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A WORLD OF

FASHION


H E R RO N

&

M U R R AY

Exclusive Books, Gifts and Stationery E s t . 19 80

First published in 2016 by Herron and Murray www.herronandmurray.com

Copyright Š 2016 Herron and Murray ISBN: 978-1-925449-07-5

All rights reserved. This publication or any part thereof may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright holder. Compiled by Lorri Lynn and Peter Murray Images: Shutterstock

The author and publisher have made every effort to ensure the information contained in this book was correct at the time of going to press and accept no responsibility for any loss, injury or inconvenience sustained by any person or organisation using this book. Some editorial may have been used from the Public Domain. Distributed world-wide by

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Contents 4 Introduction 6 Development

12 12 14 16

Cocktails Made with Absinthe Green Russians The Monkey Gland Green Vesper

24 24 26 28 30

Cocktails Made with Brandy/Cognac Brandy Alexander Brandy Sour Orgasm Singapore Sling

18 18 20 22

Cocktails Made with Beer Black and Tan Boilermaker Brass Monkey

32 Cocktails Made with Cachaca 32 Batida

34 Cocktails Made with Champagne 34 Mimosa 36 Kir Royale

38 38 40 42 44 48 48 50 52 54 56

Cocktails Made with Gin Gin Fizz Long Island Iced Tea Martini Tom Collins

Cocktails Made with Rum Bahama Mama Daiquiri Hurricane Mai-Tai Pina Colada

58 Cocktails Made with Sake 58 Sake Bomb

60 60 62 64 66 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90

92 92 94 96 98 100 102

Cocktails Made with Tequila Margarita Tequila Slammer Tequila Sunrise

Cocktails Made with Vodka Appletini Bay Breeze Black Russian Bloody Mary Cosmopolitan Harvey Wallbanger Kensington Court Special Moscow Mule Mudslide Screwdriver Sex on the Beach Vodka Martini (Kangaroo) Woo Woo

Cocktails Made with Whiskey Four Horsemen Irish Coffee Jack and Coke Manhattan Mint Julep Whiskey Sour

104 Cocktails Made with Wine 104 Sangria

106 Cocktails Made with Champagne 106 Bellini 108 108 110 112 114 116 118 120

Novelty Cocktails Blow Job Dirty Mother Buttery Nipple Grasshopper Irish Car Bomb Pink Squirrel Screaming Orgasm

122 122 124 126 128 130 132 134 136 138 140 142 144 144 146 148 150 152 154 156 158

160 162 164 166 168 170 172 174 176 178 180

Cocktails Made with Fruit Liqueurs Kamikaze Skittle Bomb Apple-kneel Alabama Slammer French Connection Godfather J채gerbomb Jackson Five Fuzzy Navel Redheaded Slut Mango Sour Shooters Snakebite Martian Hard On Carrot Cake Papa Smurf Oreo Cookie Lemon Drop Southern Candy Bob Marley

A Guide to Cocktail Glassware Highball glasses Lowball glasses Wine glass Cocktail glass Champagne flutes Martini glass Shot glass Brandy snifter Beer glasses Hurricane glass

182 Infamous Tales of the Cocktail Variety

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FASHION

THROUGH THE AGES

Fashion Through the Ages

An animal skin, an admiring eye, and primitive man gave rise to the clothing industry. Though fashion has evolved into a much more dynamic and complex industry, the simple act of admiring someone else’s clothing was just the spark that was needed to start its evolution. Though its humble beginnings were nothing more than a need for warmth and propriety, it would not be long before clothing took on larger, more significant meanings. Clothing began to be seen as a symbol of status, as well as an attractive way to draw a potential mate. The clothes one wore could also symbolize something sacred, and often reflected the times in which they were created and worn. In this way, fashion, and in particularly, clothing, has been woven into the tapestry of mankind’s story from its beginning.

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FASHION

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Early Beginnings

One of the earliest recorded, and highly sought after, designers was Rose Bertin, whose claim to fame was that she ‘made’ Marie Antoinette. Working out of a shop in Paris, Rose entered into an agreement with Antoinette to assist the new Queen in ‘connecting’ with her people, and in particular, to outshine her enemies at court. The clothing that Rose created uniquely and especially for the Queen, included some shocking innovations for the day. A ‘revolution’ of sorts began with Antoinette’s riding breeches, which scandalously showed the young Queen’s ankles. She also wore innovative and newly ornamented gowns, the like of which continued to influence the monarchy for generations to come.

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Obviously, winning the hearts and the minds of the people through fashion, was not the best choice for Maria Antoinette, and fearing for her own life, Rose Bertin fled Paris when the French Revolution occurred. However, the groundbreaking and fashion forward image that was projected influenced the style of clothing throughout the world, reaching well beyond France.

The next designer to make as large a splash wouldn’t come until several decades later, again, in Paris, France. The Industrial Revolution had taken place in Europe, and Charles Worth (18251905) took advantage of this. He employed many seamstresses and tailors to create mass productions of many of his designs. Interestingly enough, he began his design career as a designer of elaborate curtains for the very wealthy and royalty.

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He began giving his clients clothing advice, and then began creating designs especially for them. His career as a dressmaker was established when the Empress EugĂŠnie used him as her primary dress designer. Later, in 1853, when Napoleon declared that no one should be received at court without formal dress, the Worth label became even more in vogue.

Crinolines were Worth’s calling card, and he used them in vast amounts. The hoops under the crinolines gave the crinolines support. Worth implemented the tiny seed pearls into his dresses, as well as the use of attaching exquisite laces and piping. Orders from the Worth Company came in from around the world. For many decades France and England were the hubs for high fashion, and no woman of means would be seen without a dress from Paris or London.

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Much of the design of this time period was influenced by Grecian draperies with its long flowing lines. Bodices were designed to end just slightly under the bust which offered the wearer a higher waistline which gave a pleasing silhouette. Necklines plunged, and sleeves were long or short, and heavily adorned with lace, cuffs, or ornamentation. A type of bodice, called the fiddleback, was introduced during this time, and the development of piping to finish seams was introduced.

As a general rule, dresses opened from the front, using drawstrings, or pins, as fasteners. The skirts often had side openings to allow for better mobility. The most popular colour, until Marie Antoinette, was white. With Marie Antoinette’s patronage, the dresses began to have padding sewn into ‘strategic areas’, and firmer fabrics, which included taffeta, were introduced.

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Sleeves were fuller, wider, and the hems were widened. Antoinette’s favourite colour was purple, and many of her dresses incorporate the varying hues of this colour. Corsets were still very much in demand, and the slimmer one’s waist, the higher one’s value and status.

