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Dogs


Dogs BOOKS

First published in 2019 by Murray Books (Australia) www.murraybooks.com

Copyright Š 2019 Murray Books (Australia) Copyright Š 2019 Peter Murray ISBN: 978-0-9943945-0-7

All rights reserved. This publication or any part thereof may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright holder. Author : Peter Murray : Images: Shutterstock

The author and publisher have made every effort to ensure the information contained in this book was correct at the time of going to press and accept no responsibility for any loss, injury or inconvenience sustained by any person or organisation using this book.


The History of the Dog Alongside the history of man, the history of the dog, as man’s best friend, has been written. When

humans walked across the Bering Land Bridge from Siberia to North America, around 10,000 -

15,000 year ago, it is believed that they were accompanied by dogs, who may have made it possible

for them to make this arduous journey. When the Native American Apache and Navajo people

migrated en masse 1,400 years ago, they used dogs as sled and pack animals long before the horse

arrived on the continent. The value of dogs to early man was immense, and throughout history

canines have been used as hunters and pack animals, as well as for protection and in policing and

military roles. Today, the role of the dog remains one of service in many areas, but today, most dogs in the Developed World are either companion animals or assistance dogs for humans.

It is estimated that there are 900 million dogs in the world today, and only 20 - 25% are companion

or service/working animals. The rest are free-range dogs, which are made up of stray dogs, feral dogs, wild dogs and street or village dogs. Of the dog breeds present in the world today, the majority

are breeds that have been selectively developed over the past few centuries, and they number in their

hundreds. The proliferation of breeds has led to the ability of humans to bond with dog ‘types’ best

suited to certain living conditions and relationship needs. Additionally, many crossbred dogs, without

a definable ancestry, live happily with human companions – every year a vast number of these dogs

are rescued through animal shelters dedicated to saving abandoned, lost or unwanted dogs. Over the

centuries, the dog’s relationship with humans has grown to become one of mutual dependence, companionship, and in many cases - love.


Dogs and Human Culture Historically, dogs have been depicted as objects of adoration, the subjects of a huge number of works

of art and literature, and during the past century, as the lovable subject matter of hundreds of movies

and television shows. In religion, the Ancient Egyptian god of the underworld was the jackal-like Anubis whereas, the Aztec god, Xolotl, guarded the Sun as it travelled through the underworld every

night. The Ancient Greeks also associated the dog with the spiritual world, and the three-headed

Cerberus guarded their underworld. In the Chinese zodiac there are 12 animals, one for each of the 12 year cycle. Each animal represents certain personality traits with those born in the year of the

dog being lovely, honest and prudent. There are also many Christian feast days dedicated to dogs,

and France's Saint Guinefort was actually a dog and not human at all! To Hindus, the dog holds a significant place as the guardian of the doors to heaven and hell, while the Tihar Festival in India is

dedicated to the dog.

Culturally, the dog has featured in artwork since Neolithic cave painting was practised. As man's relationship with the dog became more companionable, more and more representations appeared in

works of art. Dogs were portrayed as loyal guardians, lap dogs and as status symbols of the

aristocracy throughout art history. By the 18th century, dog portraits became more fashionable than

classic hunting scenes, while artists of the Victorian era portrayed the dog in natural settings. By the

time moving pictures arrived to entertain the masses, the dog was regularly portrayed in all forms of

art, including photography. When dogs first appeared in movies, they were generally seen wandering

through the dusty streets of American Westerns, but it wasn't long before the dog took its own starring

role in movies like ‘Old Yeller’ produced by Disney in 1957. Soon, television brought the dog into

living rooms around the world, and the popularity of shows centred around or starring a dog continues

to grow, as does man's commitment to enjoying life alongside nature's greatest companion animal.


Dogs on Active Service In the Developed World, most dogs are companion animals, but there are a few areas in which dogs

work alongside man for the betterment of society and the community. Throughout history and to

this day, the military have used dogs, although they are generally not used in the front line today.

Once the domain of the German Shepherd, military roles are now being filled by smaller dogs for a

variety of tasks, including detection work requiring a keen sense of smell - one of the most crucial

roles of the military working dog is that of detecting explosives. In civilian law enforcement, the dog is an essential member of police forces around the world. From tracking suspects to detecting

drugs and explosives, the police dog is often seen at airports or in operations that involve tracking,

search and rescue, or as mascots in public relations exercises. Outside of traditional policing or military duties, dogs have been used around the world for their keen sense of smell and their ability

to follow quarry. Rescue dogs have saved countless lives over the years; seeking out people lost in

remote areas and rescuing people trapped in buildings following a collapse.

