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MYcÖRvZš¿x evsjv‡`‡ki RvZxq cZvKv

MYcÖRvZš¿x evsjv‡`‡ki RvZxq cZvKvq Nb meyR i‡Oi Ici D`xqgvb m~‡h©i i‡Oi GKwU jvj e„Ë _vK‡e|

cZvKv wbg©v‡Yi wbqgvewj

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fe‡b e¨env‡ii Rb¨ (fe‡bi AvKvi I AvqZb Abyhvqx) 305 †mwg x 183 †mwg (10' x 6') 152 †mwg x 91 †mwg (5' x 3') 1

1

76 †mwg x 46 †mwg (22' x 12') Avgvi evsjv eB 1


RvZxq msMxZ Avgvi †mvbvi evsjv, Avwg †Zvgvq fv‡jvevwm| wPiw`b †Zvgvi AvKvk, †Zvgvi evZvm, Avgvi cÖv‡Y evRvq euvwk \ I gv, dvMy‡b †Zvi Av‡gi e‡b NÖv‡Y cvMj K‡i, gwi nvq, nvq †iI gv, ANÖv‡b †Zvi fiv †¶‡Z Avwg Kx †`‡LwQ gayi nvwm \ Kx †kvfv, Kx Qvqv †Mv, Kx †øn, Kx gvqv †MvKx AuuvPj weQv‡qQ e‡Ui g~‡j, b`xi K‚‡j K‚‡j| gv, †Zvi gy‡Li evYx Avgvi Kv‡b jv‡M myavi g‡Zv, gwi nvq, nvq †igv, †Zvi e`bLvwb gwjb n‡j, I gv, Avwg bqbR‡j fvwm \ -iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi

MvIqvi Rb¨ RvZxq msMx‡Zi c~Y©cvV Avgvi †mvbvi evsjv, Avwg †Zvgvq fv‡jvevwm| wPiw`b †Zvgvi AvKvk, wPiw`b †Zvgvi AvKvk, †Zvgvi evZvm, Avgvi cÖv‡Y I gv, Avgvi cÖv‡Y evRvq euvwk, †mvbvi evsjv, Avwg †Zvgvq fv‡jvevwm \ I gv, dvMy‡b †Zvi Av‡gi e‡b NÖv‡Y cvMj K‡i, gwi nvq, nvq †iI gv, dvMy‡b †Zvi Av‡gi e‡b NÖv‡Y cvMj K‡i, I gv, ANÖv‡b †Zvi fiv †¶‡Z Kx †`‡LwQ Avwg Kx †`‡LwQ gayi nvwm| †mvbvi evsjv, Avwg †Zvgvq fv‡jvevwm \ Kx †kvfv, Kx Qvqv †Mv, Kx †øn, Kx gvqv †MvKx AuuvPj weQv‡qQ e‡Ui g~‡j, b`xi K‚‡j K‚‡j| gv, †Zvi gy‡Li evYx Avgvi Kv‡b jv‡M myavi g‡Zv, gwi nvq, nvq †igv, †Zvi gy‡Li evYx Avgvi Kv‡b jv‡M myavi g‡Zv, gv, †Zvi e`bLvwb gwjb n‡j, Avwg bqb I gv, Avwg bqbR‡j fvwm \ †mvbvi evsjv, Avwg †Zvgvq fv‡jvevwm \ 2 Avgvi evsjv eB


RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯ZK †evW© KZ©„K 2004 wk¶veQi †_‡K Z…Zxq †kªYxi cvV¨cy¯ZKiƒ‡c wba©vwiZ

Avgvi evsjv eB Z…Zxq fvM

iPbv Avng` Kwei k¨vgjx AvKei iƒcv PµeZ©x †invbv †eMg gRyg`vi m¤cv`bv gbmyi gymv

RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯ZK †evW©, XvKv Avgvi evsjv eB 3


RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯ZK †evW©, XvKv 69-70, gwZwSj evwYwR¨K GjvKv, XvKv KZ©„K cÖKvwkZ|

[cÖKvkK KZ©„K me©¯^Z¡ msiw¶Z] cÖ_g gy`ªY : wW‡m¤^i, 2003 cybg©y`ªY : A‡±vei, 2008 cybg©y`ªY : AvMó, 2009

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cÖ”Q` I wPÎv¼b jvBRy Av³vi

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4 Avgvi evsjv eB


cÖm½ K_v cÖv_wgK wk¶vi ¸YMZ gvb Dbœq‡bi j‡¶¨ 1992 mv‡j evsjv‡`‡k cÖv_wgK wk¶v¯Z‡i †hvM¨ZvwfwËK wk¶vµg cÖeZ©b Kiv nq| 2002 mvj ch©š— cÖvq GK hyM a‡i G wk¶vµg Abyhvqx cÖYxZ cy¯ZK I Ab¨vb¨ cVb-cvVb mvgMÖx e¨eüZ n‡q Avm‡Q| cÖPwjZ G wk¶vµg g~j¨vqb I cwigvR©b Kivi Rb¨ PÆMÖvg, wm‡jU I ewikvj (Pwme) wefv‡Mi cÖv_wgK wk¶vi Dbœqb cÖKí (2q ch©vq), GbwmwUwe BDwbU, XvKv, GKwU we¯Z…Z Kg©cwiKíbv MÖnY K‡i| G cwiKíbv Abyhvqx BDwbUwU cÖv_wgK wk¶vµg Ges cÖ_g I wØZxq †kªYxi cy¯ZK I Ab¨vb¨ cVb-cvVb mvgMÖx g~j¨vqb I cwigvR©b Kvh©µg (2001-2002) cwiPvjbv K‡i| G Kvh©µ‡gi Aax‡b cÖv_wgK ¯Z‡ii wk¶vi j¶¨ I D‡Ïk¨, cÖvwš—K †hvM¨Zv Ges cÖ_g I wØZxq †kªYxi Rb¨ welqwfwËK AR©‡bvc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv cybtwba©viY Kiv nq| cieZ©x‡Z (2002-2003) BDwbUwU Z…Zxq †_‡K cÂg †kªYx ch©š— welqwfwËK AR©‡bvc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvmg~n cybtwba©vi‡Yi Kvh©µgI cwiPvjbv K‡i| Gi wfwˇZ wewfbœ wel‡qi bZzb MÖš’ I Ab¨vb¨ cVb-cvVb mvgMÖx cÖYqb Kiv nq| evsjv wel‡qi Rb¨ wPwýZ †kªYxwfwËK AR©‡bvc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi wfwˇZ Pwme wefv‡Mi cÖv_wgK wk¶vi Dbœqb cÖKí (2q ch©vq), GbwmwUwe BDwbU, XvKv, KZ©„K wbe©vwPZ Ges MYcÖRvZš¿x evsjv‡`k miKv‡ii cÖv_wgK I MYwk¶v wefvM KZ©„K Aby‡gvw`Z †jLKMY Z…Zxq †kªYxi Rb¨ bZzb evsjv cvV¨cy¯ZK ÔAvgvi evsjv eBÕ Z…Zxq fvM iPbv K‡ib| Kg©kvjvi gva¨‡g †kªYx wk¶K, wk¶K cÖwk¶K, welq we‡klÁ I wk¶vµg we‡klÁ‡`i mnvqZvq eBwUi †hŠw³K g~j¨vqb m¤cbœ Kiv nq| cÖv_wgK ¯—‡i wk¶vi evnb gvZ…fvlv evsjv| G ¯—‡ii wkï‡`i Rb¨ gvZ…fvlvq `¶Zv AR©b Acwinvh©| ZvB, wØZxq †kªYxi m‡½ msMwZ †i‡L G eBwU‡K h_vm¤¢e fvlv †kLvi Dc‡hvMx K‡i iPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| fvlv †kLvi PviwU `¶Zv-‡kvbv, ejv, cov I †jLv| G PviwU `¶Zv wkïiv †hb cy‡ivcywi wbwðZfv‡e AR©b Ki‡Z cv‡i, †m Rb¨ Zv‡`i eqm, †gav I MÖnY‡hvM¨Zv we‡ePbv K‡i gvZ…fvlvi †kªYxwfwËK AR©‡bvc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv cybtwba©vwiZ n‡q‡Q| G †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv †hb wk¶v_©xiv AvqË Ki‡Z cv‡i, g~jZ †m w`‡K †Lqvj †i‡L Ges Zv‡`i fvlvÁvb, kãfvÊvi I e¨eüZ evK¨ixwZi w`‡K j¶ †i‡L Z…Zxq †kªYxi evsjv eBwU iPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| wkL‡b wk¶v_©x‡`i AvMÖn m„wó I cvV mnR Kivi Rb¨ Zv‡`i cwiwPZ cwi‡ek †_‡K cvV¨vsk Pqb Ges Qwe ms‡hvRb Kiv n‡q‡Q| avivevwnK Abykxjb I g~j¨vq‡bi gva¨‡g fvlv †kLvi `¶Zv¸‡jv wk¶v_©xiv cy‡ivcywi AR©b Ki‡Z cvij wK bv, Zv hvPvB‡qi Rb¨ cÖwZ cvV‡k‡l fvlvwfwËK Abykxjbx i‡q‡Q| Avgiv Rvwb, wk¶vµg Dbœqb GKwU avivewnK cÖwµqv Ges Gi wfwˇZ cvV¨cy¯ZK iwPZ nq| Kv‡RB cvV¨cy¯Z‡Ki Av‡iv Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ †h‡Kv‡bv MVbg~jK I hyw³m½Z civgk© ¸i“‡Z¡i mv‡_ we‡ewPZ n‡e| 2021 mv‡j ¯^vaxbZvi myeY© RqšZx‡Z cÖZ¨vwkZ mg„× evsjv‡`k M‡o †Zvjvi wbišZi cÖ‡Póvi m½x wn‡m‡e wk¶v_©x‡`i myôz weKv‡k eZ©gvb ms¯‹i‡Y gyw³hy‡×i cÖK…Z BwZnvm I †PZvbv cÖwZ¯’vwcZ n‡q‡Q| AwZ Aí mg‡qi g‡a¨ cwigvwR©Z cvV¨cy¯ZK¸‡jv cÖKvk Ki‡Z wM‡q wKQz ΓwUwePz¨wZ †_‡K †h‡Z cv‡i| cieZ©x ms¯‹i‡Y cvV¨cy¯ZK¸‡jv Av‡iv my›`i, †kvfb I ΓwUgy³ Kivi †Póv Ae¨vnZ _vK‡e| G eBwU iPbv, m¤cv`bv gy`ªY I cÖKvkbvi wewfbœ ch©v‡q huviv mnvqZv K‡i‡Qb, Zuv‡`i mevB‡K RvbvB AvšZwiK K…ZÁZv I ab¨ev`| †h me †KvgjgwZ wkï‡`I Rb¨ eBwU iwPZ nj, Zviv DcK…Z n‡e Ges Avgv‡`i mKj cÖqvm mdj n‡e e‡j Avwg g‡b Kwi| cÖ‡dmi †gvt †gv¯Zdv KvgvjDwÏb †Pqvig¨vb RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯ZK †evW©, XvKv| Avgvi evsjv eB 5


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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 6 Avgvi evsjv eB

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Qwe‡Z K_v cÖv_©bv evsjv‡`k gvwS wPwV e„wói Qov gvgvi evwoi wcVv gyw³‡mbv Lwjdv nhiZ Avey eKi (iv) ¯^vaxbZvi myL †gNbv Pj& Pj& Pj& KjveZxi nv‡U ms‡KZ¸‡jv †R‡b ivwL evsjv fvlv fvB †ev‡bi kL †Uª‡b ågb dig c~iY Av`k© †Q‡j Rqbyj Av‡ew`b Avgv‡`i MÖvg RvZxq †Ljv nv-Wy-Wy †`k we‡`‡ki wkï ivLvj †Q‡j weRq w`em Gfv‡i÷ weRq iƒcK_v exi‡kªô K¨v‡Þb gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi fi `ycy‡i

1 3 6 10 13 17 19 25 29 33 37 42 45 49 52 54 58 63 65 68 76 79 83 89 92 98 103 106 110


Qwe‡Z K_v †`wL, cwo I wkwL

Zcy : Avcwb wK †Kv‡bv evmv LuyR‡Qb? e„× : nu¨v evev, Avwg MÖv‡gi gvbyl| kn‡ii iv¯ZvNvU wPwb bv|

Zcy : Avwg wK Avcbv‡K mvnvh¨ Ki‡Z cvwi? Avcwb `qv K‡i wVKvbvUv Avgv‡K w`b|

GB wVKvbvi evmvwU Luy‡R cvw”Q bv|

e„× : GB †h wVKvbvUv bvI|

Zcy : I, GUv †Zv Avgv‡`i cv‡ki evmvi wVKvbv| iwng PvPvi evmv| Avmyb Avcbv‡K Avwg †cuŠ‡Q w`w”Q|

Avgvi evsjv eB 1


Qwe †`‡L cwo I wkwL

gwY †`vKvb`vi nvwm †`vKvb`vi gwY I nvwm †`vKvb`vi

2 Avgvi evsjv eB

: †`vKvb`vi fvB, †Kgb Av‡Qb? : Avwg fvj AvwQ| †Zvgvi Kx jvM‡e gwY? : †`vKvb`vi fvB, fvBqvi jvM‡e bv| Avgvi GKUv fvj †cwÝj jvM‡e| : GB bvI, GKUv fvj †cwÝj w`w”Q| Gi `vg cuvP UvKv| : ab¨ev`, †`vKvb`vi fvB| : †Zvgv‡`iI ab¨ev`| Avevi G‡mv


cÖv_©bv mywdqv Kvgvj Zzwj `yB nvZ Kwi †gvbvRvZ †n iwng ingvb KZ my›`i Kwiqv aiYx †gv‡`i K‡iQ `vb, Mv‡Q dzj dj b`x fiv Rj cvwLi K‡É Mvb mKwj †Zvgvi `vb| gvZv, wcZv, fvB, †evb I ¯^Rb me gvby‡liv mevB Avcb KZ ggZvq gayi Kwiqv fwiqv w`qvQ cÖvY| ZvB †hb †gviv †Zvgv‡i bv fywj mij mnR mr c‡_ Pwj KZ fvj Zzwg, KZ fv‡jvevm †M‡q hvB GB Mvb| Avgvi evsjv eB 3


cvV wkwL 1: k‡ãi m‡½ cwiwPZ nB I bZzb evK¨ wkwL †gvbvRvZ – Avj−vni Kv‡Q cÖv_©bv, Av‡e`b iwng – `qvjy ingvb – Ki“Yvgq aiYx – c„w_ex †gv‡`i – Avgv‡`i KÉ – Mjv ¯^Rb – AvcbRb, AvZ¥xq mr c_ - fvj c_ ggZv - `i`, fvjevmv 2. hy³eY© †`‡L wbB, bZzb kã ewj I wjwL KÉ – É = Y& + V ¯^Rb – ¯^ = m+e

bvgvR c‡o AveŸv `yB nvZ Zz‡j †gvbvRvZ K‡ib| Avj−vn& iwng I ingvb| aiYx my‡L `yt‡L c~Y©| †gv‡`i Mie †gv‡`i Avkv| wZwb my‡ijv K‡É Mvb K‡ib| Zvi A‡bK AvZ¥xq ¯^Rb Av‡Q| wZwb mviv Rxeb mr c‡_ i‡q‡Qb| gv Zuvi †Q‡j‡g‡q‡`i gvqv ggZv w`‡q eo K‡ib| Kɯ^I, myKÉ ¯^‡`k, ¯^RvwZ

3. kã w`‡q evK¨ ˆZwi Kwi dzj, dj, Rj, b`x, Mvb, `vb, Avcb, gayi, mnR, mij 4. c‡ii PiY wgjvB (K) Mv‡Q dzj dj -------------------------------------| (L) cvwLi K‡É Mvb -------------------------------------------------| (M) ZvB †hb †gviv †Zvgv‡i bv fywj -------------------------------------------------| 4 Avgvi evsjv eB


5. wecixZ kã cwo I wjwL my›`i Avcb

– –

KzrwmZ ci

mij mnR

– –

RwUj KwVb

6. gy‡L DËi ewj I LvZvq wjwL (K) iwng ingvb †K? (L) Avj−vn&i Kv‡Q Avgiv Kx †gvbvRvZ Kwi? (M) Avj−vn&i `vb Kx Kx? (N) AvcbRb Kviv? (O) Avgv‡`i †kl †gvbvRvZ Kx? 7. KweZvwU Ave„wË Kwi Ges wjwL|

Avgvi evsjv eB 5


evsjv‡`k evsjv‡`k Avgvi †`k| evsjv‡`k Avgv‡`i †`k| evsjv‡`k wn›`y, gymwjg, †eŠ× wLªóvb mK‡ji †`k| evsjv‡`k Avgv‡`i Rb¥f~wg| evsjv‡`k meyR k¨vgj †`k evsjv‡`k †mvbvi †`k| evsjv‡`k cÖK…wZ‡Z i‡q‡Q wewPÎ i‡Oi †kvfv| e‡½vcmvM‡ii †Kvj †Nu‡l GB †`kwU †R‡M i‡q‡Q| mvM‡ii w`‡K ZvKv‡j kyay A‰_ cvwb| GB mvM‡ii K~j †bB, wKbvi †bB| w`‡bi D¾¡j Av‡jvq mvM‡ii †XD wSKwgK K‡i| evsjv‡`‡ki g~j f~L‡Û Av‡Q MvQcvjv, b`xbvjv, cvnvoce©Z, Lvjwej, RwgwRivZ, Nievwo Ges iv¯ZvNvU| evsjv‡`‡ki †ewki fvM gvbyl MÖv‡g evm K‡i| cÖK…wZi gy³ cwi‡e‡k Zviv mij Rxebhvcb K‡i| Zviv m~‡h©i AevwiZ Av‡jv cvq| Zviv Puv‡`i †R¨vrmœv Mv‡q gv‡L| 6 Avgvi evsjv eB


evsjv‡`‡ki †Kv_vI cvnvo Av‡Q, †Kv_vI DuPz f~wg Av‡Q| †Kv‡bv RvqMvq Av‡Q Nb eb, †Kv‡bv RvqMvq Av‡Q wbweo R½j| Z‡e g~jZ evsjv‡`k mgf~wgi †`k| mvMi I cvnv‡oi gvSLv‡b mgf~wg‡Z i‡q‡Q †ewki fvM †jvKemwZ| cve©Z¨ GjvKvq _v‡K cvnvwoiv| evsjv‡`‡ki †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv ¯’v‡b wbPz f~wg Av‡Q| el©vKv‡j †m f~wg eb¨vq c−vweZ nq| kxZKv‡j Zv G‡Kev‡i ïwK‡q hvq| †mLv‡b ZLb dmj nq| evsjv‡`‡ki cÖK…wZi is cÖavbZ meyR| Mv‡Qi is meyR, Nv‡mi is meyR, jZvcvZvi is meyR| av‡bi †¶‡Z, cv‡Ui †¶‡Z evZvm eB‡j mey‡Ri †XD †L‡j hvq| e„wó‡Z meyR Av‡iv Mvp nq| mey‡Ri †Quvqvq evsjv‡`‡ki cÖK…wZ eQ‡ii †ewki fvM mgq m‡ZR _v‡K| Avevi dmj cvKvi mgq mey‡Ri gv‡S †mvbvwj Avfv †R‡M I‡V| cvKv av‡bi is †mvbvwj| cvKv cv‡Ui is †mvbvwj| em‡š— bvbv i‡Oi dzj †dv‡U| G mgq cÖK…wZ A‡bKUv e`‡j hvq| Mv‡Qi cvZv dz‡ji †kvfvq iwOb n‡q I‡V| ïK‡bv FZz‡Z gvV †Q‡q hvq mi‡l dz‡ji njy` i‡O| evZv‡m mi‡li †¶Z †b‡P †b‡P I‡V|

evsjv‡`‡ki gvwU †mvbvi †P‡q LuvwU| Kwe I wkíxiv G gvwU‡K e‡j‡Qb KvRj gvwU| G gvwU eo De©i| el©vi cvwb‡Z wm³ n‡j G gvwU nq `j`‡j| G gvwU‡Z dm‡ji WvK Av‡m| ZLb K…l‡Kiv dmj †evbvq †g‡Z I‡V| el©vi bexb †g‡Ni is Kv‡jv| KL‡bv KL‡bv Nb Kv‡jv| el©vi AvMg‡b AvKvk Kv‡jv †g‡N †Q‡q hvq| †g‡Ni iOI cvëvq| KL‡bv KL‡bv †g‡Ni is nq a~mi| el©v‡k‡l nvjKv †g‡Ni is nq mv`v Zz‡jvi gZ| ki‡Z †mB †gN¸‡jv `j †eu‡a †Kv_vq D‡o hvq| †gNgy³ AvKv‡k †mvbvwj m~h© †`Lv hvq| †iv‡`i is †mvbvwj| †mvbv †iv`

Avgvi evsjv eB 7


mey‡Ri Dci co‡j meyR Av‡iv D¾¡j n‡q I‡V| MÖx‡®§i †iv` Zxeª Avi kx‡Zi †iva g„`y| meyR, Kv‡jv, a~mi, †mvbvwj, njy` Ges Av‡iv A‡bK is wgwj‡q evsjv‡`k n‡q D‡V Aciƒc|

cvV wkwL 1. kã †R‡b wbB I ev‡K¨ e¨envi Kwi k¨vgj cÖK…wZ †kvfv A‡_

– – – –

wKbvi D¾¡j f~LÊ cwi‡ek AevwiZ wbweo mgf~wg †jvKemwZ cve©Z¨

– – – – – – – – –

cvnvwo c−vweZ †Quvqv Avfv wm³ AvMgb a~mi

– – – – – – –

8 Avgvi evsjv eB

meyR eY©wewkó evB‡ii RMr †mŠ›`h© ˆ_ ev Zj cvIqv hvq bv Ggb mxgv Av‡jvwKZ, Sjg‡j f~c„‡ôi Ask, †`k Pvi cv‡ki Ae¯’v gy³, †Lvjv Nb DuPzwbPz bq Ggb gvby‡li evm ce©Z A_©vr cvnvo Av‡Q Ggb RvqMv cvnv‡o emevmKvix †jvK eb¨vq †f‡m †M‡Q Ggb ¯ck© Av‡jvi QUv †fRv Avmv mv`v Kv‡jv †gkv‡bv is, QvB is

evsjv‡`k km¨k¨vgj †`k| evsjv‡`‡ki cÖK…wZ my›`i| †Mvjvc dz‡ji †kvfv †ewk| †Q‡jwU A‰_ cvwb‡Z muvZvi KvU‡Q| b`xi wKbv‡i †bŠKv euvav| evwZi D¾¡j Av‡jv‡Z Avgiv cowQ| evsjv‡`k f~L‡Ê Avgiv evm Kwi| Avgv‡`i ¯‹z‡ji cwi‡ek my›`i| AevwiZ mey‡R Avgiv evm Kwi| my›`ie‡bi wbweo e‡b evN _v‡K| PÆMÖv‡g mgf~wg Av‡Q, cvnvoI Av‡Q| evsjv‡`‡k †jvKemwZ †ewk| †m cve©Z¨ PÆMÖv‡g _v‡K| cvnvwo †Q‡j‡g‡qivI †jLvcov Ki‡Q| G ev‡ii el©vq gvVNvU c−vweZ n‡q‡Q| em‡š—i †Quvqvq cÖK…wZ my›`i n‡q †M‡Q| †iv‡`i Avfvq Zvi gyL jvj †`Lv‡”Q| wm³ kixi †_‡K Uc Uc K‡i cvwb co‡Q| AwZw_i AvMg‡b evev Lywk n‡jb| kªve‡Yi †gN a~mi|


Zxeª

Kov

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g„`y

big, Aí

g„`y kx‡Z cvZjv Pv`i n‡j P‡j|

2. DËi ewj I wjwL (K) evsjv‡`k Kv‡`i †`k? (L) evsjv‡`‡ki Kv‡Q †Kvb mvMi i‡q‡Q? (M) evsjv‡`‡ki g~j f~L‡Ê Kx Kx Av‡Q? (N) evsjv‡`‡ki †ewki fvM gvbyl †Kv_vq evm K‡i? (O) cve©Z¨ GjvKvq Kviv evm K‡i? (P) el©vKv‡j wbPz f~wgi Kx Ae¯’v nq? (Q) evsjv‡`‡ki cÖK…wZi cÖavb is Kx? (R) evsjv‡`‡ki gvwU‡K Kwe I wkíxiv Kx e‡j‡Qb? (S) †g‡Ni is †Kgb? (T) †mvbvwj is wK‡mi? (U) MÖx‡®§i †iv` †Kgb? 3. hy³eY© wP‡b ivwL| AviI kã †R‡b wbB D¾¡j ––– ¾¡