With the Romantic Era came yet more change. The French Revolution occurred, the first telegraph and railroads were created, and Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice was published. Shelley’s Queen Mab had been out for a while, Coleridge, Wordsworth, Keats, Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, the art of Goya, and the music of Chopin were all influences during the time.

Just as the music of the era moved away from structure and gave in to the emotion, to creating an effect and a mood, so too, did the dresses and clothing of the era.

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Horizontal treatments of the hems added interest to skirts, ornamentation and colours, including prints, were effusive, and the waistline dropped to almost normal proportions. Belts became a fashion accessory. Spencer jackets (short jackets), which were popular in the last decade were still quite popular in this time period. Padding started to fade away, and by the end of this time period, very little remained. The bustle also went away and sleeves ballooned and grew in width and length. Some of the popular styles for sleeves were the balloon, Melon, Leg o’Mutton, and Gigot styles. Skirts were now fashioned to be slimming over the hips, and bodices came to a point in front. Necklines rose and often had very high collars held stiff with bone stays.

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Turn of the Century Fashion

The Victorian Era grew to a close and dresses begin to have elongated trains in the back of the skirt. The silhouette slimmed at the hip, and pleating and smocking were introduced. The fullness of the skirts were now limited to below the knee. This also introduced the concept of day versus evening wear. During the day, the fashionable lady wore a very high-necked collared dress with a bodice that was well below the waist. A more daring look was ventured in the evening, disclosing shoulders and necks, with sleeves that were fitted from the shoulder to just about the elbow, then a fullness in the sleeve from the elbow to the wrist.

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In Paris, Paul Poiret ushered in revolutionary designs that featured slim, almost tailored skirts, which meant that women were required to relinquish many of the layered undergarments. This also included the corsets, which meant that all ‘round the world women were able to sigh with relief. The high boned collar of the previous era disappeared, and a higher waist was incorporated into the ‘empire’ waistline that is still in fashion to this day. Many of the gowns, both daytime and evening wear, sported all types of ornamentation including lace, piping, cording, applique, soutache, tucking, beadwork, and insertion (often appearing all on the same garment). Besides Poiret, there were other dressmakers that quickly distinguished themselves, including Callot Souers, Fortuny, Paquin, Lanvin, Doucet, Lucile, and Boue Souers. Jacques Doucet and Mariano Fortuny, were

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French designers that reflected the impressionistic painters of the day, such as Monet. Their dresses featured pastel colours and sheer overlays and light-reflecting materials. In Italy, a new designer had emerged to rival the French. Mariano Fortuny y Madrazo saw his dresses as canvases, and as such determined that he would experiment with new dyeing processes. He called his dresses Delphos. These dresses were sheath dresses whose colour palettes were developed so that they would have a touch of iridescence. Featuring silk as the basic material, Madrazo would repeatedly plunge the silk into new levels of strength of dyes. The result was a unique and prismatic colour palette that had never been seen before.

It was during this time that the first department stores began to spring up, most notably Selfridge’s in London. Selfridge’s opened its doors in 1909 and became the premier high-end shopping experience.

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Selfridge’s is still in existence today, and is second only to Harrods as far as size and revenue. For the first time, women shoppers could purchase several things in one place, without having to run all over town. They could also purchase items on credit. These innovations helped propel the fashion industry forward as much as the culture of the day.

Fashion magazines came into their own during this time, and many magazines sent their writers to London and Paris to cover the fashion shows. The first fashion shows are credited as the brainchild of female couturier named, Jeanne Paquin. Department stores, such as Selfridge’s, sent buyers to these shows as well, where they would either purchase or copy what they saw there. However, the fashion magazines, which were produced so that the average person could afford them, offered a wider audience a chance to view the latest styles.

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The photographs that were included illustrated the changing waistlines, hemlines, ornamentation, and colours of the time. One of the more popular magazines was called La Gazette du Bon Ton. It was during this time that the Commonwealth of Australia was formed (1901), and with the gold rushes, and the development of the agricultural industry, a new prosperity was realized for the newly independent continent.

However, artifice and excess were still the norm for the day where dresses were concerned in this decade. Until around 1908 the silhouette of the SBend was dominant. The corset, until Poiret gained favour, was still pulled tight at the waist, forcing a woman’s hips to be pulled back, while thrusting the woman’s chest and bust forward. This created the ‘S’ shape which was highly desirable.

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Tailored suits for women were introduced by the design firm of Maison Redfern. This practical, as well as comfortable garment, became the ‘must have’ garment for women, and was often seen in the streets as normal every day wear. With its close proximity to China, Australia had the added bonus of being able to incorporate silk fabrics and the lush designs of the orient into fashion development. Silk embroidered evening coats, or chiffon overblouses, were a direct influence from the Chinese. Many of these would use the exotic fabrics of velvet or georgette. This suited the Australian women quite nicely as during this era the typical Australian woman favoured casual and classic elegance to overdone frumpery. Their nice, tall, statuesque figures lent well to wearing pants, jackets, and tailored outfits.

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With the Ballets Russes performing Scheherazade in 1910, the exotic was in high demand. Poiret was one of the innovators in this area of endeavour as well. Thoroughly embraced by Australian women was the creation by Poiret of a garment that women could put on and take off without the help of a maid or close friend/relative. Art Deco had come of age, and this is reflected in many of the designs of the time. Smaller hats, silk turbans, and gathered tufts of tulle replaced the often wide brimmed, troubadour styles of the previous century.

There was much freedom and experimentation around the world with fashion, most notably in Europe. This saw the rise and fall of the hobble skirt, as well as the lampshade skirt.

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Asymmetrical draping was in vogue for a while, but what really caught on was the fact that the hem lengths rose to the ankle, allowing women to walk without fear of tripping. Hems would continue to rise and World War I saw the hem rise to above the ankle.

Necessity is often the mother of invention, or so the old saying goes, and this was certainly the case for World War I. Fashion was dictated by necessity and with more women having to join the war effort, clothing had to change to suit the new demands. Bodices were raised and skirts became fuller to allow for more mobility. The fabrics of wool and linen were the norm, not only for their cost but also for their durability. Because so many dire circumstances were occurring, and many were finding themselves going to funerals, or visiting the injured in hospital, the hues were darker and more sombre during this time.

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Directly after World War I and prior to the onset of World War II, fashion went through a tremendous amount of change and innovation. This was a result of the vast amount of change that was taking place around the world at the time, too. Carriages were a thing of the past and cars were the new mode of transportation for just about everyone. Movies were abounding and fashion mavens turned their eyes toward the silver screen instead of the royalty for their fashion direction.

