Issuu on Google+

BUPS/ BIS Model United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 2010 Forum: Issue:

Executive Board 2 (Finance) Ending the economic, commercial and financial embargo imposed by the United States of America against Cuba

Background Information - Cuba under Spanish rule Discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1492, the island of Cuba was a colony of the Spanish Kingdom for about 400 years (1511-1898) after the first western settlements started in 1511. Under the Spanish rule the indigenous people of the island were ruthlessly exploited to work for them in the fields and mines of the island to enrich the colonists. It is known that the tradition of an economy based on agriculture, mining and exports- specifically sugar, coffee and of course tobacco- was built in those days. With many European brought diseases sweeping up the indigenous population the Spanish and the British brought African slaves into the island to work for them.

The independence movement unlike other Spanish colonies started much later in Cuba in the late 19th century. Although the first couple of attempts failed to succeed, Jose Marti, the founder of Cuban Revolutionary Party, drove his forces against the Spanish and carried out a successful rebellion. Marti failed to see the succession of his Party but Cuba gained her independence from the Spanish right after the Spanish- American War with the Treaty of Paris (1898) and from the Americans in 1902.

- Pre-Revolutionary Cuba

Research Report / Page 1 of 16

BUPS/ BIS Model United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 2010 After the independence was gained, the Republic of Cuba had numerous trials to set up democracy and a self-governing political system in the country but unfortunately the system repetitively failed to establish order. Starting with the Palma government of 1906 for about all of the democratically elected governments of the country faced U.S.-backed military coups that took the order from the nationalists/socialists and gave it to governors that will act accordingly to the policies and interests of United States. Cuba earlier was a colony of Spain now became the satellite state of United States and an important military base (Guantanamo Bay). The last of the consecutive coup d’états put Fulgencio Batista, later to become a ruthless dictator, into power in 1934 who was to be later elected democratically in 1940 again. Batista having lost the following two elections of 1944 and 1948, organized another military coup in 1952 taking over the office again and declaring himself the “provisional president”. During the Batista rule of 1934-1959 (incl. the 8 year period off the cabinet) the government went through the war siding with the U.S. especially against Japan and opened up its economy extending economic regulations which resulted in many economic crises and an incredible peak in the unemployment rate. Both the proletariat (working class), peasants, unemployed and the middle class were not satisfied with the economic conditions of the country. - Cuban Revolution The revolutionary movement against the Batista rule had initially started in 1953 with the “Moncada Barracks” attack of the rebel groups led by the Castro brothers Fidel and Raul. The rebellion was suppressed by the Cuban army and the rebels were imprisoned including Fidel Castro who was sentenced for 15 years. However, the political tension in the country made Batista free all the political prisoners. Castro free, flew to Mexico to join the rebellious forces aiming to overthrow the government and there met Ernesto Che Guevara and joined his militia. The successfully fought guerilla wars brought the victory to the revolutionary forces in Sierra Maestre in 1956 which became the milestone of the revolution. From this base Castro organized many attacks to Batista cities and later captured Santa Clara in 1958, following this event dictator Batista left the country and fled to Portugal. Having heard that Castro drew his forces to Havana, the capital, and declared the victory of the revolutionary forces. - Socialist Cuba Right after the revolution Fidel started the nationalization of the private property corporations and factories one by one. The American money, industry and the most importantly its influence was swept out of the country. In two years Fidel had successfully set up his system, a Proletariat Dictatorship under the rule of the Communist Party was governing, and all media, corporations and property was nationalized. The revolutionary government nationalized for about a total of $30 billion U.S. dollar property including many U.S. companies that have invested in Cuba. However, this radical act of Castro government was responded immediately by the U.S. In October 1960 U.S. declared a commercial, economic and financial embargo on Cuba. Following the embargo United States drastically cut down the import being made from Cuba that a huge scale of the economy was dependant on. The economic distress created by the embargo was comforted by the subsidization of Soviet Union to Cuban economy as USSR bought many of the import products of Cuba such as sugar and tobacco.

