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Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities 2010


This project was conceived and initiated by Municipal Cultural Planning Incorporated (MCPI) to support Ontario municipalities in Cultural Resource Mapping. MCPI gratefully recognizes the significant leadership of the Government of Ontario in funding these guidelines. MCPI thanks the many people working in municipal governments, other levels of government, non-profits, consulting firms and academia across Ontario who were consulted and provided advice in the preparation of these guidelines. Valuable conversations were started at the “Cultural Mapping and Cultural Planning: Making the Connection” workshop on March 2-3, 2010 at the Martin Prosperity Institute, held in partnership with the Creative City Network of Canada. The many interviews with practitioners who shared their experience and insight as well as the dedicated support and advice provided by this project’s Stakeholder Working Group were instrumental in creating a document that distills the current-day practice and value of Municipal Cultural Resource Mapping in Ontario. MCPI acknowledges the authorship of these guidelines by the Canadian Urban Institute, namely Jeff Evenson, Principal of Connector, and Charles Tilden, Planner & Researcher with Connector, whose expert knowledge, insight and research were central to the development of these guidelines. Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities was designed by CuteGecko Design Agency. Selected photography by Ramy Nassar.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents Executive Summary


Introduction p.6

Guidelines 1 Getting Started p.8 2 Building Successful Partnerships p.12 3 Identifying Cultural Resources p.16 4 Building & Maintaining a Culture Resource Database p.20 5 Applications to Municipal Policy & Planning p.28 6 Making Maps & Other Visual Tools p.36 Conclusion and Message from MCPI


About MCPI p.48

Appendixes Appendix A – Glossary


Appendix B - Cultural Resource Framework


Appendix C - Additional Information


Appendix D - Additional Resources


This guide has six sections:

Executive Summary This publication is a guide to introducing Cultural Resource Mapping to your community. That a community’s cultural resources enrich the lives of local residents and visitors is well known; that they can be a source of considerable wealth creation is beginning to be recognized. In order to understand their cultural resources, municipalities in Ontario and throughout North America are developing a capacity to produce cultural resource maps as a key information, planning and decision-support tool. Cultural Resource Mapping supports Municipal Cultural Planning to identify and leverage a community’s cultural resources, strengthen the management of those resources, and integrate those cultural resources across all facets of municipal government planning and decision-making. Among its many benefits, Cultural Resource Mapping: • Provides an organized and strategic approach for gathering and presenting cultural resource information • Illustrates the presence of cultural assets in the community and helps municipal staff and decision makers adopt new ways of thinking about how to use cultural resources to achieve the municipality’s broad strategic objectives • Establishes a group of partners in government and civil society committed to planning for cultural vitality

• Supports the local cultural sector by giving residents and visitors access to information about arts and heritage activity • Presents information visually in ways that are easy to understand and have a strong impact • Creates a strong base of information about cultural resources that supports evidencebased decision-making and can be integrated into municipal plans (e.g. land use, tourism, economic development) • Helps make the case for investment in local cultural resources

Getting Started This section describes the importance of developing a rationale for Cultural Resource Mapping that identifies its scope and what it will be used to achieve in your community. It also suggests the creation of a work plan, in which the scope, objectives, and other elements are briefly described for others to understand the project.

Building and Maintaining a Cultural Resource Database A Cultural Resource Database is a centralized inventory of information about arts, culture and heritage resources in your community. It is the engine that powers Cultural Resource Mapping. The guidelines suggest a step-by-step process for building and maintaining it.

Building Successful Partnerships

Identifying Cultural Resources

Cultural Resource Mapping is a collaborative activity and depends on committed partners with common objectives. The guidelines offer advice on identifying these partners within and outside the municipality, and committing to action by establishing a partnership charter.

This section describes the Cultural Resource Framework, a menu that identifies a broad set of assets in the public, private and not-forprofit sectors that can be included in your Cultural Resource Database.

Applications to Municipal Policy & Planning The guide gives 9 examples of how to apply cultural resource data and mapping toward a variety of strategic objectives. Cultural Resource Mapping can be used to lay a solid foundation for Municipal Cultural Planning, and as an ongoing decisionsupport tool for a range of policy objectives. It can identify and describe cultural resources; promote and protect concentrations of cultural resources; strengthen cultural resource management; support economic development, cultural tourism and branding efforts; target investments in the public realm; provide public information and awareness; and serve as the basis for benchmarking to assess whether progress is being made toward strategic objectives.

Making Maps & Other Visual Tools This section demonstrates several ways in which cultural resource data can be illustrated to effectively communicate a message. It gives examples of maps, graphs, charts, printed and online materials that are tailored to a specific purpose.

Benefits of Cultural Resource Mapping

• • • •

Identifies clusters, hubs, opportunities Leads to new ways of thinking and working Crystallizes community identity Makes the invisible visible

Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

• • • •

Is a great visual tool Identifies connections to city planning Creates baseline for benchmarking Supports Municipal Cultural Planning

Introduction There is growing understanding that cultural vitality is critical to prosperous and sustainable local economies and communities. Just as municipalities identify and map other valued community resources and integrate them into their plans, Cultural Resource Mapping enables cultural resources to be identified and integrated into municipal planning and decision-making.

The Focus of these Guidelines These guidelines focus on describing the building and maintenance of a Culture Resource Database, and the applications of Cultural Resource Mapping to support Municipal Cultural Planning. Emphasis is placed on tangible assets such as facilities, organizations, people and festivals. Intangible cultural assets such as values, stories, customs and traditions that define a community’s identity are also an important component of Cultural Resource Mapping, but are not a focus in these guidelines. As these Guidelines focus on Cultural Resource Mapping to support Municipal Cultural Planning, they do not address initiatives led by First Nations and community groups. While some of the guidelines may apply to First Nations and community-led projects, they have been developed with the specific needs of municipal government in mind. To properly address Cultural Resource Mapping in support of First Nations Cultural Planning and Community Cultural Planning additional research must be undertaken.

Placing it in Context The practice of Cultural Resource Mapping has developed in the context of Municipal Cultural Planning, which is defined by the Ontario Ministry of Tourism and Culture as “Municipal cultural planning (MCP) is a municipal government*-led process approved by Council, for identifying and leveraging a community’s cultural resources, strengthening the management of those resources, and integrating those cultural resources across all facets of municipal government planning and decision making.” Cultural Resource Mapping plays a critical role in Municipal Cultural Planning since it effectively achieves a first step in the cultural planning process: to identify and understand a community’s resources. In other words, Cultural Resource Mapping allows a community to identify “where it’s at” and can play a significant role in assessing “where it wants to be”.


What is it? Cultural Resource Mapping is a systematic approach to identifying, recording and classifying a community’s cultural resources in order to describe and visualize them. If someone were to ask “Yes, but what is it? What’s the actual thing?” the answer would have to be: “It’s a database.” Cultural Resource Mapping begins with building and maintaining a centralized database that helps to organize and communicate information. It is about building a geo-database, meaning that whenever possible, the information includes a geographic reference point. This guide refers to such an inventory as a Cultural Resource Database. Cultural Resource Mapping is an ongoing process. Many of its benefits can only be achieved through sustained efforts to update cultural resource data and compare it over time, which requires continued resources and ongoing partnerships. Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

Who is it for? Cultural Resource Mapping can be a useful tool for a range of constituencies. For policy-makers, it is a research tool that identifies resources and can illustrate links and trends. Municipal decision-makers and other leaders can use it to inform decisions and better communicate with the public. Similarly, culture and tourism organizations and businesses benefit from a broad set of cultural information that can help to plan and focus their efforts. Providing a publicly accessible version of a Cultural Resource Database can create a “onestop-shop” for citizens and visitors to discover and explore cultural resources in the community.

1. Getting Started


1. Getting started The process described in these guidelines can be scaled to match the objectives you have set out and the capacity in your municipality. The amount of information you collect and manage; the type of software used; the level of analysis conducted; all these elements are adaptable and can still lead to the benefits of Cultural Resource Mapping.

1. Getting Started

Determine Your Objectives

Before beginning to talk about Cultural Resource Mapping in your community, you will want to develop a rationale that identifies the objectives of your project and the scope of efforts that will allow you to achieve them. Will this be a tool to inform the development of a municipal cultural plan? Will it be used to share information about your community’s cultural resources with local citizens and visitors? Is it both? How can the project help to advance existing municipal goals or priorities? In thinking about what you want to achieve, consider the benefits of Cultural Resource Mapping listed in the Executive Summary, as well as the applications described in Section 5. Is this a first attempt at creating a Cultural Resource Database, or an attempt to further develop an existing database? A municipality’s first database begins to identify “what it’s got” in the way of cultural resources. This is known as baseline mapping. The focus at this stage should be on capturing the “breadth” and not necessarily the “depth” of information. Once a baseline database is established and clearer project objectives emerge over time, further efforts can be made to refine and add information that expands your baseline database. The Cultural Resource Framework, described in Section 3, should be consulted to help determine the scope of the information you will seek to include in your database.