Reflecting the change of the day, hairstyles also went through drastic transformations. Gone were the long tresses, and the short ‘bob’ was the style to wear. Hems rose to new heights and only stopped when they had reached to slightly above the knee. Corsets were left to collect dust in the closets, and often women’s fashion mimicked the style and design of men’s fashion.

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With no waist, and bustless, the new silhouette was adorned with the onset and development of the fashion accessory. This included everything from belts to necklaces, ties, lace, scarves, feather boas, and embroidered items. The ‘flapper’ style was very popular during this time, as was the cloche hat. Coco Chanel came into her own during this time with her focus on sporty styles that emphasized the athletic potentials of women.

Chanel was quite the character during this time period. Not only was her personality flamboyant, but she pushed the boundaries of design. Do you like the ‘little black dress’? Thank Coco Chanel for first introducing the concept. How about jersey knits for women? That was Coco, too. Costume jewellery, knitwear, off the rack everyday wear….it’s all Coco.

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This time period, often referred to as the ‘flapper era’ saw hemlines rise to scandalous levels as they reached the knee in height. Bodices and skirts were complex with intricate seaming, flounces, contrasting fabrics, and the overlay was introduced. Complicated and intricate beading was very popular and also indicated a certain level of status as a fully beaded dress was very expensive. Hats that were in vogue at the time included velvet bandeau head band hats, bathing cap hats, and feathered headbands. Purses and handbags were also part of the overall ‘look’ of the day and they would be highly decorative with enamelled mesh, silk with painted handles, or beaded with elaborated and embellished closures.

Two other designers bear mention from this time: Jean Patou and Jeanne Lanvin. Patou created amazing hat styles and Lanvin used floral colours with exquisite beadwork and trim.

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Lanvin also produced men’s fashion, interior design accessories, as well as sportswear for women. Her work was particularly embraced in Australia because of her consistent use of lightweight fabrics and durable accessories. In fact, Lanvin’s approach to design, as a global visionary, was copied later by larger manufacturers to reach out to other cultures and countries with their work.

The act of dressing for multiple events during the day gave way to the one suit a day concept, especially for men. Short suit jackets were the norm and the longer jackets were only used when one was engaged in a highly formal occasion, such as a wedding or a black tie gala. Sports clothing was particularly diverse for men, and it was a regular sight to see young men in knickers and a jumper.

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Short tuxedo jackets were the norm (think the Great Gatsby) and a new style called London Cut, featured very slim, slick lines, looser fitting sleeves, and slightly padded shoulders.

Daytime wear often saw a return, in women’s fashion, to simple and comfortable. Necklines were scooped or a simple ‘V’, and lightweight fabrics that were gossamer and flowing were used. Most dresses were simple in construction and fell in a straight line. This worked well in Australia where the daytime temperatures were often severe and the light fabric and the absence of layers made women during this day and age much more comfortable than ever before.

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Coats In the early-1900s

Often called ‘overdresses’ or ‘coats’ the fashion in Australia at the time was highly influenced by the orient, as well as Egyptian embroidered coats, which many passengers aboard the new passenger ships wore. The coat was generally casual and flowing, sporting lighter weight materials. Fur trims were often included. Australian tailors made use of the materials available and often one would see a chiffon silk evening coat whose cuffs and collar were trimmed in black swans’ down.

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Fashion in the 1930s

Australian fashion, in particular during the 1930s, began to take its influence from the idea of the aviatrices(women in aviation), stockmen, diggers, and all manner of bush figures. Trousers were designed for ‘squatters’ daughters as well as the aviatrices, and soon, it was chic and fashionable for a woman to have at least one pair of trousers in her trousseau. One of the key designers of these trousers for women was Australian, Fletcher Jones, who made a smart trouser for both men and women, offering Italian-like detailing. Long socks often made up any distance from ankle to knee, if the trousers were shortened for sporting or hunting. The material was often cotton, or khaki. These might be accompanied by a leather or wool vest, and riding boots. This style of clothing is still available and popular in Australia today, as featured by Baxter Boots, Akubra hats, and R.M. Williams Outfitters.

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In other parts of the world, fashion seemed to withdraw from its earlier flamboyance in the preceding decades. The US was experiencing a massive economic depression, Europe was experiencing political tensions from Germany, and so, designers decided that it was not a good climate for experimentation. The Womens’ Suffrage movement during this time was a safe organisation to focus upon and so the clothing from this period returned to a more modest and simple sophistication. Backless evening gowns were introduced and slim-fitting neo-classical day dresses accentuated the fact that more women were changing the way they looked at their own bodies. A return to a more athletic build was in vogue and the new dresses reflected this.

Some of the leading designers in the world were Madeleine Vionnet, and Elsa Schiaparelli whose innovations continued to move fashion forward even when it seemed others had stalled out.

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Schiaparelli kept interesting company as some of her best friends included Salvador Dali, Jean Cocteau, and Christian Berard. They all freely offered her their designs which she immediately worked into her garments. One such item was a pullover that she displayed in her boutique window.

Vionnet, rather than embracing the playful designs like Schiaparelli, drew her inspiration from Ancient Greece. Many of her dresses were cut on the bias, which allowed for a very flowing and elegant evening dress. Her work not only evoked a return to the past, but because of the cut and fit of the dresses, produced some of the most sensual pieces worn during the era. Another invention leapt into being during this time: the zipper. This allowed for many new innovations in cuts, embellishments, and fabrics that never would have been possible before.

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Music during this era was focused on the ‘big band’ sounds of Duke Ellington, Glenn Miller and his orchestra, and Benny Goodman. The radio was in nearly every household at this time, and most ordinary families could afford to see a movie fairly often. Movies now had sound, making them even more appealing. The actors and actresses of the time were a large influence on the styles and fashion of the day. One of the most popular movies was The Squatter’s Daughter starring Constance Worth, John Warwick, and Grant Lyndsay. A newcomer to the film industry, Tasmanian born, Errol Flynn, was featured in his first film titled, In the Wake of the Bounty in 1933.

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World War II

Fashion slowed but did not stall during the first part of the 1930s, but with World War II, and the demise of Paris, haute couture stalled. It was during this time that many American fashion designers, who had studied in Europe, began to create heavily to some degree of success. However, even in America there were problems. As in Europe, rationing applied to material as well. Both men and women’s clothing were heavily regulated and materials that might be need at the warfront were restricted. The garments of this time period had little to no extravagance, and embellishment was kept to a minimum. This was because many women found themselves having to work in munitions plants or adopt other non-traditional roles in the workplace. In Australia, the trousers that had been introduced earlier were refashioned for use during wartime.