=

R& + R& + e

K¾¡j, †cÖv¾¡j

†R¨vrmœv ––– mœ

=

m& + b

mœvb, †mœn

c−vweZ ––– c−

=

c& + j

c−veb, G‡iv‡c−b

De©i ––– e©

=

†id ( ©) + e

Me©, me©

Zxeª ––– eª

=

e& + i-djv ( ª)

eªZ, eªvk

4. `yB k‡ãi wgwjZ iƒc †`wL MvQ I cvjv

=

MvQcvjv

b`x I bvjv =

b`xbvjv

cvnvo I ce©Z =

cvnvoce©Z

Lvj I wej =

Lvjwej

Rwg I wRivZ

=

RwgwRivZ

Ni I evwo =

Nievwo

iv¯Zv I NvU

=

iv¯ZvNvU

5. evsjv‡`k‡K wb‡q cuvPwU evK¨ wjwL| Avgvi evsjv eB 9


gvwS iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi Avgvi †h‡Z B‡”Q K‡i b`xwUi IB cv‡i †h_vq av‡i av‡i euv‡ki †LuvUvq wWwO †bŠ‡Kv euvav mv‡i mv‡i| K…lv‡Yiv cvi n‡q hvq jvOj Kuv‡a †d‡j, Rvj †U‡b †bq †R‡j, Mi“ gwnl muvZ‡i wb‡q hvq ivLv‡ji †Q‡j| m‡Ü¨ n‡j †hLvb †_‡K mevB †d‡i N‡i, ïay ivZ `ycy‡i †kqvj¸‡jv †W‡K I‡V SvD WvOvUvi c‡i| gv, hw` nI ivwR, eo n‡j Avwg ne †LqvNv‡Ui gvwS| 10 Avgvi evsjv eB


cvV wkwL 1. k‡ãi A_© †R‡b wbB I evK¨ iPbv Kwi gvwS cv‡i †h_vq

–– –– ––

†LuvUvq

––

wWwO

––

†bŠKvPvjK Zx‡i, K~‡j, Z‡U †hLv‡b, †h ¯’v‡b, †h RvqMvq KvV ev euv‡ki †QvU _v‡g, LuywU‡Z †QvU †bŠKv, mi“ †bŠKv K…lK, Pvwl nvj, gvwU Pv‡li hš¿ gvSiv‡Z, ga¨iv‡Z D”Pf~wg, ¯’j †bŠKv †hLv‡b _v‡K

K…lvY –– jvOj –– ivZ `ycy‡i –– WvOv –– †LqvNvU ––

gvwS †bŠKv Pvjvq| gvwS b`xi cv‡i †bŠKv euva‡Q| †h_vq gv _v‡Kb †m_vq Avwg I _vwK| IB †LuvUvq wZbUv †bŠKv euvav Av‡Q| MZ eQi Avwg gvgvevwo‡Z hvIqvi mgq wWwO‡Z K‡i wM‡qwQjvg| K…lv‡Yiv Mi‡gi w`‡b gv_vq gv_jv c‡ib| bZzb jvOjwU hZœ K‡i ivL| ivZ `ycy‡i KzKzi WvK‡Q †Kb? H `~‡i WvOv †`Lv hvq| AvR †LqvNv‡U GKUv †bŠKvI †bB|

2. hy³eY© wkwL I bZzb kã †R‡b wbB iex›`ª

––

›`ª

=

b& + `& + i-djv ( ª)

m‡Ü¨ –– Ü = b& + a 3. wVK kã wj‡L Lvwj RvqMv c~iY Kwi (K) euv‡ki †LuvUvq wWwO ---------------K…lv‡Yiv euvav -----------------------------ivwR (L) ---------------------- cvi n‡q hvq gvwS ------------------------Kuv‡a †d‡j, †bŠ‡Kv (M) gv, hw` nI ----------------------Avwg eo n‡j--------------------------jvOj †LqvNv‡Ui------------------------| mv‡i mv‡i †R‡j

P›`ª, g›`ª AÜ, MÜ

Avgvi evsjv eB 11


4. wecixZ kã wjwL B‡”Q (B”Qv)

Awb‡”Q (Awb”Qv)

†h_vq

†m_vq

euvav

†Lvjv

ivZ `ycyi

w`b `ycyi

5. gy‡L DËi ewj I wjwL K. ÔgvwSÕ KweZvwU †K wj‡L‡Qb? L. b`xwUi IB cv‡i †h‡Z Kvi B‡”Q K‡i? M. KweZvq †K Kvi Kv‡Q Zvi B‡”Qi K_v ej‡Q? N. wWwO †bŠKv †Kv_vq euvav _v‡K? O. K…l‡Kiv Kx fv‡e cvi n‡q hvq? P. †R‡j Kx K‡i? Q. ivLv‡ji †Q‡j Kx K‡i? R. †kqvj¸‡jv KLb I †Kv_vq †W‡K I‡V? 6. KweZvwU Ave„wË Kwi I wjwL| 7. iex›`ªbv_ VvKz‡ii †jLv Av‡iv `ywU KweZvi bvg ewj I wjwL|

12 Avgvi evsjv eB


wPwV wcÖq AveŸy,

†KvUcvov, iscyi 17.04.2009

Avgvi mvjvg bvI| MZKvj PviUv m‡Zi wgwb‡U Avgiv iscyi †cuŠ‡QwQ| †Zvgvi Rb¨ Avgvi Lye gb Lvivc jvMwQj| mvivc‡_ fvB A‡bK KvbœvKvwU K‡iwQj| g‡b nq I †Zvgv‡K †`L‡Z †P‡qwQj| AvR Ii gb fv‡jv n‡q‡Q| AvR we‡K‡j Av¤§y, cÖÁvLvjv I †QvU gvgvi mv‡_ Avgiv iscyi wPwoqvLvbvq wM‡qwQjvg| wPwoqvLvbvq wM‡q Avgiv Lye Avb›` K‡iwQ| Rv‡bv AveŸy, Avgiv wRivd Avi †Reªv †`‡LwQ| †Reªv †`L‡Z Lye my›`i| Qwe‡Z †hgb †`‡LwQ, wVK †mB iKg| wRiv‡di Mjv j¤^v| Rjn¯—x¸‡jv gy‡Li g‡a¨ cvwb wb‡q Zv Ic‡ii w`‡K fym fym K‡i Quy‡o w`w”Qj| Avi Zv †`‡L fvB cvwbi †evZj †_‡K cvwb wb‡q †LjwQj| †Ljvi mgq Ii †MwÄ, c¨v›U, †gvRv, RyZv me wKQz wf‡R wM‡qwQj| Av¤§y ïay †P‡q †`L‡jb, wKš‘ Ii `yóz nvwm †`‡L Avi eK‡Z cvi‡jb bv| fvB eo gyiwM †`‡L wPb‡Z †c‡iwQj| Av¤§y‡K e‡jwQj, ÔIB †`L, e‡qv gyM&wMÕ| I GLbI ÔiÕ ej‡Z cv‡i bv| †Reªv‡K e‡jwQj Ô†ReŸvÕ| Rv‡bv AveŸy, wPwoqvLvbvq A‡bK cvwL Av‡Q| njy` i‡Oi BwóKzUzg, wd‡O, mv`v eK, eyjeywj, kvgv, †`v‡qj, g`bUvK Avi nvowMjv| Kx wew”Qwi †`L‡Z GB nvowMjv| g`bUvK cvwLUv‡K Avgvi GK`g fvj jv‡Mwb| †`v‡qj, kvgv, eyjeywj Avi BwóKzUzg cvwL‡K †Zv Avwg Av‡M †_‡KB wPwb| Avgvi evsjv eB 13


G evi †`Ljvg wZb iK‡gi wPj| Kx wgwó bvg I‡`i – fyebwPj, avbwPj Avi k•LwPj| AveŸy, Zzwg wK a‡bk cvwL †`‡LQ? Ii Mv‡qi is Lye my›`i †mvbvwj| fvB a‡bk cvwL‡K ejwQj Ôb‡bk cvwLÕ| nbygvb Avi evbi LuvPvi †fZi mviv¶Y †`Šov‡`Šwo KiwQj| evbi¸‡jv nvZ w`‡q wQ‡j Kjv Lvw”Qj| nbygvbI ev`vg wQ‡j wQ‡j Lvw”Qj| Avgiv GKUv j¤^v eo †kqvjI †`‡LwQ| Rv‡bv, wPZj nwi‡Yi LuvPvUv Lvwj wQj| `~‡ii gv‡V QqUv nwiY P‡o †eovw”Qj| Bqv eo wks Zv‡`i| Av¤§y ej‡jb, ÔI¸‡jv ej&Mv nwiY|Õ Avgiv AvR †QvÆ GKUv mRvi“I †`‡LwQ| ev‡Ni LuvPvq evwNbxi cv‡k ï‡q †QvÆ evNkveKwU Nygvw”Qj| Avi evNUv `uvwo‡qwQj LuvPvi Mv †Nu‡l| wms‡ni Nv‡oi Kv‡Qi †jvg Lye j¤^v| fvB ejj, Ôj¤^v ZzjÕ| Av¤§y Avgv‡`i ej‡jb, ÔG¸‡jv j¤^v Pzj bq, G¸‡jvi bvg †Kki| wms‡ni †Kki _v‡K wKš‘ wmsnxi _v‡K bv|Õ `ywU †QvÆ Kzwgi †`‡LwQ Avi †`‡LwQ gq~i| iscyi wPwoqvLvbvi c_ mi“, cv‡q Pjvi c‡_i g‡Zv| `yB av‡i hZœ K‡i jvMv‡bv Av‡Q mvwi mvwi dz‡ji MvQ| dzj¸‡jvi is D¾¡j, wKš‘ MÜ †bB| mܨvq Avgiv evwo wd‡i G‡mwQjvg| QzwUi †k‡l hLb †Zvgvi Kv‡Q wd‡i hve, ZLb †Zvgvi mv‡_ wPwoqvLvbvq hv‡ev| ZLb Zzwg Avgv‡`i mv‡_ _vK‡e Avi Avgiv Lye Avb›` Ki‡ev| Avgv‡K wPwV wj‡Lv| †Zvgv‡K A‡bK Av`i Rvbvw”Q| BwZ †Zvgvi Rvnvbviv

cvV wkwL 1| hy³eY© wP‡b wbB I bZzb kã wkwL †Reªv –– eª = e& + i-djv ( ª) Rjn¯Zx –– ¯Z = m& + Z †MwÄ –– Ä = T& + R 14 Avgvi evsjv eB

Zxeª, eªZ iv¯Zv, g¯Z, m¯Zv MÄ, cvÄvwe


c¨v›U k•LwPj mviv ¶Y †QvÆ D¾¡j cÖÁv

–– –– –– –– –– ––

c¨v •L ¶ Æ ¾¡ Á

= = = = = =

c + h-djv ( ¨ ) O& + L K& + l U& + U R& + R& + e R& + T

c¨vW, c¨vb cw•L, k•L wk¶v, wk¶v_©x PÆMÖvg, kªxnÆ K¾¡j, †cÖv¾¡j Ávb, weÁvb

2. DËi ewj I wjwL (K) iscyi †_‡K †K wPwV wj‡L‡Q? (L) iscyi †_‡K Rvnvbviv Kv‡K wPwV wj‡L‡Q? (M) Rvnvbviv Kq Zvwi‡L AveŸy‡K wPwV wj‡L‡Q? (N) GB wPwV‡Z Kx Kx cïi bvg Av‡Q Zv ewj I LvZvq wjwL| (O) gy‡Li g‡a¨ cvwb wb‡q fym fym K‡i Quy‡o w`w”Qj Kviv? (O) wb‡Ri †Pbv Av‡iv K‡qKwU cvwL I cïi bvg ewj I wjwL| 3. wecixZ kã wkwL I wjwL Lvivc `yóz my›`i D¾¡j

–– –– –– ––

fv‡jv kvš— Amy›`i gwjb

wgwó mi“ hZœ j¤^v

–– –– –– ––

Svj †gvUv AhZœ Lv‡Uv

4. †R‡b wbB gyiwM, †Reªv, cvwL, BwóKzUzg, wd‡O, eK, eyjeywj, kvgv, †`v‡qj, g`bUvK, nvowMjv, fyebwPj, avbwPj, k•LwPj, a‡bk, evbi, nbygvb, †kqvj, mRvi“, wPZj nwiY, evN, wmsn, Kzwgi, gq~i – 5. bvgk‡ãi Ic‡i wUK wPý (√) w`B †Pqvi, †Lwj, ewj, eB, Kjg, LvZv, Kwi, a‡iv, weovj, KzKzi, Mi“, P‡jv, K‡iv, †kv‡bv, cyZzj, e¨vU, Wvs¸wj, ˆeVv| Avgvi evsjv eB 15


6. Qwe †`‡L ckycvwLi bvg ewj I wjwL

---------------------

---------------------

---------------------

---------------------

---------------------

---------------------

16 Avgvi evsjv eB


e„wói Qov dii“L Avng` wel&wU Gj Kvk e‡b RvMj mvov Nvm e‡b, e‡Ki mvwi †Kv_v †i jywK‡q †Mj euvk e‡b| b`x‡Z bvB †Lqv †h, WvKj `~‡i †`qv †h, †Kvb †m e‡bi Avov‡j dzUj Avevi †Kqv †h| Muv‡qi bvgwU nvU‡Lvjv, wel&wU ev`j †`q †`vjv, ivLvj †Q‡j †gN †`‡L, hvq `uvwo‡q c_-†fvjv| †g‡Ni Auvavi gb Uv‡b, hvq †m Qz‡U †Kvb Lv‡b, AvDk av‡bi gvV †Q‡o Avgb av‡bi †`k cv‡b|

Avgvi evsjv eB 17


cvV wkwL 1| k‡ãi A_© Rvwb Ges kã ev‡K¨ e¨envi Kwi mvov –– †kvi‡Mvj bZzb AwZw_ Avmvq evwo‡Z mvov c‡o †M‡Q| †`qv –– †gN el©vi Nb †`qvq AvKvk †Q‡q hvq| Muv –– MÖvg †jvKwU Muv‡qi c_ a‡i Pj‡Q| ev`j –– e„wó ev`‡ji avi SiSi K‡i Si‡Q| †`vjv –– Av‡jvob †m Ggb K‡i Mvb MvBj †h g‡b †`vjv MvMj| c_-†fvjv –– c_ fy‡j‡Q †h †m GK c_- †fvjv cw_K| AvDk avb –– el©vKv‡j Drcbœ avb K…l‡Kiv e„wói g‡a¨ AvDk avb N‡i Avb‡Q| Avgb avb –– †ngš—Kv‡j Drcbœ avb †ng‡š— Avgb avb N‡i G‡j bevbœ Drme nq| cv‡b –– w`‡K †`‡ki cv‡b ZvKvI| 2. cÖ‡kœi DËi ewj I wjwL (K) e„wó G‡j †Kv_vq mvov RvMj? (L) e„wó G‡j e‡Ki mvwi †Kv_vq jyKvj? (M) †Kqv dzj †Kv_vq dzUj? (N) ivLvj †Q‡ji Kx nj? (O) †g‡Ni Auvav‡i gb Kx Pvq? (P) el©vi avb †KvbwU? 3. wVK Dˇii Ic‡i wUK (√) wPý w`B (K) mvov RvMj euvk e‡b / Nvm e‡b / Kvk e‡b (L) e‡Ki mvwi jywK‡q †Mj b`xi I cv‡i / euvk e‡b / e‡bi Avov‡j (M) b`x‡Z bvB †`qv / †Kqv / †Lqv (N) gb Qz‡U hvq AvDk av‡bi gv‡V / Avgb av‡bi †`‡k / Bwi av‡bi †`‡k (O) el©vi dzj Kvk / Nvm / †Kqv 4. KweZvwU mevB wg‡j gRv K‡i cwo I wjwL 5. e„wói Ab¨ GKwU Qovi `yÕwU PiY cwo wewó c‡o Uvcyi Uzcyi b‡`q Gj evb

wke VvKz‡ii we‡q nj wZb K‡b¨ `vb| 18 Avgvi evsjv eB


gvgvi evwoi wcVv Szgvi Nyg fvOj GKUz †`wi‡Z| gv ej‡jb, ÔSzgv, nvZ gyL ay‡q bvI, †Zvgvi gvwg wcVv wb‡q e‡m Av‡Qb|Õ MZ mܨvq Szgv XvKv †_‡K gv‡qi m‡½ gvgvi evwo‡Z G‡m‡Q| G evi wW‡m¤^‡ii QzwU‡Z wKQzw`b gv‡qi mv‡_ gvgvi evwo‡Z KvUv‡e Szgv| †j‡ci Dg †P‡o Avo‡gvov †f‡O Szgv DVj| `yB mgeqmx gvgv‡Zv †evb mvRy I gvRy Szgv‡K WvK‡Q| MZ iv‡ZB mvRy gvRyi mv‡_ Szgvi †ek fve n‡q †M‡Q| evwoi †cQ‡b cyKzi, euvav‡bv NvU| m~h© cye AvKv‡k wKQzUv D‡V‡Q| Kzqvkv ZLbI cy‡iv Kv‡Uwb| cyKz‡ii cvwb VvÊv I w¯’i| Szgv `uvZ †g‡R gyL nvZ ay‡q wbj| cyKz‡ii avi †Nu‡l ivbœvNi| Zvi cv‡k D‡Vv‡bi g‡Zv †Lvjv RvqMv| †m †Lvjv RvqMv‡ZI Av‡Q GKwU Dbyb, †auvqv DV‡Q| Dby‡bi cv‡k e‡m gvwg wcVv ˆZwi Ki‡Qb| GK w`‡K gv e‡m Av‡Qb wcuwo‡Z| Szgv, mvRy I gvRy G‡m emj wcuwo‡Z| Zv‡`i mvg‡b evmb †`Iqv nj| gvwg ej‡jb, Ô†Zvgiv em, G¶zwY wcVv w`w”Q| gv‡Qi myi“qv w`‡q GB wcVv Lv‡e|Õ MbM‡b Dby‡b gvwUi †Lvjv emv‡bv n‡q‡Q| GKwU cv‡Î Pv‡ji Muy‡ovi †Mvjv Kiv Av‡Q| gvwg `y‡Uv wWg †f‡O †Mvjvi m‡½ wgwk‡q w`‡jb| Zvici gvwg GKUv eo Pvg‡P K‡i †Mvjv wb‡q †Lvjvi Ici cvZjv K‡i Qwo‡q w`‡jb| gvwUi XvKbv w`‡q XvK‡jb| Avgvi evsjv eB 19


GK wgwbU c‡i XvKbv †Lvjv nj| Igv, wcVv n‡q †M‡Q! †auvqv IVv Mig wcVv| Gi g‡a¨ gvgv G‡m †gvovq em‡jb| wZwb ¯’vbxq ¯‹z‡ji cÖavb wk¶K| gvgv gvwg‡K ej‡jb, ÔwejwKm, fvMwb‡K fv‡jv K‡i wcVv LvIqvI| I †Zv gvgvi evwo‡Z GB cÖ_g G‡jv| Avi G me wcVv †Zv †m Lvq wb| mvqgv, Zzwg Szgv‡K G‡b fv‡jv K‡iQ|Õ gv ej‡jb, ÔfvBRvb, I‡K G evi †_‡K Avwg me mgq wb‡q Avme|Õ gvwgi †Kv‡bv K¬vwš— †bB| wZwb wcVv evwb‡q P‡j‡Qb, Avi GKUv GKUv K‡i cÖ‡Z¨K‡K w`‡”Qb| kx‡Zi big †iv‡`I Auv‡P †Lvjv AvKv‡ki wb‡P gv‡Qi myi“qv w`‡q GB wcVv †L‡Z fvwi gRvi| gvwg ej‡jb, ÔSzgvi Rb¨B †Zv wcVv ˆZwi Kiv n‡q‡Q| Szbv bvi‡Kj Kzi‡bv Av‡Q, ¸oI Av‡Q| Zzwg G¸‡jv w`‡qI wcVv LvI| Av‡iv fv‡jv jvM‡e|Õ mvRy gvRy e‡j DVj, ÔSzgv, gv A‡bK wcVv evbvq, Avgiv LvB|Õ Szgvi gv ej‡jb, ÔSzgv, †h wcVv Lv”Q, Zv GK ai‡bi wPZzB wcVv, bvg †Lvjv wPZzB|Õ Szgv Gi Av‡M wPZzB wcVv †L‡q‡Q| wKš‘ †m wcVv †QvU I cyi“, G iKg cvZjv I big bq| Szgv wRÁvmv Kij – Ôgvgv, Avi Kx Kx wcVv Av‡Q?Õ †L‡Z †L‡Z gvgv ej‡jb, ÔSzgv, evsjv‡`‡k A‡bK wcVv nq, †Zvgvi gv meB Rv‡bb| AMÖnvq‡Yi †k‡l wKsev †cŠ‡li cÖ_‡g Avgb avb KvUv nq| ZLb N‡i bZzb Pvj Av‡m| wcVvi Rb¨ AvZc Pvj Muy‡ov Ki‡Z nq| †mB Muy‡ov w`‡q bvbv ¯^v‡`i wcVv ˆZwi nq| †Kv‡bv wcVv fv‡c nq, †Kv‡bv wcVv †Z‡j fvR‡Z nq| kx‡Zi wcVv wn‡m‡e fvcv wcVv‡K mevB †P‡b| †Zvgvi gvwg Kvj mKv‡j †Zvgv‡K fvcv wcVv LvIqv‡ebÕ gvwg ej‡jb, ÔwbðqB, fvMwb hZ w`b Av‡Q ZZ w`b bZzb bZzb wcVv LvIqve|Õ gv †n‡m ej‡jb, Ôfvex, G iKg Av`i †c‡j Szgv †Zv Avi †h‡Z PvB‡e bv|Õ gvgv e‡j Pj‡Qb, Ô†`L, evsjv‡`k wcVv-cywji †`k| GK GK RvqMvq wcVvi GK GK bvg| evsjv‡`‡k mviv eQiB wcVv nq| kirKv‡j nq Zv‡ji wcVv| cyqv, cvKvb, eov, g¨viv wcVv me mgq nq| Z‡e wcVvi Rb¨ kxZKvj fv‡jv mgq| kxZKv‡j †LRy‡ii im, †LRy‡ii ¸o, Av‡Li ¸o me cvIqv hvq| bZzb im I ¸‡oi MÜB Avjv`v| fvcv wcVv Pv‡ji Muy‡ov, †LRy‡ii ¸o I bvi‡Kj w`‡q ˆZwi nq| i‡mi m‡½ `ya wgwk‡q evbv‡bv nq i‡mi wcVv| H `ya I i‡mi wgkª‡Y wfRv‡bv wPZzB wcVv Lye ¯^v‡`i| cvwU mvcUvi †fZ‡i Zv‡K ¶x‡ii cyi| cywj wcVviI A‡bK bvg-`yacywj, P›`ªcywj, ¶xicywj, bvi‡Kjcywj| G¸‡jv wgwó cyifiv wcVv| †Kv‡bvwUi AvKvi †mvRv, †Kv‡bvwU euvKv‡bv| gy‡L w`‡j Ac~e© ¯^v` jv‡M| 20 Avgvi evsjv eB


gv ej‡jb, ÔfvBRvb, †QvU‡ejvq Avgiv A‡bK wcVv †`‡LwQ|Õ gvgv gv_v bvo‡jb, Ônu¨v, Zv wVK| ai, bvbv iKg bKwk wcVv| bKwk wcVv GKUz k³| dzj, cvZv, MvQ Ges Av‡iv A‡bK wKQzi bKkv AuvKv nq wcVvi Ici| bKwk wcVviI bvbv bvg Av‡Q| †Kv‡bvwU KvRjjZv, †Kv‡bvwU mR‡bcvZv, †Kv‡bvwU cÙw`wN, †Kv‡bvwU †gviMSuywU| †mgvB wcVv nv‡Z KvU‡Z nq| c‡i †iv‡` ïKv‡Z nq| `ya I im w`‡q ev wPwb w`‡q ˆZwi †mgvB wcVvi ¯^v`B Avjv`v| Av‡iv A‡bK gRvi wcVv Av‡Q| gvwg ej‡jb, ÔwcVvi m‡½ †gvqv, gyowK, bvoyi K_v ej bv|Õ gvgv ej‡jb, Ônu¨v Szgv, †Zvgvi gvwg †Zvgvi Rb¨ gywo I LB‡qi †gvqv K‡i †i‡L‡Qb| Avi K‡i‡Qb Pv‡ji bvoy wP‡oi bvoy, wZ‡ji bvoy I bvi‡Kj bvoy| Zzwg me Lv‡e|Õ gv ej‡jb, ÔSzgv, †`L, gvgvi evwo KZ gRvi|Õ

cvV wkwL 1. kã †R‡b †bB I bZzb evK¨ ˆZwi Kwi Dg –– Avivg`vqK DòZv

†LvKv gv‡qi †Kv‡ji D‡g kvš— n‡q Av‡Q| Avo‡gvov fvOv –– kix‡ii Avjm¨ fvOv A‡bK Nywg‡qQ, G evi Avo‡gvov †f‡O IV| mgeqmx –– GKB eq‡mi †mvgv Avi Dcgv mgeqmx| cy‡iv –– me †m KuvVvjwU cy‡iv †L‡q †djj| w¯’i –– †XDnxb we‡ji cvwb w¯’i n‡q Av‡Q| Dbyb –– Pzjv gv Dby‡b Pvj Pwo‡q w`‡q‡Qb| myi“qv –– †Svj †gŠijv gv‡Qi myi“qv Lye gRvi| Dby‡bi Av¸b †ek MbM‡b| MbM‡b –– R¡jš— Av¸‡bi Zvc †Lvjv –– P¨vÞv gvwUi cvÎ iwngv eyey †Lvjv‡Z Pvj fvR‡Qb| wZwb ¯’vbxq BDwbqb †ev‡W©i m`m¨| ¯’vbxq –– †Kv‡bv ¯’v‡bi ev GjvKvi K¬vwš— –– Aemv` K¬vwš—‡Z †m Nywg‡q †M‡Q| Avgvi evsjv eB 21


big †iv`

AvZc Muy‡ov

–– Avivg`vqK †iv` Kg Zvchy³ †iv` –– Zvc –– Kzwi‡q †bIqv N‡q‡Q Ggb –– hv wm× nq wb –– P~Y© e¯‘