Case Study: Ottawa – “Mapping Backwards”

In the absence of a comprehensive mapping approach, the City of Ottawa’s efforts to map cultural resources have often been very objective-driven. First, a specific issue that warrants further research or supporting rationale is identified (e.g.; building new cultural spaces, development of cultural facility strategy, etc.). Then, the necessary data (e.g. demographics, cultural activity levels, real estate options, facility inventory, etc.) are assembled, mapped, and analyzed for that strategic purpose. This approach has been termed “mapping backwards” since it is effectively the reverse of building a baseline database, where many of the specific project objectives are fully established only once a database is developed. Although it does not serve a broad survey function, “mapping backwards” has been a successful, cost effective approach to produce desirable outcomes. The City of Ottawa is currently in the process of completing a cultural mapping project to better understand the city’s unique cultural assets which then can be used to increase cultural vitality, economic development and community-building opportunities. Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

1. Getting Started

Develop A Project Work Plan

Next, develop a project work plan – a one or two page description of the Cultural Resource Mapping project you want to carry out in your municipality that can be easily understood by all stakeholders you want to get onboard. Your project work plan should address project objectives and scope. The following initial questions are also important to consider: •

Who should lead?

Where will the database be housed?

Who are some likely partners?

What data already exists within the community?

What will this cost?

What funding sources exist that can help make the case for and support Cultural Resource Mapping?

photo by Irene Miller Photographic Art

You may not have answers to all these questions from the onset. As the project takes shape, it will be useful to update your work plan to provide a full picture of the project.

1. Getting Started

Assessing Costs There is no standard cost for undertaking a Cultural Resource Mapping project. The level of effort can vary significantly depending on the scale and focus of the project. Developing an in-depth Geographic Information System (GIS) database and creating a custom mapping application for public use online could cost upwards of $200,000, yet developing a simpler database in an Excel spreadsheet and mapping it using Google Earth could incur initial costs of about $20,000, mostly representing the in-kind contributions of staff and partners. To begin the budgeting process, you will want to assess the level of effort and costs associated with: • • • • • •

Technical resources (GIS software, GIS and IT staff or consultants) Primary data collection that may be required (should be minimal) Checking, inputting and consolidating data Regular meetings with your project partners The cost of community engagement workshops to inform your project and build support Contributors: • An experienced consultant to lead the project • Time allocated for municipal staff • In-kind contributions made by partners

Remember that ongoing efforts are key to many of Cultural Resource Mapping’s benefits. These will have ongoing costs, including: • Updating/maintaining data • Making use of the database: Performing analysis and making maps to illustrate findings • Meeting with project partners to track progress and reassess goals

Case Study: Project Work Plans

Municipal staff in Thunder Bay and Mississauga developed succinct, one or two page descriptions of their municipality’s cultural mapping projects, which they have found to be valuable resources for informing decision-makers, potential partners and the public. These work plans provide an explanation of key objectives, rationale and project scope, as well as desired benefits and outcomes. In Thunder Bay the project description also includes an overview of what specific information will be captured in the database and its mapping system.

Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

2. Building Successful Partnerships


2. Building Successful Partnerships Cultural Resource Mapping depends on sharing data and sharing insights about data with your partners. Building successful partnerships involves: considering potential partners; identifying common objectives; building strong working relationships; and establishing commitments and protocols for sharing information.

2. Building Successful Partnerships

Consider Potential Partners

The purpose of the partnership must be clarified early in the process. Every partner organization should have a sense of why they are involved and why they should continue being involved. Potential partners in Cultural Resource Mapping may include: Municipal Partners - Planning Services; Cultural Services; Parks and Recreation Services; Economic Development; Geomatics staff; Heritage Planning; Heritage Committee; Public Library; Facilities and Real Estate Services; Corporate Services; Social Planning; Tourism Services or agency Community/Private Partners - 211Ontario; chamber of commerce; conservation authority; database management company; historical society; independent tourism agency; local arts council; museums and archives; post-secondary institution(s); school boards Additional Partnerships - Your project may also benefit from building partnerships with other mapping initiatives, which could amplify awareness of your project as well as make its data, outcomes and benefits available to other groups that may find them valuable in other applications.

Case Study: Mississauga – By-law for Data Sharing Agreements

The City of Mississauga has formalized its ability to share data with outside partners with a by-law, enacted in May 2010. This by-law allows Data License Agreements to be formed between third parties and the City. The Commissioner of Community Services and the City Clerk are authorized to enter into such agreements with third party partners, which enables the City to make use of the data for Mississauga’s Cultural Mapping Project.

for sharing information. 2. Building Successful Partnerships

Identify Common Objectives

Initial conversations with potential partners should revolve around building a basic understanding of what can be achieved through Cultural Resource Mapping and establishing where your organizations’ strategic objectives align. This will ensure that early momentum and enthusiasm can be built and that those who decide to come onboard understand what they are getting into.

Build Strong Working Relationships

Someone should be selected early on to be a central point person who can act to get people excited and interested in the initiative. This person should also have a keen sense of how to establish and sustain good relations, as well as a good understanding of the project’s purpose, its course of action and at least some of its technical components.

Establish Commitments and Protocols for Sharing Information

Once the initial purpose and roles have been established, they should be documented in a partnership charter. This will give clear direction to the project and hold partners accountable for their contributions. No partner should feel as though their only contribution to the project is to give away their data.

photo by Tourism Toronto

Data Sharing Agreements: These set out the terms for both parties involved in sharing (sending and receiving) information, including: what information, at what interval, for how long, and what it can be used for. They are binding agreements, important to establishing a commitment to action from the various partners involved.

2. Building Successful Partnerships

Developing a Partnership Charter

A partnership charter should look to include the following elements:

Project overview

Project contacts

Purpose of the project, objectives & benefits

Critical success factors

What the project scope includes and doesn’t include

Project phasing & timelines


Terms of data use/ data privacy/ ownership

Project committees

Deliverables and person(s) most responsible for: • convening and communicating to the group • collecting and consolidating data • updating / maintaining data • analysing data • producing cultural resource mapping outputs (e.g. maps, graphs, reports, online resources and other communications)

Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

3. Identifying Cultural Resources


3. Identifying Cultural Resources

The Cultural Resource Framework identifies a broad set of assets in the public, private and not-for-profit sectors that are understood as being cultural resources and can be included in your Cultural Resource Database.

3. Identifying Cultural Resources

Although this framework paints a broad picture of cultural resources, it is not necessarily comprehensive. You may find that other resources are equally important to your community’s culture, in which case we encourage you to incorporate them into your efforts as well. The illustration of the Cultural Resource Framework shows the eight categories that help summarize a community’s tangible and intangible cultural assets. Around the perimeter of the diagram is a list of ‘Additional Resources’, which do not easily fit into any of the eight categories, yet can also be vital assets of a community’s culture.

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3. Identifying Cultural Resources

Let’s now take a closer look at each category in the Cultural Resource Framework: Cultural Industries: businesses and non-profit groups involved in the creation, production, manufacturing and distribution of cultural goods or services. It includes everything from theatre costume making to creative software design. The classifications in this category come from the Statistics Canada’s Canadian Framework for Culture Statistics, and reflect the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes. Note that industry data does not distinguish between occupations. For example, industry data could tell you how many people are employed by a museum, and this would include everyone from the curator to the parking attendant. Cultural Occupations: the labour force aspect of cultural industries. It describes employment in the various jobs that people perform as cultural workers. The occupation categories also come from the Canadian Framework for Culture Statistics, and are organized according to North American Occupational Classification System (NOCS) codes. For example, occupation data could tell you how many graphic designers are employed in your community, whether they are employed by a museum or a hospital. Community Cultural Organizations: organizations that represent arts, heritage and ethno-cultural interests in the community. These are usually non-profits and can include arts and heritage advisory committees, ethno-cultural associations, local arts councils, dance schools and library boards. Cultural Facilities & Spaces: buildings and sites that host cultural activity. These can include spaces in the public, private and non-profit sectors, and include everything from purpose-built facilities, to facilities that include cultural programming. Natural Heritage: natural Heritage: natural wonders and areas of environmental significance – wetlands, woodlands, grasslands and geological land formations. These natural features can be found in municipal and provincial parks, the Niagara Escarpment, conservation area, Land Trusts and botanical gardens. Cultural Heritage: Our cultural heritage is not just about the past – it is about the places, spaces and stories that we value today that we want to build on for the future. This can include the conservation, management, adaptive re-use, and exhibition of objects, buildings, cultural landscapes and sites of cultural heritage and educational value. Cultural heritage resources are everything from heritage buildings and structures, historic districts, museums, archaeological sites, cemeteries to public art, libraries and archive collections. Cultural Events & Festivals: festivals and events in your community. These can include performing arts events, tours of culturally significant places, seasonal celebrations, and many others. Intangible Culture: These are assets that are not necessarily manifest in physical form. They include stories and legends, shared beliefs, customs and rituals, as well as digital cultural expression.

3. Identifying Cultural Resources

Additional Resources

Depending on where and how cultural activity takes place in your community, you may find it useful to include some or all of these categories in your Cultural Resource Mapping efforts: • Education: elementary and secondary schools; colleges; universities; professional schools; business, computer and management schools; technical and trade schools; educational support services • Community facilities: Community centers, fitness and recreational sports centres • Hospitality: Accommodation and food services, drinking places, restaurants • Agriculture: food and wine production, fruit and vegetable markets • Culinary resources: specialty food shops, culinary schools, cheese dairies, breweries, distilleries, food-based events • Churches and other places of worship • Information and Communications Technologies (ICT): Telecommunications carriers, satellite telecommunications, data processing, hosting and related services, internet services, other information services, computer systems design

For a full listing of the Cultural Resource Framework see Appendix B.

Engage Your Community’s Knowledge

Although not a focus of these guidelines, community engagement is a tremendously useful way to build knowledge, momentum and a shared understanding for your Cultural Resource Mapping initiatives. Interactive workshops with the public can shed light on what cultural resources and activities are important to your community; and can help establish what strengths, issues and opportunities should be explored using mapping.