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Costume jewellery, introduced as a concept and design element by Coco Chanel, continued to be popular. Nearly every woman had a set of faux pearls in her jewellery collection.

Fashion in the 1940s

Much of the understated fashion persisted well until after the war, and Paris’s once larger than life reputation as the mecca for all things fashion was devastated by its need to begin to rebuild in the wake of the war. The once harsh and sharply drawn lines between the working class and the wealthy were blurred as everyone was basically starting from scratch. In Australia and in the United States, countries that did not see much wartime damage, fashion was able to gain a foothold and to these countries many of Europe’s designers ran.

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The ability to mass produce ready-made wear became a sincere threat to the custom made couture houses. Many women, who before would never have been able to consider such exquisitely produced gowns, could now buy something very close to the real thing off of the rack in a department store. Production cycles became longer than the couture workshops, and the new Paris under the Vichy rule, supported a move away from the seductress and Grecian goddess images of women, and more toward the athletic and robust wife and mother image. The entire Chambre Syndicale de la Couture had been seized by the Third Reich during the war and left those archives in ruins.

However, Paris was not completely down and out of the game. Bonnie Cashin revolutionised the fashion boot, taking many of her inspirations from military footgear.

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Anne Klein also came onto the scene with her line of sportswear and easy to wear trousers and loose fitting, comfortable shirts for women. Men’s fashion was moving forward as well with a new look for business suits. Called the Zazou suit, (Zoot suit), this new look sported long clean lines, padded shoulders, and wide lapels. The trousers were pegged trousers with tight cuffs, and high waists. In Australia, this was modified slightly in that the lapels were often velvet. Production of this suit was halted briefly during the war because of the high volume of fabric it required.

A fashion magazine called the Australian Women’s Weekly offered their readers a view of the latest fashions from Paris. David Jones, the fashion consultant for the Sydney department store, in conjunction with the Women’s Weekly, began sponsoring annual French Fashion Parades.

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THROUGH THE AGES This was a gala event that was held every year in Sydney, and then had ongoing and similar showings in Melbourne, Adelaide, and Brisbane. This was done to stimulate local production and consumption of clothing in the department stores, as well as high-end couture.

Many Australian women preferred casual coordinates that were durable and suitable for Australian conditions. Slacks, cotton sun dresses, and slacks were sold as alternatives to the less practical dresses that were being sold in the department stores.

Rita Hayworth, Marlene Dietrich, and Katharine Hepburn were all actresses that women liked to immolate, and in 1947 an as of yet unheard of fashion sensation gave women what they wanted. Christian Dior offered women dresses that had full skirts, feminine bodices that accentuated the breasts, and featured lavish and luxurious fabrics. A return to the feminine and colourful after wartime years full of austerity was met with enthusiastic response.

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Fashion in the 1950s

Paris finally regained its feet in the fifties and once again became one of the largest fashion influences in the world. Women now had the right to vote, often worked outside of the home, were able to drive cars, but still clung to older ideas of femininity in that they were choosing and preferring to wear dresses with small waists with skirts that flared out in an A-line and hung at midcalf. Many households now had televisions in them, and this only increased the exposure of the masses to fashion trends.

Three Paris designers emerged during this time: Pierre Balmain, Cristóbal Balenciaga Esagri, and Hubert de Givenchy. As the self-titled ‘Prince’ of luxury, Esagri elongated the shoulders in his dresses, providing a narrower silhouette. He followed this with the tunic dress (chemise), and finally his Empire Line, which offered buyers a high waisted dress, which also gave the effect of a narrow waist.

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Hubert de Givenchy introduced to the adoring Australian department stores the notion of the ‘separates’. With this concept a buyer could mix and match blouses and shirts, with trousers and skirts. One of the more popular blouses was the Bettina blouse, which he named after one of his most beautiful models. His work all had a casual elegance that very much appealed to the middle income woman.

Pierre Balmain focused on accentuating the hourglass figure of a woman and all of his dresses offer expanded top and bottom with a narrow waist. He also offered women tailored suit-like collections that were, by reputation, quite comfortable. He also created a ready-to-wear line which he called Florilege, and partnered this with a line of perfumes that were marketed as going with each ‘type’ of outfit. Interestingly enough, a fashion magazine called

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Flair, published a list of Dos and Don’ts for women concerning clothing and their presentation. A list of Don’ts included the admonishment not to wear a suit without a hat, go without stockings on, or sport too many petticoats. Going without gloves at a formal occasion was very non-u (non upper class), and black shoes went with everything except clothing that was, itself, black. One was also advised not to wear high heels with slacks, and a hat with no gloves.

Chanel was still going strong even at 70 years of age, and she conceived and designed several creations that were instantly embraced by women all over the globe. A braided suit sporting gold chains, silk blouses in colours that would complement or match the lining of the suit jackets, tweed suits and dresses that were highly tailored, and her evening dresses with fur were in high demand.

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She went even further by offering exquisitely created costume jewellery and monogrammed buttons. Her quilted purse on a chain was instantly successful and copied by many.

Chanel and Dior were not fans of each other’s work and in fact Chanel denounced Dior’s New Look line of clothing because of Dior’s insistence on reintroducing the idea of corselettes and lingerie. Dior capitalised on the undergarment and foundation wear industry and partnered with Howard Hughes to create a bra called the Cantilever bra. First modelled by starlet, Jane Russell, this bra gave a woman’s breasts additional volume. Lycra was invented during this time, which ushered in more innovation in the fashion industry, most notably in the lingerie lines of most designers.

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Men’s fashion toward the last part of this decade moved toward a more casual look. Hats, such as the Homburg, and the Fedora were popular, as were trench coats. This was seen in the United States first, but quickly was adopted by European men, and then Australia.

Fashion moved back onto the home front as sewing machines were readily available and affordable. Many women began making their own clothing. Butterick, McCalls, Vogue, and Simplicity all offered patterns that were simplified replicas of those styles seen in the department stores. Department stores readily capitalised on this and had entire floors dedicated to the home seamstress with reams and bolts of fabrics and threads. Melbourne took centre stage for the fashion scene in Australia and the well-known Flinders Lane became a fashion hub with more than 600 manufacturers.

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One of these manufacturers, Leroy, partnered with Claudio Alcorso in Hobart and created a competition in an effort to improve truly Australian fashions. The contestants were given the task of creating a dress using printed fabric and creating an Australian theme with it. During this time the Australian Designers’ Guide, and the awards program, Gown of the Year, was introduced. The Australian government got in on the action and sponsored the use of wool in fashions. The 1959 Gown of the Year award went to a stunning dress made of white wool. It was slight at the waist with a skirt that hung below the knee, offering pintucked and fringed bands.