Research Report / Page 2 of 16

BUPS/ BIS Model United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 2010 As Cuba made closer relations with Soviet Union and took aggressive actions against U.S. the tension between the two countries continued to build up. In January 1961 it came up to a point that U.S. government decided to close its embassy in Havana and cease all diplomatic relations with Republic of Cuba. Months after this decision was made U.S. tried to organize another coup to overthrow Castro government and control the island again. For abour 1,500 CIA trained soldiers came up to the shores of Cuban land and tried to occupy the island. The “Bay of Pigs” incident resulted in a embarrassing defeat of the American troops which led to another crisis between the two countries in the following year of 1962.

“The Cuban Missile Crisis” broke out when the two leaders Castro and Khrushchev decided to place mid-ranged ballistic missiles to ensure the safety of the island. The crisis that brought the two sides on the ridge of the war was later solved by an agreement depending on the removal of the missiles in both Cuba and Turkey that possess threat to both nations. During this crisis the violent policies of Cuba against the U.S. National Security led to the expel of Cuba from the Organization of American States (OAS). Also following the missile crisis President Kennedy put travel and trading restrictions on Cuba in 1963. These two acts were later abrogated in 1977 when the tension backed down to a much milder level. -

Cuba-United States Relations after the Collapse of the Soviet Union

Even tough after the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the communist system as a whole, Cuba still stands as one of the few communist regimes that survived the crisis of early 1990s. However, the collapse of the Red Bloc Communist countries and especially of USSR drastically effected the Cuban economy. Cuba having lost its primary trade partners faced an economic deadlock. The economic and political stance of the Communist regime on the island does not possess such a great threat to United States anymore although U.S. have taken measures against Cuba that contradict this fact. Following the break-down U.S. initiated the “Cuban Democracy Act” against Cuba which legalized the embargo prohibiting foreign-based subsidiaries of U.S. companies from trading with Cuba, travel to Cuba by U.S. citizens, and family remittances to Cuba. The sanctions was later reinforced by the “Helms-Burton Act” of 1996. Despite the many protest that came up from the international grounds, U.S. claimed that Cuban firms had been illegally trafficking in stole U.S. property and thus should be excluded from United States territory.

Related Countries

Research Report / Page 3 of 16

BUPS/ BIS Model United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 2010 Republic of Cuba Having been subject to the embargo for 50 years now the country has suffered drastic economic problems because of the regulations. Cuba has been the demander of the removal of the embargo since the day it was put on. The country did not feel the necessity of the removal or any negotiations of ending the embargo before the break-down of the communist bloc. The collapse of the biggest financial aiders and trade partners of Cuba left the little island communist state alone in the world financial market. Although the socialist government underlines the fact that no matter what the republic will stand on its own feet and survive; the economical conditions of the citizens in the country do very much require the abrogating of this sanctions.

Raul Castro, the prime minister of Cuba has stated that he is willing to listen to the proposals of any new status of relation between the U.S: and Cuba that may come from Barack Obama. Having said that, the primary concern of Raul should also be mentioned. Rather than depending on a never-coming solution from the American side, Raul wishes and tries to from a Latin American Trade Partnership that will support the economies of all leftist governments in the region such as Venezuela, Bolivia and Argentina along with Cuba. United States of America United States defending the embargo and its justification stands as the only nation out of the total 192 in United Nation General Assembly. Although the policies of Cold War have ceded decades ago, the “War against Terrorism� policy of United States also contains a combat that should be given ideologically against Cuba. What’s more, because of the decisive socialist stance of Cuba and its unwillingness to become a part of the Western democratic or political globalized system U.S. insists on the embargoes.