Avjv`v wgkªY

–– ¯^Zš¿, c„_K –– †gkv‡bv e¯‘

cyi

–– †fZ‡i cy‡i †`Iqv nq hv –– PgrKvi –– bKkvhy³ †mjvB K‡i‡Qb|

AuvP Kzi‡bv

Ac~e© bKwk

kx‡Zi big †iv‡` e‡m AvwQ| MbM‡b Av¸‡bi AuvP jvM‡Q| KuvPv Avg Kzwi‡q byb Svj w`‡q fZ©v evbv‡bv n‡q‡Q| A‡b‡K AvZc Pv‡ji fvZ cQ›` K‡ib| Pv‡ji Muy‡ovi m‡½ cvwb wgwk‡q †Mvjv Kiv nq| cÖ‡Z¨K wcVvi ¯^v` Avjv`v| †jeyi kieZ cvwb, wPwb I †jeyi i‡mi wgkªY| †Mvk‡Zi cyi w`‡qI wcVv nq| Bwjk gv‡Qi ¯^v` Ac~e©| gv Avgvi Rb¨ GKwU bKwk Kuv_v

2. (K) hy³eY© wP‡b wbB I bZzb kã wkwL w¯’i

– ¯’

=

m& + _

Av¯’v, ¯’vcb

K¬vwš—

– K¬

=

K& + j

K¬vš—, K¬vm

š—

=

b& + Z

Lywš—, kvwš—

wRÁvmv

– Á

=

R& + Á

AÁ, weÁ

AMÖnvqY

– M

=

M& + i-djv ( ª)

MÖnY, MÖš’

wbðqB

– ð

=

k& + P

cwðg, cðvr

g¨viv

– g¨v

=

g + h-djv ( ¨ ) + Av

g¨vP, g¨vc

wgkªY

– k

=

k& + i-djv ( ª)

wekªx, mykªx

¶x‡ii

– ¶

=

K& + l

¶gv, ¶zav

P›`ªcywj

– ›`ª

=

b& + `& + i-djv ( ª)

†K›`ª, Z›`ªv

22 Avgvi evsjv eB


Ac~e© cÙw`wN

– e© – Ù

2. (L) hyM¥eY©I wP‡b ivwL ivbœv – bœ

= =

†id ( ©) + e `& + g-djv

Me©, me© QÙ, cÙv

=

b& + b

Abœ, Kvbœv

3. KvR †evSvq Ggb kã †R‡b ivL fvOv – fvOj, †f‡O DVv – DVj, D‡V‡Q WvKv – WvK‡Q KvUv – KvU‡e, Kv‡Uwb gvRv – †g‡R LvIqv‡bv – LvIqv‡eb, LvIqvI

jvMv fvRv †Pbv nvmv cvIqv PvIqv

jvM‡e fv‡R †P‡b †n‡m †c‡j PvB‡e

– – – – – –

4. KvR †evSvq Ggb k‡ãi Ic‡i wUK (√) wPý w`B eB, bvI, wb‡q, LvZv, bvov, ivLv, †Uwej, fiv, ïKv‡Z, G‡b, Kjg, ej, evwb‡q, XvK‡jb, cvwU, wgwk‡q 5. ÔAv‡bvÕ w`‡q ˆZwi kã †`‡L †bB euvav‡bv, emv‡bv, Kzi‡bv, evbv‡bv, †fRv‡bv, euvKv‡bv 6. P›`ªwe›`yhy³ kãI †`‡L wbB euvav‡bv, †Nu‡l, †avqv, wcuwo, AuvP, Muy‡ov, euvKv‡bv, nu¨v, AuvKv, SuywU 7. wecixZ kã †R‡b ivwL cye (c~e©) Av`i †mvRv

cwðg Abv`i euvKv

w¯’i bZzb

Aw¯’i cyivZb

8. evsjv‡`‡ki K‡qKUv wcVvi bvg †R‡b ivwL wPZzB, `yawPZzB, fvcv wcVv, cyqv wcVv, cywj wcVv, bKwk wcVv, g¨viv wcVv Avgvi evsjv eB 23


9.

K‡qKwU cywj wcVvi bvg †R‡b ivwL P›`ªcywj, ¶xicywj, `yacywj, bvi‡Kjcywj

10. bKwk wcVvi bvg¸‡jv †R‡b wbB KvRjjZv, mR‡bcvZv, cÙw`wN, †gviMSuywU 11. †R‡b ivwL (K) fvcv wcVv nj kxZKv‡ji wcVv| (L) kirKv‡j nq Zv‡ji wcVv| (M) cyqv, cvKb, g¨viv me mg‡qi wcVv| (N) wPZzB wcVv `y‡a wfwR‡q ivL‡j nq `yawPZzB| (O) cywj wcVv‡K `ya w`‡q †gkv‡j nq `yacywj| (P) bvi‡K‡ji cyi w`‡q ˆZwi wcVvi bvg bvi‡Kjcywj| (Q) bKkv Kiv wcVvi bvg bKwk wcVv| 12. gy‡L gy‡L DËi ewj I wjwL (K) wcVv ˆZwii Rb¨ Kx Kx jv‡M ? (L) wcVv evbv‡”Q †K ? Kviv wcVv Lv‡”Q ? (M) †Lvjv wPZzB Kx fv‡e ˆZwi nq ? (N) kx‡Zi wcVv †Kvb¸‡jv ? (O) mviv eQi †Kvb †Kvb wcVv cvIqv hvq ? (P) evsjv‡`‡ki wcVv †Kvb¸‡jv ? (Q) cywj wcVvi bvg¸‡jv Kx ? (R) bKwk wcVv Kx fv‡e ˆZwi nq ? (T) bvoy¸‡jvi bvg Kx Kx ? 13. wcVv wb‡q mvZwU evK¨ wjwL|

24 Avgvi evsjv eB


gyw³‡mbv myKzgvi eoyqv ab¨ mevB ab¨ A¯¿ a‡i hy× K‡i gvZ…f~wgi Rb¨| aij hviv Rxeb evwR n‡jb hviv knx` MvwR †jv‡fi Uv‡b nqwb hviv wfb‡`kx‡`i cb¨| †`‡ki Z‡i Suvwc‡q c‡o k³ nv‡Z Nv‡qj K‡i me nvbv`vi ˆmb¨ ab¨ IivB ab¨| GK n‡q me kªwgK wKlvY Iovq hv‡`i weRq wbkvb BwZnv‡mi †mvbvi cvZvq IivB Av‡M MY¨|

Avgvi evsjv eB 25


cvV wkwL 1. kã †R‡b †bB I bZzb evK¨ ˆZwi Kwi gyw³‡mbv – †`k‡K ¯^vaxb Kivi Rb¨

ab¨ A¯¿ gvZ…f~wg evwR knx`

MvwR

– – – – –

whwb hy× K‡ib, gyw³‡hv×v cÖksmv cvIqvi †hvM¨ nvwZqvi

gyw³‡mbviv evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZvi Rb¨ hy× K‡i‡Qb| G †`‡k R‡b¥ Avwg ab¨ n‡qwQ| †`k‡K i¶vi Rb¨ wZwb A¯¿

Rb¥f~wg cY, cÖwZÁv b¨vq I m‡Z¨i Rb¨ whwb Rxeb †`b,

nv‡Z †bb| Avgiv gvZ…f~wg‡K fv‡jvevwm| Avgiv Rxeb evwR †i‡L hy× Kie| eiKZ fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi GKRb knx`|

b¨vqhy‡× wbnZ nb b¨vq I m‡Z¨i Rb¨

evsjv‡`‡ki gyw³hy‡× A‡b‡KB

wfb‡`kx – cY¨ – Z‡i –

hy× K‡i whwb Rqx nb, hy×Rqx we‡`kx, wfbœ‡`kx †Kbv‡ePvi wRwbm Rb¨

Nv‡qj `vbv`vi

– –

Kvey, civwRZ AvµgYKvix

kªwgK wKlvY wbkvb

– – –

gRyi, †gnbwZ gvbyl K…lK cZvKv

knx` n‡q‡Qb, A‡b‡K MvwR n‡q‡Qb| A‡bK wfb‡`kx evsjv‡`‡k Av‡mb| evRv‡i eû cY¨ †`Lv hvq| ÔmK‡ji Z‡i mK‡j Avgiv, cÖ‡Z¨‡K Avgiv c‡ii Z‡i|Õ Avgiv kΓ‡K Nv‡qj KieB| gyw³‡mbviv nvbv`vi‡`i Zvwi‡q w`‡q‡Q| wZwb GK Rb kªwgK| wKlv‡Yiv gv‡V KvR K‡ib| gyw³‡mbvi nv‡Z evsjv‡`‡ki wbkvb _v‡K|

26 Avgvi evsjv eB


BwZnvm

AZxZ NUbvi weeiY

Avwg evsjv‡`‡ki BwZnvm coe|

MY¨

MYbvi †hvM¨,

wZwb GKRb fv‡jv gvbyl wn‡m‡e

¯^xK…wZi †hvM¨

mK‡ji Kv‡Q MY¨|

2. gy‡L DËi ewj I wjwL (K)

gyw³‡mbv Kviv ?

(L)

Kviv ab¨ ?

(M)

knx` †K Avi MvwR †K ?

(N)

Kviv nvbv`vi‡`i Nv‡qj Kij ?

(O)

Kviv Kviv GK n‡e ?

(P)

BwZnv‡mi cvZvq Kv‡`i bvg †jLv _vK‡e ?

3. h - djvhy³ k㸇jv †R‡b †bB MY¨, Rb¨, ab¨, cY¨, ˆmb¨

4. GK k‡ã cÖKvk Kwi †`‡ki gyw³ ev ¯^vaxbZvi Rb¨ hviv hy× K‡ib

– gyw³‡hv×v, gyw³‡mbv

b¨vq hy‡× wbnZ †h

– knx`

b¨vq hy‡× Rqx †h

– MvwR

wfbœ †`‡ki †jvK

– wfb‡`kx

†h Ab¨vq fv‡e AvµgY K‡i

– nvbv`vi

†h kªg w`‡q KvR K‡i

– kªwgK

†h K…wl KvR K‡i

– wKlvY, K…lK

AZx‡Zi NUbvi weeiY

– BwZnvm Avgvi evsjv eB 27


5. c‡ii PiYwU ewj I wjwL (K) aij hviv Rxeb evwR ------------------------------(L) GK n‡q me kªwgK wKlvY -------------------------------

6. K_v¸‡jv ey‡S wbB Ô†jv‡fi Uv‡b nqwb hviv wfb‡`kx‡`i cY¨|Õ 1971 mv‡j evsjv‡`‡k gyw³hy× nq| `xN© bq gvm gyw³hy‡×i c‡i evsjv‡`k ¯^vaxb nq| evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZvq gyw³‡mbv‡`i Ae`vb A‡bK †ewk| Zviv †Kv‡bv †jv‡f c‡owb| cvwK¯Zvwb nvbv`vi evwnbx Zv‡`i A‡bK †jvf †`wL‡qwQj, wKš‘ †Kv‡bv †jvf Zv‡`i Uvb‡Z cv‡iwb| Zviv jv‡fi K_vI fv‡ewb| gyw³‡mbviv †jvf I jv‡fi Dc‡i D‡V †`‡ki Rb¨ hy× K‡i‡Q| †`k‡K Zviv fv‡jvev‡m| †`‡k‡K Zviv ¯^vaxb Ki‡Z †P‡qwQj| wfb‡`kxiv †Kv‡bvfv‡eB Zv‡`i Av`k©Pz¨Z Ki‡Z cv‡iwb| G Rb¨ Zviv mv_©K, Zviv ab¨|

28 Avgvi evsjv eB


Lwjdv nhiZ Avey eKi (iv) nhiZ gyn¤§` (m)-Gi g„Zz¨i ci †h Pvi Rb Lwjdv n‡qwQ‡jb, Zuv‡`i‡K †Lvjvdv‡q ivwkw`b ejv nq| nhiZ Avey eKi (iv) wQ‡jb †Lvjvdv‡q ivwkw`‡bi cÖ_g Lwjdv| 573 wLªóv‡ã g°vq KzivBk es‡ki ZvBg †Mv‡Î wZwb Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi wcZvi bvg Kznvdv Dmgvb Avi gvZvi bvg mvjgv| gnvbex nhiZ gyn¤§` (m)- Gi me©vwaK wcÖq mvnvex wQ‡jb nhiZ Avey eKi (iv)| bexRx (m) –Gi mv‡_ Zuvi Mfxi eÜzZ¡ wQj| wkï Kvj †_‡K Avey eKi (iv) †Kvgj ü`q I my›`i Pwi‡Îi AwaKvix wQ‡jb| wZwb cÖPzi Ávb AR©b K‡iwQ‡jb| cweÎ KziAv‡bi ÁvbI wQj Zuvi AmvaviY| wZwb eo Kwe, mye³v I `vbkxj wQ‡jb| Zuvi wcZv wQ‡jb GK Rb eo e¨emvqx| wk¶v‡k‡l wZwb wcZvi e¨emv †`Lv‡kvbv Ki‡Zb| bexRx‡KI wZwb e¨emvi Kv‡R mvnvh¨ Ki‡Zb| gyn¤§` (m) beyqZ jvf Kivi ci †Mvc‡b Avj−vn&i evYx cÖPvi Ki‡Z ïi“ Ki‡jb| G‡Z A‡bK evav weNœ Avm‡Z jvM‡jv| bexRxi `vIqvZ †c‡q Avey eKi (iv) cyi“l‡`i g‡a¨ me© cÖ_g Bmjvg ag© MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi wcZvgvZvI gnvbex (m)-I nv‡Z Bmjvg MÖnY K‡iwQ‡jb| my‡L-`yt†L, Avc‡`-wec‡` Avey eKi (iv) bexRxi m‡½ Qvqvi gZ _vK‡Zb| Avgvi evsjv eB 29


Avey eKi (iv) wQ‡jb mvnmx I cÖfvekvjx| ZvB wZwb cÖKv‡k¨ Bmjvg ag© cÖPvi Ki‡Z ïi“ K‡ib| Bmjvg ag© cÖPvi Kivi mgq g°vi A‡bK †jvK bex (m)-i m‡½ kΓZv ïi“ K‡iwQj| †mB mgq Avey eKi (iv) gnvbex‡K mvnm hywM‡qwQ‡jb| A‡bK AZ¨vPviI mn¨ K‡iwQ‡jb| gnvbex (m)-†K Kv‡diiv nZ¨v Ki‡Z PvB‡j wZwb Avj−vn&i Av‡`‡k nhiZ AveyeKi (iv)-†K m‡½ wb‡q gw`bvq wnhiZ K‡iwQ‡jb| Avey eKi (iv) bexRxi Kv‡Q ï‡bwQ‡jb µxZ`vm‡K gyw³ †`Iqv mIqv‡ei KvR| ZvB wZwb wb‡Ri A‡_© nhiZ wejvj (iv) – mn AviI A‡bK µxZ`vm‡K µq K‡i Zv‡`i‡K gyw³ †`b| ZveyK hy‡×i mgq nhiZ Avey eKi (iv) Zuvi mg¯Z m¤c` gnvbex‡K `vb K‡ib| bexRx (m) AevK n‡q Avey eKi (iv) †K wR‡Ám K‡ib, ÔZzwg N‡i Kx †i‡L G‡mQ ?Õ wZwb e‡jb, ÔAvj−vn& I Zuvi ivm~j‡K †i‡L G‡mwQ|Õ gnvbex nhiZ gyn¤§` (m)- Gi B‡š—Kv‡ji ci nhiZ Avey eKi (iv) mgMÖ gymwjg Rvnv‡bi cÖ_g Lwjdv wbe©vwPZ nb| wZwb wQ‡jb Mwi‡ei eÜz| wbt¯^, `ytLx I Afvex gvby‡li Avcb Rb| Lwjdv n‡qI wZwb Zv‡`i KvQ †_‡K `~‡i m‡i hvbwb| gnvb †meK wQ‡jb Lwjdv nhiZ Avey eKi (iv)| gnvbex (m) e‡jwQ‡jb, ÔBmjvg cÖPv‡i mvg_© I ab m¤c` w`‡q Avgv‡K me‡P‡q †ewk mvnvh¨ K‡i‡Qb Avey eKi (iv)|Õ Avey eKi (iv) wQ‡jb `vwqZ¡kxj gvbyl| Kxfv‡e mvaviY gvby‡li fv‡jv Kiv hvq GB fvebvB wQj Zuvi| wZwb ivR‡Kv‡li i¶K wQ‡jb| Afv‡ei Rb¨ D‡cvm Ki‡j wZwb ivR‡Kv‡li wKQz †fvM K‡ibwb| nhiZ Avey eKi (iv) 634 wLªóv‡ãi 23 †k AvM÷ g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib| g„Zz¨i c~‡e© wZwb Zuvi †g‡q Avqkv (iv)-†K e‡jwQ‡jb, Ôgv Avqkv, Avgvi Kv‡Q iv‡óªi GKUv DU I GK Rb `vm Av‡Q| Avgvi g„Zz¨i mv‡_ mv‡_ Zv Zzwg cieZ©x Lwjdv nhiZ Dg‡ii wbKU †cuŠ‡Q w`I| †Kv‡bv Ae¯’v‡ZB fyj Ki‡e bv|Õ mZ¨B gnr gvbyl wQ‡jb nhiZ Avey eKi (iv)| 30 Avgvi evsjv eB


cvV wkwL 1. k‡ãi A_© †R‡b evK¨ ˆZwi Kwi esk

Kzj

†MvÎ

†Mvôx

Lwjdv

†L`gZKvi

mvnvex

mv_x

AmvaviY – beyqZ

hv mvaviY bq

Avj−vni evYx cÖPv‡ii Rb¨ Av‡`k cvIqv µxZ`vm – †Kbv †Mvjvg nhiZ gyn¤§` (m)–bexRx, bex, gnvbex gnr – D`vi Av`k© – bxwZ, b¨vq –

Lwjdv Avey eKi (iv) g°vi KzivBk es‡k Rb¥ MÖnY K‡ib| eskm~‡Î m¤cwK©Z K‡qKwU cwievi‡K GK‡Î †MvÎ e‡j| nhiZ Avey eKi (iv) †Lvjvdv‡q ivwkw`‡bi cÖ_g Lwjdv wQ‡jb| gnvbex (m)-i wcÖq mvnvex Avey eKi (iv) wQ‡jb bexRxi ¯¿x Avqkvi wcZv| nhiZ Avqkv (iv) AmvaviY ¸‡Yi AwaKvix wQ‡jb| beyqZ jv‡fi ci gnvbex (m) Bmjvg cÖPvi ïi“ K‡ib| nhiZ wejvj (iv) µxZ`vm wQ‡jb| nhiZ gyn¤§` (m)- †K gnvbex ejv nq| wZwb gnr cÖv‡Yi gvbyl wQ‡jb| gnvbex (m)-i Av`k© AbymiY K‡iB Avey eKi (iv) Pj‡Zb|

2. wecixZ kã cwo I wjwL wcÖq wek¦vm cÖKvk¨

– – –

AwcÖq Awek¦vm AcÖKvk¨

hy× gy³ eÜzZ¡

– – –

kvwš— AvUK kΓZv

3. hy³eY© †R‡b wbB mg¯Z m¤c`

– –

¯Z ¤c

= =

m& + Z g& + c

cÖk¯Z m¤cK© Avgvi evsjv eB 31


4. Q‡Ki evg w`‡Ki wPý e¨envi K‡i †hme kã g~j cv‡V Av‡Q †m¸‡jv Luy‡R †ei Kwi Ges Lvwj As‡k wjL i-djv ( ª) wLªóv‡ã h-djv ( ¨) m¨vnv‡h¨ †id-I ( © ) me©vwaK

5. GK K_vq ewj hv mvaviY bq i¶v K‡ib whwb A‡bK Ávb Av‡Q huvi

– – –

AmvaviY i¶K Ávbx

6. k~b¨¯’v‡b wVK kã wjL I evK¨ m¤c~Y© Kwi (K) Lwjdv Avey eKi (iv)-I gvZvi bvg ---------, wcZvi bvg ------------(L) wZwb -------------- †Mv‡Î Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| (M) gnvbex (m)-i me©vwaK wcÖq mvnvex wQ‡jb ----------------------------(N) Avey eKi (iv)-i †g‡q I gnvbexi (m)-Gi ¯Îxi bvg wQj ------------(O) gnvbex (m) --------- †K m‡½ wb‡q gw`bvq wnhiZ K‡ib|

7. cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi ewj I wjwL (K) †Lvjvdv‡q ivwkw`b Kv‡K e‡j ? (L) nhiZ Avey eKi (iv) †K wQ‡jb ? (M) wZwb †Kv_vq Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib ? (N) Zuvi wcZvgvZvi bvg Kx ? (O) cyi“l‡`i g‡a¨ †K cÖ_g Bmjvg ag© MÖnY K‡ib ? (P) gnvbex (m) †Kb g`xbvq wnRiZ K‡iwQ‡jb ? (Q) nhiZ Avey eKi (iv) µxZ`vm‡`i gy³ Ki‡Zb †Kb ? (R) †Kvb hy‡×i mgq wZwb Zuvi mg¯Z m¤c` wewj‡q †`b ? (S) ab m¤c` wewj‡q †`Iqvi mgq bexRx (m) Zuv‡K Kx wR‡Ám K‡ib ? (T) nhiZ Avey eKi (iv) K‡e g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib ? 32 Avgvi evsjv eB


¯^vaxbZvi myL iRbxKvš— †mb eveyB cvwL‡i WvwK, ewj‡Q PovB, ÒKuy‡o N‡i _vwK Ki wk‡íi eovB, Avwg _vwK gnvmy‡L AÆvwjKv c‡i Zzwg KZ Kó cvI †iva, e„wói, S‡o|Ó eveyB nvwmqv K‡n, Òm‡›`n wK Zvq ? Kó cvB, Zey _vwK wb‡Ri evmvq| cvKv †nvK, Zey fvB, c‡ii I evmv, wbR nv‡Z Mov †gvi KuvPv Ni, Lvmv|Ó

Avgvi evsjv eB 33


cvV wkwL 1. k‡ãi A_© †R‡b wbB Ges bZzb evK¨ cwo ¯^vaxbZv

A‡b¨i Awa‡b bv _vKv, Aeva

1971 mv‡j jvL jvL cÖv‡Yi wewbg‡q evsjv‡`k ¯^vaxbZv jvf K‡i‡Q|

myL

Avivg

myL jv‡fi Avgvq gvbyl Kó K‡i|

Kuy‡o Ni

Nvm, cvZv ev Lo w`‡q ˆZwi †QvU Ni

MÖv‡g A‡bK Kuy‡o Ni †`Lv hvq|

wkí

Qwe AuvKv, gvwUi cyZzj, nuvwo, Kjwm ˆZwi Kiv – G¸‡jv wkíKg©| Ab_©K eovB Kiv fv‡jv bq| wekvj wekvj AÆvwjKv gv_v DuPz K‡i `uvwo‡q Av‡Q| eveyB cvwLi evmv †h GK ai‡bi wkí, Zv‡Z †Kv‡bv m‡›`n †bB| KweZvwU Lvmv, Ave„wË Ki‡Z fv‡jv jv‡M

m‡›`n

Kvi“Kg©, wewfbœ wRwbm my›`ifv‡e Mov †MŠie, evnv`ywi cvKv evwo, `vjvb‡KvVv mskq, AwbðqZv

Lvmv

PgrKvi, DËg

eovB – AÆvwjKv –

2. hy³eY© wP‡b wbB I bZzb kã cwo ¯^vaxbZv

¯^

=

m + e-djv

¯^v`, ¯^xq

wkí

í

=

j& + c

Mí, ¯^í

AÆvwjKv –

Æ

=

U& + U

VvÆv, PÆjv

3. weivg wP‡ýi e¨envi wkwL `uvwo

(| )

=

eveyB evmv eyb‡Z cv‡i|

Kgv

( ,)

=

†iv`, e„wó, S‡o, eveyB Kó K‡i|

cÖkœ wPý

(?)