On Collins Street was the department store called George’s, and rivalled Selfridge’s in London for its grand presentations and its outstanding marketing displays. They also were among the first to offer in-house tailors and dressmakers.

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Frank Mitchell was one of Australia’s best designers during this era. This Newcastle native moved to Sydney and created quite the stir with his fashion parades. His salon was a bohemian house that he occupied with many other fellow designers. Soon, they were able to open up their own studio which they called Frank Mitchell Gowns. It was located in Edgecliff and became extremely popular among society women and those looking for an adventure and slightly unorthodox clothing.

Fashion designers realized the potential for advertising if their work should be worn by stars of film and stage. Lauren Bacall, Grace Kelly, and Marilyn Monroe’s styles and outfits were religiously copied and offered for mass consumption. Hair styles still favoured the shorter tresses, opting for bobs or permed short cuts.

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Fashion in the 1960s

In Australia, Joseph Saba, began cutting trousers shorter and shorter. These short trousers would later simply be called ‘shorts’. This style was heartily picked up by the Americans, especially those living in the warmer states, and from Latin American countries. They were made from linen and lightweight fabrics that would be suitable for tropical climates.

In 1965 when Jean Shrimpton modelled a new short skirt, called the ‘shrimp’, at the Flemnington Racecourse in Melbourne, it caused quite a stir. Not only did Ms. Shrimpton have a very revealing short skirt on, but she did not wear hat, nor gloves with her new, short frock. To push the scandal into full bloom, Ms. Shrimpton had been invited there to act as a judge for the fashion show. The skirt, itself, was introduced by London designer, Mary Quant.

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However, the skirt, and the English actress, were an overnight sensation. Skirts all over Australia were losing 2-4 inches off of them. It has been suggested that this time period in history was one where much change was taking place, and as a result, young Australians no longer wanted to be like good old mum and dad. The young people of this era wanted less restrictive clothing, a more casual and comfortable style, and a type of chic that looked effortless. Image married attitude to create the styles of the 60s.

Prue Acton, an Australian designer during this decade, took her young girls’ dresses and converted them for mass production for the regular Australian woman. This created the ‘baby doll’ look and was a type of mini-dress, as opposed to a mini-skirt. Additionally, the notion of ‘hotpants’ were introduced. These were simply short shorts that mimicked the nature of the miniskirt.

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Before the 1960s fashion was largely centred upon women and men’s fashions. Now, with the advent of the 1960s, children and teen fashion became a part of the norm. This is because, in large part, teens were more mobile, often driving their own vehicles, and had access to disposable income. Radio, television, movies, cameras, and modern appliances were a part of most households.

Not since the 1920s had womens’ fashions been so daring. Pierre Cardin opened his first shops in Paris at this time, and his tailored suits for women, that mimicked men’s fashions, were adored. Yves Saint Laurent emerged with a line of new and exciting (and daring) evening gowns, and in the United States Emanuel Ungaro introduced the Avant Garde designs. Simple, clean lines, with bright bold colours and geometric patterns were common. Hats were going out of fashion all together, as were gloves.

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High heels were replaced with kitten heels, and the pointed toe style for shoes gave way to an almond shaped toe. Flat, short cut boots (called booties) were introduced in 1965 and eventually evolved to offer a wide range of boot heights, some even reaching as far up as the knee. These were called Go-Go boots. Hairstyles were more varied during this decade and women wore their hair either in the bob cut, a slightly longer bob called the pageboy cut, and longer straight looks with squared bangs. Often older women would sport a style called a beehive.

Culturally, the Beatles, Beachboys, Elvis Presley, The Who and The Rolling Stones were well on their way to being musical icons. The trends of the day can be seen in their attire, especially the hairstyles of the Beatles, and the clothing of the Beachboys.

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Emilio Pucci became not only a household name in the 1960s, but his prints and designs continued to influence well beyond this decade. His style included using elements from medieval banners, psychedelia, and bold prints with highly contrasting colours. They were considered thoroughly modern and everyone wanted them. Initially, he created shift dresses, beachwear, and tunics, of which his dresses were seamless.

Men’s fashion was less Avant Garde. The type of fabrics used changed to a lighter weight, and had a line that was closer to the natural shape of a man’s body rather than the clunky and boxy shapes of previous decades. Denim pants, dungarees, and jeans were all typically worn in casual settings, often with the cuffs rolled. Sometimes the jeans would end in a bell-like flare, giving the jeans the name bell bottoms.

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Men’s hair styles reached new heights (or some would say lows) as young men were growing their hair long, often past their collars. Embellishments were now acceptable on informal clothing for men, including on jackets, which may be made of denim or corduroy. The influential Givenchy became one of Audrey Hepburn’s exclusive designers, while Jackie Kennedy (wife to US President John F. Kennedy) wore designs by Oleg Cassini. Balenciaga who had been so popular before, closed his shop at the end of this decade in disgust claiming that good, tasteful fashion was dead.

But it wasn’t dead, it was alive, and young, and decidedly more vibrant as the first of the Baby Boomers came of age. Young women enjoyed the casual style of the culottes, a type of loose fitting capri, and men everywhere rejoiced when the two piece bikini came into fashion for women. Tie dyed clothing and batik patterns and fabrics, paisley prints, and geometric patterns were popular.

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Fashion in the 1970s

The free thinking of the 60s came of age in the 70s where the overall attitude was that of pleasing oneself, of seeking within, of eschewing wealth and the establishment. The ‘hippie’ look continued into the 60s with the addition of brightly printed scarves, kaftans, and floral prints. Blue jeans and denim-wear were still quite popular with all generations, and a new look at creating unisex fashions was experimented with. Platform shoes came into style, due in large part to the popularity of Soul music. Hems that were scandalously high in the sixties, dropped to just below the knee, then toward the end of the decade, to mid-calf. Shoulderlines lowered and peasant styles influenced much of the blouse’s development. Likewise, a new dance craze had swept the planet, and disco music and style had arrived. Bell bottom pants were extremely popular.

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Men’s hairstyles remained long, and others allowed their hair to grow into afros. Women started to wear their hair with layers, feathering the tapered bangs to the side.

Mixing Oriental folk styles with Western styles created the look most attributed to Sonia Rykiel and Kenzo Takada in Paris, France. Takada’s style presented clever and whimsical accessories, usual prints used in new ways, and fluid lines that made the wearer look as if they were in perpetual motion.

Sonia Rykiel focused on knitwear and produced the first jumper with reversed seams. Most of the fabrics were darker, sported a combination of rhinestones, crocheted hats, and costume elements. It has been suggested that Rykiel was the heir apparent to Coco Chanel.