Research Report / Page 4 of 16

BUPS/ BIS Model United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 2010 The new Obama administration had primarily showed a positive reaction towards the removal of the embargo but afterwards decided upon continuing the Bush policy on the question. European Union European Union have been one of the supporters of the anti-embargo movement since 1996 and is strongly against the Helms-Burton Act. EU believes that U.S. does not have the right to sanction any nation because of the political or economical system defended and put in action by that nation. A European Council Regulation of 2271/96 was declared against the Helms-Burton Act making it unenforceable within the borders of European Union. The regulation also covered the recovery of any damages imposed under the aforementioned Act and applied sanctions against any U.S. corporation to make Title III related complaints. EU is one of the leading organizations that puts pressure on Unites States to put an end to the embargo. Canada For Canada, Cuba has the special feature of being the first country in the Caribbean selected by Canada to have diplomatic relations which had started back in 1945 and diplomatic relationship interrupted following the 1959 Revolution. Today, Canada is one of the largest trade partners of the Republic of Cuba; on the other hand Cuba is one of the most popular touristic choices of Canadians. Canada was also one of the supporters of Canada in her combat against the embargo and the Helms-Burton Act. It is impossible for these two countries which are tied by strong energy and mining agreements to operate in both of the countries. Venezuela Venezuela is the biggest trade partner of Cuba. An alliance came up after the presidency of Hugo Chavez in 1999 was established. The bilateral relations of the two countries developed through the dialogue of Chavez and Castro. After Chavez set up his absolute democratic rule in his country he tried in going on the assignment of Soviet Union in aiding Cuban trade. The bilateral relation mainly includes development aid, joint business ventures, large financial transactions, exchange of energy resources and information technology, and cooperation in the fields of intelligence service and military. Hugo Chavez, the biggest ally of Fidel Castro in the international arena, have always been supporting the combat of Cuba against capitalism and the U.S. Starting from the day he came into power Chavez have always been criticizing the oppressing policies of United States towards the Latin America. In Cuba’s combat against the embargo Venezuela was the greatest supporter of Cuba in the debate in UN General Assembly.

Russian Federation

Research Report / Page 5 of 16

BUPS/ BIS Model United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 2010

Russian Federation and Cuba still have close ties even though the brake-down of 1991. They were especially strenghted after Putin came into power in 2000. Both Medvedev and Putin are known to publicly state the unlawfulness of the embargo and called U.S. government to cease the sanctions posed on Cuba.

Possible Solutions The normalization of the relations between United States and Republic of Cuba can be a winwin case and if the possibility of the removal of the embargo comes up, the Obama administration and the Raul government should not miss that opportunity. As for both of the countries, in a world where there are no Iron Curtains nor specific economic or political blocs the exercise of an embargo by such a determining nation on an island state is not benefit of both the U.S an the Republic of Cuba. The end of the embargo would mean the economical relief of Cuba and the enrichment of the Cuban citizen since they can now be importing to the biggest market of the world and has overcome the sanctions posed by Helms-Burton Act. If the removal of the embargo is not a possible short-term solution, short-term solutions such as the reformation of the Helms-Burton Act, a reform in the tourism regulations against Cuba and the withdrawal of the Cuban Democracy Act from the constitution could be measures that might lead to a normalization of the relations.

United Nations Involvement on the Issue United Nations General Assembly have been discussing the ending of the embargo on Cuba imposed by USA under the topic of “Necessity of ending the economic, commercial and financial embargo imposed by the United States of America against Cuba” since 1993. Each and every the resolution is adopted by the General with an overwhelming majority (2009: 191 in favor 1 against). However, the statements made in the council, Secretary-General’s efforts or the resolutions adopted fail get U.S. into action. (see resolutions 47/19 of 24 November 1992, 48/16 of 3 November 1993, 49/9 of 26 October 1994, 50/10 of 2 November 1995, 51/17 of 12 November 1996, 52/10 of 5 November 1997, 53/4 of 14 October 1998, 54/21 of 9 November 1999, 55/20 of 9 November 2000, 56/9 of 27 November 2001, 57/11 of 12 November 2002, 58/7 of 4 November 2003, 59/11 of 28 October 2004, 60/12 of 8 November 2005, 61/11 of 8 November 2006, 62/3 of 30 October 2007 and 63/7 of 11 December 2008)

Research Report / Page 6 of 16

BUPS/ BIS Model United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 2010 Furthermore, the Helms-Burton Act of 1996 was condemned by officially by United Nations level by Britain, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina and Venezuela.