Dogs are also widely used to engage children in a range of activities and programs that are public

relations based. The value of such dogs lies in creating a bridge between adults and children, and

allowing communication that might have been otherwise difficult. There are currently many reading programs that use dogs as ambassadors. Dogs are also important in the medical world, and their

ability to detect health anomalies in humans is exemplary. Using the olfactory cortex (the part of the

brain that processes odour) a dog can detect one part in one trillion, and diseases such as cancer and

diabetes are now being detected earlier as a result.


Assistance Dogs Possibly the most important role a dog can play is as an Assistance Dog, and in the past few decades,

that role has diversified well beyond assisting only the vision impaired. Mobility dogs are trained to assist people with mobility difficulties, and their roles include guiding the vision impaired, acting as

a companion and helper for people in wheelchairs and serving as a ‘walker’ for people struggling

with gait and balance. Autism service dogs assist people living with autism by performing tasks that

allow their human handlers to live comfortable daily lives, and many programs are continuing to

open around the world as the benefits become clear. Medical response dogs are trained to assist humans suffering from conditions that might result in seizures or episodes requiring a response. In

many cases, dogs are able to alert their handlers before an episode begins. Aside from epilepsy and

other seizure related conditions, a dog can even detect changes in blood sugar and bring medication

or a telephone to their handlers.

Psychiatric illness is another area of medicine in which assistance dogs are of great benefit. People

suffering from a range of illnesses that include post-traumatic stress disorder and schizophrenia have had their lives transformed by the arrival of a specially trained assistance dog. Children too have

benefited greatly from the arrival of a dog in their lives following a particularly traumatic event, and

many courts in the USA now use dogs to act as companions for children affected by criminal

activities. Today, dogs are becoming more and more important as their ability to act as guides,

companions, nurses, protectors and therapists continues to garner global attention and respect. In the future, there will be many more assistance roles for dogs as their intelligence and sensory abilities

come to light, and as they do, humankind will benefit greatly from a relationship that has been growing over the past 9,000 years.


Dogs on the Land One of the most recognisable and important roles a dog can play is as an Assistance Dog, and in the past few decades, this role has diversified well beyond assisting only the vision impaired. Mobility

dogs are trained to assist people with mobility difficulties, and their roles include guiding the vision impaired, acting as a companion and helper for people in wheelchairs and serving as a ‘walker’ for

people struggling with gait and balance. Autism service dogs assist people living with autism by

performing tasks that allow their human handlers to live comfortable daily lives, and many new

programs are continuing to open up around the world as more and more benefits become clear. Medical response dogs are trained to assist humans suffering from conditions that might result in

seizures or episodes requiring a response, and in many cases, dogs are able to alert their handlers

before an episode even begins. Aside from epilepsy and other seizure related conditions, a dog can

even detect changes in blood sugar and bring medication or a telephone to their handlers.

Psychiatric illness is another area of medicine in which assistance dogs are of great benefit. People

suffering from a range of illnesses that include post-traumatic stress disorder and schizophrenia have had their lives transformed by the arrival of a specially trained assistance dog. Children too have

benefited greatly from the arrival of a dog in their lives following a particularly traumatic event, and

many courts in the USA now use dogs to act as companions for children affected by criminal

activities. Today, dogs are becoming more and more important as their ability to act as guides, companions, nurses, protectors and therapists continues to gain global attention and respect. In the

future, it is expected that there will be many more assistance roles for dogs as we continue to recognise their intelligence and sensory abilities.


Sporting & Hunting Dogs As natural predators and carnivores, it is natural for a dog to want to hunt, hence it has been a natural progression for man to include dogs in their hunting activities over the past centuries. Today, hunting dogs are no longer simply unleashed in packs to hunt down foxes and other game. In most cases,

they are used to track game for a human hunter and then retrieve the game once it has been shot.

That game can range from rabbits and hares through to wild boar and deer, and as the prey changes,

so does the breed of hunting dog suited to the task. Hunting dogs fall into several categories, which

include hounds, gundogs, Terriers and Dachshunds among others. Sight hounds often sight prey

from a distance and work rapidly and alone, while scent hounds work in packs to follow their quarry.