4. Building & Maintaining a Database


4. Building & Maintaining a Database Once you have defined your project’s objectives, set out its scope and identified partners, you will be ready to begin building and maintaining your Cultural Resource Database. Databases allow us to collect, organize, store and retrieve information in a consistent and useful manner. They are the backbone for library systems, phone books and the Internet, as well as Cultural Resource Mapping.

4. Building & Maintaining a Database

Develop a Database Management Plan

Start by establishing a database management plan, which you will populate based on your mapping objectives. The plan can essentially consist of a spreadsheet that addresses the following elements for each dataset: Source, Responsibility for Updating, Updating Method, Update Frequency and Cost of Update.

Source What is the data in question?

What organization / department provided the data? From what survey or what listing?

Update method

Update frequency

Will new dataset(s) be sent to the lead partner, or will another partner upload it directly into the database?

When will updates happen? It’s best to include dates.



Responsibility for updating Who/what organization will be responsible for making updates?

Cost of update (Staff time or fee) How much will it cost to acquire the data, to clean it/ make any format changes, and enter it?

The source of each dataset should be noted somewhere. This is especially useful when institutional memory is lost. The date on which the data was initially entered into the database and the last time it was updated should both be noted.

Consult with a Geomatics Expert


Next, it will be critical to begin engaging someone with expertise in geomatics (i.e. someone with knowledge of geo-databases and mapping, sometimes referred to as GIS staff). Many municipalities now have GIS staff, sometimes in their own department, or working in other departments for example planning, public works, engineering, real estate and corporate services. How can the geomatics staff contribute to building and maintaining the Cultural Resource Database? Since the time and technical resources needed to consolidate and maintain data in a geospatial database are often quite extensive, it’s important to start assessing them early on. Although a staff person, student or consultant with some basic knowledge of GIS should be able to do a fair bit of the work, it is critical that someone with strong GIS expertise be involved, if not to lead data consolidation and management, then at least to provide guidance at every step of the way. If your municipality does not have GIS staff, consider looking to potential partner organizations or consider whether you are ready to take the lead role in a Cultural Resource Mapping exercise. Perhaps another partner with geospatial expertise and a vested interest in the cultural vitality of the community may be better suited to take the lead, or may need to be a central partner. Or perhaps, it means there is a need to make the case for hiring GIS staff in your municipality. It is also possible to contract geomatics services from a private company, although this may mean that the company must be contacted every time a significant change or output needs to be produced. Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

4. Building & Maintaining a Database

In initial conversations with GIS staff, the following topics are important to explore: Software platforms

There is a range of software platforms that could meet your project’s needs. Professional GIS software is often tailored for in-depth data analysis and the creation of compelling visuals. Open-source platforms, on the other hand, make it easier to create and share maps without in-depth knowledge of GIS.

Data formats

It will be useful to use a template: a spreadsheet that shows how information is typically organized for other projects, to ensure that data can be integrated into the municipality’s overall framework for data management.

Identify Data

photo by Tourism Toronto

If there is a single takeaway message about building a Cultural Resource Database it’s that efforts should first be geared towards finding existing sources of information and consolidating them into a larger database that is tailored to your community’s needs. In many communities, several organizations have already been managing large parts of the information that will form your Cultural Resource Database: you just might not know who has it. If major gaps appear, then you may want to consider collecting primary data.

4. Building & Maintaining a Database

Data Ethics

Be mindful that collecting and sharing data has many ethical implications. Remember that some information may be sensitive and could put people at risk. Also remember to respect any privacy agreements you have agreed to as a condition of receiving data.

Internal Data

When searching for data sources, a first logical step is to look within the municipal government. If a consistent data management protocol exists, it means the cultural data you are seeking may already be in good shape and need very little tweaking. Below is a brief look at the types of cultural data which can often be found within certain municipal departments. Department

Type of Data

Culture / Cultural Services

List of arts, heritage and cultural organizations (often through funding, festival records or general contact list)

Economic Development

Employment / occupations data, industry data


Spatial information on a variety of the City’s assets

Heritage Planning

Identified heritage resources

Library and Archives

A range of cultural information, current and historical

Parks & Recreation

Information on cultural programming offered by municipality and by community groups

Planning & Development

A variety of data (often consolidated from other departments) on the City’s geography, economy, demographics, neighbourhoods, land uses and built form

Social Planning / Social Services

A variety of data, with a focus on demographics

Real Estate / Corporate Services

Information about City-owned properties and properties leased by the City

When contacting other municipal departments, ensure that the following questions are being discussed for every data source of interest: • • • • •

What is the data typically used for? Does your organization collect this information directly, or does it get it from another source? Where does it reside? How often is this data updated and who is responsible for updating it? Is any of the data sensitive? I.e. is it restricted from use by certain staff, other organizations or the public? What format is it managed in?

Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

4. Building & Maintaining a Database

External Data

The second step is to look outside the municipal government for data. It is more likely that the data held by these organizations will have to be reorganized to fit your Cultural Resource Database. Below is a brief look at the types of cultural data which might be held by potential local external partners: Organization

Type of Data

Details / Contact

Online searchable database of community, social, health and government services, often includes arts, heritage and cultural organizations.

Search the website to find out if a regional organization serves your community.

Local Arts Council

Database of local artists and arts organizations. Some arts councils may have much more.

Local Historical Society

Collection of historical texts, pictures, art and other artifacts.

Post-secondary institutions

May have a range of data, depending on specializations.

These can be used to supplement information about other cultural resources in your database (e.g. historical photographs of a heritage property).

See Appendix C for provincial and national organizations that may also have relevant data available

New Data

New data collection should be considered if efforts to find existing data sources turn up important gaps to fulfilling your project goals. Rural municipalities in particular may find that no one has tracked information about key cultural resources such as historically significant properties. Collecting new data is a time-intensive endeavour and you may want to consider recruiting dedicated volunteers to minimize costs. Since an important application of cultural resource data is the measurement of changes over time, the case should be made for collecting any new data on an ongoing basis.

Selecting Data Fields

A data field is commonly referred to as a column in a database, reserved for a certain kind of information. Below is a wide array of data fields you can consider including your database. We’ll first look at fields that act as ‘tombstone data’, and then other data fields that should be selected depending on the objectives you have set out for your Cultural Resource Mapping project.

4. Building & Maintaining a Database

Tombstone Data Fields

Tombstone data is composed of basic information about each asset and includes the information, which is least likely to change over time. These data fields become the main identifiers used to search for entries in the database. In most cases, tombstone data includes: • Name: the name of the organization, person, event, building and/or place, depending on the type of entry • Category: the general category in the database the entry has been placed under (e.g. heritage property, festival, arts organization) • Sub-category: the subset of the category the entry has been placed under (e.g. privatelyowned heritage property, agricultural festival, umbrella arts organization). • Contact information: telephone, e-mail, website, mailing address – all available fields should be included wherever possible. • Location: Municipal address, postal code, X, Y geospatial coordinates – all available fields should be included, especially since they can each serve different purposes. Location data is the key to geo-coding and mapping the database entries and so needs some further explanation. • The most accurate type of location data are X, Y coordinates. These coordinates identify the exact latitude and longitude of a place on earth. If available for any of the cultural data you are seeking, they should be incorporated into the database and used as the primary way to link your entries to a mapping system. • Municipal addresses are the second most accurate type of location data. Since addresses are more recognizable to most people, they are equally important to include in the database. They can also be used to link the cultural resource database with other municipal databases. Difficulties can arise when several assets (e.g. many units or buildings) are identified by the same municipal address, which is why having both addresses and X, Y coordinates is most useful. GIS systems can be used to convert municipal addresses into X, Y coordinates, although this should be done with caution because the points identified may not reflect the exact location of the resource in question. • Besides allowing mail to reach its destination, postal codes are also useful for analyzing cultural data at the aggregate level and so should be included in your database if available. However, it is typically the least accurate way of linking database entries to a specific location.

Basic Example: Tombstone Data Fields Name

Local Arts Centre


Performing arts venue, featuring music, dance and theatre. Caters to youth, adults and seniors…



Street Address

123 Queen Street

X Coordinate


Y Coordinate


Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities


Spatial Components

4. Building & Maintaining a Database

Objective-Driven Data Fields

These are data fields you should select based on the objectives of your project and the applications for which you want to use your Cultural Resource Database. General • Description: this descriptive text should expand on the category and sub-categories fields, providing a basic explanation of what the resource is, its purpose and background. • Classification: a NAICS code can be identified for most of the categories in the Cultural Resource Framework. This will be especially useful for performing economic analysis. • Ownership: is the resource owned by the municipality, another order of government, a private interest or a non-profit organization? People How many people are involved in governing, operating and using this resource? This can include: • Governance • Employees • Members • Participants body • Volunteers • Clients • Audience Space • Dimensions: total square footage, and size of different usable areas • Related assets / equipment: what other assets exist within a resource (e.g. a 100-seat theatre or an archive within a larger municipal facility) and what pertinent equipment is useful to keep track of (e.g. grand piano, professional sound and light system). • Organizations that use the space: this field can be linked directly to another part of the database where organizations are listed. Time • Circa: How long has this resource been around? • Activity: Are there times of the day, week, month or year when this resource is active or inactive? Support & Contributions • Capital Flow: How much money is invested in this resource: in operating, capital and project funding? How much money does it generate? • How much time do volunteers donate to support the resource? Public Information and Tourism • Description: A succinct and inviting descriptive paragraph on the resource can be quite useful for tourism and public information purposes. • Hours of operation • Image(s): A picture really is worth a thousand words, and can quickly give members of the public a much better idea of what the resource is. • Other media: Links to videos and interactive websites can be saved in the database as well.