Useful Links for Research 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Bibliography 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)–Russia_relations 6) 7) 8)–Cuba_relations 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15)

Research Report / Page 7 of 16

BUPS/ BIS Model United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 2010

FORUM: Executive Board 1 (External Relations) ISSUE: The debate over the peace-making role of NATO and its cooperation with the UN through it’s out of area operations with particular emphasis on Afghanistan and Pakistan. Background Information What is NATO? NATO, short for The North Atlantic Treaty Organization , is an alliance of 28 countries from North America and Europe committed to fulfilling the goals of the North Atlantic Treaty, which was signed on the 4th of April, 1949. In accordance with the Treaty, the primary role of NATO is to safeguard the freedom and security of its member countries by political and military means. The Allies’ common values of democracy, individual liberty, the rule of law and the peaceful resolution of disputes are protected by NATO, which promotes these values throughout the Euro-Atlantic area. The Alliance embodies the transatlantic link by which the security of North America and Europe are permanently tied together.

What  does  NATO  do?   There  are  four  main  actions  which  NATO  takes;  consultation,  defence,  crisis   management  and  cooperation.  NATO  provides  a  forum  in  which  the  United  States,   Canada  and  European  countries  can  consult  together  on  security  issues  of  common   concern  and  take  joint  action  in  addressing  them.  The  organization  is  determined  to   defend  its  member  states  against  aggression  or  the  threat  of  aggression  to  the  extent   that  and  attack  against  one  or  several  members  would  be  an  attack  against  all.  NATO  has   played  a  very  big  role  in  crisis  management.  It  has  helped  to  end  bloody  conflicts  in   Bosnia,  Kosovo  and  head  off  a  civil  war  in  the  Former  Yugoslav  Republic  of  Macedonia.   NATO-­‐led  forces  are  still  trying  to  bring  stability  to  Kosovo,  Afghanistan,  Pakistan,  Iraq   and  Darfur.  Also,  NATO  is  trying  to  overcome  the  divisions  of  the  Cold  War  era,  by   dialogue  and  cooperation  with  non-­‐NATO  countries,  which  will  extend  security  and   stability  well  beyond  NATO  borders.    

    How  does  NATO  work?     NATO  is  an  intergovernmental  organization.  The  28  member  nations  retain  their  full   sovereignty  and  all  of  the  decisions  are  taken  jointly  on  the  basis  of  consensus.  The  most   important  decision  making  body  is  the  North  Atlantic  Council  which  brings  together   representatives  of  the  28  Allies.  The  structures  and  mechanisms  of  NATO  provide  the   framework  for  cooperation  with  partner  countries,  which  forms  and  integral  part  of  the   activities  of  the  Alliance.                         Member Countries The 28 independent member countries of NATO are: Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,

Research Report / Page 8 of 16

BUPS/ BIS Model United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 2010 Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom and the United States. On the North Atlantic Council, each member nation is represented either by an Ambassador or by a Permanent Representative supported by a national delegation composed of advisers and officials, who represent their country on different NATO committees. The Council also meets from time to time at the level of Heads of State and Heads of Government or Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Ministers of Defence. Partner Countries There  are  also  22  partner  countries  of  NATO,  these  are:  Armenia,  Austria,   Azerbaijan,  Belarus,  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina,  Finland,  the  Former  Yugoslav  Republic   of  Macedonia,  Georgia,  Ireland,  Kazakhstan,  Kyrghyz  Republic,  Malta,  The  Republic  of   Moldova,  Montenegro,  Russia,  Serbia,  Sweden,  Switzerland,  Tajikistan,   Turkmenistan,  Ukraine  and  Uzbekistan.             Partner  countries  are  represented  by  Heads  of  Diplomatic  Missions  or  Liaison   Offices  located  at  the  NATO  Headquarters.  The  Head  and  Staff  of  the  Missions  attend   NATO  committee  meetings  in  cooperation  formats.  They  also  represent  their   countries  at  meetings  of  the  Euro-­‐Atlantic  Partnership  Council  (EAPC),  meetings  of   the  NATO-­‐Russia  Permanent  Joint  Council  or  NATO-­‐Ukraine  Commission   respectively.  When  Partner  countries  are  represented  by  their  Foreign  or  Defence   Ministers  meetings  of  these  bodies  take  place  at  Ministerial  or  Summit  level.     Military  Structure     The  military  structure  of  NATO  is  a  multinational  force  planning,  organization   and  command  system.  Under  the  command  of  NATO’s  strategic  commanders,  it   provides  for  joint  planning,  training,  exercising  and  operations.    