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A store called SEX became instantly popular in London with the Punk scene. The clothes were very edgy and pushed the boundaries, offering fetishist accessories, studs, and braided leather that suggested sadism. Bondage trousers, chains, ripped t-shirts were all indicative of this look. Conversely, there was the retro look of Laura Ashley, whose high necked blouses and long flowing skirts hinted at a return to the 40s and 50s. The folk music segment of society, in nearly every country, embraced this look wholeheartedly.

Women had gained a foothold in the work world and the fashion world had followed suit by offering women a wide variety of office appropriate clothing lines. Pantsuits and separates could be found in great abundance in most department stores. Skirts were available in all heights, from mini to maxi, and the colours that began to dominate were earth tones and colours that reflected the colours found in nature.

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The television show Charlie’s Angels, suggested that the new female notion of beautiful was a blonde, leggy, physically fit, liberated woman. Farrah Fawcett made popular a little red bathing suit, sure to be hanging in poster form on each teen boy’s bedroom during this decade.

Woodstock happened in the US and signalled the end of the hippie generation’s time in the sun. The Vietnam War was coming to a conclusion, and the innocence of the 60s was shattered when each evening viewers could view, live in their living rooms, the grim reality of war. Military influenced clothing lines were popular, as were military inspired boots.

Blue jeans were increasingly popular to wear for every day, and designers took them one step further by adding embellishments on the pockets, cuffs, and seams. At any given store one could find jeans that sported studs, trim, and came in a variety of cuts such as hip huggers, bell bottoms, or were high waisted.

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And some were even reimagined as denim skirts, hats, vests, and suits. Designer jeans became status symbols and Gloria Vanderbilt created a jean that fit women’s bodies and accommodated the curves of a woman’s body. Quickly, Jordache, Sasson, and Calvin Klein were copying this notion, and took every opportunity to place their label on the outside of the garment so that buyers could subtly indicate that they’d bought designer jeans.

Rock and Roll bands ushered in the glam and the glitz with satin pants, sequin studded shirts and jackets, and outrageous heights for shoes. David Bowie was one of the major influences for the androgynous clothing lines. The rock band, KISS sported leather and spandex jump suits that accompanied their otherworldly makeup.

Sonny and Cher were a hit, as were the Osmonds. Cher routinely had her outrageous costumes produced by a designer called the Sultan of Sequins, Bob Mackie.

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Polyester was used to excess, and was used in nearly every type of clothing produced, from dresses to pants, to tube tops, to dance clothes. Saturday Night Fever, starring John Travolta, and featuring the music scores from Australia’s brother rock band, The Bee Gees, featured the clothing of the day. The wrap dress became a staple in every woman’s closet.

Pierre Cardin had revolutionized the notion of menswear and helped to craft the atmosphere that made it acceptable for men to shop in department stores dedicated just to them and their fashions. Boutiques sprang up all over Australia and offered suits that were narrow in the shoulders, suggested that ties were optional, and had trousers that zipped in the front. There were also work clothes offered which encouraged a unisex look, while others showed how a suit could be recombined to make casual and stylish clothing for partying or just going out on the town.

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Oxford style shirts, with button down lapels began to emerge as a look of sophistication. An iconic look from this era was the tweed jacket with the moleskin elbow patches, worn over a crisp white t-shirt, jeans, and either sneakers or loafers. In opposition to this was the Italian fashion scene that dubbed itself the anti-fashion movement. Giorgio Armani produced luxurious clothing that was easy to wear, easy to care for, had attitude and hinted at power. Thus, the ‘power’ suit was created. Women in the workforce, particularly those who found themselves in administrative positions particularly flocked to this look.

Australian teen culture particularly gravitated toward sarongs, peasant skirts, and saris. Mary Shakman specialized in creating customized painted designs for t-shirts, sarongs, and other types of resort wear. Many of the stores such as Country Road, Cherry Lane, and David Jones carried these styles and most women in Australia had at least one sarong for wearing to the beach.

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Fashion in the 1980s

The 1980s were typified by big EVERYTHING, including big hair, overconsumption, over the top excess and materialism. Even jackets were ‘big’ thanks to the reintroduction of shoulder pads. Collegiate ‘styles’ were also popular, with those interested in the style sporting khaki pants, blue blazers, Izod Lacoste knit shirts, and cardigans that were draped and tied in front. Logos showed up on the exterior of many of the knit shirt designs, such as Izod and Ralph Lauren. Popular television shows were Dallas and Dynasty, where evening wear made a comeback with sequined extravagance. Hairstyles went longer and curlier, with almost everyone, including men, getting a perm. The ‘statement’ piece was coined during this decade and meant that the item being worn was very large, bold, often colourful, and drew attention to the wearer.

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MTV launched in America and made its way into other parts of the world. The youth culture and counterculture embraced the show and its artists wholeheartedly. Some of the fashion innovations started via MTV included the questionable practice of wearing underwear as outerwear, street fashion, lacy corsets, and tulle. Many of the artists featured on MTV included Madonna, Boy George, Grace Jones, and David Bowie.

Jane Fonda also made it cool to sweat with her workout videos. Women raced out to purchase neon leggings and leotards. Exercise-wear had come of age and the leg warmers ended up coming out of the aerobics studios and onto the street as part of everyday wear. Donna Karan was a designer famous for her bodysuits made of Lycra. Flashdance, the movie, illustrated the style of wearing tight leggings with a large slouchy shirt, like a sweatshirt.

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In Australia, Linda Jackson, inspired by indigenous Australian culture, used applique, patchwork, hand painting, and other techniques to compliment the batik work that she’d learned while working at the Utopia Station in South Australia. Her Bush Couture label, which included Sturt’s Desert Pea outfit, offered the down under new perspectives, colours, and materials, which made her a leading figure in the fashion industry, both in Australia and abroad.

Another unlikely leading figure in the fashion industry wasn’t even a designer, but rather a princess. In 1981 Diana Spencer married Prince Charles of Wales and was welcomed into the royal family in England. The world watched as this English nanny turned Princess transformed into a confident and influential woman who was outspoken about human rights issues and took a particular interest in the welfare of children.

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Women around the world copied Princess Diana’s hairstyle, clothing, hats, and shoes. A classic ‘Diana’ look would include lace collars, structured blazers, necklace statement pieces, and stunning hats.

Gone were the days of the elegantly sophisticated fashion show, and in came the new fashion show extravaganza, replete with paparazzi and media feeds. Gone, too, were bell bottoms and disco fashion. By 1982 no one would have been caught wearing beehive hairstyles, let alone disco pants. Hair styles also included, for men, the mullet, which was short on the sides and longer on top, which left a short strip of hair at the nape of the neck.