4. Building & Maintaining a Database

Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

4. Building & Maintaining a Database

Maintaining the Database

Too often, extensive efforts to collect and analyze data are made in a ‘one-off ’ manner, with no plans to update the data, meaning that as time passes the data becomes irrelevant and so does its analysis. Whether you are tracking changes to resources over time, or trying to provide accurate information to the public, maintaining your database by making regular planned efforts to update its data is essential to its relevance and consistency. The following models are laid out for the sake of illustration and are not mutually exclusive, meaning they can be mixed and matched. For example, a centralized model could be used with some partners and a shared model with others.

Centralized model

In this model, the lead partner has exclusive access to editing the database. The project partners are responsible for providing their respective datasets on an agreed-upon interval, and the lead partner is responsible for checking/cleaning the data and entering it into the database. Since this requires a significant effort from the lead partner, it is suggested that this process be carried out on an annual basis, for all data sources updated that year.

ArtsBuild Ontario Facilities Portal

ArtsBuild Ontario, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to finding solutions to the cultural infrastructure challenge facing Ontario’s arts organizations, is developing the ArtsBuild Facilities Portal to allow organizations, municipalities and funders to share information on arts facilities throughout the province. When completed, this online knowledge sharing tool will help organizations better manage their facilities and plan for improvements, and help funders better understand the needs around facilities. The portal will house information about arts organizations across Ontario, their facilities usage and requirements, facilities deficits, and capital projects that address these deficits.  Through the Portal, it will be possible to understand the distribution of facilities across the province, including number and type, their ownership structure and their age, condition and heritage status. Developing more robust information about their capital assets and having access to similar information about facilities elsewhere in Ontario will allow organizations to improve planning and decision making, and will ultimately strengthen their capacity as partners in Municipal Cultural Planning.  ArtsBuild expects the Portal to be operational in the fall of 2011.  Further information is available at

4. Building & Maintaining a Database

Shared model

In this model, partners have access to a shared software platform that gives them direct access to the database. Partners are responsible for updating their datasets. The lead partner takes on the role of monitoring and problem shooting as other partners are carrying out updates. A staging process would be in place so that the lead partner can review new datasets before they are formally incorporated (i.e. before they ‘go live’). Agreements can be made for the data to be updated as soon as a partner creates/receives a new dataset. Two main advantages are that this model can save a great deal of effort for the lead partner and also provide more ready access to data for other partners. Some thought must be given to the level of access given to each partner, based on privacy and sensitivity issues.

Open-source model

An open-source model would allow anyone to access and contribute to parts of the database online. This would allow community members to review and suggest additions, deletions and edits to database entries, based on their local knowledge. For example, people could contribute pictures of local assets, or identify how certain resources may have changed since data was last entered. As with the shared-model, a staging process could be in place so that the lead partner can view suggested changes before they are incorporated. It is also important to consider what parts of the database are suited to this use. For example, it makes more sense to invite updates to community-based resources than government-owned resources.

Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

5. Applications to Municipal Policy and Planning


5. Applications

to Municipal Policy and Planning

So far, these guidelines have focused on how to build the capacity and resources for Cultural Resource Mapping – how to engage partners, establish project scope, build and maintain a robust database. Now we turn our attention to making use of these assets to achieve strategic goals. There are numerous ways in which cultural resource data and maps could be used. This chapter should be read as an introduction to some possibilities, with advice along the way. Below are nine applications of Cultural Resource Mapping.

5. Applications to Municipal Policy and Planning

Support: 1. Municipal Cultural Planning

Cultural Resource Mapping is a foundational step in Municipal Cultural Planning in that it identifies and leverages a community’s cultural resources, strengthens the management of those resources, and integrates those cultural resources across all facets of municipal government planning and decision-making. Beyond the context of a formal Municipal Cultural Planning exercise, Cultural Resource Mapping can be applied in a variety of scenarios to support planning and decision-making. This entails identifying opportunities in which cultural resource data can be used to inform other strategic initiatives. Examples include the development of long term municipal plans (e.g. Official Plan, Parks & Recreation Master Plan, Economic Development Strategy, Tourism Strategy etc.), annual capital and operating budget planning, alignment with Provincial Policy Statements and major plans (e.g. Open Ontario Plan, Places to Grow, Growth Plan for Northern Ontario, Greenbelt Plan) or site-specific issues such as a school closing, or contentious condo development. Highlighting links between cultural and other resources is an important strategy for integrating cultural resources across all facets of local government planning and decision-making. This involves demonstrating the impact that cultural resources have on other factors, as well the impact of other factors on cultural resources. For example, mapping can demonstrate how a theatre festival contributes to higher seasonal restaurant and parking revenues, or how patterns of usage for cultural facilities are related to the availability of transit service.

Case Study: Linking Culture to Water Data in Peterborough Staff in the City’s Arts, Culture & Heritage Division was able to draw unexpected links between resources in the City’s historic core. An opportunity was seen to facilitate the transformation of vacant and underused second floor spaces into live/work spaces for artists. However, the building code would require that many of these units be upgraded with commercial-grade sprinkler systems. The solution envisioned by staff was to use data from the City’s arm’s length utility company and to map opportunity sites where sprinkler upgrades could be made easily, with the hope of enticing artists to move into these units. Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

5. Applications to Municipal Policy and Planning

2. Economic Development

For many stakeholders, the case for using cultural planning to strengthen a community’s economic vitality is often the most compelling. In this context, Cultural Resource Mapping becomes an important tool for identifying economic development opportunities and barriers, and for showcasing a place’s distinctiveness. Once cultural resources are mapped, overlaps with Business Improvement Areas (BIAs) and employment districts can be seen, and opportunities to collaborate with local business groups can be identified. Understanding where certain types of cultural businesses are clustered can also help plan for the location and service focus of initiatives like incubators, convergence centres and affordable housing for artists. Cultural Resource Mapping can also help to identify and remove policy barriers that are standing in the way of cultural and economic development. If the cultural resources and opportunities that exemplify the area’s vitality can be viewed with City Planning maps, the issues and their solutions can be illuminated.

Convergence Centres are facilities that: • Have a mandate for cluster or sector development • Provide programming for tenants focusing on business development, collaboration and networking • Provide external stakeholder and public access to programming and space • Provide security of tenure for a cluster/sector development organization

Incubators are facilities that:

• Have a mandate for entrepreneurship development and job creation • Provide start-up companies with a combination of a business address, space and shared support services • Offers regular start-up business and professional development training

Source: Stimulating Economic Growth: Toronto’s Imagination, Manufacturing, Innovation and Technology (IMIT) Financial Incentives Program, City of Toronto (2008)

5. Applications to Municipal Policy and Planning

3. Cultural Tourism and Branding

Many communities have produced tourism maps and developed cultural tourism products and strategies. With Cultural Resource Mapping, the question becomes how can the existing cultural tourism products and strategies be improved upon, redesigned or rethought, or newly developed using the wealth of information in your database. In efforts to develop a brand for your municipality’s cultural experience, significant inspiration can also be drawn from the deeper understanding you will have gained from discussing, mapping and analysing information about cultural resources. Similarly, tourism and branding efforts can be taken a step further to strategically attract new residents and businesses to your community. More and more, knowledge-based industries look to locate where a talented, creative workforce exists. And it is well known that a community’s ability to attract creative workers is dependent on the quality of life and cultural experience it has to offer. Knowledge gained from Cultural Resource Mapping could be used to compellingly communicate that experience provincially, nationally or internationally.

Strengthen: 4. Cultural Clusters or Hubs

Significant clusters or hubs of cultural activity in which many cultural spaces, businesses, and events are located and interlinked within close distance, have often been recognized as important assets to be promoted and protected. Cultural Resource Mapping may help you discover these concentrations, or it may simply allow you to illustrate what they look like to others. Clusters can be identified by looking at a map and observing areas where dots (representing resources) are concentrated. Once the case has been made for the existence and the value of a cluster of cultural activity, it can be applied in many ways: it can lead to protection policies, to ensure that valued cultural resources are not threatened by changes to the area over time; or it can help support cultural tourism efforts, by designating the area as a cultural ‘hot-spot’. It is also worth looking at certain resources from a temporal perspective. Several festivals and events, for example, can have a tendency to occur at a certain time of the week, or year, to an extent that they may create ‘time clusters’ that are worth identifying. An online community calendar that sorts information about past events (an events database) can be very helpful with this sort of analysis.

Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

5. Applications to Municipal Policy and Planning

5. Cultural Resource Management

Having relevant, up-to-date information about the cultural resources your municipality owns and operates is crucial to good cultural resource management. Cultural Resource Mapping can allow you to have all this information in the same place, which can greatly strengthen assessments, planning and decision-making.1 For example, information on municipally operated facilities could be used to assess levels of service delivery and compare them to neighbourhood profile information such as population, age distribution, education levels, and help determine the need for new facilities based on demographic changes. In some cases, geographic analysis may be especially useful. For example, it can help to assess a goal of broadly distributing community centres and libraries throughout the municipality; or it could help develop and promote centers of excellence such as tourism attractions, convergence centers, incubators, or employment districts.