=

eveyB cvwL wK g‡b g‡b Kó cvq ?

=

ÒKuy‡o N‡i †_‡K Zzwg wk‡íi eovB Ki|Ó

DׄwZ wPý ( Ò Ó ) 34 Avgvi evsjv eB


4. cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi ewj I wjwL (K) PoyB eveyB cvwL‡K †W‡K Kx e‡j‡Q ? (L) eveyB †Kv_vq †_‡K eovB K‡i ? (M) eveyB cvwL wK‡mi eovB K‡i ? (N) Po–B †Kv_vq gnvmy‡L _v‡K ? (O) PoyB cvwL eveyB cvwLi wK‡m Kó cvIqvi K_v e‡j‡Q ? (P) Kó †c‡jI eveyB cvwLi `ytL †bB †Kb ? (Q) †Kvb Ni‡K eveyB Lvmv e‡j‡Q ? (R) Ô¯^vaxbZvi myLÕ KweZvi Kwei bvg Kx ?

5. wecixZ kã ewj I wjwL ¯^vaxbZv Kó cvKv myL

--------------------------------------------------------------------

6. Wvb cv‡ki As‡ki m‡½ wVK wVK wgjvB (K) Kuy‡o N‡i _vwK Ki wk‡íi ----------------

AÆvwjKv

(L) Avwg _vwK gnvmy‡L -------------c‡i

m‡›`n

(M) Zzwg KZ Kó cvI †iv`, ----------|

wb‡Ri

(N) eveyB nvwmqv K‡n ------------ wK Zvq ?

eovB

(O) Kó cvB, Zey _vwK ---------- evmvq|

e„wó, S‡o

(P) wbR nv‡Z ----------- KuvPv Ni, Lvmv|

Mov †gvi cvKv

Avgvi evsjv eB 35


7. K_v¸‡jv ey‡S wbB wk‡íi eovB eveyB cvwL Lye my›`i K‡i evmv †evbvi KvR Ki‡Z cv‡i| G ai‡bi KvR‡K wkí ejv nq| PoyB g‡b K‡i, eveyB cvwL eywS Zvi G iKg wkí m„wói Rb¨ evnv`ywi K‡i| PoyB G‡K wk‡íi eovB Kiv ej‡Q|

m‡›`n wK Zvq ? †iv`, e„wó, S‡o eveyB cvwL Zvi ˆZwi Kiv Kuy‡o N‡i Kó cvq| G‡Z †Kv‡bv m‡›`n †bB| Zey Zvi Me© †m Zvi wb‡Ri ˆZwi Kiv evmvq _v‡K|

wbR nv‡Z Mov †gvi KuvPv Ni, Lvmv| PoyB †h A‡b¨i `vjv‡b evm K‡i Mf© Ki‡Q, Zv †evSv‡Z eveyB cvwL GLv‡b GB K_v¸‡jv ej‡Q| eveyB cvwLi ˆZwi Kiv evmv hZ †QvUB †nvK, wb‡Ri nv‡Z ˆZwi

evmvB Zvi Kv‡Q †ewk fvj| 8. KweZvwU `yRb K‡i Ave„wË Kwi| 9. bv †`‡L cy‡iv KweZvwU LvZvq wjwL|

36 Avgvi evsjv eB


†gNbv Avgvi bvg †gNbv| Avwg Z…Zxq †kªYx‡Z cowQ| Avgvi bvg †i‡L‡Qb Avgvi gv| GK iv‡Zi †ejv gv‡qi m‡½ ï‡q ï‡q Mí KiwQ| gv ej‡jb, Ô†gNbv, Avwg b`xi bv‡g †Zvgvi bvg †i‡LwQ| Zzwg wK Rv‡bv, †gNbv GKwU b`xi bvg ?Õ Avwg ejjvg, Ônu¨v gv, Zzwg Gi Av‡M e‡jwQ‡j, Avgv‡`i †kªYxwk¶K AvcvI e‡jwQ‡jb|Õ gv ej‡jb, ÔZzwg wK †gNbv b`xi K_v Rv‡bv ?Õ Avwg ejjvg, Ôbv gv|Õ gv evwjkUv GKUz DuPz Ki‡jb, Zvici Avgvi w`‡K wd‡i ej‡jb, Ô†Zvgv‡K †Zv †gNbv b`x †`Lv‡Z n‡e| †Zvgvi evevi QzwU †nvK| GK w`b †Zvgv‡K Puv`cyi wb‡q hve| XvKv †_‡K w÷gv‡i P‡o †gNbvi Dci w`‡q hve| †Zvgvi †QvULvjv Puv`cy‡i Av‡Qb|Õ Avwg ejjvg, Ôgv, Avwg Qwei eB‡q w÷gvi I j‡Âi Qwe †`‡LwQjvg| Avwg w÷gv‡i Po‡ev gv|Õ gv Avgvi Pz‡j wewj †K‡U ej‡jb, ÔwbðqB †Zvgv‡K Pov‡ev| Av‡M †gNbv b`xi K_v †kv‡bv|Õ Ôgv Zzwg e‡jv, Avgvi ïb‡Z B”Qv Ki‡QÕ-Avwg ejjvg| gv Avgv‡K Av`i K‡i ej‡Z ïi“ Ki‡jb|

Avgvi evsjv eB 37


ÔZzwg †Zv ï‡bQ, †gNbv evsjv‡`‡ki GKwU b`x| †gNbv weivU GK b`x| cÖ_‡g GUv GZ eo wQj bv Ges Gi bvgI †gNbv wQj bv| evsjv‡`‡ki Dˇi i‡q‡Q fvi‡Zi Avmvg ivR¨| †mLv‡bB †gNbvi Rb¥ nq| Avmv‡g GB b`xi bvg eivK| eivK b`x `ywU fvM n‡q `ywU kvLv b`x n‡q hvq| GKwUi bvg myigv, Av‡iKwUi bvg Kzwkqviv| wm‡jU kni myigv b`xi av‡i Aew¯’Z| Zzwg †Zv Rv‡bv, †Zvgvi †QvU gvgv GLb wm‡j‡U Av‡Qb|Õ Avwg ejjvg, Ônu¨v gv| †QvU gvgv eû w`b Av‡mb bv †Kb ?Õ gv ej‡jb, ÔAvm‡eb gv, Zzwg †gNbvi K_v †kv‡bv| myigv wm‡jU Qvwo‡q G‡m Avevi Kzwkqvivi m‡½ wg‡j GK n‡q hvq| Zvici GB b`xi bvg nq †gNbv| †gNbv b`x GwM‡q hvq bvbv RvqMvi Dci w`‡q| XvKv †Rjvi cvk w`‡q †gNbv Pj‡Z _v‡K| Pjvi mgq Av‡iv †QvU eo eû b`xi †mªvZ †gNbvi m‡½ †g‡k| G‡Z †gNbv eo n‡Z _v‡K| Puv`cy‡ii Kv‡Q cÙv b`x G‡m †gNbvi m‡½ wgwjZ nq| cÙvI Lye eo b`x| cÙv †gNbv wg‡j weivU n‡q hvq| GK~j IK~j wKQzB †`Lv hvq bv| Puv`cy‡i †M‡j Zzwg Gme †`L‡Z cv‡e| Avgvi †Pv‡L Nyg †bB| Avwg gv‡qi K_v gb w`‡q ïbwQjvg| ïay fvewQjvg, †gNbv KZ eo b`x ! gv Av‡iv ej‡jb, Ônu¨v, Puv`cyi †_‡K †gNbv Lye eo b`x| †h w`‡K †PvL hvq cvwb Avi cvwb| g‡b nq, G †Zv b`x bq, †hb mvMi| †gNbv Zvi wekvj †mªvZ wb‡q mvg‡bi w`‡K Av‡iv GwM‡q hvq| †k‡l †gNbv e‡½vcmvM‡i c‡o| ÔZvici gv ?Õ Avwg wRÁvmv Kijvg| Ôb`x †Zv mvM‡i co‡eB GwUB wbqg| Av‡iv †kv‡bv, †gNbv evsjv‡`‡ki cÖavb Rjc_| cÖwZ w`b Avgiv †hgb XvKvi eo eo iv¯Zvq †`wL evm, UªvK, bvbv ai‡bi Mvwo, †eweU¨vw·, f¨vb, wiKkv, †VjvMvwo; †gNbv‡ZI †Zgwb cÖwZ w`b P‡j eû j w÷gvi, gvjevnx I †Zjevnx Rjhvb, Avi AmsL¨ †QvU eo †bŠKv| cÖwZw`b ZvB Lye e¨¯Z _v‡K †gNbvi Rjc_| ZvQvov GB c‡_ nvRvi nvRvi hvÎx XvKv †_‡K ewikvj, cUzqvLvwj, †fvjv, nvwZqv, m›Øxc, PÆMÖvg BZ¨vw` RvqMvq hvq| GK mgq cvj †Zvjv eo eo †bŠKv †hZ| GLb cvj †Zvjv †bŠKv †Zgb GKUv †`Lv hvq bv| 38 Avgvi evsjv eB


GLb †bŠKv P‡j Bwćb| Zzwg †gNbvq †M‡j †`L‡e †QvU †QvU †bŠKv Gcvi †_‡K I cv‡i hv‡”Q| Zzwg †`L‡e †R‡j‡bŠKvi mvwi| †R‡jiv w`bivZ †gNbvq gvQ a‡i| †gNbvq cÖPzi gvQ cvIqv hvh| †ewk cvIqv hvq Bwjk gvQ| Zzwg w÷gv‡i †gNbvi Dci w`‡q †M‡j †`L‡e gv‡S gv‡S ïïK GKUz gv_v Zz‡j Avevi Wy‡e hv‡”Q| Zzwg †`L‡e MvOwP‡jiv Do‡Q, e‡Kiv mvwi †eu‡a hv‡”Q| †gNbv, Zzwg eo n‡j Av‡iv Rvb‡e|Õ Avwg ejjvg, Ôgv Avwg KLb †gNbv †`L‡ev ?Õ gv ej‡jb, ÔAvi K‡qK w`b c‡iB †`L‡e gv| ZzwgI †gNbv, b`xI †gNbv| †Zvgv‡`i †`Lv n‡e| A‡bK ivZ n‡q †M‡Q| †gNbv, Zzwg GLb NygvI|Õ

cvV wkwL 1. k‡ãi A_© Rvwb I ev‡K¨ k‡ãi e¨envi †`wL Z…Zxq w÷gvi jÂ

– wZb-Gi c~iYevPK kã – hš¿PvwjZ Rjhvb – hš¿PvwjZ †QvU wKsev

gvSvwi Rjhvb wewjKvUv – Pzj‡K nv‡Zi AvOyj w`‡q †b‡o †`Iqv

†Ljvq †m Z…Zxq n‡q‡Q| w÷gvi †avqv †Q‡o P‡j‡Q| ewikv‡ji j mܨv QqUvi mgq Qv‡o| dzdz Avgvi Pz‡j wewj †K‡U w`‡”Qb| Avgvi evsjv eB 39


Aew¯’Z Qvwo‡q †mªvZ †g‡k wekvj e‡½vcmvMi

– – – – – –

gvjevnx †Zjevnx Rjc_ Rjhvb †Zv hvÎx cvj

– – – – – – –

ïïK

_vKv, Av‡Q, i‡q‡Q cvi n‡q aviv, cÖevn wg‡k hvq Lye eo evsjv‡`‡ki `w¶‡Y Aew¯’Z mvMi gvj enbKvix †Zj enbKvix R‡ji c_ cvwb‡Z P‡j †h hvb wbðqZvm~PK kã MgbKvix, hviv hvq †bŠKvi gv¯���‡j jvMv‡bv Kvco GK ai‡bi RjRš‘

ivRkvnx cÙvi Zx‡i Aew¯’Z| †Uªb ˆfie evRvi Qvwo‡q †Mj| GB b`x‡Z †mªvZ †ewk| †gNbv e‡½vcmvM‡i †g‡k| wZwb wekvj evwo‡Z _v‡Kb| e‡½vcmvMi PÆMÖv‡gi Lye Kv‡Q| gvjevnx UªvKwU D‡ë †Mj| GwU †Zjevnx RvnvR| †mLv‡b iv¯Zv †bB, Rjc‡_ †h‡Z n‡e| j cwiwPZ Rjhvb| Zwg †Zv Rv‡bv| AvR ev‡mi hvÎx †ewk| IB †bŠKvi cvj wQu‡o †M‡Q| †gNbvq ïïK †`Lv hvq|

2. hy³eY© wP‡b wbB, Av‡iv bZzb kã †R‡b wbB Z…Zxq j ivR¨ †mªvZ wRÁvmv U¨vw· BwÄb

– – –

– – –

Z… Â R¨ mª Á · Ä

= = = = = = =

Z& + F – Kvi ( „) T& + P R& + h-djv ( ¨ ) m& + i-djv ( ª) R& + T K& + m T& + R

Z…Y, Z…lv AÂj, PÂj Z¨vR¨ mªóv, mnmª AÁ, weÁ ev·, K·evRvi AÄbv, MÄbv

3. µgevPK kã †R‡b wbB cÖ_g, wØZxq, Z…Zxq, PZz_©, cÂg, lô, mßg, Aóg, beg, `kg 4. `yB k‡ãi wg‡j bZzb kã †`‡L wbB †QvU I eo - †QvUeo : w`b I ivZ – w`bivZ 40 Avgvi evsjv eB


5. wecixZ kã Rvwb GK~j – IK~j, Gcvi – Icvi,

Gw`K- †mw`K

6. KvR †evSv‡bv kã †R‡b wbB †kvqv – ï‡q ivLv – †i‡LwQ wgkv – †g‡k euva – †eu‡a

G‡Mv‡bv †div †Zvjv Nygv‡bv

– – – –

7. `yB iKg KvR †evSv‡bv kã †R‡b wbB †`Lv – wb‡R †`Lv Pov – †`Lv‡bv – Ab¨‡K †`Lv‡bv Pov‡bv – 8. DËi ewj I wjwL (K) †gNbv †Kvb †kªYx‡Z co‡Q ? (L) †g‡qi bvg †gNbv †K †i‡L‡Qb ? (M) †gNbv Ô†gNbvÕ bvgwU Kvi KvQ †_‡K ï‡b‡Q ? (N) †K w÷gv‡i Po‡Z Pvq ? (O) †Kv_vq †gNbv b`xi Rb¥ n‡q‡Q ? (P) eivK b`xi `yB kvLvi bvg Kx ? (Q) b`xi bvg †gNbv nq Kx fv‡e ? (R) †Kv_vq †gNbv I cÙv wgwjZ n‡q‡Q ? (S) †Kvb DcmvM‡i †gNbv wg‡j‡Q ? (T) †gNbvi Rjc_ e¨¯Z †Kb ? (U) Kvi Kvi bvg †gNbv ?

GwM‡q wd‡i Zz‡j Nywg‡q wb‡R Pov Ab¨‡K Pov‡bv

9. evsjv‡`‡ki Av‡iv K‡qKwU b`xi bvg Rvwb hgybv, eªþcyÎ, KY©dzjx, wZ¯Zv, eywoM½v, a‡jk¦ix, Avwoqvj Luv 10. †gNbv b`x m¤^‡Ü mvZwU evK¨ wjwL| Avgvi evsjv eB 41


Pj& Pj& Pj& KvRx bRi“j Bmjvg Pj& Pj& Pj& EaŸ© MM‡b ev‡R gv`j wb‡gœ DZjv aiYxZj Ai“Y cÖv‡Zi Zi“Y `j Pj&‡i Pj&‡i Pj& Pj& Pj& Pj& \ Elvi `yqv‡i nvwb AvNvZ Avgiv Avwbe ivOv cÖfvZ Avgiv UzUve wZwgi ivZ, evavi weܨvPj| be bex‡bi Mvwnqv Mvb mRxe Kwie gnvk¥kvb Avgiv `vwbe bZzb cÖvY evû‡Z bexb ej| 42 Avgvi evsjv eB


cvV wkwL 1. k‡ãi A_© †R‡b wbB Ges kã w`‡q evK¨ iPbv Kwi - Ic‡ii w`K †jvKwU EaŸ© cv‡b †P‡q Av‡Q| Eae© - AvKvk MM‡b †gN MR©b Ki‡Q| MMb gv`j - †Xv‡ji gZ ev`¨hš¿ muvIZvj †Q‡jwU gv`j evRv‡”Q| - wb‡P wb‡gœ K‡qK mvwi evwo i‡q‡Q| wb‡gœ - e¨vKzj, Aw¯’I Zzwg GZ DZjv n‡qQ †Kb ? DZjv aiYx - c„w_ex aiYx mKj‡K Avkªq †`q| - mKv‡ji m~h© Ai“Y Av‡jvq Pvi w`K ivOv †`Lv‡”Q| Ai“Y - mKv‡j cÖv‡Z GK ckjv e„wó n‡q‡Q| cÖv‡Z Elv - †fvi †ejv Avgiv mevB Elv Kv‡j †R‡M DVe| - mKvj wZwb cÖfv‡Z nuv‡Ub| cÖfvZ - fvOe, `~i Kie Avgiv G evav UzUve| UzUve wZwgi - AÜKvi Avgiv wZwgi `~i Kie| weܨvPj fvi‡Zi GKwU ce©‡Zi bvg| weܨvPj - weܨ ce©Z - bZzb Mv‡Q bexb cvZv MwR‡q‡Q| bexb mRxe - m‡ZR, Rxeš— dzjwU Lye mRxe| gnvk¥kv‡b †hZ fq K‡i| gnvk¥kvb - g„Z‡`n †cvov‡bvi eo RvqMv 2. K_v¸‡jv ey‡S wbB Ges wjwL (K) Avgiv UzUve wZwgi ivZ evavi weܨvPj| Zi“‡Yiv bZzb cÖv‡Yi AwaKvix| Zviv me AÜKvi `~i Ki‡e| Zviv weivU evav wWwO‡q hv‡e| (L) be bex‡bi Mvwnqv Mvb mRxe Kwie gnvk¥kvb gnvk¥kv‡b cÖv‡Yi Avb›` †bB| wKš‘ Zi“‡Yiv bZz‡bi Mvb †M‡q gnvk¥kvb‡KI Avb›`gq Ki‡e| Avgvi evsjv eB 43


3. hy³eY©¸‡jv wP‡b wbB EaŸ© – aŸ© wb‡gœ – gœ weܨvPj – ܨ gnvk¥kvb – k¥

= = = =

†id ( ©) + a& + e g& + b b& + a& + h-djv ( ¨ ) k& + g-djv

4. gy‡L gy‡L DËi ewj I wjwL (K) gv`j †Kv_vq ev‡R ? (L) Kwe Kv‡`i Pj‡Z WvK w`‡q‡Qb ? (M) Kviv wZwgi `~i Ki‡e ? (N) weܨvPj Kx ? 5. Av‡Mi PiYwU ewj (K) -------------------wb‡gœ DZjv aiYxZj (L) --------------------Avgiv Avwbe ivOv cÖfvZ --------------------mRxe Kwei gnvk¥kvb 6. Zv‡j Zv‡j cv †d‡j Avgiv KweZvwU Ave„wË Kwi| 7. KweZvwU wjwL| 8. mevB wg‡j KweZvwU myi K‡i MvB|

44 Avgvi evsjv eB


KjveZxi nv‡U cvcjy‡`i MÖv‡gi bvg KjveZx| MÖv‡gi cvk w`‡q e‡q P‡j‡Q †QvÆ GKwU b`x| b`xi Zx‡i nvU e‡m| nv‡Ui bvg KjveZxi nvU| cvcjy ï‡b‡Q nvU e‡m mßv‡n `yw`b| iweevi I e„n¯cwZevi| AvR iweevi| †RejPvPv cvcjy‡K wb‡q nv‡U P‡j‡Qb| nv‡Z Av‡Q GKwU _‡j| GKUv †jvK `y‡Uv QvMj †U‡b wb‡q hv‡”Qb| QvMj `ywU †h‡Z PvB‡Q bv| QvMj nv‡U wewµ Kiv n‡e| ZLb †kl we‡Kj| nv‡U gvbyl wMRwMR Ki‡Q| †QvU eo bvbv eq‡mi gvbyl nv‡U G‡m‡Q| ˆn-nj−v n‡”Q Lye| ay‡jv Do‡Q| †RejPvPv ej‡Qb, Ô†ejv c‡o G‡j mevB nv‡U Av‡m| GKUz Av‡M G‡j Kx nq ! Mi“, QvMj, Pvj, Wvj, gvQ, gvsm, ZwiZiKvwi me wKQz GLv‡b †Kbv‡ePv nq, Avevi mevi †`LvI nq|Õ †Lvjv RvqMvq bvbv wRwbm wb‡q e‡m‡Q we‡µZviv| †KD G‡b‡Q ZwiZiKvwi, †KDG‡b‡Q djg~j| Giv mevB MÖv‡gi gvbyl| nv‡U wewµ Kivi Rb¨ Zviv bvbv wRwbm ˆZwi K‡i| Zviv bvbv dmj djvq| †m¸‡jv wb‡qB wewµ Ki‡Z e‡m‡Q| †jvKRb wKb‡Q †mme| ZiKvwii nv‡U bvbv iK‡gi ZiKvwi †`Lv hv‡”Q| me ZiKvwi UvUKv| †RejPvPv wKb‡jb †e¸b, cUj, a‡bcvZv I KuvPv gwiP| †cuqvR, imyb I jvj gwi‡Pi †`vKvb †_‡K †Kgb SuvR Avm‡Q| †PvL R¡vjv K‡i| cvcjy GwM‡q †Mj mvg‡b| Avgvi evsjv eB 45


eo PvUvB‡qi Ici Avjy Ro K‡i ivLv n‡q‡Q| Avjy wKb‡Q A‡b‡K| WvjI Av‡Q n‡iK iKg| gyM, gmywi, †Lmvwi, gvlKjvB-G me Wvj wb‡q e‡m‡Q Wvj we‡µZviv| GKw`‡K bvbv iKg Pvj wewµ n‡”Q| †RejPvPv GK ai‡Yi Pvj †`wL‡q ej‡jb, ÔGUv wewbœ Pvj|Õ cvcjyi g‡b coj, Zvi gv wewbœ fvZ LvB‡qwQ‡jb| †Kgb AvVv‡jv, Z‡e `ya I bvi‡Kj w`‡q †L‡Z Lye gRv| gv‡Qi evRv‡i wfo †ewk| †R‡jiv fv‡i K‡i A‡bK gvQ wb‡q G‡m‡Q| ˆK, gv¸i, wks, †Usiv, cuywU me D‡V‡Q| †RejPvPv cvcjy‡`i Rb¨ wKb‡jb ˆK gvQ| Avi wKb‡jb Kz‡Pv wPswo| wPswo¸‡jv w`‡q gv cuyB kvK iuva‡eb| nuvm gyiwM¸‡jvi Wvbv I cv `wo w`‡q euvav| MÖv‡gi gvby‡li cvjv nuvmgyiwM| I‡`i Rb¨ cvcjyi gvqv nq|

cvb mycvwii †`vKv‡b cvb mvwR‡q ivLv n‡q‡Q my›`ifv‡e| mycvwi¸‡jv wgwn K‡i KvUv| avgv fwZ© gywo| Av‡iK avgvq gyowK| mv`v UvUKv gywo †`‡L gb f‡i hvq| LB¸‡jv mv`v dz‡ji g‡Zv †`Lv‡”Q| ¸oIqvjv ¸‡oi gUwK wb‡q e‡m‡Q, gv‡S gv‡S gvwQ Zvov‡”Q| I w`‡K Av‡iv †ek K‡qwKU †`vKvb| gvwUi nuvwo, evmb, Kjwm wb‡q Kz‡gv‡iiv †`vKvb Ly‡j‡Q| Kvgv‡iiv e‡m‡Q Qzwi, `v, ewU, Lywš—, jvOj wb‡q| MvgQv we‡µZviv nv‡Z MvgQv wb‡q L‡Ïi WvK‡Q| 46 Avgvi evsjv eB