NATO's  Senior  Civilian  Representative  in  Afghanistan   NATO’s  Senior  Civilian  Representative  in  Afghanistan  is  Ambassador  Fernando   Gentilini  of  Italy,  who  has  been  appointed  in  May  2008  and  took  office  on  23rd  of  July.   He  carries  forward  the  Alliances  political-­‐military  objectives  in  Afghanistan,  liaising   with  the  Afghan  Government,  civil  society,  representatives  of  the  international   community  and  neighbouring  countries.  The  Senior  Civilian  Representative   represents  the  political  leadership  of  the  Alliance  in  Kabul  officially  and  publicly.   The  Senior  Civilian  Representative  provides  a  direct  channel  of  communication   between  the  theatre,  NATO  HQ  in  Brussels,  and  the  North  Atlantic  Council,  the   Alliance's  principal  decision-­‐making  body,  by  working  closely  with  NATO’s   International  Security  Assistance  Force  (ISAF).  He  provides  the  Council  with  advice   on  the  most  effective  means  of  ensuring  the  overall  coherence  of  the  Alliance’s   relations  with  Afghanistan,  which  includes  responsibilities  related  to  upholding   NATO’s  public  perception.  He  liaises  with  senior  members  of  the  Afghan  Government   and  co-­‐ordinates  with  representatives  of  the  international  community  and  other   Research Report / Page 9 of 16

BUPS/ BIS Model United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 2010 international  organizations  engaged  in  Afghanistan,  in  particular  the  United  Nations   Assistance  Mission  in  Afghanistan  and  the  European  Union.   The  NATO  Secretary  General’s  Special  Representative  for  the  Caucasus  and   Central  Asia   At  the  Summit  in  Istanbul  in  June  2004,  NATO  Allies  agreed  to  place  a  special   focus  on  the  strategically  important  regions  of  the  Caucasus  and  Central  Asia.  This   special  focus  included  the  appointment  of  the  Special  Representative  and  two  NATO   Liaison  Officers,  one  for  each  region.     The  Secretary  General  appointed  Robert  F.  Simmons  as  NATO’s  first  Special   Representative  in  August  2004.  He  is  responsible  for  applying  the  Alliance’s  policy  in   the  two  strategically  important  regions  of  the  Caucasus  and  Central  Asia.  He  works   closely  with  regional  leaders  to  enhance  their  cooperation  with  the  Alliance  and   provides  advice  to  the  Secretary  General  on  how  to  reach  NATO’s  goals  in  the  two   regions.  He  works  closely  with  the  NATO  Senior  Civilian  Representative  in   Afghanistan  in  order  to  ensure  that  NATO’s  policy  in  Central  Asia  fully  supports   NATO’s  ongoing  mission  in  Afghanistan.   NATO’s  Role  in  Afghanistan     NATO’s  main  role  in  Afghanistan  is  to  assist  the  Afghan  Government  in  exercising   and   extending   its   authority   and   influence   across   the   country,   paving   the   way   for   reconstruction   and   effective   governance.   It   does   this   predominately   through   its   UN-­‐ mandated  International  Security  Assistance  Force.   Since  NATO  took  command  of  ISAF  in  2003,  the  Alliance  has  gradually  expanded   the  reach  of  its  mission,  initially  limited  to  providing  security  in  Kabul,  to  cover   Afghanistan’s  whole  territory.    The  number  of  ISAF  troops  has  grown  accordingly  from   the  original  5,000  to  around  70,000  troops  coming  from  43  countries,  including  all  28   NATO  members.  The  expansion  was  completed  in  four  stages;  north,  west,  south  and   east  respectively.     The  key  component  of  the  international  community’s  engagement  in  Afghanistan   is  ISAF,  which,  in  accordance  with  all  the  relevant  Security  Council  Resolutions,  assists   the  Afghan  government  in  the  establishment  of  a  secure  and  stable  environment.    ISAF   forces  have  been  conducting  security  and  stability  operations  throughout  the  country   together  with  the  Afghan  National  Security  Forces  (ANSF)  and  are  directly  involved  in   the  development  of  the  Afghan  National  Army  (ANA)  through  mentoring,  training  and   equipping.  ISAF  is  also  helping  the  Afghan  National  Army  (ANA)  in  order  to  bring  it  up  to   operating  capability.  The  United  States  is  supporting  ISAF  by  sponsoring  the  overall  ANA   training  and  equipping  programme  through  its  Combined  Security  Transition  Command   Afghanistan  (CSTC-­‐A).  ISAF  is  leading  a  number  of  Operational  Mentoring  and  Liaison   Teams  (OMLTs)  which  support  training  and  deploy  on  operations  in  an  advisory  role.   The  OMLTs  join  ANA  units  after  receiving  initial  training  at  the  Afghan-­‐led  Kabul   Military  Training  Centre  (KMTC).                      NATO-­‐ISAF  nations,  in  addition  to  training  and  mentoring  the  ANA,  provide  