6. Culture in the Public Realm and Public Lands Cultural resources thrive where investments have been made in the quality of place. Plans for the design and construction of sidewalks, street furniture, patios, parks and public squares are also plans for the future of your community’s cultural vitality.

Cultural Resource Mapping can inform the redevelopment of public land by providing information about local stories, history and assets to create a site that is unique and adds to the quality of place. When significant concentrations of cultural activity can be illustrated through mapping, the case for a beautified public realm can be strengthened.

Showcase 7. Quantify Local Cultural Resources

At a most basic level, having a broad range of cultural resources organized in a centralized database allows these resources and their characteristics to be identified, analysed and described. You may wish to identify and communicate: • The total number of resources in the database • The number of resources, broken-down by category or subcategory (e.g. 40 spaces and facilities, 25 events, 27 community organizations, 15 creative cultural industries, 315 cultural workers, 70 cultural heritage resources, and 10 natural heritage resources). • Revenue generated by cultural resources, or by a certain type of cultural resource (e.g. municipal facilities) • Number of people participating in cultural activity, or a subset of participants (e.g. employees, volunteers, audiences). As with most analyses, these figures become much more relevant once placed in context. For example, how does it compare to 5 years ago, or to another type of resource in the municipality, or to communities of a similar size? Also be mindful that your Cultural Resource Database is not likely to capture all activity in your community. Unless a dataset is known to be comprehensive or provide a representative sample, these numbers should not be stated as reality, but as an indication of the cultural activity in your community. 1

Municipalities often have asset management systems to track state-of-good-repair and manage the maintenance of capital assets. In most cases, this type of tracking and management is best left to a specialized database and is beyond the scope of Cultural Resource Mapping.

5. Applications to Municipal Policy and Planning

Case Study: Niagara Region – Mapping the reach of Carousel Players

Niagara regional staff mapped 67 locations where Carousel Players, a professional children’s theatre company, performed and provided workshops in the course of a year. This demonstrated how the group’s reach is truly regional, increasing awareness of how a “St. Catharines” company is rarely confined to municipal boundaries.  This graphic will serve the Region of Niagara as it considers plans for a cultural investment strategy.

Case Study: Toronto and the West Queen West Triangle

With a high concentration of artists and cultural workers, a mix of work studios, performance and exhibition spaces, the West Queen West Triangle is a vital cultural cluster in Canada. When three large residential development projects were proposed in the span of a year, many feared that the area’s affordability, some of its key cultural assets, and its character were at risk. Staff at the City of Toronto responded by pulling together a cross-departmental team, and working with Toronto Artscape and the community to identify and map the breadth of cultural facilities and businesses in the area. By combining City Planning base-maps, the City’s Employment Survey Data, Cultural Facilities Database and community knowledge, and the map helped bring stakeholders onside and make the case for retaining the area’s strengths. As part of the City’s settlement process, an innovative “no-net-loss” policy was introduced by the City’s Planning Department and Economic Development and Culture Division to retain cultural employment uses and protects affordable space for artists and cultural industries in the area, while residential development proceeds.

Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

5. Applications to Municipal Policy and Planning

8. Qualify Local Cultural Resources

People often describe the lack of a ‘one-stop-shop’ for information about cultural activity. Especially if media coverage of cultural issues and events is lacking, it can be quite difficult to find out ‘what’s going on’. An effort to make cultural resource information broadly available allows for an educational experience, in which visitors, local residents and organizations can discover the range of resources in the community. It can also function as an effective search tool for people to find specific information about cultural resources they know. The database can also serve an archival function, where information about cultural resources is captured for future generations.

Case Study: Prince Edward County – is an online portal geared to attracting new residents and businesses that align with Prince Edward County’s strategy to develop a Creative Rural Economy. The attractive, creatively designed website includes short features on local entrepreneurs in the County’s four strategic sectors (creative industries, tourism, agribusiness, commerce and industry); listings of business opportunities and financial supports; as well as links to various websites that help to describe the County’s lifestyle and community. Although not driven by mapping efforts, this a great example of how the County was able to communicate its firm grasp of its cultural and economic strengths.

Mississauga – A Cultural Report Card

A recommendation emerging from the Mississauga Culture Master Plan is the creation of an annual Cultural Report Card, designed to assess Mississauga’s cultural vitality and chart progress according to key areas of activity. The report card will feature a dozen indicators and will use the City’s cultural resource database as its primary source of information for benchmarking.

5. Applications to Municipal Policy and Planning

9. Change in Local Cultural Resources

Benchmarking is about making comparisons according to specific indicators. In the context of Cultural Resource Mapping, benchmarking over time is about using indicators to identify changes in cultural resources and to assess whether progress is being made in achieving strategic goals. This type of analysis could be applied to a host of resources in your database. The task at hand is to select a manageable set of indicators that can help to answer some strategic questions over time. In selecting indicators and data sources for benchmarking, you will want to look for the following characteristics: • Can the data be obtained easily and at an affordable cost? • Can it be related to other indicators used in your municipality? • Can it be compared throughout the municipality (geographically)? • Does it come from a reliable source? • Does the indicator measure progress towards a goal? • Does it resonate with the audience, both public and expert? • Can it be communicated as a number, percentage or proportion? • Does the indicator measure what it is intended to measure and not a by-product? • Is it well grounded in theory and fact? • Can it be defended and justified in logical or scientific terms?

Open Data

The Open Data movement is gaining momentum around the world, supporting the notion that certain data should be freely available to everyone. Cultural resource data represents a wide gamut of information and in some cases is restricted from public use for good reason. However, much of the same data used to inform strategic decisions with Cultural Resource Mapping could easily be shared with members of the public.

Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

6. Making Maps & Other Visual Tools


6. Making Maps & Other Visual Tools Maps are what give Cultural Resource Mapping its name: they are the geographic representation of information in your database. An effective map or other graphic will be able to visually communicate findings from your database in a compelling way. As such, it can make the invisible visible. The following section introduces a number of mapping and visual concepts; gives some guidance as to the types of outputs that can be produced from a Cultural Resource Database; and discusses a few key points regarding interpretation.

6. Making Maps & Other Visual Tools

Layers: the Building Blocks for Maps

Layers are a foundational element of GIS mapping, as they represent the different sets of data being displayed on a map. In the illustration below, three context layers (also known as base layers) have been placed on top of each other to provide useful points of reference: district boundaries, streets and zoning. On the surface, six layers of cultural resource data have been added, each represented by a different coloured dot.


Context Layers + Cultural Resource Data

District Boundaries


Cultural Spaces Design Arts Electronic Arts Literary Arts Performing Arts Visual Arts


Source: Mississauga Culture Master Plan -

Tailoring the map to its purpose

As with data collection and analysis, the essential question when setting out to make a map is: ‘What is its purpose?’ Below are examples of several mapping styles that correspond to the type of information being communicated.

Point Data Maps

A survey of the breadth of resources City wide, with colour coded resources and minimal context layers to emphasize point data. NIAGARA CULTURAL ASSETS

All Cultural Assets - 785


sites cultural facilities cultural organizations cultural business or industries festivals & events

Source: Cultural Asset Maps of Niagara: a presentation developed by the Niagara Regional Culture Committee and Regional Staff

Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

6. Making Maps & Other Visual Tools

Point data can also illustrate the connections between resources… John Street - Arts, Entertainment, New Media John Street, as a central urban street, can be understood as a cultural new media link to the central waterfront, linking the city’s cultural activities with the water’s edge. A revitalized John Street could become Canada’s premier street of arts, entertainment and culture. Promoted as part of a global tourism strategy, John Street would become a must-see destination and the place to celebrate the convergence of art, design and the new media that is rapidly transforming Canada’s cultural landscape. Between the Art Gallery of Ontario on the north and Harbourfront Centre on the waterfront, lie an impressive range of significant cultural assets. Grange Park, the Ontario College of Art and Design, the CHUM/City Building, Festival Hall, the National Film Board, the Princess of Wales Theatre, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the CN Tower, SkyDome, and the historic Roundhouse and its adjacent park all lie on a north/south axis proximate to John Street. OPPORTUNITIES: A private/public partnership to build a concensus on the revitalization of John Street along the lines of the themes outlined in this report should be established. The objectives of the partnership would be to capture the interest and energy of the cultural new media, entertainment and business constituents of John Street, and to develop a vision and set of public and private projects that elevate John Street to Canada’s premier street of arts, entertainment and culture.

Source: Canada’s Urban Waterfront – Waterfront Culture and Heritage Infrastructure Plan. City of Toronto.

6. Making Maps & Other Visual Tools

Profiling a Specific Type of Resource

A profile of cultural sites and facilities in a downtown, with strong context layers, key resources highlighted and space provided for descriptive text‌

Source: Building a Creative Future – A Plan for Culture. City of Barrie.

Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

6. Making Maps & Other Visual Tools

Communicating the Clustering / Density of Resources

Aggregating data to show where resources are concentrated: a) ‘Heat mapping’ to display concentrations (Manhattan)…

Source: The Geography of Buzz. Elizabeth Currid and Sarah Williams. University of Southern California in Los Angeles.

b) Aggregating data within districts to display concentrations (Ottawa)… Map 9: Ten Ottawa neighbourhoods with the highest concentration of artists, 2006

Source: Mapping Artists and Cultural Workers in Canada’s Large Cities. Kelly Hill, Hill Strategies.

6. Making Maps & Other Visual Tools

Data Dramatization

In cases where a dataset can benefit from being “illuminated” to make a powerful point…

Source: Market Values in Manhattan. Nadia Amaroso.