GK †`vKv‡b wRwjwc fvRv n‡”Q| A‡bK †jvK `uvwo‡q Av‡Q wRwjwc †Kbvi Avkvq| †RejPvPv cvcjy‡K ewm‡q w`‡jb Uz‡ji Dci| ej‡jb, ÔG nv‡Ui wRwjwci Lye ¯^v`| mevB †K‡b| G‡mv, wRwjwc LvB|Õ Gici G‡jb gyw`i †`vKv‡b| mi‡li †Zj I mvevb wKb‡jb †RejPvPv| ej‡jb, ÔmuvS n‡q G‡m‡Q| P‡jv, evwo hvB|Õ mwZ¨B †Zv, m~h© Wy‡e †M‡Q| KjveZxi nv‡U GKm‡½ A‡bK¸‡jv Kzwc R¡‡j DVj|

cvV wkwL 1. kã †R‡b wbB I bZzb evK¨ iPbv Kwi nvU

- eû wRwbm

wMRwMR ˆn-nj−v †ejv c‡o G‡j UvUKv SuvR AvVv‡jv Kz‡Pv wPswo cvjv wgwn gUwK Kz‡gvi -

†Kbv‡ePvi RvqMv VvmvVvwm, Lye wfo wPrKvi we‡Kj n‡j ZvRv †ZR, †ewk MÜ PUP‡U †QvU wPswo cvwjZ AwZ wPKb gvwUi eo cvÎ hviv gvwU w`‡q

Avgiv we‡K‡j nv‡U hve| we‡q evwo‡Z gvbyl wMRwMR Ki‡Q| †Zvgv‡`i ˆn-nj−vq Avgvi Nyg †f‡O †Mj| †ejv c‡o G‡j Avgiv †Lj‡Z hv‡ev| nv‡U UvUKv ZwiZiKvwi D‡V‡Q| KuvPv gwi‡Pi SuvR Av‡Q| UzKz AvVv‡jv fvZ †L‡Z Pvq bv| cyKz‡i A‡bK Kz‡Pv wPswo Av‡Q| N‡i cvjv Mi“wU‡K mevB Av`i K‡i| evev wgwn †mgvB wKb‡jb| gv gUwK‡Z Pvj †i‡L‡Qb| wZwb Kz‡gvi cvovq _v‡Kb|

Kvgvi

nuvwo cvwZj ˆZwi K‡ib - hviv †jvnv w`‡q

Kvgv‡ii nv‡Z Av‡Q nvZzwo|

L‡Ïi

`v ewU ˆZwi K‡ib - †µZv

gvQ wKb‡Z A‡bK L‡Ïi G‡m‡Q| Avgvi evsjv eB 47


¯^v` muvS Kzwc

- †L‡Z gRvi - mܨv - wU‡bi ˆZwi †K‡ivwm‡bi evwZ

2. hy³eY© wP‡b wbB mßvn e„n¯cwZevi Zvov‡”Q wewµ nj− R¡vjv wewbœ Lywš— L‡Ïi ¯^v`

ß ¯c ”Q µ j− R¡ bœ š— Ï ¯^

= = = = = = = = = =

G Mv‡Qi KuvVv‡ji ¯^v` †ewk| muv‡Si †ejvq evwo wdijvg| mܨv n‡j Kwi‡gi gv Kzwc R¡vjvq|

c& + Z m& + c P& + Q K& + i-djv ( ª) j& + j R+e b& + b b& + Z `& + ` m& + e

3. eY© ewm‡q kã ˆZwi Kwi I cwo -------- ”Q = -------- š— =

¸ß, jyß ¯ck©, ¯có cvjv‡”Q, †`Lv‡”Q †µZv, µq (Ab¨iƒc ÔµÕ) cvj−v, gnj−v D¾¡j, R¡jR¡j Abœ, wfbœ R¨vš—, `š— †ivÏyi, †PvÏ ¯^‡`k, ¯^vaxb

R¡ ------------ = ---------- j− = ---------- ¯— =

4. DËi ewj I wjwL (K) KjvewZi nvU †Kv_vq e‡m ? (L) †Kvb †Kvb w`b KjvewZi nvU e‡m ? (M) gvbyl KLb nv‡U hvq ? (N) †Rej PvPv KjvewZi nvU †_‡K Kx Kx wKb‡jb ? (O) †Kvb †Kvb Wvj KjvewZi nv‡U wewµ n‡”Q ? (P) †Kvb Pv‡ji fvZ `ya I bvi‡Kj w`‡q †L‡Z gRv ? (Q) KjvewZi nv‡U †Kvb †Kvb gvQ D‡V‡Q ? (R) LB¸‡jv †`L‡Z †Kgb ? (S) gvwQ Zvov‡”Q †K ? (T) KLb Kzwc R¡‡j DVj ? 48 Avgvi evsjv eB


ms‡KZ¸‡jv †R‡b ivwL gvmygvi Rb¥ kn‡i| GLv‡bB †m eo n‡q‡Q| AveŸv Av¤§vi m‡½ †m kn‡i †ewo‡q‡Q| wKš‘ kn‡ii iv¯Zvq PjvP‡ji ms‡KZ¸‡jv †m fv‡jv K‡i †R‡b iv‡Lwb| Gevi Av¤§v ej‡jb, Ôgvmygv, Zzwg eo n‡q †MQ| GLb Z…Zxq †kªYx‡Z coQ| Zzwg kn‡i PjvP‡ji ms‡KZ¸‡jv wk‡L bvI| kn‡i _vK‡jI Avgiv kn‡ii A‡bK wKQz †Lqvj Kwi bv|Õ GKw`b gvmygv Av¤§vi m‡½ wiKkvq K‡i hvw”Qj| iv¯Zvi †gv‡o wiKkv †_‡g †Mj| gvmygviv †mvRv hv‡e| AvovAvwo iv¯Zv w`‡q Mvwo, evm, wiKkv Pj‡Q| Av¤§v ej‡jb, Ômvg‡b Ic‡ii w`‡K †`L|Õ gvmygv †`Lj, GKUv †cv‡÷ jvj Av‡jv R¡j‡Q| Av¤§v ej‡jb, Ô‡cv‡÷ jvj Av‡jv R¡j‡j hvbevnb †_‡g hvq| GKUz c‡i njy` Av‡jv R¡‡j| Gi A_© GKUz A‡c¶v Ki“b| njy` Av‡jv R¡jvi ciciB meyR Av‡jv R¡‡j| ZLbB wiKkv, Mvwo Avevi Pj‡Z ïi“ K‡i| Avgvi evsjv eB 49


gvmygv †Lqvj KiwQj| mwZ¨ ZvB| GKUz c‡i njy` Av‡jv R¡jj| Zvici meyR Av‡jv| gvmygv‡`i wiKkv Pj‡Z ïi“ Kij| wKQz`~i hvIqvi ci Av‡iKwU †gv‡o GKB Ae¯’v| †mB jvj, njy`, meyR Av‡jv| gvmygv Gevi e¨vcviUv ey‡S wbj| wiKkvq P‡o †h‡Z †h‡Z gvmygv †`LwQj iv¯Zvi †gv‡o †gv‡o dj‡K ZxiwPý †`Iqv| ZxiwPý †Kv‡bvwU Wvb w`‡K euvKv‡bv, †Kv‡bvwU evg w`‡K euvKv‡bv| ZxiwP‡ýi GB ms‡KZ w`‡q dj‡K †jLv i‡q‡Q Ôwek¦we`¨vjqÕ, ÔwbDgv‡K©UÕ, ÔRv`yNiÕ, ÔnvmcvZvjÕ, Ô¯‹zjÕ, ÔAwdmÕ, ÔwkïcvK©Õ BZ¨vw`| Av¤§v ej‡jb, ÔGB †jLv I ms‡KZ w`‡q eyS‡Z nq †Kvb RvqMv †Kvb w`‡K| Zv n‡j Zzwg wiKkv K‡i ev Mvwo P‡o Wv‡b, euv‡q wKsev †mvRv Hme RvqMvq †h‡Z cvi‡e| †nu‡UI †h‡Z cvi‡e| †`L, iv¯Zvi Icv‡i cvK©| Pj, Avgiv cv‡K© hvB|Õ

c_Pvix cvivcvi

gvmygvi Av¤§v fvov w`‡q wiKkv †Q‡o w`‡jb| iv¯Zvi Icv‡i hv‡e gvmygv I Zvi Av¤§v| gvmygv †`Lj, iv¯Zvi GKUv RvqMvq AvovAvwo mv`v `vMKvUv| cv‡k dj‡K †jLv i‡q‡Q Ôc_Pvix cvivcviÕ| Av¤§v eywS‡q w`‡jb, ÔGLvb w`‡q gvbyl iv¯Zv cvi nq| jvj evwZ R¡j‡j Mvwo, evm, wiKkv me †_‡g hvq| ZLb c_Pvixiv G `vM KvUv RvqMv w`‡q iv¯Zv cvi nq|Õ 50 Avgvi evsjv eB


gvbyl hv‡Z mn‡R k„•Ljvi m‡½ iv¯Zv cvi n‡Z cv‡i, †m Rb¨ iv¯Zvq `vM †K‡U ms‡KZ †`Iqv nq| Av¤§v ej‡jb, ÔP‡jv, Avgiv Ôc_Pvix cvivcviÕ w`‡q iv¯Zv cvi nB| H †Zv cvK©| G‡mv, cv‡K© hvB|Õ GB fv‡e Ab¨ ms‡KZ¸‡jvI †R‡b ivwL| moK c_ Avi †ijc_ †hLv‡b wgwjZ n‡q‡Q Zv‡K ejv nq †j‡fj µwms| †ijMvwo Avm‡Z _vK‡j †j‡fj µwms-G †MU c‡o| ZLb `yB w`‡Ki mo‡K hvb PjvPj eÜ n‡q hvq| †ijMvwo cvi n‡q †M‡j †MU Ly‡j †`Iqv nq| hvbevnb Avevi Pj‡Z _v‡K| †j‡fj µwms-G ms‡KZ †`Iqv _v‡K|

moK c‡_ cyj _vK‡j ZviI ms‡KZ _v‡K| iv¯Zv †eu‡K †M‡j ZxiwPý w`‡q Zv †evSv‡bv nq|

Avgvi evsjv eB 51


evsjv fvlv AZzjcÖmv` †mb †gv‡`i Mie, †gv‡`i Avkv, Av gwi evsjv fvlv ! †Zvgvi †Kv‡j, †Zvgvi †ev‡j, KZB kvwš— fv‡jvevmv ! Kx Rv`y evsjv Mv‡b ! Mvb †M‡q `uvo gvwS Uv‡b, †M‡q Mvb bv‡P evDj, Mvb †M‡q avb Kv‡U Pvlv| †gv‡`i Mie, †gv‡`i Avkv, Av gwi evsjv fvlv ! (ms‡¶wcZ)

52 Avgvi evsjv eB


cvV wkwL 1. k‡ãi A_© †R‡b wbB I bZzb evK¨ iPbv Kwi †gv‡`i − Avgv‡`i ÔNyg cvovwb gvwm wcwm †gv‡`i evwo Gm|Õ Mie − Me©, AnsKvi †Zvgvi Mie †ewk| Av gwi − Avnv gwi gwi ! Av gwi evsjv‡`k, Avgvi Rb¥f~wg| †ev‡j − ev‡K¨, K_vq, fvlvq Avgvi †evbwU Av‡av-Av‡av †ev‡j K_v e‡j| KZB − A‡bK, LyeB gv‡qi mv‡_ †Lj‡Z KZB Avb›`| Rv`y − gvqv, ek Kivi kw³ bRi“‡ji Mv‡b †hb mZ¨B Rv`y Av‡Q| `uvo − †bŠKv Pvjvevi `Ê, ˆeVv gvwS fvB, AvwgI `uvo evB‡Z PvB| evDj − GK †kªYxi msMxZ wkíx jvjb dwKi evDj wQ‡jb| 2. c‡ii PiYwU ewj I wjwL (K) †gv‡`i Mie, †gv‡`i Avkv, -------------------------------(L) Kx Rv`y evsjv Mv‡b ! -------------------------------(M) †M‡q Mvb bv‡P evDj, -------------------------------3. wb‡Pi kã w`‡q evK¨ ˆZwi Kwi fvlv, kvwš—, fv‡jvevmv, gvwS, Pvlv, bvP, Mvb, avb, Avkv, †Kvj 4. KweZvwU Ave„wË Kwi I wjwL| 5. DËi ewj I wjwL (K) Ôevsjv fvlvÕ KweZvwU †K wj‡L‡Qb ? (L) evsjv fvlv wb‡q Avgiv Me© Kwi †Kb ? (M) gvwS `uvo Uvbvi mgq Kx K‡ib ? (N) avb KvUvi mgq Pvlxiv Kx K‡ib ? (O) Mvb MvBevi mgq evD‡jiv Avi Kx K‡ib ? (P) evsjv Avgv‡`i wcÖq †Kb ? Avgvi evsjv eB 53


(Q) evsjv Mvb Kv‡`i Kv‡Q Lye wcÖq ?

fvB †ev‡bi kL kvnvbv Avi Drm `yB fvB †evb| kvnvbv PZz_© †kªYx‡Z c‡o Avi Drm Z…Zxq †kªYx‡Z c‡o| Iiv `yRb eÜzi g‡Zv| I‡`i evev GK Rb wk¶K| MÖvg †_‡K `~‡i GK Dc‡Rjv m`‡i wZwb PvKwi K‡ib| Zviv gv‡K wb‡q MÖv‡g _v‡K| kvnvbv I Drm †ivR GK mv‡_ ¯‹z‡j Avmv hvIqv K‡i| Zviv `yfvB‡evb gv‡qi †`Iqv wUwd‡bi UvKv †_‡K wKQz UvKv euvwP‡q GKwU gvwUi e¨vsK wK‡b gv‡K †`Lvj| e¨vsKwUi bvg w`j Ô †hŠ_ e¨vsKÕ| †ivR wUwd‡bi UvKv euvwU‡q Zviv e¨vs‡K iv‡L| Zv †`‡L gv Lye Lywk n‡jb| wZwbI cÖvqB Zv‡`i e¨vs‡K wmwK, Avaywj, GK UvKv, cuvP UvKvi gy`ªv iv‡Lb| eQi †k‡l e¨vsKwU f‡i †Mj| I‡`i gb Avb‡›` †b‡P DVj| gv ej‡jb, ÔUvKv w`‡q †Zvgiv †K Kx Ki‡Z PvI ?Õ kvnvbv ejj, ÔAvwg GKwU cvVvMvi Ki‡Z PvB| Zv‡Z _vK‡e Qov, KweZv, gRvi Mí, †QvU‡`i Mvb, auvav, Qwei eB Avi KvU©y‡bi eB| Drm ejj, ÔAvwg wKQz fv‡jv Rv‡Zi gyiwM G‡b evwo‡Z cyl‡Z PvB| Z‡e Avcvi g‡Zv cvVvMvi Kivi kL AvgviI Av‡Q|Õ gv ej‡jb, ÔwVK Av‡Q, †Zvgv‡`i evev evwo G‡j Zuvi civgk© wb‡q KvR Kiv hv‡e|Õ 54 Avgvi evsjv eB


QzwUi w`‡b evev evwo G‡m kvnvbv I Dr†mi me K_v ïb‡jb| Zvici gvwUi e¨vsKwU fvOv nj| e¨vs‡K GK nvRvi wZbkZ c‡bi UvKv cvIqv †Mj| wZwb Av‡iv `yBkZ UvKv w`‡jb| Zv‡`i †gvU GK nvRvi cuvPk c‡bi UvKv nj| gv ej‡jb, Ôc‡bi UvKv Mwie `ytLx‡K `vb K‡i `vI| evev Zvi `yB mš—vb‡K Kv‡Q †U‡b Av`i K‡i ej‡jb, Ô†Zvgv‡`i `ywU k‡Li KvR wKš‘ GK mv‡_ Kiv hv‡”Q bv| Zv‡Z †Zvgv‡`i †jLvcovi ¶wZ n‡e| ZvQvov GZ Aí UvKvq n‡eI bv|Õ Drm ejj, Ôevev, Zv n‡j Avgiv Kx Kie?Õ evev ej‡jb, Ôgb Lvivc Ki‡e bv| †Zvgv‡`i `yR‡bi kLB c~iY n‡e| Av‡M gyiwM cvjb K‡i cuywR evovI| Zvici cvwievwiK cvVvMviwU Ki‡Z cvi‡e|Õ G K_v ï‡b Zviv Lye Lywk nj| gv ej‡jb, ÔAvgvi GKwU kZ© Av‡Q| Zv nj, evwo‡Z gyiwM †cvlv I cvwievwiK cvVvMvi Kiv hv‡e, wKš‘ †jLvcovq Ag‡bvhvMx nIqv Pj‡e bv|Õ kvnvbv I Drm `yRbB gv‡qi kZ© †g‡b wbj| evev kni †_‡K `kUv gyiwM, gyiwMi Lvevi I Jla G‡b w`‡jb| wZwb evwo‡Z GKwU gyiwMi NiI K‡i w`‡jb| gyiwM †c‡q `yfvB‡evb Lye Lywk nj| Zviv †ivR ¯‹zj †_‡K G‡m gyiwMi hZœ Ki‡Z jvM‡jv| gyiwM¸‡jv µ‡g µ‡g eo nj| †h w`b †_‡K gyiwM¸‡jv wWg w`‡Z _vKj, †mw`b †_‡K kvnvbv I Drm K¨v‡jÛv‡ii Zvwi‡L ÔwUKwPýÕ w`‡Z _vKj| eQi †k‡l †`Lj cÖwZwU gyiwM 250 †_‡K 275wU K‡i wWg w`‡q‡Q| wWg wewµ K‡i `yeQi ci Zv‡`i A‡bK UvKv Rgv nj| QzwU‡Z Avevi evev evwo G‡jb| Zuvi Kv‡Q kvnvbv I Drm cvVvMviwUi KvR Avi¤¢ Kivi Rb¨ civgk© PvBj| evev ivwR n‡jb Ges `ywU fvj cÖ¯ZveI w`‡jb| cÖ_g cÖ¯ZvewU nj, wZwb wb‡Ri Li‡P eyK †kjd evwb‡q †`‡eb| Ab¨wU nj kvnvbv I Drm Zv‡`i gv‡qi mv‡_ XvKv wM‡q wPwoqvLvbv, Rv`yNi I wkïcvK© †`L‡e| Avi GKz‡ki eB †gjv †_‡K Zv‡`i cQ›`g‡Zv eB wK‡b Avb‡e| kvnvbv I Drm evev‡KI Zv‡`i mv‡_ XvKv †h‡Z Aby‡iva Kij| Zviv XvKvq wZb w`b †QvUPvPvi evmvq †_‡K me KvR Kij| Zvici eB wb‡q Zviv evwo‡Z wd‡i G‡jv| Avgvi evsjv eB 55


evwo G‡m `yfvB‡evb wb‡R‡`i N‡i gv‡qi mn‡hvwMZvq my›`i K‡i cvVvMviwU mvRv‡jv| Zv‡`i mncvVxiv I cvovi †Q‡j‡g‡qiv cÖvq mevB cvVvMv‡ii m`m¨ nj| Zviv GK w`b Zv‡`i we`¨vj‡qi wk¶K‡`i I AvZ¥xq-¯^Rb‡`i Avgš¿Y Rvbv‡jv| Zuviv kvnvbv I Dr‡mi my›`i cvVvMvi †`‡L Lye Lywk n‡jb| Zuviv cvVvMvi evbv‡bvi Mí ï‡b Zv‡`i Lye cÖksmv Ki‡jb| Zv‡`i K…wZ‡Z¡i Rb¨ ¯‹y‡ji evwl©K cyi¯‹vi weZiYx Abyôv‡b `yRb‡K cÖksmvcÎ cÖ`vb Kiv nj| cÖksmvc‡Î †jLv wQj ÔcvVvMvi ¯’vc‡bi gnr KvR Kivi Rb¨ kvnvbv I Drm‡K GB cyi¯‹vi cÖ`vb Kiv nj|Õ

cvV wkwL 1. k‡ãi A_© †R‡b wbB I evK¨ ˆZwi Kwi †hŠ_ – GKÎ kvnvbv I Dr†mi gvwUi e¨vsKwUi bvg wQj Ô†hŠ_ e¨vsKÕ| cvVvMvi – jvB‡eªwi, cvVvMv‡i wM‡q eB co| MÖš’vMvi cuywR – mÂq, Rgv Aí cuywR wb‡q kvnvbv gyiwM cvjb Avi¤¢ Kij civgk© – hyw³, Dc‡`k eo‡`i civgk© g‡Zv KvR Ki‡j mdjZv Av‡m K…wZZ¡ – Kvh©`¶Zv mš—v‡bi K…wZ‡Z¡ gvZvwcZv Mwe©Z nb| cyi¯‹vi – Dcnvi cix¶vq cÖ_g ¯’vb AwaKvi K‡i †mvnvM GKwU 56 Avgvi evsjv eB


2.

3.

4. 5.

6.

