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MASTERPIECE!

“ A VERY TASTY

regula ysewijn

Belgian blogger, food writer and photographer Regula Ysewijn was an Anglophile long before she knew what the word meant. As a young girl, she travelled around the UK with her family, discovering regional foods in village shops and country pubs. Those early experiences sparked a love affair with British food that continues today. And the British pudding, wonderful and versatile in all its guises, is the star of this book. There are ancient savoury puddings such as the Scottish haggis, traditional sweet and savoury pies, pastries, jellies and ices, flummeries, junkets and jam roly poly … By tracing back to historical cookery texts, Regula has recreated over 80 recipes for the 21st century home cook, rediscovering long-forgotten flavours and glorious food fashions along the way. illustrations Bruno Vergauwen

regula ysewijn

Savoury and Sweet

The History of British Puddings

Pride and Pudding by Regula Ysewijn AU 978 1 74336 737 7 UK 978 1 74336 738 4 March 2016 (April 2016 UK) AU $49.99 NZ $55.00 UK £20.00 368 pages Hardback 260mm x 180mm (10 x 7 in)

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PRIDE and PUDDING

Regula Ysewijn is a graphic designer-turned-photographer from Belgium. She was born and raised in Antwerp where she went to art school and taught herself to cook. Her photography is inspired by Dutch and Flemish Renaissance paintings. When she is not shooting food, she is giving workshops and lectures on the topics of food photography, cooking and graphic design. Her love for British culture is a passion she has nurtured since childhood and it informs the tone and personality of her award-winning blog, Miss Foodwise, which is dedicated to the subject of British food, travel and culture.

The History of British Puddings Savoury and Sweet

regula ysewijn illustrations Bruno Vergauwen

“ A VERY TASTY

MASTERPIECE!

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

regula ysewijn

PRIDE and PUDDING

• J amie Oliver calls this book ‘A truly wonderful thing of beauty ... a very tasty masterpiece!’ • Over 80 achievable recipes based on historical texts capturing the true spirit of the original dishes. • Exquisite illustrations, stunning photography and unique design make this a work of art as well as a fun, informative and practical cookbook. • The author is very active on social media, with a strong following on blog and Instagram account.


The History of British Puddings Savoury and Sweet

Foreword ~ 9 Pudding & me ~ 11 Introduction ~ 17 Notes on the recipes ~ 52 Ingredients ~ 54 Pudding moulds ~ 62

Bread puddings  Pain pur-dew ~ 226 Poor knights of Windsor ~ 229

Devonshire white-pot ~ 232 Apple charlotte ~ 236

Bread-and-butter pudding ~ 240 Summer pudding ~ 242

Jellies, milk puddings & ices  

Boiled & steamed puddings  Plum pudding ~ 70 Haggis ~ 76 Black pudding ~ 80 Black pudding in a tray ~ 84 Black pudding griddle cakes ~ 85 White pudding ~ 86 Hogs pudding ~ 90 Hackin pudding ~ 94

222

Cabbage pudding ~ 98 Pease pudding ~ 104 Sussex pond pudding ~ 106 Rice pudding in skins ~ 108 Quaking pudding ~ 110 Beef pudding ~ 113 Jam roly-poly ~ 116 Plum duff ~ 120

64 Castle puddings ~ 122 Cabinet pudding ~ 126 Spotted dick ~ 128 Treacle sponge pudding ~ 130 Plain suet dumplings ~ 134 War & peace pudding ~ 140 Carrot jam ~ 141 Sticky toffee pudding ~ 143

Blancmange ~ 254 Strawberry blancmange ~ 257 Jaune mange ~ 261 Almond flummery ~ 262 Piramidis creams ~ 266 A hen’s nest ~ 269 Bacon & eggs ~ 272 Ypocras jellies ~ 275

Ribbon jelly ~ 279 Devonshire junket ~ 288 The first trifle ~ 290 Retro trifle ~ 294 Fruit fools ~ 296 Syllabub ~ 302 Everlasting syllabub ~ 304 Sack posset ~ 306

246 Custard creams ~ 308 Rice pudding ~ 310 Icy cream ~ 320 Brown bread ice cream ~ 323 Tamarind ice cream ~ 324 Princess surprise bombe ~ 327 Mock plum pudding ice ~ 330

Master recipes  Baked puddings Sambocade ~ 150 Daryols ~ 156 Prune tart ~ 159 Quince tart ~ 162 Tort de moy ~ 166

146 Chestnut tart ~ 170 Bakewell pudding ~ 172 General satisfaction ~ 176 Eve’s pudding ~ 179 Queen of puddings ~ 181

Semolina pudding ~ 182 College puddings ~ 184 Carrot pudding ~ 187 Trinity burnt cream ~ 188 Black caps ~ 190