The best gundogs are generally retrievers, spaniels, setters or pointers, which are known for their

ability to spot and retrieve small game for shooters while remaining unruffled by the sound of a

weapon. Water dogs make good gundogs when waterfowl are the prey, whereas Terriers and Dachshunds are used when hunting for animals that live in burrows.

Dogs also take part in many sporting and entertainment activities, with the most renowned of those

being sled dog racing. The annual Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race takes place in Alaska annually and

involves teams of 21 dogs racing from Settler’s Bay to Nome over a two week period. Greyhound

and Whippet racing is also another popular sport involving dogs, and an entire gambling industry

has been built around it. Dog trials are also contested around the world today, and events include

traditional herding competitions, intricate obstacle courses and tasks that require intelligence,

obedience and physical fitness. Showing dogs is also considered a sport, with the annual Crufts event in London considered the largest, most popular and prestigious dog conformation showing event in

the world.


T H E W O R L D S FAV O U R I T E D O G S

German Shepherd The German Shepherd originated in Karlsruhe, Germany, in the late 19th century. The breed came

into existence as a result of interbreeding Bavarian farm dogs and local herding dogs, all with different types of coat. It was originally called the German Shepherd Dog, which was then shortened

to German Shepherd. The breed arrived in the rest of Europe and the United Kingdom over the ensuing years, and it reached North America in the 1910s. During World War I, its name was changed in Allied countries to 'Alsatian' in the wake of anti-German sentiment.

The coat of the German Shepherd can be short or long, but it will almost always be all black or black

with tan. The breed is a valuable working dog, suitable to a number of pursuits. It is a successful

police dog, military dog and guard dog, and its ability to work in detection is highly valued.

Additionally, the German Shepherd is a popular breed in dog sports, including tracking, ability,

obedience and ring sport. The overriding feature of the German Shepherd's character is one of

protectiveness, and it has been known to sacrifice itself in a pack situation for the greater good. German Shepherds make successful protectors of humans, other dogs and sheep, and their original

herding instincts come to the fore in the latter. While the breed can seem aggressive, it is not naturally

so, but it will step in to defend others. As a companion animal for humans, it is one of the most loyal,

faithful and loving of all dog breeds, and its aura of serenity and calmness can have a steadying influence on a household.


Golden Retriever In the Scottish Highlands in the mid-19th century, the Golden Retriever gradually came into being

as the result of a long breeding program that included curly coated Spaniels, Labrador Retrievers,

Red Setters and other unknown hounds. By 1908, the Golden Retriever was a registered as the ‘Golden Flatcoat’ in England, and its current name came about in the 1920s.

This medium-sized dog is one of the most popular breeds in the world today, and comes in a variety

of coat colours that fall within the parameters of ‘golden’, but which can range from pale yellow

through to a rich burnt orange/red colour. The Golden Retriever is a gentle, intelligent and well-

mannered breed suitable as a companion animal for humans of all ages. Packed with enough energy to keep a small family moving for a while, the breed is extremely loving and companionable, and its retrieving skills are legendary. Happy as a gun dog or a family pet, anything thrown will immediately

be fetched, with the expectation for the game to continue until the human is no longer capable of

throwing! It is not unusual for a Golden Retriever to return from a foray into the woods with an object bigger than it is, and as long as something (or part of something) fits into the dog’s mouth, it

is considered available. The intelligent and loving Golden Retriever will welcome all comers, including other breeds of dog, humans and cats, and it is particularly good with children.


Dalmatian The Dalmatian is a medium-sized dog, noted for its unique black and white, liver spotted coat and

was mainly used as a carriage dog in its early days. Its roots trace back to Croatia and its historical region of Dalmatia. Today, it is a popular family pet and many dog enthusiasts enter Dalmatians into kennel club competitions.

During the Regency period, the Dalmatian became a status symbol trotting alongside the horsedrawn carriages and those with decorative spotting were highly prized. For this reason, the breed

earned the epithet 'the Spotted Coach Dog.' The breed was also used to guard the stables at night.

Dalmatians are often considered to make good watchdogs, and were trained, as fire dogs, to run in

front of fire engines to help clear a path and guide the horses and the firefighters to the fires quickly.