Source: Toronto’s ‘Crimescape’. Nadia Amoroso.

Making Links to Other Resources

Illustrating the proximity of cultural resources to other types of assets in the community to demonstrate potential linkages…

Source: Canadian Urban Institute

Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

6. Making Maps & Other Visual Tools

It Doesn’t have to be a Map

Some resources and some research findings cannot be mapped, or are not best represented on a map. Example: Graphs and charts are sometimes more apt to convey the significance of a set of cultural resource data.

The fastest growing categories of industries between 2003 and 2008 were (by far) Design and Independent Arts, Writers and Performers. This, and more current information gathered in building on the cultural mapping system, provides a guide for further statistical research necessary to inform economic development strategies in the Region such as those set out in the Economic Growth Strategy including cultural industry and cultural cluster development; training and education; employment sector and woekforce placement/development strategies, etc. Source: Niagara Culture Plan – Cultural Mapping Summary Report.

A Web Portal

Many communities in Ontario are moving towards a web-portal application as a way of communicating to the public about cultural resources. This makes sense for a number of reasons: Much like Google Maps, a web-based application can allow cultural resources to be identified via search engine, to be viewed at different geographic scales and in layers (e.g. only facilities, or only events, or combinations of layers). This provides users with a much more fulsome and exploratory experience than, say, a paper map, brochure or phone line. A web-based application can also be used as a medium for citizens to have online conversations about cultural resources, and to provide feedback to the municipality about changes that should be made to the database. Changes to the database can be instantaneously updated on the web portal.

6. Making Maps & Other Visual Tools

Printed Materials

Certain applications provide good reason for producing printed materials for public use. These include: • A periodic publication of cultural resource highlights • Public workshop materials to provide useful information and incite discussion • Tourism brochures

Map Interpretation

Interpreting maps is a critical part of what gives them their meaning. A slight twist on an old proverb is that “a picture is worth a thousand words, but you don’t get to pick the words.” The following elements can help you ensure you get the picture and the words right: Descriptors Descriptive text blurbs can be critical to explaining what’s being depicted on a map. Legends, in particular, are an essential component of interpretation, and should always include an icon and text to denote each visible layer on the map. Geographic scale The scale (or ‘zoom’) chosen should enable the map-reader to immediately focus on what you are trying to depict with the map. Context layers Select only context layers (or base layers) that will provide a useful reference point. Too many context layers will clutter the map and take the focus away from the findings being illustrated. Cultural data layers Similarly, there is no point in illustrating all the cultural resource data at once if the reader is left to wonder what they are looking at. Select layers carefully to depict concentrations, links or other findings that a map-reader can see and understand. Make several maps if necessary! Data breaks These are the break points you must choose to divide cultural data into categories (e.g. 0-49 people; 50 -99 people; 100-150 people). If data has been aggregated to show zones and concentrations of resources, be careful to pick data breaks that are consistent, mutually exclusive and show the most accurate picture of the data.

Case Study: Peterborough Online Calendar of Events

With funding from the Ministry of Tourism & Culture, the Peterborough Library created an open-source community calendar, which allows arts, culture and heritage organizations to post information about upcoming events. Over seventy local organizations have signed up as contributors, making the website a very useful resource, not only to encourage participation at events but to also as an archive of cultural activity that can be easily accessed and managed. Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities



Cultural Resource Mapping is still an emerging practice and is sure to evolve in years to come. This guide has begun to distill best practices and put forth a sound process for carrying out Cultural Resource Mapping, as it is understood today.



From this guide’s six sections, there are a number of key messages about Cultural Resource Mapping that should be top of mind: • Cultural Resource Mapping is a significant undertaking that needs to be planned. • It’s a collaborative effort that depends on many people and resources coming together. • Building a Cultural Resource Database is first and foremost about finding and consolidating existing sources of data, and then looking to fill gaps with new data. • There is a wealth of information that can be incorporated into a Cultural Resource Database and deciding what to include will be driven by the objectives set out for your project. • It’s an ongoing effort that requires information to be managed and tracked over time. • Once your database is up and running, it can be applied to support Municipal Cultural Planning, to inform planning and policy across the municipality, and to share information with the public and decision-makers. • When thoughtfully assembled, maps and other visual tools can be used to convey findings from your database in a compelling way.

Message from MCPI

We hope that this document has deepened your knowledge of Cultural Resource Mapping and provided you with practical advice you can apply in your own municipality. We look forward to learning from you and supporting you in this exciting and emerging practice. No matter your question or concern, MCPI is committed to assisting you. MCPI will draw on the expertise of its vast network to connect you with the resources you need. Find us online at

Good luck and we can’t wait to see what you do next! Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

About MCPI Municipal Cultural Planning Incorporated (MCPI) is a non-profit organization dedicated to supporting municipalities in developing a stronger economic base by integrating cultural planning into municipal decision-making. MCPI supports municipalities in this endeavour as a means of building healthy, prosperous, culturally diverse and sustainable communities. With the expertise of the cultural planning community, MCPI does this by increasing awareness and readiness, strengthening knowledge and practices and advocating for an improved policy environment.

MCPI Board 2009/2010

Gord Hume, Councillor, City of London, Chair of MCPI Board Sam Coghlan, Chief Executive Officer, Stratford Public Library Warren Garrett, Executive Director, CCI-Ontario Presenting Network Claire Loughheed, Senior Manager, Cultural Services, Town of Oakville Bill Poole, Interim Executive Director, The Canadian Clay and Glass Gallery Stephen Stein, member at large Robert Williams, Professor Emeritus, Political Science, University of Waterloo


Gord Hume, Councillor, City of London, Chair of MCPI Board Sam Coghlan, Chief Executive Officer, Stratford Public Library Warren Garrett, Executive Director, CCI-Ontario Presenting Network Onnalee Groves, Culture Officer, City of Barrie Astero Kalogeropoulos, Arts and Culture Program Officer, City of Guelph Bill Poole, Interim Executive Director, The Canadian Clay and Glass Gallery Robert Williams, Professor Emeritus, Political Science, University of Waterloo

MCPI Staff

Emily Robson, General Manager Gillian Flanagan, Program Manager

About MCPI

Municipal Cultural Mapping Guidelines Stakeholder Working Group

Elena Bird, Senior Policy Advisor, Economic Development & Culture, City of Toronto, Chair of Working Group Emily Robson, General Manager, MCPI John Ariyo, Supervisor, Research & Project, City of Mississauga Cathy Bingham, Tourism Specialist, County of Oxford Rebecca Cann, Cultural Planning Supervisor, City of St. Catharines Jean Anne Carroll, Project Manager, Economic Development Office, County of Prince Edward Sam Coghlan, Chief Executive Officer, Stratford Public Library Ben Dick, Municipal Cultural Planning Researcher, City of Peterborough Jennifer Evers, Lead Strategist—Citizen, DECODE – Decoding Youth and Young Families Erik Hanson, Heritage Resources Coordinator, City of Peterborough Kwende Kefentse, Cultural Planner, City of Ottawa Kerri King, Tourism Manager, Economic Development & Tourism, Regional Municipality of Durham Betty Anne Keller, Manager, Cultural Development, City of Waterloo Harvey Low, Acting Manager, Social Research & Analysis Unit, City of Toronto Jude Ortiz, Researcher/ Coordinator, NORDIK Institute, Algoma University Angela Palermo, Manager of Cultural Services, City of Vaughan Bill Poole, Interim Executive Director, The Canadian Clay and Glass Gallery Alida Stevenson, Policy Advisor, Ontario Ministry of Tourism and Culture Raphael Sussman, Coordinator, Land Information Ontario Patti Tombs, Manager, Cultural Initiatives, City of Hamilton Elizabeth Wakeford, Coordinator, Cultural Initiatives, City of Hamilton Robert Williams, Professor Emeritus, Political Science, University of Waterloo

Additional Interviews Conducted with:

Nadia Amaroso, Lecturer, Faculty of Architecture, Landscape and Design, University of Toronto Greg Baeker, Principal, AuthentiCity Leah Bayly, Supervisor of Cultural Services, City of Thunder Bay Adele Dobkowski, Executive Director, ArtsBuild Ontario Debbie Hill, Manager of Heritage and Cultural Services, City of Ottawa Nina-Marie Lister, Associate Professor-School of Urban and Regional Planning, Ryerson University Claire Loughheed, Senior Manager, Cultural Services, Town of Oakville Terry Nicholson, Manager of Cultural Affairs, City of Toronto Pru Robey, Director—Knowledge Exchange, Artscape Eva Salter, Regional Advisor, Ontario Ministries of Citizenship and Immigration; Tourism and Culture; and Health Promotion and Sport Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

Appendix A - Glossary

Appendix A

Glossary Aggregation

Aggregation is the act of gathering or presenting data in summary form. It involves grouping data into categories, which simplifies it and makes it easier to focus on specific variables or to communicate findings at a larger scale. For example, the results of a business survey may have 30 different fields of information for each business. The results may be aggregated to summarize only how many businesses have 0-9 employees, how many have 10-49 employees and how many 50+ employees.

Baseline Cultural Mapping

Baseline Cultural Mapping is a process of identifying cultural assets, developing an initial database and maps that illustrate the scope and location of cultural assets. The focus is on laying the foundation for continued mapping efforts by capturing the “breadth” of cultural resources across the community, which in itself can be an extensive endeavour. As a result, the “depth” of information captured in a baseline database - or the level of detail included in each category - may not be as extensive as it could be.