Rounded hips, shoulders that were pointed, all typified the work of Frenchman, Thierry Mugler. He drew most of his inspiration from the theatre where he first trained, and combined a retro look with a futuristic slant.

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The dresses, in particular, were unstructured and offered an interesting and appealing silhouette. Claude Montana was also creating fantastic designs during this decade. His designs featured broad shoulders, leather accents, and embroidered corsets and bustier.

Going in a radically different direction were the Japanese designers. Rei Kawakubo brought back a thoughtful reclusive look that really appealed to the creative community. Proponents of this style would wear minimal makeup, if at all, sport flat shoes, and wear drab colours.

In contrast to that style was American, Donna Karan. A New York socialite, Karan introduced the 1980s woman to the perfect marriage of business and the feminine. Gone were the suits and outfits that tried to mimic a man’s clothing line. This line was tailored, polished, and profoundly feminine with its detailing and colouring. Perry Ellis, another American, focused on his

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sportswear line, using natural fibres. Adidas created a type of running and jogging shoe that became an instant status symbol ( even if the owner wasn’t a runner). The Adidas sports label was, itself, off and running.

Katie Pve was another Australian fashion maven. The Avant Garde styling, often paired with graphics, were Pve’s hallmark. Pve thought that fashion should be art, and art fashion, and often flew in the face of conventional propriety and convention. Hats were another issue, however. During this time in Australian history, hats were just not imported for sale as they are now. As a result, many ended up making their own out of cabbage palms. This ‘made by Aussies’ for Aussies’ attitude brought these hats back into vogue. Emu feathers were extremely utilized in fashions during this era. Another hat, the Akubra hat, was originally made from rabbit fur.

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Each year the Millinery Award and Design offers an award for the best hat. The winner is revealed at the Melbourne Cup races, sponsored by the Victorian Riding Club.

Hats are BIG in Australia, as any could tell, and as a result there is nearly $245 million dollars generated in making hats in the country. Most hats produced today, with the exception of custom jobs, are functional and useful, with little care given to art or design.

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Fashion in the 1990s

In a reaction to the 1980s and the era of excess, the 1990s touted the understated elegance. Being overdressed was seen as being rather ‘gauche’. Minimalism, simplistic lines all became the hallmark during the first part of this decade. Though many designers strove to bring back dresses for everyday wear, women weren’t having it. The glamorous models were replaced with the ‘girl next door’ looks of Meg Ryan and Jennifer Anniston.

Fashion had achieved a new status: social champion. Many of the houses used their clothing lines to openly spark debates and discussion around topics of religious violence, death, rape, being disabled, or body modification. Likewise, the femme fatale portrayed in the television shows of Dallas and Dynasty were replaced with comfortable, quietly elegant clothing.

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In fact, many designers opted for styles that were oddly reminiscent of street urchin clothing of previous decades. Off the rack clothing included work from Eddie Bauer.

Gucci, initially known for their leather goods, had expanded to include a wide range of collections and perfumes. It is considered, even today, to be the second largest fashion brand. Shoes were a large part of their expansion and to own a pair of Gucci shoes, or a Gucci suit was a status symbol. Also a status symbol was wearing creations by Isabel Prada. Prada purposely targeted the upwardly mobile young woman who wanted to enjoy wearable luxury without calling attention to it loudly. Prada shoes and handbags were a sign that a woman had ‘arrived’ financially.

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Cashing in on this minimalist chic style, designer Michael Kors produced a line of upscale casual clothes that, while looking relaxed and casual, were made of expensive fabrics and constructed as well as any couture evening gown. Marc Jacobs was another designer from this decade who ushered in the luxury of a purse, wallet, or suitcase with his redesign of the Louis Vuitton bag.

Being not only fashion forward, but a savvy businessman, Calvin Klein shrewdly saw the way that the internet was going to link countries and people, blurring boundaries. Klein was one of the first to not only produce products for his own company, but for European and Asian markets simultaneously. His advertisements were created without the need for much dialogue. Depicted were young and beautiful men and women, hinting at eroticism.

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The commercials and advertisements were very artistically produced and as a result, his brand was readily recognizable.

The Antwerp Six was a name given to a group of designers who had graduated from the Royal Academy in Antwerp. Of these six, three of them would go on to introduce brand new innovations and designs. Ann Demeulemeester tended toward understatement, but complimented this with contrasts in elements and colours. Young women wanting to project an image of pleasing themselves and being anti-establishment loved these fashions.

Dries van Noten, the second of the Antwerp group, tended toward the tailored piece. The innovation was to add unexpected elements in a personal way. Seen as a trendsetter, his work was both modern and classical, and married elements from both of these periods in history to produce unique clothing lines.

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Walter Van Beirendonck, whose work came into its heyday in the mid-1990s, featured futuristic designs with edgy names and dark colours. He liked to purposely clash colours, and use the latest technologically produced fabrics. The clothing that was produced by this designer hinted at the erotic and even toward the sadomasochistic. The work was all about provocation and appealed to punk, scene, and grunge styles.

Conversely, in Italy, a designer named Versace was working with Dolce & Gabbana to produce highly feminine and ultimately classic clothing for women. Vivienne Westwood in England focused on creating outfits based on the original stylings of the 18th century, including a line she made based on the Marquis de Sade. Her work had rounded hips, and platform heels. Rifat Ozbek infused elements from many ethnicities in his work, including his own native, Turkey. His work was very popular as street fashion in Europe.

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Rap music was a heavy influence during this era, and designers were taking their cues from the street, where many of the rappers hailed from. The baggy jeans, shirts with large patterns, graphics on t-shirts, were a look that many designers developed and continued to innovate with. Nike, with its shoe line, increased its market share on the sports industry by introducing a line of sportswear and workout gear. They were able to push Adidas out of the front running with this move.

Though CoCo Chanel had been long gone from the scene, her design house was not. Using the fashion industry as a social awareness outlet, the Chanel house launched a campaign against using real fur. Their line of fake fur took the planet by storm. Australian fashion was in high demand during this time, and most of the products designed were shipped to Asia, the US, and Europe.

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The fashion weeks in Sydney and Melbourne were still ongoing, with over 100 designers showcasing their work and talent each year.