Fire engines used to be drawn by fast and powerful horses, a tempting target for thieves, so Dalmatians were also kept in the firehouse as deterrence to theft.

In more recent times, the Dalamtion has cemented itself as a firm family favourite with Disney’s

101 Dalmations, based on the story by Dodie Smith, being released in 1961 as a fully animated

movie and again in 1996 as a live action movie.


Cavalier King Charles Spaniel The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel came into being as a result of breeding King Charles Spaniels

with Pugs, and then further developing the breed in the USA in the 1920s. The result was a small

dog that had an upturned face, a flattish nose, slightly protruding eyes and luxuriant ears. The colouring of the new breed was also very desirable, and included tri-colour, red-and-white, black-

and-tan, and a rich ruby red. The ‘Cavalier’ prefix was attached to the breed name in the 1940s as a means of differentiating it from its King Charles Spaniel ancestors.

The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is one of the most affectionate and happy dogs - it loves activity and a chance to please its humans companions. With a tail that seems to permanently wag, it makes

a wonderful and intelligent companion animal, and it seems happy in the company of most other

dogs. The natural hunting instincts of the original King Charles Spaniel continues on in the Cavalier,

and a desire to chase remains in the breed. Accompanied by excellent eyesight and a remarkable

sense of smell, this dog is more than happy to head off in pursuit of small prey. Affection, obedience,

a love of activity and a desire to please are the hallmarks of the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, and

those attributes make it a wonderful family pet, capable of walking for long distances or equally happy to settle on a lap for some ‘together time’.


Australian Shepherd The Australian Shepherd is not an Australian breed, but geneticists believe that the dog's

bloodstock arrived on the West Coast of the USA from Spain via Australia. First noted as a breed

used to herd sheep in the Rocky Mountains, ranchers in Colorado began a breeding program that was immediately successful and saw the breed begin to spread throughout North America. In the 19th century, the breed was also referred to as the Pastor Dog, Spanish Shepherd, Bob-Tail, California Shepherd amoung others.

Today, the Australian Shepherd is found throughout the American West as a highly valued stock

herder, but its popularity goes well beyond that. Movies and television shows regularly feature this

intelligent, easily trained breed, and rodeos often feature Australian Shepherds performing tricks. The highly energetic Australian Shepherd is a canine dynamo and loves to be on the move. Its

intelligence makes it an ideal breed to train and it can be very obedient, however these beautiful dogs also love to play. As a companion animal, the Australian Shepherd is one of the most loyal

and loving breeds imaginable, but it requires a lot of attention and activity to be happy. With lots

of room to play and several daily hours of exercise, the Australian Shephred will eventually run

itself out and simply attach itself permanently to its human companion. Devotion, loyalty, energy

and intelligence are the hallmarks of a breed that is both loved and admired the world over.


Labrador Retriever The Labrador Retriever was originally known as the ‘St. John’s Dog’ and was native to Newfoundland. Its original role was that of a fish retriever for the local fishermen. The breed arrived

in England in the early 19th century and was then crossed with hunting dogs to further develop its

retrieving skills. Soon, the ‘Lab’ became one of the most popular hunting dogs in the UK, mainland

Europe and the USA, as a result of its intelligence and the ease with which it could be trained. A

smooth coated dog, the Labrador comes in an abundance of colours, ranging from black through to chocolate or a buttery yellow.

The breed is known for its affectionate, loving personality, as well as its good natured patience. Combined with a genuine desire to please humans, the Labrador is the preferred breed in the training

and development of assistance dogs and service dogs. It also tops the list as a family pet or a hunting

dog. A Labrador adores playtime, and it also loves water. If the opportunity arises, it will enter the water and have a good swim with or without human company. As a family pet, the Labrador bonds

quickly and easily with all members of a household, and it is particularly gentle and patient with

children and the elderly. As an assistance dog, the Labrador is trained to assist those with vision, hearing and mobility limitations, as well as psychological disorders. In service, the Labrador can be

a search and rescue dog, a police dog or a military dog in a number of roles.


American Staffordshire Terrier The American Staffordshire Terrier is known by a number of names, including the 'Amstaff' and the 'Staffordshire'. The origins of this breed can be found in the West Midlands of England and it shares

bloodstock with the English Bulldog. Further cross breeding between Bulldogs, Fox Terriers, White

Terriers and Black-and-Tan Terriers resulted in the creation of the American Staffordshire Terrier in North America by the 1870s.

