18.  Kate Cooper, The Virgin and The Bride: Idealized Womanhood in Late Antiquity, (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=QVvn8vUMZdIC& pg=PA19& lpg=PA19& dq="wherever+ a+ woman+ is+ mentioned+ a+ man's+ character+ is+ being+ judged"& source=web& ots=lYAXvJa29I& sig=LvrybebcK9gPm4PaJWe5934jD5Y) (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1996), p. 19.  The Code of Hammurabi (http:/ / www. wsu. edu/ ~dee/ MESO/ CODE. HTM), translated by LW King, 1910.  Karen Bassi, ['Acting like Men: Gender, Drama, and Nostalgia in Ancient Greece', Classical Philology 96 (2001): 86-92.]  Jeffrey Richards, 'From Christianity to Paganism: The New Middle Ages and the Values of ‘Medieval’ Masculinity,' (http:/ / www. ingentaconnect. com/ content/ bpl/ cuva/ 1999/ 00000003/ 00000002/ art00057) Cultural Values 3 (1999): 213-234.  Pressure To Be More Muscular May Lead Men To Unhealthy Behaviors (http:/ / researchnews. osu. edu/ archive/ maleobj. htm)  Goode, Erica (2000-06-25). "Thinner: The Male Battle With Anorexia" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?sec=health& res=9F02EED7133EF936A15755C0A9669C8B63). The New York Times. . Retrieved 2010-05-12.  "Magazines 'harm male body image'" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ health/ 7318411. stm). BBC News. 2008-03-28. . Retrieved 2010-05-12.  Muscle dysmorphia – AskMen.com (http:/ / www. askmen. com/ sports/ bodybuilding/ 56_fitness_tip. html)  Men Muscle in on Body Image Problems | LiveScience (http:/ / www. livescience. com/ health/ 060815_bodyimage_men. html)  Reeser, T. Masculinities in Theory, Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.  Cross, Gary. Men to Boys: The Making of Modern Immaturity (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ Men-Boys-Making-Modern-Immaturity/ dp/ 023114430X). .  Sax, Leonard (2007). Boys Adrift: The Five Factors Driving the Growing Epidemic of Unmotivated Boys and Underachieving Young Men (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ Boys-Adrift-Epidemic-Unmotivated-Underachieving/ dp/ 0465072097). .  Whitmire, Richard. Why Boys Fail: Saving Our Sons from an Educational System That's Leaving Them Behind (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ Why-Boys-Fail-Educational-Leaving/ dp/ 0814415342/ ref=pd_sim_b_4). .  Travison, T. Araujo, A., O’Donnell, A. Kupelian, V. and McKinlay, J. (2007). "A Population-Level Decline in Serum Testosterone Levels in American Men" (http:/ / jcem. endojournals. org/ content/ 92/ 1/ 196. abstract). The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 92 (1): 196–202. doi:10.1210/jc.2006-1375. .  Dindyal, S. (2007). "The sperm count has been decreasing steadily for many years in Western industrialised countries: Is there an endocrine basis for this decrease?" (http:/ / www. ispub. com/ ostia/ index. php?xmlFilePath=journals/ iju/ vol2n1/ sperm. xml). The Internet Journal of Urology 2 (1): 1–21. .  Rogers (Nov. 2010.). "The dramatic decline of the modern man" (http:/ / www. salon. com/ books/ feature/ 2010/ 11/ 14/ manthropology_interview). Salon. .  UNIFEM GENDER FACT SHEET No.5  Farrell, W. & Sterba, J. P. (2008) Does Feminism Discriminate Against Men: A Debate (Point and Counterpoint), New York: Oxford University Press.  Hutchinson, Susan L "Heroic masculinity following spinal cord injury: Implications for therapeutic recreation practice and research". Therapeutic Recreation Journal. FindArticles.com. 07 Apr, 2009  "List of Man Law Rules/Rules for Men" (http:/ / www. fuckingmanly. com/ man-rules). Fucking Manly. . Retrieved 2009-08-20.  Johns Hopkins School Of Public Health (1998, June 18). Women Not Neccessarily Better Drivers Than Men. (http:/ / www. sciencedaily. com/ releases/ 1998/ 06/ 980618032130. htm) ScienceDaily.  Crash Data and Rates for Age-Sex Groups of Drivers, 1996 (http:/ / www-nrd. nhtsa. dot. gov/ Pubs/ 98. 010. PDF), Ezio C. Cerrelli, January 1998, National Center for Statistics & Analysis - Research & Development  CFOI Charts, 1992–2006 (http:/ / www. bls. gov/ iif/ oshwc/ cfoi/ cfch0005. pdf)  Galdas P.M., Cheater F. & Marshall P. (2005) Men and health help-seeking behaviour: Literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 49, 616-23  George, A., “Reinventing honorable masculinity” Men and Masculinities  Smith, Jeremy Adam. The Daddy Shift. Boston: Beacon Press, 2009.  Stay-at-Home Dads (http:/ / careerplanning. about. com/ cs/ altoptgenl/ a/ stay_home_dads. htm), By Dawn Rosenberg McKay, About.com Guide  Men defy stereotypes in defining masculinity (http:/ / www. tricitypsychology. com/ blog/ men-defy-stereotypes-in-defining-masculinity/ ), August 26, 2008, Tri-City Psychology Services
References • Levine, Martin P. (1998). Gay Macho. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-4694-2. • Stibbe, Arran. (2004). "Health and the Social Construction of Masculinity in Men's Health Magazine." Men and Masculinities; 7 (1) July, pp. 31–51. • Strate, Lance "Beer Commercials: A Manual on Masculinity" Men's Lives Kimmel, Michael S. and Messner, Michael A. ed. Allyn and Bacon. Boston, London: 2001