7.

evsjv Awfavb cyi¯‹vi †c‡q‡Q| evg cv‡ki K_v¸‡jv mv‡_ Wvb cv‡ki K_v¸‡jvi wgj Kwi kvnvbv c‡o fvB‡evb Drm c‡o †jLvcovq Ag‡bv‡hvMx nIqv hv‡e bv kvnvbv I Drm gyiwMcvjb I cvwievwiK jvB‡eªwi Kiv Zv‡`i evev GKRb PZz_© †kªYx‡Z Zv‡`i k‡Li KvR `y wU nj cÖksmvcÎ gv‡qi kZ© nj wk¶K wk¶‡Kiv Zv‡`i cyi¯‹…Z K‡ib Z…Zxq †kªYx‡Z hy³eY© Avjv`v Kwi I bZzb kã ˆZwi Kwi e¨w³MZ – ³ = K& +Z e³v, g³e msMÖn – MÖ = Y& + i-djv ( ª) AvMÖn, RvMÖZ ¯^Rb – ¯^ = m+e ¯^‡`k, ¯^RvwZ kã w`‡q bZzb evK¨ ewj I wjwL eva¨, K¨v‡jÛvi, kZ©, e¨sK, eÜz, kL GK K_vq ewj wb‡Ri B”Qv – †¯^”Qv †Kv‡bv wKQz‡Z gb †`q bv Ggb – Ag‡bv‡hvMx whwb civgk© †`b – civgk©`vZv hv e¨envi Kiv nq bv – Ae¨eüZ cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi ewj I wjwL (K) kvnvbv I Drm Kx kL Kij ? (L) Zviv Kxfv‡e gvwUi e¨vsKwU wKbj ? (M) e¨vs‡K Kxfv‡e UvKv ivLj ? (N) e¨vsKwUi Kx bvg wQj ? (O) Zv‡`i e¨vs‡K †gvU KZ UvKv Rgv nj ? (P) cvVvMv‡ii eB †Kv_v †_‡K msMÖn Kiv nj ? (Q) XvKvq wM‡q Zviv Kx Kx †`Lj ? (R) Kviv cvVvMv‡ii m`m¨ nj ? (S) Kvi civg‡k© Zviv gyiwM cvj‡bi KvR ïi“ Kij ? Avgv‡`i GKwU K‡i k‡Li Kv‡Ri K_v ewj| Avgvi evsjv eB 57


†Uª‡b ågY cÖwZw`b Ac©v‡`i evwoi cvk w`‡q †Uªb hvq| †Uªb Bs‡iwR kã| †Uªb gv‡b †ijMvwo| †ij iv¯Zvi av‡i Zv‡`i evwo| Ac©vi †Uª‡b Povi Lze B‡”Q nq| Zvi bvbv evwo PÆMÖv‡g hvIqvi B‡”Q| Ac©v bvbv evwo hv‡e| †mLv‡b gvgv Avi gvwg Av‡Qb| Ac©vi AveŸv Av¤§v `yRbB ¯‹zj wk¶K| †m Zv‡`i GKgvÎ Kb¨v AveŸv Av¤§v Zv‡K Lye hZœ K‡ib| cÖwZ eQi Mªx‡®§i QzwU‡Z Ac©vi ¯‹zj `xN© w`‡bi Rb¨ eÜ n‡q hvq| QzwUi g‡a¨ †QvU Lvjv wjwc †eov‡Z Av‡mb| GeviI G‡m‡Qb| bvkZvi †Uwe‡j †QvU Lvjv ej‡jb, ÔAvcv I `yjvfvB, Gevi wKš‘ Avwg Ac©v‡K PÆMÖvg wb‡q hv‡ev|Õ Av¤§v Lye AvcwË Ki‡jb| ej‡jb, Ô†`L wjwc, Zzwg Ac©vi Ae¯’v Rvb bv| GKUz‡Z Ii VvÊv jv‡M, GKUz‡Z R¡i nq| Zzwg I‡K wb‡q g¯Z Sv‡gjvq co‡e|Õ †QvULvjv bv‡Qvoev›`v| ej‡jb, ÔAvcv Zzwg wK”Qz wPš—v K‡iv bv| Avwg I‡K AvM‡j ivLe|Õ hvÎvi Av‡Mi iv‡Î Ac©v GKwU my›`i ¯^cœ †`Lj| ¯^cœwU nj Ac©vi bvbv Ac©v‡K †`vqv Ki‡jb| wKQzw`b Av‡M wZwb n¾ K‡i g°v kwid †_‡K wd‡i G‡m‡Qb| 58 Avgvi evsjv eB


hvIqvi w`b G‡m †M‡jv| mKv‡j Ac©vi Nyg fvOj| AvenvIqv Lye fv‡jv bq| AvKv‡k †gN wQj| m~h© †`Lv hvw”Qj bv| we`y¨r PgKvw”Qj I eRªcvZ nw”Qj| el©vi mgq bq| A_P GK ckjv e„wóI n‡q †M‡jv| Ac©v‡`i †bIqvi Rb¨ U¨vw· G‡jv| iv¯Zvq wfo †bB| GKUv `y‡Uv UªvK PjwQj| Ac©v‡K wb‡q wjwcLvjv †mvRv †÷k‡b P‡j †M‡jb| j¤^v †UªbwUi mvg‡b wQj BwÄb| wjwc Kvjv ej‡jb, ÔGLbI BwÄb jv‡Mwb| BwÄb Kvgivi m‡½ hy³ n‡j GKUz av°v jv‡M|Õ A‡bK hvÎx †Uª‡b wQj| KviI nv‡Z ev· wQj, KviI nv‡Z e¨vM wQj| Kzwji gv_vq wQj e¯Zv| wjwcLvjv †Uª‡bi gvSLv‡b GK Kvgivq DV‡jb|

GUv cÖ_g †kªYxi K¶| GB K‡¶ †jvK †ewk wQj bv| gvÎ mvZ AvU Rb †jvK wQj| †QvÆ GKUv ev”Pv‡K wb‡q Zvi gvI DV‡jb| wKQz¶Y ci av°v jvMj Kvgiv‡Z| Ac©v eyS‡Z cvij G evi BwÄb †j‡M‡Q| †÷k‡bi †cQ‡bi w`‡K eû †jvK D”P ¯^‡i K_v ej‡Q| g‡b nq †Kv‡bv MʇMvj n‡q‡Q| wjwc Lvjv cwÎKvIqvjv‡`i KvQ †_‡K GKUv cwÎKv wKb‡jb| Ggb mgq †Uª‡bi NÈv evRj| euvwk evwR‡q †Uªb Pj‡Z Avi¤¢ Kij| Ac©vi Lye Avb›` nw”Qj| †m Rvbvjvi av‡i wQj| †jvKRb, evwoNi, MvQcvjv me cðv‡Zi w`‡K `ª“Z m‡i hvw”Qj| Ac©v †`Lj moK w`‡q G‡Ki ci GK gUi Mvwo hv‡”Q| Ac©v Mvwoi msL¨v ¸Yj – GK, `yB, cuvP, mvZ, `k, wek, wÎk, Pwj−k, cÂvk, mËi, beŸB, GKk| †m Avi ¸Y‡Z cvij bv| moKwU `~‡i P‡j †Mj| Avgvi evsjv eB 59


wjwcLvjv cwÎKv covq gMœ wQ‡jb| I w`‡K GK hvÎx Mí KiwQj| A‡b¨iv AvMÖ‡ni m‡½ Zvi Mí ïbwQj| nVvr †QvU ev”PvwU Kvbœv Ry‡o w`j| Zxeª Kvbœvi ¯^i †kvbv †Mj| fvwi weiw³ jvMwQj Ac©vi| Ac©v evB‡ii w`‡K `„wó w`‡qwQj| `~‡i meyR avb‡¶Z, Av‡iv `~‡i meyR e„¶| Zvi †PvL Rywo‡q †Mj| weivU GK b`x cvi nj †Uªb| weª‡Ri Ici w`‡q Mg Mg K‡i hvw”Qj| wjwcLvjv ej‡jb, ÔG nj †gNbv b`x|Õ b`xi I cv‡i wM‡q †Uªb _vgj| wjwcLvjv ej‡jb, ÔG †÷k‡bi bvg AvïMÄ| GLv‡b µwms n‡e| µwms gv‡b D‡ëv w`K †_‡K Av‡iKUv †Uªb Avm‡e|Õ GK AÜ wfLvix wf¶v PvBwQj| ejwQj, ÔAvwg AÜ, Avgvi `yB P¶z bvB| hvi `y wU P¶z bvB Zvi g‡Zv `yf©vMv Avi †KD bvB| Avgv‡K GKwU UvKv †`b Av¤§v|Õ wjwc Lvjv GKwU gy`ªv wfLvix‡K w`‡jb| D‡ëv w`‡Ki †Uªb cvi n‡q †Mj| Ac©v‡`i †Uªb Avevi QzUj| A‡bK¶Y ci _vgj Av‡iKUv †÷k‡b| Ac©v †÷k‡bi bvg c‡o wbj Kzwgj−v| wgwóIqvjv wgwó wewµ KiwQj| wjwcLvjv m‡›`k wK‡b w`‡jb Ac©v‡K| `k wgwbU ci †Uªb Avevi Pj‡Z jvM‡jv| Pj‡Z Pj‡Z Ac©v Nywg‡q †Mj| Ac©vi Nyg fvOj wjwcLvjvi Wv‡K, ÔGB Ac©v, IV, †`L †`L KZ DuPz cvnvo|Õ Nyg †_‡K D‡V emj Ac©v| mwZ¨B †Zv ! `~‡i mvwimvwi cvnvo| GKwU cvnvo wQj Lye DuPz| Ac©vi †Pv‡L we¯§q †`Lv †Mj| Gi Av‡M †m cvnvo-ce©Z †`‡L wb| cvnvo †hb AvKvk ¯ck© K‡i Av‡Q| GKUz c‡i wjwcLvjv Wvb w`‡K Bw½Z Ki‡jb| Gevi Av‡iK we¯§q A‡c¶v KiwQj| I w`‡K cvwb Avi cvwb| wjwc Kvjv ej‡jb, ÔIUv mgy`ª|Õ GB me bZzb `„k¨ †`L‡Z †`L‡Z Pjj Ac©v| wKQz¶Y c‡i wjwcLvjv ej‡jb, ÔAc©v, Avgiv PÆMÖvg †cuŠ‡Q †MwQ|Õ

cvV wkwL hy³eY© wP‡b wbB I bZzb kã cwo †Uªb – Uª = U& + i-djv ( ª) UªvK ågY – å = f& + i-djv ( ª) åvZv cÖwZ – cÖ = c& + i-djv ( ª) cÖfvZ

60 Avgvi evsjv eB

wKš‘ – š‘ = b& + Z + y Rš‘ AvcwË – Ë = Z& + Z wPË Ae¯’v – ¯’ = m& + _ ¯’vb


Ac©v – c© = †id ( © ) + c iv¯Zv – ¯Z- m& + Z B‡”Q – ”Q = P& + Q kªxnÆ – Æ = U& + U ¯^cœ – ¯^ = m + e ¯‹zj – ¯‹ = m& + K Kb¨v – b¨ = b& + ¨ djv MÖx®§ - MÖ = M& + i ( ª) djv fx®§ - ®§ = l& + g-djv `xN© - N© = †id ( © ) + N eÜ – Ü = b& + a g‡a¨ - a¨ = a& + ¨ djv ev· - · = K& + m-djv †÷kb – ÷ = m& + U j¤^v – ¤^ = g& + e BwÄb – Ä = T& + R hy³ - ³ = K& + Z wewµ - µ = K& + i ( ª) djv D‡ë – ë = j& + U `yf©vMv – f© = †id ( © ) + f we¯§q – ¯§ = ¯^ + g-djv ce©Z – e© = †id ( © ) + e `k©b – k© = †id ( © ) + k& `„k¨ - k¨ = k& + ¨ djv

`c© m¯Zv Av”Qv VvÆv ¯^Rb we¯‹zU eb¨v AvMÖn MÖx®§ AN© MÜ mva¨ U¨v· ÷vi nv¤^v MÄ wei³ eµ cvëv `yf©vM¨ f¯§ me© ek©v ek¨

VvÊv – Ê = Y& + W e¨vÊ R¡i – R¡ = R + e R¡jv ev›`v – ›` = b& + ` m‡›`k hvÎv – Î = Z& + ª djv cwÎKv av°v – ° = K& + K g°v wb`ªv - `ª = `& + i ( ª) djv `ª“Z m~h© - h© = †id ( © ) + h Kvh© we`y¨r - `¨ = `& + ¨ djv we`¨v eRª - Rª = R& + i ( ª) djv eRªvmb el©v – l© = †id ( © ) + l nl© e„wó – ó = l& + U Kó U¨vw· - U¨ = U + ¨ djv U¨viv gMœ – Mœ = M& + b jMœ Mí – í = j& + c Kíbv Zxeª - eª = i& + i ( ª) djv †Reªv Kvbœv – bœ = b& + b cvbœv e¨vM – e¨ = e + ¨ djv e¨vO †kªYx – kª = k& + i ( ª)djv wekªvg ev”Pv – ”P = P& + P D”P ¯^i – ¯^ = m + e djv ¯^vaxb NÈv – È = Y& + U eÈb Avi¤¢ - ¤¢ = g& + f `¤¢ msL¨v - _¨ = L& + ¨ djv weL¨vZ cÂvk –  = T& + P AÂj

Avgvi evsjv eB 61


2. DËi ewj I wjwL (K) Ac©v Kvi mv‡_ PÆMÖvg †Mj ? (L) Ac©v †h w`b PÆMÖvg †Mj †m w`b AvKv‡ki Ae¯’v †Kgb wQj ? (M) †Uª‡b Kvgivi m‡½ BwÄb jvMvi mgq Kx nq ? (N) †Uª‡b hvIqvi c‡_ Ac©v Kx Kx †`Lj ? (O) †UªbwU †Kvb b`xi Ici w`‡q †Mj ? (P) µwms gv‡b Kx ? (Q) Ac©vi Nyg fvwO‡q wjwcLvjv Zv‡K Kx †`Lv‡jb ? (R) PÆMÖvg hvIqvi c‡_ †Kvb †Kvb †÷k‡b †Uªb _vgj ? (S) Ac©v Kxfv‡e PÆMÖvg †Mj †m MíwU wb‡Ri fvlvq ewj I wjwL| 3. †R‡b wbB GKB eY© wØZ¡ n‡j Zv‡K ejv nq hyM¥eY© : g& + g = ¤§, (Av¤§v) e& + e = eŸv, (AveŸv) wfbœ eY© mshy³ n‡j Zv‡K hy³eY© ejv nq : K& + Z = ³, (hy³) M& + g = M¥, (hyM¥)

62 Avgvi evsjv eB


dig c~iY wb‡R wb‡R wjwL

bvg eqm Rb¥ ZvwiL gvZvi bvg wcZvi bvg evmvi wVKvbv MÖvg we`¨vj‡qi bvg we`¨vj‡qi wVKvbv †Rjvi bvg wefv‡Mi bvg †`‡ki bvg RvZxqZv

ZvwiL :

: : : : : : : : : : : : :

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

¯^v¶i

Avgvi evsjv eB 63


cvV wkwL 1.

Kv‡K e‡j Rvwb I evK¨ Mwo BDwbqb – K‡qKwU BDwbqb wb‡q GKwU _vbv nq| _vbv – K‡qKwU MÖvg wb‡q BDwbqb GKwU BDwbqb nq| †Rjv – K‡qKwU _vbv wb‡q GKwU †Rjv nq| wefvM – K‡qKwU †Rjv wb‡q GKwU wefvM nq| RvZxqZv – RvwZMZ cwiPq ¯^v¶i – mB, `¯ZLZ

Avgv‡`i BDwbq‡b A‡bK¸‡jv ¯‹zj Av‡Q| Avcbv‡`i _vbvi bvg Kx ? Avcwb †Kvb †Rjvi Awaevmx ? Avcbvi evwo wK Lyjbv wefv‡M ? Avgvi RvZxqZv evsjv‡`kx| KvM‡R ¯^v¶i Ki“b|

2. evsjv‡`‡ki wZbwU †Rjvi bvg ewj I wjwL| 3. evsjv‡`‡ki `ywU wefv‡Mi bvg ewj I wjwL| 4. Av¤§v I AveŸv †evSvq G iKg Av‡iv kã ewj I wjwL|

64 Avgvi evsjv eB


Av`k© †Q‡j KzmygKzgvix `vk Avgv‡`i †`‡k n‡e †mB †Q‡j K‡e K_vq bv eo n‡q Kv‡R eo n‡e ? gy‡L nvwm ey‡K ej, †Z‡R fiv gb Ôgvbyl nB‡Z n‡eÕ – GB hvi cY| wec` Avwm‡j Kv‡Q nI Av¸qvb bvB wK kix‡i Ze i³, gvsm, cÖvY ? nvZ cv meviB Av‡Q, wg‡Q †Kb fq ? †PZbv i‡q‡Q hvi, †m wK c‡o iq ? †m †Q‡j †K Pvq ej, K_vq K_vq Av‡m hvi †Pv‡LRj, gv_v Ny‡i hvq ? g‡b cÖv‡Y LvU m‡e, kw³ Ki `vb, †Zvgiv ÔgvbylÕ n‡j †`‡ki Kj¨vY| Avgvi evsjv eB 65


cvV wkwL 1. k‡ãi A_© †R‡b wbB I bZzb evK¨ iPbv Kwi Av`k© − AbymiYxq, AviRy evev I gv‡qi Av`k© †Q‡j? †g‡b Pjvi †hvM¨ K‡e − KLb K‡e Zzwg Avm‡e ? ej − kw³ fvj K‡i LvI, †`‡n ej evovI| †ZR − kw³, †Rvi Avgvi eo fvB‡qi g‡bi †ZR Lye †ewk| cY − cÖwZÁv, kc_ †m cY K‡i ivL‡Z cv‡iwb| †PZbv − Ávb, †eva Zvi fv‡jv KvR Kivi †PZbv Av‡Q| LvUv − cwikªg Kiv Lye LvUv n‡q‡Q, n‡q‡Q, GLb wekªvg bvI| Kj¨vY − g½j, fvj †m †`‡ki Kj¨vY Ki‡Z Pvq| 2. ey‡S wbB K_vq eo nIqv − gy‡L eo K_v ejv, Avùvjb Kiv Kv‡R eo nIqv − KvR K‡i mdj nIqv I L¨vwZ AR©b Kiv †Z‡R fiv gb − g‡bi g‡a¨ †Rvi _vKv gvbyl nB‡Z n‡e − gvby‡li ¸Y AR©b Ki‡Z n‡e wg‡Q †Kb fq ? − f‡qi †Kv‡bv KviY †bB, fq wg_¨v †PZbv i‡q‡Q hvi − hvi †fZ‡i fv‡jv Kv‡Ri Rb¨ ZvwM` Av‡Q †m wK c‡o iq ? − †m Ajm n‡q Zv‡K bv gv_v Ny‡i hvq − w`‡knviv n‡q hvq †`‡ki Kj¨vY − †`‡ki fv‡jv 3. evK¨ iPbv Kwi gvbyl, wec`, kixi, †PZbv, Kj¨vY 4. gvby‡li kixi welqK kã †R‡b wbB i³, gvsm, nvZ, cv, gv_v, gyL, eyK, †PvL, Kvb, bvK, †cU, wcV, †Kvgi, Pzj

66 Avgvi evsjv eB


5. DËi ewj I wjwL (K) †Q‡j eo n‡e wK‡m ? (L) †Q‡ji cY Kx ? (M) †K c‡o _v‡K bv ? (N) †Kvb †Q‡j‡K mevB Pvq ? (O) †`‡ki Kj¨vY KLb n‡e ? (P) Av`k© †Q‡ji ¸Y Kx Kx ? 6. KweZvwU mevB wg‡j evi evi cwo|

Avgvi evsjv eB 67


Rqbyj Av‡ew`b 1914 mv‡ji 29 †k wW‡m¤^i Rqbyj Av‡ew`b wK‡kviM‡Ä Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi evevi bvg ZwgRDwÏb Avng`| ZwgRDwÏb Avng` cywjk wefv‡M Kg©iZ wQ‡jb| Rqby‡ji gv‡qi bvg Rqbvey‡bœmv| Rqby‡jiv bq fvB‡evb wQ‡jb| fvB‡`i g‡a¨ Rqbyj wQ‡jb eo| Zuvi ¯‹zj Rxeb †K‡UwQj gqgbwmsn kn‡i| gqgbwms‡ni g„Zz¨Äq we`¨vj‡q wZwb co‡Zb| †Q‡j‡ejv †_‡KB Rqbyj wQ‡jb Ab¨ mncvVx‡`i †P‡q Avjv`v| mevB hLb û‡j−vo KiZ, Rqbyj ZLb g‡bv‡hvM w`‡q AvKv‡ki is e`‡j hvIqv †`L‡Zb| eªþcyÎ b`wU wQj Zuvi Lye wcÖq| eªþcy‡Îi R‡j wZwb AvKv‡ki Qvqv †`L‡Zb, †g‡Ni Qvqv †`L‡Zb| gvwSiv hLb †bŠKv †e‡q †hZ, ZLb wZwb AevK n‡q Zv‡`i †bŠKv Pvjv‡bv †`L‡Zb| ˆeVv Pvjv‡bvi mgq gvwS‡`i nv‡Zi †cwk †Kgb K‡i dz‡j I‡V, Zv Zuvi †Pv‡L coZ| Zuvi eqm ZLb Lye †ewk wQj bv| wKš‘ Rxeb‡K, gvbyl‡K, cÖK…wZ‡K wZwb Mfxi Aš—`©„wó w`‡q eyS‡Z PvB‡Zb| gvwSi nv‡Zi †cwki dz‡j IVv †hgb Zuvi bR‡i coZ, †Zgwb Mi“-Mvwo Uvbvi mgq Mi“i cv‡qi †cwki ms‡KvPbI cÖmviYI Zuvi bRi KvoZ| eªþcy‡Îi cv‡o wQj Kvkeb| †fv‡ii Av‡jvq Avi mܨvi Qvqvq Kvkeb Aciƒc my›`i n‡q DVZ| Rqbyj b`xi cv‡o e‡m NÈvi ci NÈv †mB `„k¨ †`L‡Zb| cÖK…wZi is Zuvi gb‡K AvK…ó KiZ| 68 Avgvi evsjv eB


hLb ¯‹z‡j co‡Zb, ZLb †_‡KB wZwb Qwe AuvK‡Zb| g‡bi g‡a¨ †Kv‡bv wKQz fv‡jv jvM‡jB wZwb Zv †iLvq AuvKvi †Póv Ki‡Zb| Zuvi wk¶‡Kiv Zv‡K Lye Drmvn w`‡Zb| evwo‡Z Zuv‡K Drmvn w`‡Zb gv| wKš‘ ZLbKvi mgv‡Ri A‡bK †jvK Qwe AuvKv‡K fv‡jv bR‡i †`L‡Zb bv| Zuviv wb›`v Ki‡Zb| Qwe AuvKvq Rqby‡ji A`g¨ Drmvn wQj| †ev‡¤^ µwbKj cwÎKvi Av‡qvR‡b Qwe AuvKvi cÖwZ‡hvwMZvq Rqbyj cÖ_g ¯’vb AwaKvi K‡iwQ‡jb| GB cyi¯‹vi †c‡q Qwe AuvKvi Drmvn Zuvi Av‡iv †e‡o hvq| wZwb eyS‡Z cv‡ib, Qwe Gu‡K wZwb wb‡R‡K cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡eb| KjKvZvi AvU© ¯‹z‡j covi Lye B”Qv wQj Rqby‡ji| wKš‘ Zuvi evevi †mB Avw_©K m½wZ wQj bv| Rqby‡ji GKvš— AvMÖn Avi Qwe AuvKvi cÖwZ Mfxi fv‡jvevmv †`‡L Zuvi gv‡qi gb †Kvgj Avi †mœnv`ª© n‡q DVj| wZwb Zuvi GB mš—v‡bi g‡bi B”Qv c~i‡Yi Rb¨ wb‡Ri Mjvi †mvbvi nvi wewµ K‡i w`‡jb| †mB UvKvq Rqbyj fwZ© n‡jbÔKwjKvZv AvU© ¯‹z‡j|Õ KjKvZv AvU© ¯‹z‡j covi mgq cÖwZwU cix¶vq Rqbyj K…wZ‡Z¡i cwiPq w`‡jb| †kl cix¶vq cÖ_g wefv‡M cÖ_g ¯’vb AwaKvi Ki‡jb| 1938 mv‡j RvZxq wPÎcÖ`k©bx‡Z QqwU Rj is Qwei Rb¨ wZwb †c‡jb m¤§vbRbK cyi¯‹vi ÔMfb©‡ii ¯^Y©c`K|Õ †mB mgq GB c`K wQj wkíx‡`i Rb¨ weij m¤§v‡bi e¨vcvi| QvÎve¯’v‡ZB AsKbwkíx wn‡m‡e Rqbyj mybvg †c‡qwQ‡jb| K‡qKwU NUbv‡K welq K‡i AuvKv Zuvi Qwe c„w_exi wkí iwmK‡`i gy» K‡iwQj|

1943-Gi gš^š—i‡K wb‡q AuvKv Qwe¸‡jv †`‡L †evSv hvq Rqbyj Av‡ew`b KZ eo wkíx wQ‡jb| Ô`ywf©¶Õ GB wk‡ivbv‡g wZwb wmwiR Qwe Auv‡Kb| 1944 mv‡j Avgvi evsjv eB 69


Qwe¸‡jvi cÖ`k©bx nq| Qwe¸‡jv‡Z wZwb AuvK‡jb KvK I KzKz‡ii mv‡_ eyfy¶z gvbyl Wv÷web †_‡K Lvevi Lv‡”Q| gvby‡li jv‡ki Ici e‡m gvsm Lv‡”Q KvK I kKzb| wZwb AuvK‡jb dzUcv‡Z, iv¯—vq c‡o _vKv wbibœ ¶zavZ© gvby‡li Qwe| 1970 mv‡i MÖvg evsjvi Drme wb‡q Auv‡Kb 65 dzU `xN© Zuvi weL¨vZ Qwe ÔbevbœÕ| 1970 mv‡ji 12B b‡f¤^i †`‡k fqven N~wY©So I R‡jv”Q¡vm nq| Gi e¨vcK gvbweK ¶wZ wkíx‡K e¨w_Z K‡i| wZwb Auv‡Kb 30 dzU `xN© Ôgbcyiv : 70Õ QwewU| Zuvi weL¨vZ Av‡iv K‡qKwU Qwei g‡a¨ D‡j−L‡hvM¨ Qwe nj ÔSoÕ, ÔMuv‡qi ea~Õ, Ôwe‡`ªvnxÕ, Ô¸YUvbvÕ, ÔmuvIZvj igYxÕ, ÔgvÕ BZ¨vw`| wZwb KjKvZv miKvix AvU© ¯‹z‡j Ges XvKvq Ôbg©vj ¯‹z‡jÕ Av‡U©i wk¶K wQ‡jb| c‡i 1948 mv‡j cÖwZôv K‡ib ÔXvKv AvU© Bbw÷wUDUÕ| eZ©gv‡b GwU XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi ÔPvi“Kjv Abyl`Õ| evsjv‡`‡k Pvi“KjvPP©vi †¶‡Î wkíx Rqbyj Av‡ew`‡bi Ae`vb me‡P‡q †ewk| †`k‡K, †`‡ki gvbyl‡K fv‡jvevm‡Zb e‡j wZwb †P‡qwQ‡jb †jvKwkí Rv`yNi I Kvi“wkícj−x M‡o Zzj‡Z| Zuvi cQ‡›`i RvqMv wQj cÖvPxb evsjvi ivRavbx †mvbvi Muv| Zuvi g„Zz¨i ci †mvbviMuv‡q †jvKwkí Rv`yNi I Kvi“wkícj−x M‡o †Zvjv nq| 1976 mv‡ji 28 †k GwcÖj wZwb gviv hvb| Pvi“Kjv Bbw÷wUD‡Ui cv‡k Zuv‡K mgvwnZ Kiv nq| XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq gmwR` PZ¡‡i RvZxq Kwe KvRx bRi“j Bmjv‡gi mgvwai cv‡k i‡q‡Q wkívPvh© Rqbyj Av‡ew`‡bi mgvwa|

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70 Avgvi evsjv eB

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Zvi Avw_©K m½wZ †bB| m½wZ _vK‡j mvwRqv Wv³wi coZ| gv‡qi †mœnv`©ª wP‡Ëi †Kv‡bv Zzjbv nq bv| mš—v‡bi K…wZ‡Z¡ Mwe©Z nb gv|

AsKb wkíx Kvgi“j nvmv‡bi Qwe Avwg †`L‡Z PvB wkíiwmK‡`i Kv‡Q Rqby‡ji K`i wQj| Avgvi evsjv eB 71


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72 Avgvi evsjv eB

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Rqbyj Av‡ew`‡bi AuvKv Qwe †`‡L †`k-we‡`‡ki gvbyl gy» n‡qwQj| 1350 mv‡j mviv evsjvq fqven gš^š—i nq| wbiš—i PP©v bv Ki‡j wkíx nIqv hvq bv|

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†`kMovi Rb¨ e¨vcK cwikªg Kiv DwPZ| XvKv AvU© K‡jR cÖwZôv K‡iwQ‡jb Rqbyj Av‡ew`b| wkíx Kvgi“j nvmvb Pvi“Kjv Bbw÷wUD‡Ui wk¶K wQ‡jb| evsjv‡`‡ki wPÎwk‡í Rqbyj Av‡ew`‡bi Ae`vb me‡P‡q †ewk| evsjv‡`‡ki †jvKwkí AZ¨š— mg„×| evsjv‡`‡ki RvZxq Rv`yN‡i †M‡j evsjv‡`k m¤c‡K© A‡bK wKQz Rvbv hvq, A‡bK wKQz wKQz †`Lv hvq| kxZKv‡j †mvbvi Muv‡q Kvi“ wkícj−x‡Z †gjv nq| Rv`y N‡i cÖvPxbKv‡ji wKQz cyivKxwZ© i‡q‡Q| Avgvi evsjv eB 73


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GKz‡k †deª“qvwi fvlv knx`‡`i mgvwa‡Z Avgiv kª×vÄwj †`B| 2. mwVK Dˇii Ic‡i wUKwPý (√) w`B (K) Rqby‡ji AuvKv wmwiR Qwei wk‡ivbvg : Muv‡qi ea~ / `ywf©¶ / So (L) MÖvg evsjvi Drme wb‡q AuvKv Qwei bvg : gv / we‡`ªvnx / bevbœ (M) fqven N~wY©So I R‡jv”Q¡vm wb‡q AuvK Qwei bvg : gbcyiv : 70 / ¸YUvbv / muvIZvj igYx (N) Rqbyj XvKv AvU© K‡jR cÖwZôv K‡ib : 1948 / 1970 / 1976 mv‡j (O) wZwb †jvKwkí Rv`yNi I Kvi“ wkícj−x Mo‡Z †P‡qwQ‡jb : Kzwgj−v / PÆMÖv‡g / †mvbvi Muv‡q / wm‡j‡U 3. wecixZ kã wkwL I wjwL `„k¨ – A`„k¨ wb›`v – cÖksmv AvMÖn – AbvMÖn Qvqv – Av‡jv cQ›` – AcQ›` ms‡KvPb – cÖmviY 4. gy‡L gy‡L ms‡¶‡c DËi ewj I wjwL (K) Rqbyj Av‡ew`b KZ mv‡j Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib ? (L) Zuvi Rb¥¯’v‡bi bvg Kx ? (M) Zuvi wcZv I gvZvi bvg Kx ?