Batter puddings  Apple tansy ~ 206 Yorkshire pudding ~ 196 Dripping pudding ~ 198 Snake fritters ~ 208 Toad-in-the-hole ~ 201 Hasty fritters ~ 212 Kentish cherry batter pudding ~ 204

192 A quire of paper ~ 214 Curd fritter ~ 216 Jersey wonders ~ 218

Clotted cream ~ 336 Custard sauce ~ 338 Sack sauce ~ 339 Raspberry vinegar ~ 340

References ~ 355 Index ~ 362 Acknowledgments ~ 366

332 Candied citrus peel ~ 341 Shortcrust pastry ~ 342 Hot-water pastry ~ 343 Puff pastry ~ 344

Ratafia biscuits ~ 346 Sponge cakes ~ 349 Lady fingers ~ 350


Foreword

I

love puddings. Sweet, savoury, boiled, steamed, baked and fried: I will eat all of them. But when I say pudding, I mean PUDDING. I don’t mean sweets, or desserts. In modern Britain, pudding has come to mean anything sweet at the end of a meal. Pudding is shorthand for many things I don’t like: overly sweet cakes, Americanised brownies, fruit in anything but its most raw form.... When I want a pudding, I want something solid, something fuelling, something so quintessentially British that it reinforces who I am at a very basic level; and yet it’s something that is so hard to define that in many ways those feelings are the definition. Pudding’s had a bad press. Someone described as a pudding is overweight, rotund. If a substance is puddinglike, it’s solid, unyielding, stodgy. But there’s something glorious about those very aspects of pudding. Pudding fills the stomach. Pudding salves the soul. Pudding’s very solidity grounds us, and its traditional round or oval shape is unflinchingly simple. Pudding cuts right to the heart of Britishness. In the eighteenth century, when British cuisine was growing up and developing an identity, pudding was central to British gastronomy. It represented British simplicity, adaptability and perhaps a little bit of thuggishness in the face of the prevailing fashion for French food, criticised as fanciful, wasteful and full of deception. It appeared in satires as a symbol of the Empire, and illustrations as a symbol of family. The Victorians had puddings for every occasion, recognising that no matter what class you were, and what position you occupied, with a pudding on the table you were all as one. The decline of the pudding, in some ways, echoes a confusion over what nationality and national identity means in the modern world, and whether they are even useful ideas at all.

Prejudiced I may be, but I’m pretty proud of my country’s pudding heritage. You’ll see as you peruse this book, there’s a lot more to pudding than meets the eye. For me, seeing pudding through the eyes of someone who has come to love it, despite the breadth of the North Sea between herself and Pudding Central, is a glorious way to appreciate it even more. Delve in (preferably with a spoon), and enjoy. Here’s to pudding! Dr Annie Gray, food historian

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foreword |

Of course, we can read too much into it. But I do think that pudding and Britishness are intrinsically linked, and that were we to talk about ‘getting a British’, in the same way we in Britain talk about ‘getting an Indian’ or ‘getting a Chinese’ [meal], then what we’d be getting would be a pudding. And I’d be okay with that.


So what’s a pudding ? Let us first take a look at what we categorise as puddings today. Although pudding has become synonymous with dessert in Britain, not all puddings are desserts, while all desserts are puddings in the modern sense of the word.

Boiled and steamed puddings Early puddings are, as I explained, sausage-type dishes, which were usually boiled, then often smoked, or roasted. They were either made with meat, blood or entirely from rice, spelt or other grains stuffed into some kind of intestine or cloth bag. These puddings were always flavoured in one way or another, either using herbs or spices. Later candied fruits, fortified wines and liqueurs were added and the puddings nearly all lost their meat content. Steaming them in a basin or mould became the favoured method over boiling, when the technique was developed. Today steamed puddings are usually made of a sponge cake batter, or a rich fruitcake batter and are made either in large pudding moulds, or small individual ones. Savoury versions still exist under the name haggis, blood pudding and white pudding. Dumplings are also puddings.

Baked puddings Baked puddings are those in which the pudding mixture is placed in either a bowl or tray, which is sometimes prepared with a layer of pastry, making it more a tart or a pie. Today most tarts and pies are considered ‘pudding’ as they fit into the dessert category. They are of course all baked.

Bread puddings Bread puddings are made by including bread – stale or fresh – as a primary ingredient. Some previously named types of pudding can also contain breadcrumbs, but that doesn’t make them bread puddings. In a bread pudding, the bread is usually, but not always, left whole and often acts like a crust encasing some kind of cream or egg mixture or fruit. Bread puddings are often baked.

Batter puddings

Milk puddings The sweet and delicately flavoured puddings made with animal milk, almond or oat milk include creams, custards and ice creams.

Jellies These are sweet puddings set with either vegetable or grain starches, or animal-derived gelatine. They are often boldly coloured and shaped in a mould for dramatic effect. They can encase fruit and in medieval times they often encased meat or fish, much like aspic, although they are no longer known as jellies.