Melbourne routinely hosts another fashion show called the Virgin Australia Melbourne Fashion Festival. Established in the late 1990s, fashion lovers are encouraged to attend any or all of the catwalk seminars, go to parties, enjoy product launches, and to browse the exhibitions. It was during this time that Australian fashion truly began to differentiate itself from other countries, and especially from European styles. European fashion, with its more restrained lines and stiffer fabrics, offered a more tailored look, whereas the Australian fashion industry offered lighter weight fabrics, and a more casual and natural approach. Clothing was more functional than fashion for fashion’s sake. Some of the better Australian designers came from this decade and included Collette Dinnigan, Martin Grant, Wayne Cooper, Carla Zampatti, and Nicola Finetti.

Many of these designers are still designing in Australia today.

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Fashion in the 2000s

Often called the great ‘mash up’ of the fashion world, this decade saw many styles fused as the Internet came into its own, and video gaming components allowed gamers from around the world to come together and play. As a result, there was much ethnic sharing and influence in the designs of this decade. Much of the fashions that were based on music subcultures were still going strong and the graphic tee reigned supreme as the foundation garment upon which all other pieces in the ensemble were matched.

The environment was in the forefront of many organisations and as such the designers produced lines that supported recycled fashions, clothing that was produced sustainably, and continued the crusade against the fur market. Retro emerged as the ‘new’ look as the under 25 age group routinely mixed and matched from many eras to create one of a kind looks without having to spend the money for couture.

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This era, called the Y2K era, included mesh tops, handkerchief tops, leather skirts, halter tops, and the ‘little black dress’. Box pleated skirts made a repeat performance as well as sequins on a number of garments. This was certainly the decade of the accessory as oversized sunglasses, oversized hoop earrings, pashmina scarves, belly shirts, and tube tops constantly left the fashion world buzzing over what would catch on next. Most clothing had a technological, sci-fi attitude, and was designed to be as alluring and sexy as possible.

When the Americans suffered through the September 11 attacks early in the 2000s, the ripple in the fashion industry was felt around the world. Denim garments became more dynamically styled, patriotism in nearly every country rose and often clothing included the country’s flag on it. Pants became lower-waisted and flared.

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Pop sensations Brittany Spears and Christina Aguilera brought in the sexy military look, and the new blouse types saw long sleeved shirts with wider fuller sleeves. Cowl-necked sweaters were introduced and immediately embraced, as were the cargo pant and short. In the mid-2000s hip huggers, low rise jeans, coloured jeans, and crop tops could be found mass produced and readily available in most countries around the world.

A new trend was beginning to show up in London, and then in Sydney. It was the proclivity of young women to wear skirts over top of their trousers. Sometimes the trousers would be tight and made of spandex, such as one would see in a yoga pant. Shoes returned to a boxlike configuration and were often squared off. Wedge heeled shoes, embroidered sandals, and flats called Espadrilles and Toms were eagerly sought after.

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The 1980s styles made a comeback with a few changes. Jeans sported purposely placed rips and tears, distressed and stained. Trench coats and puffy jackets came back, as did the preppy look with the polo shirts and raised collars. Sports shoes included a wider range that went beyond just Adidas or Nike to include Reebok, Sketchers, and Heelys. Accessories were a combination of previous eras and included hoop earrings, flip flops, jelly shoes (plastic moulded sandals), newsboy caps, leg warmers (usually worn with miniskirts).

By the middle of this decade jeans took another twist and became ‘skinny’. These were jeans that were designed to look tight, and yet stretched to give comfort to the wearer. They were often low rise and sat just below the hip. Kate Spade wallets, Christian Dior saddle bags, Juicy Couture warm up suits were all in vogue.

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Tank tops enjoyed a reengineering as they were created with longer silhouettes so that they could be layered under other clothing styles to give a long and leaner look. The tanks were also made of thinner material so that several tanks could be layered over top of one another providing the wearer a type of customization.

A new type of shoe called the ‘croc’ was introduced, though it met with mixed reviews. Comfortable, versatile, waterproof, these shoes were most often used around the home, though for a brief time people wore them as they would sandals. Athletes embraced these shoes to wear before and after a game to allow their feet some ‘breathing’ time. The Ugg boot also appeared on the market. These were mid-calf boots that had suede on the exterior and white sheepskin on the interior.

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Taking a note from the music industry, designers created a type of zip front sweatshirt with a hood on the back. And thus, the ‘hoodie’ was born. Neon colours, gladiator shoes, animal print anything were all desired in the last part of this decade. Long tee shirts, nearly tunic in length, were being drawn over leggings that were often textured and patterned, and then belted with a number of interesting belts, clips, braids, or ropes.

Ethnic fashions came back into vogue and in Australia the patterns of the Outback became very popular. These same patterns would be used and repeated in many of the fashion design houses around the world. With the discovery of Bollywood cinema, and with the influence of pop star Shakira, Latin and Middle Eastern colours, fabrics, and styles resurfaced. In Australia in 2007 Australians, along with the British, adopted wearing the shemaghs to protest the Iraq War.

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Fashion Industry Lingo Haute Couture

Prior to the 1950s clothing was obtained primarily through dressmakers, and home seamstresses. The French word for hiring someone to create a unique dress for one client, and one client only, is haute couture. This means that the garment that is created was made to order for one specific person and was tailored for that person’s measurements and tastes. It was usually made from the best in quality materials and extreme attention was paid to the detailing and finishing on the garment. In today’s design houses, these types of dresses don’t make money for the house that designs it, but rather is used as a way of garnering attention, obtaining contracts, and for prestige.

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Ready-to-wear

Ready to wear clothing are clothes that are a hybrid of the couture and mass production. While they aren’t made for just one client, they are produced in a limited quantity. As in the haute couture, the fabrics are top end, and the attention to construction is exquisite. Fashion Week will often see many of these dresses paraded around and sold to the highest bidder.

Mass market

When a design is reproduced in a factory then it is considered to be a mass market sale. This type of garment is created to appeal to a larger amount of people, and while it is not one of a kind, nor tailored specifically for any one body type, most consumers find that they are able to afford and look good in many of the styles and ranges of sizes offered.

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Kitsch

In simplest terms Kitsch or Kitschig, is a derogatory term meaning ‘ugly’ ‘low brow’ or ‘uncultured’. It is also sometimes used in reference to someone who is wearing last years’ fashions and hasn’t caught on yet.

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Fashion in the Future

It is assured that in the future, fashion will continue to take its cues and inspiration from what the designers find interesting within their environment. As boundaries disappear and globalisation further offers a blending of cultures to occur, it might very well be that the next round of fashions will continue to reflect this fusion of cultures and textures, colours, and patterns. Social concerns, and fashion inspired by world events such as wars, environmental awareness, and a desire for comfort as well as appeal, will continue to be some of the factors that will influence and drive the development of novo couture.

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