Cultural Lens

Adopting a cultural lens refers to the process of examining any planning or development decision in a community from the vantage point/perspective of the impact that decision will have on the management of cultural resources or the contribution those cultural resources can make to the economic prosperity, social equity, environmental responsibility and cultural vitality of the community. For example, in adopting a cultural lens, three questions for local governments to consider are: 1. How can cultural resources help address local priorities/issues (e.g. need to diversify the economy, retain youth, increase tourism)? 2. How does local planning impact cultural resources (e.g. repair or replace heritage bridge, development of natural heritage landscape, downtown revitalization)? 3. How can culture enhance form/function in the public realm (e.g. public art installations, urban design, applications of art in rehabilitating or creating public infrastructure such as artwork on garbage trucks, public art commissions for new buildings)

Cultural Resources

Cultural resources encompass both tangible and intangible cultural assets that fuel local cultural vitality and contribute to defining the unique local cultural identity and sense of place. Intangible cultural assets are types of cultural expression that are not necessarily manifest in physical form.


Appendix A - Glossary

Tangible cultural assets include cultural occupations (e.g. musician, video game designer); cultural industries (e.g. book publisher, opera company); community cultural organizations (e.g. ethno-cultural association, Historical Society); cultural spaces and facilities (e.g. museums, community centres, places of worship), cultural events and festivals (e.g. county fairs, film festivals, multicultural events).

Cultural Resource Framework

The Cultural Resource Framework is a tool to help identify and classify cultural resources. It provides seven categories of cultural resources. They are: Cultural Industries; Cultural Occupations; Community Cultural Organizations; Cultural Facilities & Spaces; Cultural Heritage; Natural Heritage; Cultural Festivals & Events. Each category has multiple sub-categories of cultural resources. It also includes data sources for collecting information on many cultural resources.

Data architecture

Data architecture is the format chosen to organize a dataset. It involves choosing the names and order of data fields (categories of information), and the hierarchy within which they will be organized in a GIS database.


A dataset is a collection of data, organized into a table where each column represents a category of information. A Cultural Resource Database is composed of several datasets, since it is assembled from various sources of existing data.


Geo-coding is the process of linking resource data to locations in space for the purpose of geographic mapping. Resource data can be linked to GPS coordinates, street addresses or postal codes.

GPS Coordinates

These are the longitude and latitude coordinates (X and Y) that act as reference points for a location on earth.

Municipal Cultural Resource Mapping

Municipal Cultural Resource Mapping is a government-led systematic approach to identifying, recording and classifying a community’s cultural resources. It involves a process of collecting, analysing and synthesizing information in order to describe and visualize the cultural resources in terms of issues such as networks, links, patterns of usage, and unique character and identity of a given community.

Municipal Cultural Planning Municipal Cultural Planning (MCP) is a municipal government led process approved by Council, for identifying and leveraging a community’s cultural resources, strengthening the management of those resources, and integrating those cultural resources across all facets of municipal government planning and decision making.

Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

Appendix B - Cultural Resource Framework

Appendix B

Cultural Resource Framework Cultural Industries - These are the categories of cultural industries outlined in the Statistics Canada Canadian Framework for Culture Statistics reflecting the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes. NAICS



Cut and Sew Clothing Manufacturing


Theatrical Supplies and Costumes


Printing and related support activities


Commercial Screen Printing


Digital Printing


Other Printing (Photo Albums, Art Works, Cards, Museum Catalogues)


Support Activities for Printing


Clay product and refractory manufacturing


Pottery and Ceramics


Manufacturing and reproducing magnetic and optical media


Sound Recording, Film & Video Support


Personal Goods wholesaler - distributors


Book, Periodical and Newspaper Wholesaler-Distributors


Sound Recording Wholesalers


Video Cassette Wholesalers


Toy and Hobby Goods Wholesaler-Distributors


Clothing and clothing accessory stores.


Dance Supplies

Appendix B - Cultural Resource Framework




Book, periodical and music stores




Pre-Recorded Tape, Compact Disc and Record Stores


Musical Instrument and Supplies Stores


Used merchandise stores




Other miscellaneous store retailers


Art Dealers/Suppliers


Commercial Art Galleries


Publishing (except over the Internet)


Newspaper Publishers


Periodical Publishers


Book Publishers


Directory and Mailing List Publishers


Other Publishers


Software publishers


Software Publishers


Film and Video Industries


Motion Picture and Video Production


Motion Picture and Video Distribution


Motion Picture and Video Exhibition


Post-Production and Other Motion Picture and Video Industries


Sound recording industries


Record Production


Integrated Record Production/Distribution


Music Publishers


Sound Recording Studios


Other Sound Recording Industries


Radio broadcasting and television broadcasting


Radio Broadcasting


Television Broadcasting


Pay and specialized television


Pay and Specialty Television


Internet publishing and broadcasting


Internet Publishing, Broadcasting and Software Publishing


Satellite telecommunications

Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

Appendix B - Cultural Resource Framework




Cable television and other activities for distributing television programs


Internet service providers, web search portals


Web hosting and web page design


Other information services






Architectural, engineering and related services


Architectural Services


Landscape Architectural Services


Specialized design services


Interior Design Services


Industrial Design Services


Graphic Designers


Other Specialized Design Services – clothing, costume, fashion, jewellery, set + textile


Computer systems design and related services


Custom computer software systems analysis and design services


Custom Computer Programming Services – Web page design services


Custom Computer Programming Services [new and interactive digital media]


Advertising and related services


Advertising Agencies


Public Relations Services


Media Buying Agencies


Media Representatives


Display Advertising


Direct Mail Advertising


Advertising Material Distribution Services


Other Services Related to Advertising


Other professional, scientific and technical services




Other Schools and Instruction


Dance Instruction


Music Instruction


Visual Arts Instruction


Theatre Instruction


Performing arts companies


Theatre Companies (except Musical Theatre)

Appendix B - Cultural Resource Framework




Musical Theatre


Opera Companies


Dinner Theatre


Dance Companies


Musical Groups


Other Performing Arts Companies


Promoters (distributors) of arts events or similar events


Promoters (Presenters) of Performing Arts


Agents and representatives of artists


Agents and Managers for Artists and Entertainers


Artists, authors and independent performers


Heritage institutions


Public Art Galleries


Public Museums Gardens, Other Heritage Institutions)


Commercial Museums, Gardens, Other Heritage Institutions)


Interpretive Centers


Historic and Heritage Sites


Botanical and Zoological Gardens

Cultural Occupations – these are occupation categories that correspond to the Canadian Framework for Culture Statistics, and are organized according to North American Occupational Classification System (NOCS) codes. The categories describe the various jobs that people perform as cultural workers, and include the cultural occupations that people perform in cultural industries (e.g. in music, film, heritage management etc.) as well as many of those performed outside of cultural industries (e.g. graphic designer working for an investment firm; creative writer working for a marketing firm). NOCS



Authors and writers





Literary Arts

Visual arts and design C051.2151



Landscape architects


Industrial designers


Painters, sculptors, and other visual artists

Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

Appendix B - Cultural Resource Framework






Graphic designers and illustrators


Interior designers


Theatre, fashion, exhibit and other creative designers


Artisans and craft persons Performing Arts


Actors and comedians


Producers, directors and choreographers


Conductors, composers and arrangers


Musicians and singers




Other performers Heritage occupations




Conservators and curators


Archivists Cultural management


Library, archive, museum and art gallery managers


Managers in publishing, motion pictures, broadcasting and performing arts


Supervisors, library, correspondence and related information clerks Technical and operational occupations


Library clerks


Correspondence, publication and related clerks


Landscape and horticultural technicians and specialists


Architectural technologists and technicians


Drafting technologists and interpreters


Professional occupations in public relations and communications


Translators, terminologists and interpreters


Library and archive technicians and assistants


Technical occupations related to museums and galleries


Film and video camera operators


Graphic arts technicians


Audio and video recording technicians


Broadcast technicians


Other technical occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting, and the performing arts


Support and assisting occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting and the performing arts

Appendix B - Cultural Resource Framework




Announcers and other broadcasters


Patternmakers - textile, leather and fur products Manufacturing occupations


Supervisors, printing and related occupations


Printing press operators


Printing machine operators


Camera, plate making and other pre-press occupations


Photographic and film processors

Cultural Organizations - This category represents community cultural organizations involved in arts and heritage activities. Data records are usually captured by municipal cultural services, community arts councils and/or Community Information Centres/Services etc.




Other membership organizations


Arts Groups


Civic and social organizations


Heritage Groups


Aboriginal (Cultural) Organizations


Ethno-Cultural Organizations


Other Local, Municipal and Regional Public Administration


Municipal Advisory Committees

Cultural Spaces & Facilities – These are places designed to host cultural activity. Categories include spaces and facilities in the not-for-profit, public and private domain.




Commercial Art Galleries


Motion Picture, Film and Video Production


Sound Recording Studios


Radio Broadcasting


Television Broadcasting


Pay and Specialty Television Studios






Graphic Design Services


Other Specialized Design Services


Digital and Media Studios


Arts Instruction

Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

Appendix B - Cultural Resource Framework




Fine Arts Schools (including Dance Schools)




Other Performing Arts Facilities


Public Art Galleries


Public Museums


Commercial Museums, Gardens, Other Heritage Institutions)


Other Heritage Institutions [including Nature and Interpretive Centres)

Natural Heritage – This category includes natural wonders and areas of natural heritage and environmental significance.