The temperament of the American Staffordshire Terrier is one of friendliness to its companion humans, but also of great loyalty and protectiveness. Strong for its size, it is both muscular and agile, and can be quite graceful in its movements. The average male American Staffordshire Terrier stands between 46 cm and 48 cm tall, while the female is generally around 3cm shorter.

Above all else, the 'Staffy' loves human company and is happiest when part of a family and kept

busy by its companion humans. Upon occasions, a dog's loyalty to its family can be somewhat overwhelming to outsiders.


French Bulldog The origins of the French Bulldog are actually English. In the mid-19th century, Nottingham’s lace makers bred a miniature English Bulldog and named it the ‘Toy Bulldog’. When these lace making

artisans left England for France as a result of the Industrial Revolution, they took their miniature

bulldogs with them, where both their lace making skills and their dogs were appreciated. The name

‘French Bulldog’ soon came into popular use, and despite the protestations of some English dog breeders, the name remained.

The sturdy French Bulldog is a compact breed with a square head and a rounded forehead. Its upper lip hangs well below its lower lip, and its bat-like ears are quite pronounced. It comes in a variety of

colours and markings, and its skin is loose around the head and shoulders. The French Bulldog is a playful, intelligent and extremely affectionate dog. It rarely becomes loud or yappy in its attempts

to interact with humans or other dogs, preferring to resort to funny antics instead. Sociable, friendly

and scrupulously clean, the French Bulldog will work hard to avoid stepping in any amount of water. This breed cannot swim, but it is a more than capable rodent hunter that will relentlessly stalk and

capture its prey. Not all French Bulldogs drool and slobber, but many do, although far less than the

Bernese Mountain Dogs, Bloodhounds and Bulldogs who are notorious for the vast amounts of saliva

that they produce. If raised with young children, a French Bulldog will be a considerate companion,

but it prefers the company of adults.


Yorkshire Terrier The plucky Yorkshire Terrier first came into existence as a specific breed in Northern England in

the 19th century. It was developed by the working classes of the region as a means of vermin control in mine shafts and textile mills, which suffered from huge rat infestations. Originally a larger breed

than the Yorkshire Terrier of today, it is believed that the bloodstock for the breed originally came

from the Dandie Dinmont Terriers, Skye Terriers, Paisley Terriers and Manchester Terriers brought to the area by Scottish mill workers and miners. Recognised as a specific breed in the 1880s, the

‘Yorkie’ was also used to hunt burrowing animals.

As a puppy, the toy-sized Yorkshire Terrier is either brown, black or tan. Eventually, the coat becomes

steel blue over the body and tail, and the remainder of the dog is tan. The character of the Yorkshire Terrier is one of extreme bravery, loyalty and intelligence. It makes an ideal companion animal, but it tends to forget its diminutive size when confronted with danger. A Yorkshire Terrier has no qualms

in telling its human companions what it thinks, and it needs a firm set of rules to ensure that it does not develop into a ‘yappy’ dog. Regardless, the sweet natured ‘Yorkie’ responds well to routine and

human company, and it is a favourite breed of the elderly as a result.


Poodle Poodles are a group of formal dog breeds. There are three sizes - the Standard Poodle, Miniature Poodle and Toy Poodle. The origin of the breed is still discussed, with a prominent dispute over

whether the Poodle descends from the water dogs of Germany or from the French Barbet (also a

water dog).

Ranked the second most intelligent dog breed, just behind the Border Collie, the poodle is a skillful

participant in many dog sports and activities, including agility, obedience, tracking, herding and

circus performance. Poodles can also make great assistance dogs, and have taken top honours in

many conformation dog shows, including “Best in Show” at the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show in 1991 and 2002, and at the World Dog Show in 2007 and 2010.

The Poodle was well know in mainland European long before it was brought to England. Drawings

by German artist Albrecht Dürer established the popular image of the breed in the 15th and 16th

centuries. It was the most popular pet dog in Spain in the the late 18th century, as depicted in the

paintings of the Spanish artist Francisco Goya. France also favoured the Poodle around the same

time, with toy poodles the pampered favourites during the reign of Louis XVI.


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