74 Avgvi evsjv eB


(N) (O) (P) (Q) (R) 5.

Rqbyjiv Kq fvB‡evb wQ‡jb ? ¯‹z‡j covi mgq †Kvb cÖwZ‡hvwMZvq wZwb cÖ_g ¯’vb AwaKvi K‡ib ? Qwe AuvKv †kLvi Rb¨ wZwb †Kvb cÖwZôv‡b fwZ© nb ? †K Zuvi covi LiP †hvMvb ? RvZxq wPÎcÖ`k©bx‡Z wZwb †Kvb c`K †c‡jb ? Qwe AuvKvi K‡qKwU gva¨‡gi bvg wkwL Rj is, †gvg is, †Zj is 6. wb‡Pi k㸇jv evi evi cwo I wjwL `„k¨, AvK…ó, K…wZZ¡, gy», wkíx, wbibœ, `ywf©¶, eyfy¶z, gš^š—i, cÖvPxb, Kvi“wkí, †jvKwkí, R‡jv”Q¡vm, wkívPvh©, m¤§vbRbK 7. Rqbyj Av‡ew`‡bi AuvKv PviwU Qwei bvg ewj I wjwL| 8. wb‡Ri †`Lv GKwU Drm‡ei Qwe AuvwK| 9. wb‡Ri †`Lv GKwU †gjvi Qwe AuvwK| 10. wb‡Ri †`Lv GKwU b`x I Zvi cv‡oi `yk¨ AuvwK| 11. †R‡b ivwL evsjv‡`‡ki Av‡iv GK Rb weL¨vZ wPÎwkíxi bvg Kvgi“j nvmvb| Zuv‡K ejv nq cUzqv Kvgi“j| wZwb bvbv gva¨‡g Qwe AuvK‡Zb| evsjv‡`‡ki MÖvg, †gjv, cÖK…wZ, wkï, bvix – G me wb‡q wZwb Qwe AuvK‡Zb| wZwb Qwe AuvK‡Zb KL‡bv K¨vbfv‡m, KL‡bv KvM‡R| Kjm, gvwUi cvwZj, miv, Kzjv, Wvjv, cvwU, myivwn, NwU, Kjg`vwb, dzj`vwb‡ZI wZwb Qwe AuvK‡Zb| me mgq wZwb D¾¡j is e¨envi Ki‡Zb| wZwbI XvKv AvU© K‡j‡Ri wk¶K wQ‡jb| wkívPvh© Rqbyj Av‡ew`‡bi mv‡_ Zuvi m¤cK© wQj wbKUvZ¥x‡qi g‡Zv| 1988 mv‡ji 2iv †deª“qvwi wkíx Kvgi“j nvmv‡bi g„Zz¨ nq| Zuv‡K mgvwnZ Kiv nq wkívPv‡h©i mgvwai cv‡k, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq gmwR` PZ¡‡i|

Avgvi evsjv eB 75


Avgv‡`i MÖvg e‡›` Avjx wgqv Avgv‡`i †QvU Muv‡q †QvU †QvU Ni, _vwK †m_v m‡e wg‡j bvwn †Kn ci| cvovi mKj †Q‡j †gviv fvB fvB, GK mv‡_ †Lwj Avi cvVkv‡j hvB| Avgv‡`i †QvU MÖvg gv‡qi mgvb, Av‡jv w`‡q, evqy w`‡q euvPvB‡Q cÖvY| gvV fiv avb Zvi Rj fiv w`wN, Puv‡`i wKiY †j‡M K‡i wSwKwgwK| Avg MvQ, Rvg MvQ, euvk Svo †hb, wg‡j wg‡k Av‡Q Iiv AvZ¥xq †nb| mKv‡j †mvbvi iwe c~e w`‡K I‡V, cvwL Wv‡K, evqy eq, bvbv dzj †dv‡U|

76 Avgvi evsjv eB


cvV wkwL 1. k‡ãi A_© wkwL I bZzb evK¨ ˆZwi Kwi †m_v − †mLv‡b †m_vq Av‡Q †gv‡`i †QvU Muv| cvVkvjv − we`¨vjq mKv‡j †QvU †Q‡j‡g‡qiv `j †eu‡a cvVkvjvq hvq| wKiY − Av‡jv, mKv‡ji iwe †mvbvi wKiY Qovq| Av‡jvK iwk¥ euvk Svo − euv‡ki †Svc mܨvi Av‡MB euvk Sv‡o Auvavi bv‡g| AvZ¥xq − AvcbRb, Bwb Avgvi AvZ¥xq| ¯^Rb, KzUzg †nb − Ggb †nb KvR †bB, hv †m cv‡i bv| iwe − m~h© †fvi †ejvq cye AvKv‡k iwe †`Lv hvq| 2. wecixZ kã Luy‡R wbB Ges wjwL Muv‡q cwðg Avcb Qvqv weKvj AbvZ¥xq cye kn‡i AvZ¥xq ci Av‡jv mKvj 3. DËi¸‡jv ewj I wjwL (K) †QvU Muv‡qi Ni¸‡jv †`L‡Z †Kgb ? (L) mevB †mLv‡b Kxfv‡e _v‡K ? (M) †Q‡j‡g‡qiv GK mv‡_ Kx Kx K‡i ? (N) †QvU MÖvgwU wK‡mi mgvb ? (O) Av‡jv Avi evqy Avgv‡`i Kx Kv‡R jv‡M ? (P) w`wNi Rj †Kb wSwKwgwK K‡i ? Avgvi evsjv eB 77


4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

(Q) †mvbvi iwe KLb I‡V ? †Kvb w`‡K I‡V ? (R) mKv‡j Avi Kx Kx nq ? wgj Luy‡R †ei Kwi gvV fiv cye w`‡K I‡V Rj fiv †Lwj GK mv‡_ w`wN †mvbvi iwe avb †K Kx K‡i Av‡iv †R‡b wbB cvwL Wv‡K dzj †dv‡U evqy eq †K Kx K‡i AviI †R‡b wbB e„wó c‡o b`x eq dj d‡j cvwL Mvq c‡ii PiYwU wgwj‡q cwo I wjwL (K) cvovi mKj †Q‡j †gviv fvB fvB, ----------------------------------------------------| (L) Avgv‡`i †QvU MÖvg gv‡qi mgvb, -----------------------------------------------------| (M) Avg MvQ, Rvg MvQ, euvk Svo †hb, -----------------------------------------------------| †Kvb¸‡jv MÖv‡gi Zv Luy‡R †ei Kwi cvVkvjv, wkï cvK©, Rjfiv w`wN, `vjvb‡KvVv, euvk Svo, Mvwo‡Nvov, gvV fiv avb, ivRc_ KweZvwU Ave„wË Kwi Ges bv †`‡L wjwL|

78 Avgvi evsjv eB


RvZxq †Ljv nv-Wy-Wy †Ljvayjv kixi I g‡bi DrKl© mvab K‡i| my¯’, mej, nvwmLywk Rxeb MV‡b †hgb †Ljvayjvi ¸i“Z¡c~Y© f~wgKv iv‡L, †Zgwb my¯’, mej RvwZ MV‡bI †Ljvayjvi ¸i“Z¡c~Y© f~wgKv i‡q‡Q| †m Rb¨ mviv `ywbqvq †Ljvayjvi GZ mgv`i| Z‡e AvenvIqv, Rjevqy I HwZn¨MZ Kvi‡Y cÖwZwU †`‡ki †Ljvayjvi wbR¯^ wKQz ˆewkó¨ _v‡K| evsjv‡`‡ki Rjevqy I AvenvIqv Dc‡hvMx AZ¨š— RbwcÖq †Ljv n‡”Q nv-Wy-Wy| hLb G †`‡k wµ‡KU, dzUej ev nwK †Ljvi cÖPjb wQj bv, ZLb nv-Wy-Wy wQj me©vwaK cÖPwjZ RvZxq †Ljv| Bs‡iR‡`i RvZxq †Ljv †hgb wµ‡KU, Av‡gwiKvb‡`i RvZxq †Ljv †hgb †em ej, †Zgwb Avgvv‡`i RvZxq †Ljv nj nvWy-Wy| Gi Ab¨ bvg KvevwW| nv-Wy-Wy ev KvevwW evsjv‡`‡ki wbR¯^ HwZn¨evnx GKwU MÖvgxY †Ljv| †KD †KD g‡b K‡ib GB †Ljvi Rb¥ dwi`cy‡i| †KD †KD Gi DrcwË ¯’j ewikvj e‡j _v‡Kb| Z‡e evsjv‡`‡ki me©Î GB †Ljvi cÖPjb Av‡Q| nv-Wy-Wy ev KvevwW n‡”Q gy³ gv‡Vi Dc‡hvMx †Ljv| el©vKvj Qvov Ab¨vb¨ me FZz‡ZB nv-Wy-Wy †Ljv nIqv m¤¢e| †h †Kv‡bv cwi®‹vi-cwi”Qbœ mgZj gv‡V G †Ljvi Av‡qvRb Kiv nq| mnR, mij, Abvo¤^i I webv A_© e¨‡qi G †Ljvq cÖPzi Avb›` I D‡ËRbv Av‡Q| Zx¶èeyw×, w¶cÖMwZ, cÖej kw³, myPZzi Kvq`v, `xN©¯’vqx `g, mr mvnm Ges mwVK wm×vš— G †Ljvi Rb¨ we‡klfv‡e `iKvi n‡q _v‡K| G †Ljv wkï wK‡kvi‡`i Dc‡hvMx| nv-Wy-Wy †Ljvq cÖ_‡gB †L‡jvqvo‡`i `ywU `‡j fvM K‡i wb‡Z nq| cÖwZ `‡ji †L‡jvqv‡oiv Zv‡`i `j‡bZv wbe©vPb K‡i| †bZvi Aax‡b `y`‡j mgvb msL¨K †L‡jvqvo _vK‡e| mvaviYZ †L‡jvqvo _v‡K 12 Rb| Z‡e cÖwZ evi 7 R‡bi `j wb‡q †Lj‡Z nq| evwK 5 Rb‡K AwZwi³ ev wiRv‡f© ivLv nq| †L‡jvqv‡oi msL¨v cÖwZ `‡j MZB †nvK bv †Kb, nv-Wy-Wy †Ljvi gvV nIqv PvB 42 dzU j¤^v I 27 dzU PIov| gv‡Vi wVK ga¨Lv‡b `vM †K‡U gvV‡K `yfv‡M fvM Kiv nq| GB fvM‡K Ô†KvUÕ e‡j| `yc‡¶i `y`j gy‡LvgywL Aa© e„ËvKv‡i `uvovq| †Ljv ïi“ n‡j GK c‡¶i AvµgYKvix `g †i‡L Ônv-Wy-WyÕ ej‡Z ej‡Z WvK w`‡Z _v‡K Ges gv‡Vi

Avgvi evsjv eB 79


ga¨‡iLv cvi n‡q wec‡¶i KvD‡K Quy‡q `g _vKv Ae¯’vq `yªZ cvwj‡q Avm‡Z †Póv K‡i| AvµgYKvix hw` wec¶ `‡ji †L‡jvqvo‡`i nv‡Z aiv c‡o Ges Zvi †Kv‡U wd‡i Avm‡Z e¨_© nq Z‡e †m ÔgivÕ e‡j MY¨ n‡e| †m Avi †Lj‡Z cvi‡e bv| †Kv‡Ui evB‡i wM‡q e‡m _vK‡Z n‡e| Zvici GB giv R‡bi `‡ji GK Rb hw` wec¶ `‡ji GK Rb‡K Quy‡q Ô`gÕ _vK‡Z wbR †Kv‡U wd‡i Avm‡Z cv‡i, Z‡ecybivq giv Rb †eu‡P hv‡e| AvµgbKvix‡K aievi Rb¨ wec¶ `‡ji †L‡jvqv‡oiv †hfv‡e e~¨n iPbv K‡i, †m e~¨n †_‡K i¶v †c‡q Avmv †ek KwVb| †m Rb¨ AvµgYKvix †L‡jvqv‡oi cÖPzi kvixwiK kw³ I †KŠkj Rvbv _vKv `iKvi| Ab¨ c¶I GKB fv‡e AvµgY K‡i Ges Zv‡KI GKB fv‡e †Lj‡Z nq| GK Rb †L‡jvqv‡oi Avµg‡Y civwRZ nIqv‡K ÔgivÕ Ges weRqx nIqv‡K ÔeuvPv e‡j| 80 Avgvi evsjv eB


GB †Ljvi GKUv gRvi wbqg Av‡Q| †mUv nj 80 wK‡jvMÖv‡gi †ewk IR‡bi †L‡jvqvo‡K †Ljvq Ask wb‡Z †`Iqv nq bv| †gvU 45 wgwb‡Ui †Ljvq (20 wgwbU + 5 wgwbU + 20 wgwbU) cÖ_g †Ljv nq 20 wgwbU, Gici 5 wgwbU nq wekªvg Ges me †k‡l cybivq 20 wgwbU †Ljv n‡q _v‡K| G †Ljv cwiPvjbv I wePviKvh© K‡i _v‡Kb GK Rb †idvwi, `yB Rb Av¤cvqvi, GK Rb †¯‹vqvi I `yB Rb mnKvix †¯‹vqvi| †Q‡j‡g‡q‡`i kvixwiK e¨vqvg I ¯^v‡¯’¨i Rb¨ DcKvix nv-Wy-Wy †Ljv †Kv‡bv w`K w`‡qB Kg ¸i“Z¡c~Y© †Ljv bq| `g eÜ †i‡L kvixwiK †KŠk‡ji gva¨‡g G †Ljv †Lj‡Z nq e‡j GwU ü`q‡š¿ i³ mÂvj‡bi I †cwk MV‡bi c‡¶ DcKvix †Ljv| Avgv‡`i MÖv‡g-M‡Ä, cvovq-cvovq, gnj−vq-gnj−vq, we`¨vj‡q-we`¨vj‡q nv-Wy-Wy †Ljvi cÖwZ‡hvwMZv nq| Avgv‡`i †Póv _vK‡e Ges †Ljv‡K Av‡iv RbwcÖq K‡i †Zvjv| †Kbbv, RvZxq Ges Avš—R©vwZK ch©v‡qi †Ljvayjvq nv-Wy-Wy GLb GKwU ¸i“Z¡c~Y© †Ljv|

cvV wkwL 1. k‡ãi A_© wkwL I bZzb evK¨ Mwo DrKl© − DbœwZ mej − ejevb mgv`i − m¤§vb, A‡bK Av`i AvenvIqv − Rjevqy RbwcÖq − mvavi‡Yi wcÖq DrcwË − D™¢e, Rb¥ mgZj − hv DuPz wbPz bq Abvo¤^i − RuvKRgKnxb D‡ËRbv − DÏxcbv w¶cÖMwZ − `ª“ZMwZ cÖej kw³ − AwZ †ewk kw³ e„ËvKvi − †MvjvKvi AvµgY − nvgjv

kix‡ii mv‡_ mv‡_ g‡bi DrKl© evovI| †Ljvayjv †`n‡K my¯’, mej iv‡L| evwo‡Z AwZw_ G‡j Avgiv mgv`i Kwi| GLb AvenvIqv g›` bq| wµ‡KU GLb †ek RbwcÖq †Ljv| eo b`x †_‡K kvLv b`xi DrcwË nq| mgZj f~wgi †`k evsjv‡`k| AbyôvbwU Abvo¤^ifv‡e †kl nj| dzUej †Ljvq D‡ËRbv Av‡Q| wPZvevN w¶cÖMwZ‡Z †`Šovq| wmsn cÖej kw³i AwaKvix| †L‡jvqv‡oiv e„ËvKv‡i `uvov‡jv| evN nwiY‡K AvµgY K‡i| Avgvi evsjv eB 81


2.

3.

4. 5.

wec¶

− wei“× `j

wec¶ `j Av‡M †Mvj Kij|

ü`hš¿

− ü`wcÊ

ü`hš¿ gvby‡li AZ¨š— cÖ‡qvRbxq A½|

mÂvjb

− Pjb

e¨vqvg kix‡ii i³ mÂvjb wVK iv‡L|

Avš—R©vwZK − mKj RvwZ m¤^Üxq 21 †k †deª“qvwi Avš—R©vwZK fvlv w`em| cÖ‡kœi DËi ewj I wjwL (K) evsjv‡`‡ki RvZxq †Ljv †KvbwU ? (L) nv-Wy-Wy-i Ab¨ bvg Kx ? (M) nv-Wy-Wy-i DrcwË ¯’j †Kv_vq ? (N) †Kvb ai‡bi gvV nv-Wy-Wy †Ljvi Dc‡hvMx ? (O) nv-Wy-Wy †Ljvq KqwU `j _v‡K ? (P) nv-Wy-Wy †Ljvq `y c‡¶i †L‡jvqv‡oiiv Kxfv‡e `uvovq ? (Q) †K nv-Wy-Wy †Ljvq Ask wb‡Z ci‡e bv ? (R) †gvU KZ wgwbU N‡i nv-Wy-Wy †Ljv P‡j ? wb‡Pi evK¨¸‡jvi g‡a¨ Ô¸YÕ †evSvq, Ggb k㸇jv Luy‡R †ei Kwi Ges LvZvq wjwL| mnR, mij I Abvo¤^i G †Ljvq cÖPzi Avb›` I D‡ËRbv Av‡Q| G‡Z †Kv‡bv A_© e¨q nq bv| Zx¶èeyw×, w¶cÖMwZ, cÖej kw³, myPZzi Kvq`v, `xN©¯’vqx `g, mr mvnm Ges mwVK wm×vš—B GB †Ljvi Rb¨ we‡klfv‡e `iKvi n‡q _v‡K| nv-Wy-Wy †Ljvq ÔgivÕ Rb Kx fv‡e Ô†eu‡PÕ hvq cuvPwU ev‡K¨ Zv wjwL| GK K_vq ewj (Wvb w`K †_‡K †e‡Q wbBv) hviv †L‡j myPZzi mK‡ji wcÖq †L‡jvqvo Ab¨ c¶ w¶cÖMwZ PZziZvi mv‡_ RbwcÖq `ª“ZZvi mv‡_ wec¶

82 Avgvi evsjv eB


†`k we‡`‡ki wkï c„w_exi me †`‡ki wkïiv n‡”Q fwel¨‡Zi bvMwiK| Abvwej nvwm, Avb›`, †Ljvayjv Avi †jLvcovi gva¨‡g my›`ifv‡e Zv‡`i Rxeb Mov `iKvi| G‡`i K_v Avgiv Rvbe, G‡`i wb‡q fve‡ev| cÖ_‡g Avgiv evOvwj †Q‡j‡g‡q‡`i K_v Rvbe| MÖvg evsjvi †hŠ_ cwiev‡i †e‡o IVv evOvwj wkïiv nq mnR, mij| kn‡ii wkïiv Avevi GKK cwiev‡iI evm K‡i| Qov, Mvb Avi iƒcK_vi mv‡_ cwiwPZ n‡Z n‡Z Gi †e‡o I‡V| Qq eQi eq‡m wkïiv cÖv_wgK we`¨vj‡q hvq| wkï‡`i Rb¨ cÖv_wgK we`¨vj‡qi wk¶v A‰eZwbK I eva¨Zvg~jK|

evOvwj wkï evOvwj †Q‡j‡g‡q‡`i cvkvcvwk G †`‡k i‡q‡Q ¶z`ª ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi †Q‡j‡g‡q| Zviv cÖavbZ cvnvwo GjvKvq evm K‡i| G‡`‡i‡K wbweofv‡e Rvb‡Z cvi‡j Avgiv wg‡jwg‡k †`k Mo‡Z cvi‡ev| ¶z`ª ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi g‡a¨ D‡j−L‡hvM¨ n‡”Q PvKgv, gwYcyix, Mv‡iv, muvIZvj| G‡`i Kv‡iv Kv‡iv wbR¯^ fvlvi mv‡_ wjwLZ eY©gvjvI Av‡Q| Avevi †Kv‡bv †Mvôx †Kej †gŠwLK fvlv‡ZB fve wewbgq K‡i| Z‡e PvKgv wkïiv †jLvcovq Ab¨vb¨ A‡ji Awaevmx‡`i †P‡q AMÖmi| G‡`i fvlv ÔL‡gÕi wjwc‡Z †jLv n‡q _v‡K| Giv AZ¨š— cwikªgx| G‡`i ¯^v¯’¨I Lye fv‡jv| wbR¯^ b„Z¨- Mx‡Z PvKgv wkïiv Ask †bq| Avgvi evsjv eB 83


PvKgv wkï gwbcyix wkï Mv‡iv‡`i fvlvi bvg Ôgvw›` fvlvÕ| gqgbwmsn †Rjvi Mv‡iv A‡ji †QvU †Q‡j‡g‡qiv gv‡qi cwiP‡qB eo nq| muvIZvj I gwYcyix wkïivI bv‡P Mv‡b cUz| wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi gwYcyix‡`i b„Z¨ †`‡L gy» n‡qwQ‡jb| gwYcyix wkïiv AvR wb‡R‡`i AÂj Qvwo‡q Ab¨ÎI Zv‡`i bv‡Pi Rb¨ L¨wZ Kzo‡”Q|