Research Report / Page 10 of 16

BUPS/ BIS Model United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 2010 donations  to  help  equip  the  Afghan  army.  These  donations  include  individual  equipment   such  as  small  arms,  ammunition,  and  uniform  items  as  well  as  larger  equipment  to   include  tanks  and  helicopters.  Also,  Allied  Command  Operations  (ACO)  coordinates   donations  on  the  behalf  of  ISAF  contributing  nations  under  the  NATO  Equipment   Donation  Programme.  To  cover  the  transportation  and  installation  costs  of  the   equipment  donations,  the  purchase  of  equipment,  the  purchase  of  services  for   engineering  and  construction  projects,  and  in/out-­‐of-­‐country  training  an  ANA  Trust   Fund  has  also  been  established.   ISAF  is  helping  the  Afghan  Authorities  to  strengthen  their  required  institutions  in   order  to  fully  establish  good  governance  and  rule  of  law  and  to  promote  human  rights,   through   its   Provincial   Reconstruction   Teams   (PRTS).   In   this   respect   PRTs’   principal   mission   consists   of   building   capacity,   supporting   the   growth   of   governance   structures   and  promoting  an  environment  within  which  governance  can  improve.   NATO’s  Role  in  Pakistan     The  terrorism  in  Pakistan  initially  started  in  the  1980’s.  The  main  reasons  for  the   terrorist  acts  to  commence  were  the  religious  difference  between  the  population  of  the   country   and   the   militant   regime   (Shia   and   Sunni),   disputes   between   the   two   groups   due   to   economic   and   social   factors,   England   not   considering   Pakistan   as   an   independent   state  and  the  war  between  Pakistan  and  Afghanistan  during  the  years  1979  to  1988.  Due   to  religion  many  people  joined  Pakistan  during  the  war  and  continued  their  actions  even   after   the   war   ended.   Pakistan   continued   to   support   these   people   called   “Mujahideen”   after  the  war  and  supported  them  with  their  needs.  However,  in  2001  the  government   separated  its  ways  with  the  terrorist  groups  and  started  to  cooperated  with  the  United   States  of  America  in  order  to  stop  terrorist  activities.     Pakistan  is  a  key  neighbour  of  Afghanistan;  therefore  Pakistan’s  support  for  the   efforts  of  NATO  and  the  international  community  in  Afghanistan  is  crucial  to  the  success   of  the  Alliance’s  mission  there.  NATO  and  Pakistan  have  developed  regular  exchanges  at   various  levels,  including  visits  by  senior  officials  and  opinion  leaders,  as  well  as   participation  by  Pakistani  military  officials  in  NATO  training  programmes.     Pakistan’s  constructive  approach  towards  security  and  stability  in  the  region  is   welcomed  by  NATO.  The  issues  of  increasing  drug  cultivation  in  Afghanistan  and  dealing   with  refugees  from  that  country  have  also  been  raised  during  political  high-­‐level  talks.   However,  NATO-­‐Pakistan  relations  go  beyond  the  Alliance’s  operational  agenda  in   Afghanistan.       Visits  of  Pakistani  opinion  leaders  to  NATO  HQ  have  been  organized,  military   contacts  have  been  made  and  NATO  has  agreed  to  open  selected  training  and  education   courses  to  Pakistani  officers.  These  venues  have  all  been  done  to  prevent   misunderstandings,  and  to  promote  a  culture  of  cooperative  security  focused  on  areas  of   common  interest,  such  as  regional  stability  and  the  fight  against  terrorism.    