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introduction |

These are made by making a light pancake-type batter which is then baked or fried in butter or fat. These can be Yorkshire puddings, but also fritters.


Moulds

We often assume moulds were only used for jelly making, but actually those same moulds, whether they were copper, tin or ceramic, would have been used for moulded cakes, steamed puddings, milk puddings and ice creams and also fruit cheeses or potted meats and terrines. Teacups were even used as moulds, as instructed by Mary Eales, confectioner to Queen Anne, in her Receipts, published in 1718. Saucers were also used to make ‘a pudding stued between two dishes’ as noted by John Murrell, in A Newe Booke of Cookerie in 1615. Moulds in carved wood, delicate salt-glazed stoneware and a more robust creamware pottery were produced from the early eighteenth century. Some were made into elaborate shapes, such as castles and temples. One of these producers was Wedgwood, who produced a Solomon’s Temple mould for flummery dishes and many other shapes and forms. Small fish were made and Mrs Raffald, in The Experienced English Housekeeper (1769), used them to create a ‘fish pond’, fish made of flummery that were then gilded and placed on a pool of clear jelly as if they were swimming. This shows the great fantasy style in which dishes were presented to guests. introduction |

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By the nineteenth century, moulds were being produced on a larger scale and this is directly linked to the invention of ready-made gelatine which made jelly-making a lot less tedious and no longer required people to process raw animal parts. Tin, copper and more robust stoneware pudding moulds were manufactured, with copper being mainly for the well-to-do household. Top to bottom: Solomon’s temple, conical flummery mould, wooden flummery mould, salt glazed pottery fish moulds Right: pewter swan ice cream mould, Grimwade’s Quick Cooker, The Paragon Jelly mould, Brown & Polson’s Corn flour BlancMange mould

Catalogues with illustrations of all the different types of moulds were being produced by large manufacturers such as Benham & Froud and, in smaller scale, Agnes Marshall. They were expensive and the copper ones needed regular retinning on the inside. Some moulds were very elaborately designed and sometimes even had multiple parts to create striking multicoloured jellies with. These were called ‘Macedoine Moulds’ and were unique to Britain. They were admired in other countries by important chefs. The jelly made in them could have different layers of colours and several kinds of fresh fruit added. In the twentieth century, moulds were still expensive but the earthenware ones became more affordable for middle class households. In 1911 Grimwades pottery won a gold medal for its ‘Quick Cooker’, a lidded porcelain pudding steamer with the instructions for use printed all over it. They also had a ‘Blanc-Mange Jelly Mould’ like this. Brown & Polson also produced a pudding mould printed with the recipe of their ‘Corn Flour Blanc-Mange’. This shows the need for guidance and a more simplified way of cooking without many domestic servants. Twenty-first century moulds are made for nostalgic reasons and usually in aluminium to use for moulded cakes. It is very rare now that a blancmange or elaborate home made jelly would feature on a dinner table. Packs of powdered jelly are used for trifle and for making small jellies and the moulds are usually from pliable silicone. But there is a revival coming: two British guys have started a company creating bespoke jelly moulds and jellies for special occasions and movies. It is still very niche but it shows the longing for a kind of splendour and theatre on the feast table that we have lost over the years. It is only a matter of time before it becomes a trend again, as so many retro things have become trends in the past decades.

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introduction |

Sometimes multiple uses are possible for one kitchen object and this is also true with regard to the different pudding or jelly moulds out there.


18th century

Hogs Pudding

H

ogs pudding is connected to the West Country today, but in the olden days it used to be made nationally. There are versions using a pig’s or lamb’s ‘pluck’ – which is heart, lungs and liver – instead of just pig’s liver, giving it the name Devonshire or West Country Haggis. However, I have not come across a mention of a Devonshire haggis or a West Country haggis in any of my ancient cookery books, so I believe that is a modern tale. Hogs pudding was traditionally cut into slices and fried, and the slices were then used to decorate other plates of meat. It was eaten as a side dish, with something else. This is a nice salty pudding to have with scallops or lobster, and it is also very good for breakfast with an egg or two.

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13

boiled and steamed  |

introduction |

Another Sort of Hogs Puddings To half a pound of grated bread, put half a pound of hogs liver boil’d, cold, and grated, a pound and half of suet finely shred, a handful of salt, a handful of sweet herbs, chopt small, some spice; mix all these together, with six eggs well beaten, and a little thick cream; fill your guts and boil them; when cold, cut them in round slices an inch thick; fry them in butter, and garnish your dish of fowls, hafh, or fricassee The Compleat Housewife, Eliza Smith, 1727


CHAPTER 4

BREAD PUDDINGS

introduction |

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Pride and Pudding Regula Ysewijn March 2016  
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