Further reading Present situation • Arrindell, Willem A., Ph.D. (1 October 2005) "Masculine Gender Role Stress" Psychiatric Times Pg. 31 • Ashe, Fidelma (2007) The New Politics of Masculinity, London and New York: Routledge. • Broom A. and Tovey P. (Eds) Men’s Health: Body, Identity and Social Context London; John Wiley and Sons Inc. • Burstin, Fay "What's Killing Men". Herald Sun (Melbourne, Australia). October 15, 2005. • Canada, Geoffrey "Learning to Fight" Men's Lives Kimmel, Michael S. and Messner, Michael A. ed. Allyn and Bacon. Boston, London: 2001 • Raewyn Connell: Masculinities (as Robert W. Connell), Cambridge: Polity Press, 1995 ISBN 0-7456-1469-8 • Courtenay, Will "Constructions of masculinity and their influence on men's well-being: a theory of gender and health" Social Science and Medicine, yr: 2000 vol: 50 iss: 10 pg: 1385–1401 • bell hooks, We Real Cool: Black Men and Masculinity, Taylor & Francis 2004, ISBN 0415969271 • Galdas P.M. and Cheater F.M. (2010) Indian and Pakistani men’s accounts of seeking medical help for angina and myocardial infarction in the UK: Constructions of marginalised masculinity or another version of hegemonic masculinity? Qualitative Research in Psychology • Levant & Pollack (1995) A New Psychology of Men, New York: BasicBooks • Juergensmeyer, Mark (2005): Why guys throw bombs. About terror and masculinity (pdf) (http://web.fu-berlin. de/gpo/pdf/juergensmeyer/juergensmeyer_e.pdf) • Kaufman, Michael "The Construction of Masculinity and the Triad of Men's Violence". Men's Lives Kimmel, Michael S. and Messner, Michael A. ed. Allyn and Bacon. Boston, London: 2001 • Mansfield, Harvey. Manliness. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006. ISBN 0300106645 • Reeser, T. Masculinities in Theory, Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. • Robinson, L. (October 21, 2005). Not just boys being boys: Brutal hazings are a product of a culture of masculinity defined by violence, aggression and domination. Ottawa Citizen (Ottawa, Ontario). • Stephenson, June (1995). Men are Not Cost Effective: Male Crime in America. ISBN 0-06-095098-6 • Walsh, Fintan. Male Trouble: Masculinity and the Performance of Crisis. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. • Williamson P. "Their own worst enemy" Nursing Times: 91 (48) 29 November 95 p 24–7 • Wray Herbert "Survival Skills" U.S. News & World Report Vol. 139, No. 11; Pg. 63 September 26, 2005 • "Masculinity for Boys"; published by UNESCO, New Delhi, 2006; (http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/ 001465/146514e.pdf) • Smith, Bonnie G., Hutchison, Beth. Gendering Disability. Rutgers University Press, 2004.
History • Michael Kimmel, Manhood in America, New York [etc.]: The Free Press 1996 • A Question of Manhood: A Reader in U.S. Black Mens History and Masculinity, edited by Earnestine Jenkins and Darlene Clark Hine, Indiana University press vol1: 1999, vol. 2: 2001 • Gary Taylor, Castration: An Abbreviated History of Western Manhood, Routledge 2002 • Klaus Theweleit, Male fantasies, Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press, 1987 and Polity Press, 1987 • Peter N. Stearns, Be a Man!: Males in Modern Society, Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1990 • Shuttleworth, Russell. "Disabled Masculinity." Gendering Disability. Ed. Bonnie G. Smith and Beth Hutchison. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 2004. 166-178.
External links Bibliographic • The Men's Bibliography (http://mensbiblio.xyonline.net/), a comprehensive bibliography of writing on men, masculinities, gender and sexualities, listing over 16,700 works. (mainly from a constructionist perspective) • Boyhood Studies (http://www.boyhoodstudies.com), features a 2200+ bibliography of young masculinities. Other • Practical Manliness (http://www.practicalmanliness.com), A manly blog that applies "historical ideals to modern men". • The ManKind Project of Chicago (http://www.mkpchicago.org), supporting men in leading meaningful lives of integrity, accountability, responsibility, and emotional intelligence • NIMH web pages on men and depression (http://menanddepression.nimh.nih.gov/), talks about men and their depression and how to get help. • Article entitled "Wounded Masculinity: Parsifal and The Fisher King Wound" (http://howellgroup.org/parsifal. html) The symbolism of the story as it relates to the Wounded Masculinity of Men by Richard Sanderson M.Ed., B.A. • BULL (http://www.bullmensfiction.com), Print and online literary journal specializing in masculine fiction for a male audience. • Art of Manliness (http://www.artofmanliness.com), An online web magazine/blog dedicated to "reviving the lost art of manliness". • The Masculinity Conspiracy (http://masculinityconspiracy.com), An online book critiquing constructions of masculinity.
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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors File:mahaparinirvana.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mahaparinirvana.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: myself File:Pilgrimage to Lhasa.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pilgrimage_to_Lhasa.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: Gao from Beijing, China File:Orthodox pilgrim.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Orthodox_pilgrim.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:PetarM File:Bathing ghat on the Ganges during Kumbh Mela, 2010, Haridwar.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bathing_ghat_on_the_Ganges_during_Kumbh_Mela,_2010,_Haridwar.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: Edson Walker from Curitiba, Brazil File:Kedarnathroute.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kedarnathroute.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: anurupa_chowdhury Image:Kaaba mirror edit jj.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kaaba_mirror_edit_jj.jpg License: unknown Contributors: edited by jjron File:Supplicating Pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram. 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