Related Countries The  United  States  of  America  and  NATO  Allies     Research Report / Page 11 of 16

BUPS/ BIS Model United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 2010 The  United  States  of  America  has  supported  NATO’s  actions  in  order  to  help  solve  the   problems  in  Afghanistan  and  Pakistan  by  sponsoring  the  overall  ANA  training  and   equipping  programme  through  its  Combined  Security  Transition  Command  Afghanistan   (CSTC-­‐A).    Also  the  other  allies  of  NATO  supported  America’s  actions  and  started  to  be   involved  in  the  military  and  political  issues  of  Afghanistan  and  Pakistan.  The  United   States  of  America  has  been  the  greatest  supporter  of  Afghanistan  and  Pakistan  by   monetary  aid,  which  reached  over  $  4.2  billion  after  the  events  that  took  place  on  the   11th  of  September  2001.     Neighbourhood  Countries  (India,  Iran,  China,  Tajikistan,  Kyrghyz   Republic,  Uzbekistan  and  Turkmenistan)   Iran  is  an  Islamic  Republic  and  therefore  chooses  not  to  support  NATO’s  actions.   Furthermore,  Iran  is  being  accused  of  supporting  fundamental  terrorist  groups  in   Afghanistan  and  Pakistan.    Tajikistan,  Kyrghyz  Republic,  Uzbekistan  and  Turkmenistan   are  trying  to  support  United  States  and  NATO’s  actions.    Pakistani  terrorist  groups  such   as  Lashkare-­‐Taiba  and  Jaish-­‐e-­‐Muhammed  have  been  said  to  have  held  terrorist  attacks   in  India  and  Kashmir  over  the  past  years,  though  currently  India  prefers  to  stay  neutral   in  this  issue  with  China.      

Possible Solutions 1. Eradicating  all  terrorist  groups,  mainly  El-­‐Quida  and  Taliban,  in  Afghanistan  and   Pakistan  by  military  forces  of  NATO,         2. After   the   elimination   of   terrorism   constituting   a   government   ruled   by   democracy   which  will  cooperate  with  NATO  and  the  United  States  of  America    

3. Encouraging   all   Member   States   to   participate   in   the   reconstruction   of   Afghanistan   and   Pakistan’s   economy   in   all   sectors,   particularly   rural   regions,   through   the   United   Nations  Development  Program  (UNDP)  by:     a) treating Afghanistan and Pakistan as a free or preferred trading partner to encourage trade and the spread of Sub-African goods, b) sponsoring microfinance for the Afghanistan and Pakistan Governments, and encouraging business to invest in Somalia’s reconstruction, c) offering experts to assist in reconstruction through training and practice with Afghanistan and Pakistan’s citizens, d) providing specific aid goods such as food, fertilizer, seeds, and practice with Afghanistan and Pakistan citizens, e) creating programs for Afghani and Pakistanis to work towards developing their own future; 4. Requesting   that   the   United   Nations   Environmental,   Scientific,   and   Cultural   Organization  (UNESCO):    