Botanical and Zoological Gardens (Includes Botanical conservatories & Arboreta)


Bird/wildlife Sanctuaries


Conservation Areas


Natural Wonders (including tourist attractions (e.g. caverns, waterfalls)


Nature Centres


Nature parks (include nature reserves (and wetlands) & parklands)


Provincial Parks


National Parks Farms and Orchards (includes heritage farms and gardens (managed lands)) Gardens and Forests Natural History Site Urban Parks (tied to the Municipal Act) Canadian Heritage Rivers Scenic Destinations

Cultural Heritage – This category includes establishments involved the preservation and exhibition of objects and sites of historical, cultural and educational value.


DEFINITION Material Culture (Collections)




Public Art Gallery Collections and Outdoor Public Art


Public Museum Collections







Appendix B - Cultural Resource Framework




Built Heritage Properties (Residential, Industrial, Institutional, Commercial) Registered Designated


Heritage Conservation Districts


Historic Sites and Monuments


Battlefields, Fortifications, Military Sites


Heritage villages


Industrial and Transportation Heritage Sites


Pioneer villages


Village and Farmstead Heritage Sites


Archaeological Sites


Cemeteries Plaques Streetscapes and vistas

Cultural Events & Festivals - This category represents festivals and events that recur on an annual or regular and predictable basis.




Promoters (presenters) of performing arts and similar events with facilities


Factory Tours


Gallery and Studio Tours and Events


Museum and Art Gallery Programs and Events


Promoters (presenters) of performing arts and similar events without facilities


Aboriginal Festivals and Events


Artists or Artisan Tours and Events


Country Fairs


Craft Shows and Festivals


Film Festivals and Events


House or Garden Tours and Events


Interpretive Programs, Tours and Events


Literary Festivals and Events


Multicultural Festivals/Events


Music Festivals and Events


Natural and Cultural Heritage Tours and Events


Performing Arts Festivals and Events


Public Art Tours


Seasonal Celebrations and Events


Street Festivals

Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

Appendix Appendix C - Additional C - Additional Information Information

Appendix C

Additional Information A) Potential Funding Sources for Cultural Resource Mapping Initiatives Organization

Program/Grant/ Fund


Ontario Ministry of Tourism & Culture

Creative Communities Prosperity Fund (CCPF

Ontario Trillium Foundation – “Building healthy vibrant communities”

Community Project Grants

Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs

Rural Economic Development (RED) Program

Ontario Ministry of Economic Development and Trade

Communities in Transition: Non-profit organizations, such as local economic development corporations or industry organizations are eligible en/progserv_cit_en.jsp

Industry Canada

Community Futures Program eng/h_fn01468.html

Geo Connections opportunities/programAreas

Appendix C - Additional Information

B) National and Provincial Data Sources There are a number of provincial and national organizations that have cultural data available. In many cases accessing the data requires making a formal request, and sometimes entering into a sharing agreement. Database/ Type of Data Organization

Details / Contact

Archeological Database / Ministry of Tourism and Culture

Entries for each registered archeological site in Ontario

Bi-lateral data-sharing agreements with municipalities enable access. Information on archeological sites. heritage/archaeology/archsite.htm

Ontario Arts Council

Each year, OAC will publish an online list, organized by county/district, including: 1) OAC annually funded organizations, including: name of org., city/community, mailing address, and 2) OAC project grant recipients: name of org or individual artist and their city/ community

Database of designated heritage Ontario Heritage Properties Database properties in Ontario. / Ministry of Tourism and Culture

Available online (though not updated) at hpd.htm Up-to-date version can be provided by request.

‘LibStats’ database / Ministry of Tourism and Culture

Database of Ontario public library statistics. Derived from Annual Survey of Public Libraries that gathers information on over 120 fields.

Municipalities can request specific data from the Ministry. Contact: or Annual statistics are also available online at the Ministry website.

Census Data / Labour Force Survey / Statistics Canada

Occupations data of people employed in the creative and cultural industries (defined by Canadian Framework for Culture Statistics).

Custom data requests can be made from StatsCan, with a cost. Note: Local economic development departments/agencies may also have this data, which can significantly reduce costs.

Canadian Industry Statistics / Statistics Canada

Industry data of firms engaged in the creative and cultural industries (defined by Canadian Framework for Culture Statistics).

Custom data requests can be made from StatsCan, with a cost. Note: Local economic development departments/agencies may also have this data, which can significantly reduce costs.

Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

Appendix D - Additional Resources

Appendix D

Additional Resources Baeker, G. (2010). Rediscovering the Wealth of Places: A Municipal Cultural Planning Handbook for Canadian Communities. Municipal World Inc. Ontario. Bertuzzo, E. T. (2009) Fragmented Dhaka: Analysing everyday life with Henri Lefebvre’s Theory of Production of Space, Franz Steiner Verlag, Frankfurt. Bhagat, Alexis and Mogel, Lizzie (eds) (2008) An Atlas of Radical Cartography, Journal of Aesthetics and Protest Press. Blaut, J. M., & Stea, D. (1971). Studies of Geographic Learning. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 61(2), 387-393. Chawla, L. (2001). Growing up in an urbanizing world. London: Earthscan. Crampton, J. W. (2009) “Maps 2.0.” Progress in Human Geography,33(1), pp. 91-100. Crampton, J. W. (2010) Mapping: A Critical Introduction to Cartography and GIS, John Wiley, Malden MA and Oxford. Crouch, D. and Matless, D. (1996) “Refiguring Geography: the parish maps of Common Ground,” Transactions of the IBG, 21(1), 236-255. De Propis, L., Chapain. C., et. al. (2009) The Geography of Creativity. National Endowment of Science Technology and Arts (NESTA), UK. Dodge, M.; Kitchin, R. and Perkins, C. (eds) (2009) Rethinking Maps: New Frontiers in Cartographic Theory, Routledge, New York. Downs, Roger M. and David Stea (1977) Maps in Minds: Reflections on Cognitive Mapping, Harper and Row, New York.

Appendix D - Additional Resources

E.R.A. Architects (2003), A Map of Toronto’s Cultural Facilities: A Cultural Facilities Analysis. City of Toronto, Toronto. Freeman, C., & Vass, E. (2010). Planning, Maps, and Children’s Lives: A Cautionary Tale. Planning Theory & Practice, 11(1), 65 - 88. Harmon, K. (2003) You Are Here: Personal Geographies and Other Maps of the Imagination, Princeton Architectural Press. Harmon, K. (2009) The Map as Art: Contemporary Artists Explore Cartography, Princeton Architectural Press. Karsten, L. (2002). Mapping childhood in Amsterdam: The spatial and social construction of children’s domains in the city. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 93(3), 231-241. Kraftl, P., Horton, J., & Tucker, F. (2007). Children, young people and built environments. Built Environment, 33(4), 399-404. Lynch, Kevin (1982 [1960]) The Image of the City, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Matthews, M. H. (1985). Young children’s representations of the environment: A comparison of techniques. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 5(3), 261-278. Grogan, D., Mercer, C. and Engwight, D. (1995).The Cultural Planning Handbook: An Essential Australian Guide. Allen & Unwin. Australia, 71-94. Monmonier, Mark (1996) How To Lie With Maps, University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Perkins, C. (2007) Community Mapping, The Cartographic Journal Vol. 44 No. 2 pp. 127-137. Pocock, D. and Hudson, R. (1978) Images of the Urban Environment, Macmillan. Thompson, N. (2009) Experimental Geography: Radical Approaches to Landscape, Cartography, and Urbanism, Melville House. Stewart, S. (2006) Cultural Mapping Toolkit, Creative City Network of Canada, Vancouver. Travlou, P., Owens, P. E., Thompson, C. W., & Maxwell, L. (2008). Place mapping with teenagers: locating their territories and documenting their experience of the public realm. Children’s Geographies, 6(3), 309 - 326. Turchi, P. (2004) Maps of the Imagination: Writer as Cartographer, Trinity University Press. Tufte, E. (1990) Envisioning Information. Graphics Press. Wood, Denis (1992) The Power of Maps, Guilford Press, New York. Wridt, P. A qualitative GIS approach to mapping urban neighborhoods with children to promote physical activity and child-friendly community planning. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 37(1), 129-147.

Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities

Appendix D - Additional Resources

Web-based Additional Resources:

A Guide to Artist Studios & Galleries in Halifax and Regional Municipality: An Italian example: A Dutch example: Artist Christian Nold: Creative City Network of Canada, Online Resources: Counter Cartographies Collective (North Carolina, USA): DIY Cartography: Fractured Atlas, Find Performing Arts Spaces in New York City: One Square Mile: Open Forum on Geographic Information Systems and Technology: Mapping for Change: Municipal Cultural Planning Incorporated: NESTA Geography of Creativity: Creativity%20v4.pdf Placing Creativity: Mapping the Intersection of Culture, Economy and Place Review of Bill Bunge’s: Studies of Newcastle (UK) Play Space: Toronto Waterfront Culture and Heritage Infrastructure Plan Toronto Cultural Facility Map “The People’s Atlas of Chicago” by AREA-Chicago: Vancouver Office of Cultural Affairs, Performing Arts Facility Inventory: Vancouver Office of Cultural Affairs, Public Art Registry:

Appendix D - Additional Resources

Profile for Amy Vandenberg

Cultural Resource Mapping  

A Guide For Municipalities

Cultural Resource Mapping  

A Guide For Municipalities