Research Report / Page 12 of 16

BUPS/ BIS Model United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 2010 a. coordinates efforts between donors and NGOs to establish a comprehensive educational system, b. develops funds to purchase school textbooks and other necessary supplies, c. urges the creation of a permanent governmental department devoted to funding and overseeing the educational system, d. urges the creation of a widespread scheme of vocational training available to all Afghanistan and Pakistan’s citizens; e. abolishes school fees and funds scholarships for successful students in order to encourage them, f. establishes satellite schools, which will primarily be located in the rural areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan, aiming to educate the children who are not able to go to school because of the lack of transportation; 5. Calling upon the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) and the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women to restore the human rights and integrity of women by: a. encouraging all females over 8 years to make use of the opportunity for education by disseminating information which explains their options and encourages them to obtain their education at the nearest available facility, b. creating a committee of qualified individuals to research opportunities which help women find jobs and provide information as to where women can seek necessary medical treatment, c. creating opportunities for women to serve in the state and future Afghanistan and Pakistan governments in order to promote the status of women as equal members of society; 6. Further proposing that the World Health Organization (WHO) and appropriate NGOs coordinate an extensive reform of the Afghanistan and Pakistan health sector by: a. providing medical supplies such as drugs, medical equipment, vaccines, beds, blankets, and other necessary supplies, b. improving disease containment facilities, c. ensuring that adequate resources are available for the long-term treatment of diseases, d. establishing medical facilities in areas of serious need including rural areas in order to decrease mortality, e. creating national immunization days to prevent the spread of disease, f. providing obstetrics care to ensure the well-being of mothers and infants, g. bringing Somali doctors abroad to provide them with training and observation opportunities in the developed world; 7. Suggesting all governments and NGO’s, especially the MEDC’s, to co-operate and help improve the infrastructure of Afghanistan and Pakistan by building: a. hospitals, b. schools, c. transportation systems, including a system of highways and railways, d. communication systems, particularly telephone lines, and a nationwide radio network, e. power lines and energy generation, through the use of solar panels, f. sewage systems g. water mains and distribution systems;

Research Report / Page 13 of 16

BUPS/ BIS Model United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 2010

UN Involvement Key  Events  and  Resolutions     7  October  2001:  Launch  of  US  Operation  Enduring  Freedom.   20  December  2001:       -­‐  The  UN  issues  resolution  UNSCR  1386,  authorizing  the   deployment  of  a  multinational  force  in  and  around  Kabul  to  help  stabilize  the  country   and  create  the  conditions  for  self-­‐sustaining  peace.   -­‐

ISAF  I  is  established  by  resolution  UNSCR  1386  under  the  command  of  the  United   Kingdom  with  forces  and  assets  from  18  other  countries.  

20  June  2002:    ISAF  II  is  established  under  the  command  of  Turkey,  on  the  basis  of   resolution  UNSCR  1413   February 2003: ISAF III is established under the command of Germany and the Netherlands, on the basis of resolution UNSCR 1444. 5 July 2003: First NATO troops set off for Kabul 13 October 2003: The UN Security Council adopts resolution 1510; authorising the expansion of ISAF's operations to include operations anywhere in Afghanistan. 17 September 2004: The UN Security Council adopts resolution 1563 10 February 2005: NATO decides to expand ISAF to the west of Afghanistan. 13 September 2005: The UN Security Council adopts resolution 1623 12 September 2006: The UN Security Council adopts resolution 1707 30 January 2007: NATO and Pakistan agree on Afghanistan approach 8 May 2007: NATO and Pakistan boost cooperation 19 September 2007: The UN Security Council adopts resolution 1776 23 September 2008: The UN Security Council adopts resolution 1833 23 January 2009: NATO Secretary General visits Pakistan 20 August 2009: Afghan Presidential and Provincial Council elections


Research Report / Page 14 of 16

BUPS/ BIS Model United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 2010



Research Report / Page 15 of 16

BUPS/ BIS Model United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 2010

Useful Links T&IsFirstDisplay=0&GoPressed=1&ShowOptions=0&selectField1=3&txtSe arch1=isaf&selectBoolean1=3&selectField2=3&txtSearch2=AFGHANISTA N Works Cited “Chair Reports - GA1.” Turkish International Model United Nations. 20 Dec. 2009 <> “Chronology.” North Atlantic Treaty Organization - International Security Assistant Force. 26 Dec. 2009 <> “NATO-Pakistan Relations.” North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 25 Dec. 2009 <> “NATO’S role in Afghanistan.” North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 22 Dec. 2009 <> “Political Map of Afghanistan and Pakistan.” World Sites Atlas. 15 Dec. 2009 <>

Research Report / Page 16 of 16

Executive Board I