Mv‡iv wkï muvIZvj wkï Avgv‡`i cÖwZ‡ekx †`k fvi‡Zi Dˇi wngvj‡qi cv`‡`‡k i‡q‡Q †QvÆ, my›`i GKwU †`k| Zvi bvg fyUvb| GB cvnvwo †`kwUi cÖK…wZi wfbœZvi g‡Zv wewfbœ A‡ji wkï‡`i g‡a¨I i‡q‡Q wfbœZv| †m Kvi‡Y fyUvwb wkï‡`i fvlvq ˆewPΨ i‡q‡Q| ivóª fvlv ÔRsLvÕ fvlv we`¨vj‡q cÖPwjZ| A‡bK A‡ji wkïiv †bcvwj fvlvq K_v e‡j| Z‡e AvaywbK ¯‹zj¸‡jv‡Z Bs‡iwR gva¨‡gI cov‡kvbv nq| 84 Avgvi evsjv eB


fyUvwb abx-Mwie me wkïi †cvkvK cÖvq GK iKg| fyUvwb wkï‡`i wcÖq †Ljv n‡”Q abyK w`‡q Zxi †Quvov| GUv I‡`i RvZxq †Ljv| G QvovI Kzw¯Z, ej−g †Quvov, dzUej, fwjej, †NŠo‡`Šo fyUvwb wkï‡`i wcÖq †Ljv|

f~Uvwb wkï

Pxbv wkï

Avgv‡`i †`‡ki evB‡i cye w`‡K i‡q‡Q Gwkqvi `y‡Uv eo †`k| Pxb I Rvcvb| Px‡b Pvjy i‡q‡Q A‰eZwbK eva¨Zvg~jK cÖv_wgK wk¶v| †Q‡j‡g‡qiv †mLv‡b GK mv‡_ cÖv_wgK wk¶v MÖnY K‡i| Ab¨vb¨ fvlvi g‡Zv Pxbv fvlvi A¶i ZZ mnR bq| A‡bKUv Qwei g‡Zv GB A¶i Avi msL¨vq Zv nvRvi nvRvi| †m w`‡K †_‡K Px‡bi †Q‡j‡g‡q‡`i Kó K‡i Zv‡`i fvlv wkL‡Z nq| Pxbv wkïiv †kªYxK‡¶ cvV¨eB‡qi evB‡i nv‡Z Kj‡g bvbv KvR K‡i| Gme KvR Zviv Lye Avb‡›`i mv‡_ K‡i| muvZvi KvUv, Nywo Iov‡bv Pxbv wkï‡`i wcÖq †Ljv| cÖvYeš— I D”Qj ¯^fv‡ei Pxbv wkïiv k„•Ljvi wel‡q LyeB m‡PZb| Pxb †Q‡o Gev‡i Avgiv hv‡ev Av‡iv cy‡e – cvnvo †Niv, dz‡j-QvIqv †`k Rvcv‡b| dz‡ji †`k Rvcvb| wkïivI dz‡ji g‡Zv my›`i| cov‡kvbvi e¨vcv‡i Rvcvwbiv LyeB m‡PZb| cÖv_wgK wk¶v †m †`‡k eva¨Zvg~jK| mKvj mv‡o mvZUv evR‡jB †`Lv hvq, Rvcv‡bi iv¯Zvq `‡j `‡j †Q‡j‡g‡qiv Kuv‡a e¨vM Szwj‡q Mvb Ki‡Z Ki‡Z c_ Pj‡Q| Zv‡`i Kv‡iv eqm wZb, Kv‡iv ev Pvi – cuvP, eo †Rvi Qq| Avgvi evsjv eB 85


meviB Rvgv, Ry‡Zv, Uzwc – Ggb Kuv‡ai e¨vMI GKiKg| cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki †Svjvq _v‡K iwOb KvM‡Ri UzK‡iv, Qwei eB, i“gvj Avi we‡kl we‡kl cyZzj| †ewki fvM gv_v Kvgv‡bv wkïiv P‡j‡Q wkï D`¨v‡b| Rvcv‡b G iKg wkï D`¨v‡b i‡q‡Q †Ljvayjv, Mí, Qov, Mvb, cÖv_©bv BZ¨vw` †kLvi e¨e¯’| GLv‡b cov‡kvbv bq, KvM‡Ri wcÖq †Ljbv, cyZzj G¸‡jv evwb‡q †Ljvayjv, Qz‡UvQzwU K‡i wkï‡`i w`b Kv‡U| †ejv ev‡ivUvq QzwUi ci ïi“ nq evwo †divi cvjv| miKvwi Li‡P Qq eQi eqm n‡jB mKj wkï‡K ¯‹z‡j †h‡Z nq| †jLvcovi cvkvcvwk e¨vqvg Kiv, Kzw¯—, Z‡jvqvi †Ljv, †bŠKv Pvjv‡bv, muvZvi KvUv †_‡K Rvcv‡bi RvZxq kixiPP©v ÔhyhyrmyÕI †kLv‡bv nq G me ¯‹z‡j| Rvcv‡b †Q‡j‡`i mv‡_ †g‡qivI cov‡jLv, e¨vqvgPP©v K‡i| Z‡e K‡qKwU wRwbm †g‡q‡`i we‡kl K‡i wkL‡Z nq| †hgb, Pv evbv‡bv, †Luvcv euvav, dz‡ji †Zvov evbv‡bv BZ¨vw`| Pv-ce©‡K Rvcv‡b ejv nq Pv-‡bv-qy| GwU Rvcvwb‡`i we‡kl Drme| Rvcv‡b wkï Drme¸‡jv AZ¨š— RgKv‡jv nq| c„w_exi Avi †Kv‡bv †`‡k †QvU‡`i Rb¨ G iKg Drm‡ei Pjb †bB| Drme Abyôv‡bi cvkvcvwk Rvcvwb †Q‡j‡g‡qiv mvsmvwiK KvRK‡g©I Ask †bq| ¯‹zj N‡ii †ewÂ, †Pqvi, †Uwej Svov- †gvQvi KvR Rvcvwb †Q‡j‡`i cvjv K‡i Ki‡Z nq – Zv †m hZ eo‡jv‡Ki †Q‡jB †nvK bv †Kb|

cvV wkwL 1. k‡ãi A_© wkwL I bZzb evK¨ Mwo fwel¨r

− AvMvgx, AbvMZ

mevB Pvq wkï‡`i fwel¨Z D¾¡j †nvK|

†hŠ_

− GKm‡½

MÖv‡g AvKRvj A‡bK †hŠ_ Lvgvi M‡o D‡V‡Q|

eva¨Zvg~jK − Avek¨Kxq

86 Avgvi evsjv eB

GLb †`‡k eva¨Zvg~jK cÖv_wgK wk¶v Pvj~ i‡q‡Q|


A‰eZwbK − webv †eZ‡b

MÖv‡g †g‡q‡`i Rb¨ Aóg †kªYx ch©š— A‰eZwbK wk¶v e¨e¯’v Pvjy n‡q‡Q|

wbweo

− Nwbô

gv‡qi mv‡_ wkïi wbweo m¤cK© _v‡K|

ˆkke

− wkïKvj

ˆkk‡e mevi Rb¨ †Ljvayjv `iKvi|

D`¨vb − evMvb evsjv‡`‡ki RvZxq D`¨vb †`L‡Z Lye my›`i| 2. cÖ‡kœi DËi ewj I wjwL (K) †hŠ_ cwiev‡i Kviv †e‡o D‡V ? (L) Avw`evmx wkï‡`i g‡a¨ D‡j−L‡hvM¨ Kviv ? (M) PvKgv‡`i fvlv †Kvb wjwc‡Z †jLv n‡q _v‡K ? (N) Mv‡iv‡`i fvlvi bvg Kx ? (O) wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi Kv‡`i b„Z¨ †`‡L gy» n‡qwQ‡jb ? (P) fyUvwb wkï‡`i RvZxq †Ljv †KvbwU ? (Q) fyUvwb‡`i we`¨vj‡q †Kvb fvlv Pvjy Av‡Q ? (R) †Kvb †`‡ki wkï‡`i Kó K‡i fvlv wkL‡Z nq ? (S) †Kvb †`‡ki wïïiv `j †eu‡a D`¨v‡b hvq ? (T) Rvcv‡b RvZxq kixiPP©vi bvg Kx ? (U) †Kvb †`‡k Pv evbv‡bvi Drme cvjb Kiv nq ? 3. wb‡Pi evK¨¸‡jv j¶ Kwi (K) Qov, Mvb Avi iƒcK_vi mv‡_ cwiwPZ n‡Z n‡Z Giv †e‡o I‡V| (L) cÖv_wgK wk¶v wkï‡`i Rb¨ A‰eZwbK I eva¨Zvg~jK| (M) ivóªfvlv ÔRsLvÕ fvlv we`¨vj‡q I A‡bK A‡ji wkïiv †bcvwj fvlv K_v e‡j| Z‡e AvaywbK ¯‹zj¸‡jv‡Z Bs‡iwR gva¨‡g cov‡kvbv nq| Ic‡ii evK¨¸‡jvi g‡a¨ †h me k‡ã wb‡P `vM i‡q‡Q, †mB k㸇jv `y‡Uv evK¨vsk‡K hy³ K‡i‡Q| G iKg Av‡iv kã Av‡Q| †hgb – ÔwKš‘Õ, ÔGesÕ, ÔmyZivsÕ, ÔbZzevÕ, BZ¨vw`| G¸‡jv w`‡q Av‡iv bZzb evK¨ ˆZwi Kwi| Avgvi evsjv eB 87


4. Wvb cvk †_‡K Dchy³ kã G‡b k~b¨¯’vb c~iY Kwi (K) Z‡e --------------- wkïiv †jLvcovq Ab¨vb¨ A‡ji Awaevmx‡`i †P‡q --------------| (L) ------------------ †Rjvi Mv‡iv A‡ji †QvU †Q‡j‡g‡qiv -------------- cwiP‡qB eo nq| (M) cÖvYeš— I D”Qj ¯^fv‡ei ----------wkïiv --------------- wel‡q LyeB m‡PZb| (N) †ewki fvM ----------------- wkïiv P‡j‡Q wkï -------------------| (O) ------------- Rvcv‡b ejv nq Pv - †bv – qy|

88 Avgvi evsjv eB

gqgbwmsn, gv‡qi PvKgv, AMÖmi Pxbv, k„•Ljvq Pv – ce©‡K gv_v Kvgv‡bv, D`¨v‡b, Mv‡iv, DbœZ


ivLvj †Q‡j RmxgD`&`xb ivLvj †Q‡j! ivLvj †Q‡j! ev‡iK wd‡i PvI, euvKv Muv‡qi c_wU †e‡q †Kv_vq P‡j hvI ? IB †h †`L bxj-†bvqv‡bv meyR †Niv Muv, Kjvi cvZv †`vjvq Pvgi wkwki †avqvq cv, †m_vq Av‡Q †QvÆ KzwUi †mvbvi cvZvq QvIqv, muvR AvKv‡ki Qwo‡q cov Avexi i‡O bvIqv, †mB N‡i‡Z GKjv e‡m WvK‡Q Avgvi gv| †m_vq hve, I fvB, Gevi Avgvq Qvo bv| ivLvj †Q‡j! Avevi †Kv_vq hvI, cye AvKv‡k Qvoj m‡e iwOb †g‡Ni bvI| Nyg n‡Z AvR †R‡MB †`wL wkwki Siv Nv‡m, mviv iv‡Zi ¯^cb Avgvi wg‡Vj †iv‡` nv‡m| Avgvi mv‡_ Ki‡Z †Ljv cÖfvZ nvIqv, fvB, mi‡l dz‡ji cuvcwo bvwo WvK‡Q †gv‡i ZvB| mviv gv‡Vi WvK G‡m‡Q †Lj‡Z n‡e fvB, muv‡Ri †ejv KBe K_v GLb Z‡e hvB| Avgvi evsjv eB 89


cvV wkwL 1. k‡ãi A_© †R‡b wbB I ev‡K¨ e¨envi Kwi ivLvj −

†h Mi“ Pivq

ÔivLvj Mi“i cvj j‡q hvq gv‡V|Õ

ev‡iK −

GKevi

†Q‡j evev‡K ev‡iK †`‡LB P‡j †Mj|

euvKv −

e·, †mvRv bq G gb GB c_ euvKv n‡q euv w`‡K †M‡Q|

Pvgi −

Pgix Mi“i †j‡Ri †jvg w`‡q ˆZwi cvLv

†gjv †_‡K GKUv Pvgi wKb‡Z PvB|

†m_vq −

†mLv‡b

cvVK †m_vq e‡m cuyw_ co‡Qb|

KzwUi −

Kuy‡o Ni, †QvU evwo

MÖv‡gi KzwUi¸‡jv †ek my›`i|

muvS −

mܨv

Avgiv †ivR muv‡Si †ejvq `vw`i Kv‡Q Mí ïwb|

Avexi −

Nb †Mvjvcx i‡Oi `uy‡ov

AvKv‡ki is †hb Avexi i‡O ivOv n‡q Av‡Q|

bvIqv −

†Mvmj Kiv, mœvb Kiv

Kiv, bvIqv-LvIqv †m‡i Gm Qwe AuvwK|

m‡e −

GB gvÎ

m‡e mܨv nj|

†bŠKv, wWwO

†fvi‡ejv bvI wb‡q †Kv_vq hv‡”Qb|

¯^cœ

Avwg ¯^cb †`‡L AevK n‡qwQ|

bvI

¯^cb −

KBe − eje 2. k‡ãi wfbœ A_© †R‡b wbB

Avwg KBe KZv g‡b g‡b|

Muv

MÖvg

Zzwg wK Avgv‡`i Muv‡q hv‡e ?

Mv

kixi

e„wó‡Z Avgvi Mv wf‡R †M‡Q|

mviv −

mg¯Z

AvR mviv w`b e„wó n‡q‡Q|

mviv −

†kl

gv, KLb †Zvgvi KvR mviv n‡e ?

90 Avgvi evsjv eB


3. cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi ewj I wjwL K. ÔivLvj †Q‡jÕ KweZvwU †K wj‡L‡Qb ? L. RmxgD``x‡bi †jLv Av‡iv `ywU KweZvi bvg ewj I wjwL| M. ivLvj †Q‡j †Kvb c_ w`‡q hv‡”Q ? N. MÖvgwU †`L‡Z †Kgb ? O. Kjvi cvZv I wkwki Kx Kx K‡i ? P. mܨv‡ejvq KzwUiwU‡K †`L‡Z †Kgb jv‡M ? Q. ivLvj †Q‡ji gv †Kv_vq _v‡Kb ? R. ivLvj †Q‡j †Kv_vq †h‡Z Pvq ? S. Nyg †_‡K †R‡M ivLvj †Q‡j Kx †`‡L ? T. ivLvj †Q‡j‡K †Ljv Kivi Rb¨ †K WvK‡Q ? 4. KweZvwUi cÖwZwU Pi‡Yi †k‡l †h kã Av‡Q Zvi ZvwjKv Kwi I wgj LuywR| 5. †R‡b wbB KweZvi Pi‡Yi †kl k‡ãi D”Pvi‡Y aŸwbi †h wgj Zvi bvg ÔAš—¨wgjÕ| Aš—¨wgj k‡ãi A_© †k‡l wgj| `ywU PiY j¶ Kwi ivLvj †Q‡j! ivLvj †Q‡j ev‡iK wd‡i PvI, euvKv Muv‡qi c_wU †e‡q †Kv_vq P‡j hvI ? cÖ_g Pi‡Yi †kl kã ÔPvIÕ, c‡ii Pi‡Yi †kl kã ÔhvIÕ| ÔPvIÕ Avi ÔhvIÕ GB `yB k‡ãi D”Pvi‡Y ÔAvIÕ aŸwbi wgj i‡q‡Q| Gi bvg Aš—¨wgj| 6. KweZvwU Ave„wË Kwi I wjwL|

Avgvi evsjv eB 91


25 †k gvP© 1971 ga¨iv‡Zi wcjLvbv

25 †k gvP© 1971 ga¨iv‡Zi †K›`ªxq knx` wgbvi

weRq w`em [ ¯‹zj †_‡K evwo wd‡i nvwjgv gv‡qi mv‡_ K_v ej‡Q| m‡½ Av‡Qb nvwjgvi evev, eo Avcv bvwmgv, GK gvÎ fvB Drm| nvwjgv || gv! ZvovZvwo Avgv‡K †L‡Z `vI| Avwg †L‡q KvMR KvU‡Z eme| Zzwg wK Avgv‡K GKUz mvnvh¨ Ki‡e gv ? gv || Kx mvnvh¨ PvI Zzwg? KvMR †K‡U Zzwg Kx Ki‡e? nvwjgv || Rvb gv, Gevi weRq w`em Dcj‡¶ Avgv‡`i ¯‹z‡j Qwe AuvKv Avi n¯Zwk‡íi cÖwZ‡hvwMZv n‡e| gv || Zzwg wK Zv n‡j n¯Zwkí Ki‡Z PvI ? nvwjgv || Av‡M Zzwg †`LB bv! Avwg wVK K‡iwQ, cÖ_‡g gyw³hy‡×i Qwe AuvKe, Zvici Zv‡Z is Kie| is Kivi ci KuvwP w`‡q †K‡U KvMR †_‡K Qwe¸‡jv Avjv`v Kie| gv || Zvici GB Qwe¸‡jv Zzwg Kx Ki‡e ? nvwjgv || gv! Zzwg wK Avgv‡K GK UzKiv P‡Ui Kvco †`‡e ? gv || P‡Ui Kvco! P‡Ui Kvco w`‡q Zzwg Kx Ki‡e ? 92 Avgvi evsjv eB


nvwjgv

||

gv

||

nvwjgv

||

evev nvwjgv evev

|| || ||

Avnv! †`LB bv Kx Kwi| Avgv‡K †`‡e gv ? †Zvgvi Mv‡qi IB jvj i‡Oi Pv`iUvi g‡Zv eo GK UzKiv P‡Ui Kvco ? [gv Kcvj KuyP‡K wKQz¶Y fve‡eb, Zvici ej‡eb ] GZ eo PU †Zv †bB! Av”Qv `uvovI †`wL GB e¯ZvUv †K‡U w`‡j nq wK bv| [ gv GKUv Pv‡ji e¯Zv G‡b e¯ZvUi gy‡Li D‡ëvw`K I cv‡ki GKUv w`K KvU‡eb| †g‡S‡Z e¯ZvUv †g‡j a‡i †`L‡eb Zvi AvK…wZ KZ eo nq| nvwjgv Lywk‡Z nvZZvwj w`‡q jvdv‡Z _vK‡e| gv! G‡ZB n‡e| Gi †P‡q eo PU jvM‡e bv| evev! I evev, ej bv Zzwg wK Avgv‡K mvnvh¨ Ki‡e ? AvPQv †i cvMwj, mvnvh¨ Kie| Kx Ki‡Z n‡e ej| Avwg weRq w`e‡mi Qwe AuvKe| cÖ_‡g Kx AuvKe evev ? Av‡M gyw³hy‡×i Qwe AuvK, Zvici weR‡qi Qwe AuvK‡e|

h‡kv‡i †MvqvjnvwU MÖv‡g cvwK¯—vwb †mbvevwnbxi mv‡_ b~i †gvnv¤§` †k‡Li `‡ji hy×

nvwjgv evev

|| ||

gyw³hy‡×i Kx Kx AuvKe evev ? †Zvgv‡K e‡jwQjvg bv, cuwP‡k gvP© Mfxi iv‡Z cvwK¯Zvwb †mbvevwnbx wcjLvbvq ¸wj K‡iwQj, †mB QweUv AuvK| Iiv †Zv knx` wgbvi †f‡O †d‡jwQj| Zzwg B”Qv Ki‡j fvOv knx` wgbviI AuvK‡Z cvi| Avgvi evsjv eB 93


nvwjgv

evev

nvwjgv

bvwmgv nvwjgv bvwmgv

|| evev, mwZ¨ Zzwg Lye fv‡jv| Avwg Kxfv‡e ïi“ Kie wVK Ki‡Z cviwQjvg bv| Zzwg Kx my›`i fv‡e e‡j w`‡j| [nvwjgv evevi †Kv‡j P‡o evev‡K Av`i Ki‡e| evev Zvi wcV Pvc‡o Av`i K‡i K‡i Zv‡K ej‡eb ] || B”Qv Ki‡j Zzwg ivRvievM cywjk jvB‡bi Qwe AuvK‡Z cvi| cvwK¯— vwb ˆmb¨iv evOvwj cywjk‡K ¸wj Ki‡Q Ges evOvwj cywj‡kiv i³v³ Ae¯’vq c‡o Av‡Q GB `„k¨ Zzwg AuvK‡Z cvi| || evev, GKUv K‡i Qwe AuvwK, Zvici †Zvgv‡K †`Lv‡ev| [nvwjgv e‡j wZbwU Qwe AuvK‡e, Zv‡Z is Ki‡e Ges Qwei wb‡P K¨vckb wjL‡e| Qwe AuvKvi ci nvwjgv wPrKvi K‡i evev I gv‡K WvK‡e| evev gv‡qi mv‡_ eo †evb bvwmgvI Ii Kv‡Q G‡m `uvov‡e| mevB Lye g‡bv‡hvM w`‡q nvwjgvi AuvKv Qwe †`L‡e|] || nvwjgv! †Zvgvi gyw³hy‡×i Qwe‡Z gyw³‡hv×vi Qwe KB ? || Kvi Qwe AuvKe, ej bv eo Avcy| || `y‡Uv Qwe †Zv Zzwg AuvK‡ZB cvi‡e| wØZxq †kªYx‡Z Zzwg exi‡kªô b~i †gvnv¤§` †k‡Li Kvwnbx c‡oQ, Zuvi Qwe AuvK my›`i-`vw`i eo †Q‡ji QweI AuvK‡Z cvi| gyw³hy‡× eo PvPv knx` n‡qwQ‡jb| [nvwjgv Av‡Mi g‡ZvB Mfxi g‡bv‡hvM w`‡q Qwe AuvK‡e| Qwe‡Z is Kivi ci Qwei wb‡P K¨vckb wjL‡e|]

GKvˇii gnvb gyw³‡hv×v 94 Avgvi evsjv eB

exi‡kªô b~i †gvnv¤§` †kL


gv evev

|| ||

nvwjgv ! Gevi SUcU weR‡qi Qwe Gu‡K †dj| bv bv, Kx †h ej Zzwg! I †Zv Av‡M AuvK‡e AvZ¥mgc©‡Yi Qwe| Zvici AuvK‡e weR‡qi Qwe| [ nvwjgv Nv‡g †fRv K¬vš— gy‡L Av‡iv wZbwU Qwe AvuK‡e| is K‡i Zv‡Z K¨vckb wjL‡e|]

16B wW‡m¤^i 1971-G cvwK¯—vwb †mbvevwnbxi AvZ¥mgc©Y

Drm

||

wkw¶Kv ||

eo Avcy! †`‡LQ, †QvU Avcy Kx my›`i Qwe Gu‡K‡Q! G‡mv, Qwe¸‡jv jvMv‡Z I‡K Avgiv mvnvh¨ Kwi| [wKQz¶‡Yi g‡a¨ me¸‡jv Qwe jvMv‡bv n‡q †Mj| nvwjgv Rvgv cv‡ë ¯‹z‡ji w`‡K Qz‡U †Mj| nv‡Z Zvi wb‡Ri AuvKv Qwe¸‡jv| ¯‹z‡ji †kªYxK‡¶ mncvVx‡`i mv‡_ †`Lv nj| mevB wKQz bv wKQz Gu‡K‡Q ev n¯—wkí wb‡q G‡m‡Q| Gevi iwOb KvMR w`‡q †kªYx K¶ mvRv‡bvi cvjv| †kªYx wkw¶Kv QvÎ-QvÎx‡`i †W‡K ej‡jb] †Zvgiv GB K¶wU my›`i K‡i mvRv‡e| evwo‡Z hvIqvi Av‡M †Quov KvM‡Ri UzK‡iv, AvVv me wKQz mwi‡q †b‡e| NiUv †hb SKS‡K cwi®‹vi _v‡K| AvMvwg Kvj mKv‡j wZb Rb wePviK G‡m me¸‡jv K¬vm Avgvi evsjv eB 95


†`L‡eb| Avkv Kwi, †Zvgv‡`i KvR †`‡L mevB Lywk n‡eb| Iuiv N‡i XyK‡j †Zvgiv cÖ_‡g mvjvg Rvbv‡e, Zvici mevB wg‡j GK m‡½ ej‡e ÔweRq w`e‡mi ï‡f”Qv|Õ mKvj 7Uvq mevB ¯‹z‡j Avm‡e| Avgiv RvZxq cZvKv D‡Ëvjb Kie| ÔweRq wbkvb Do‡Q IBÕ MvbwU MvBe| RvZxq msMxZ MvBe Avi wdiwb Lve|

16B wW‡m¤^i 1971 weRq w`e‡mi Dj−vm

QvÎQvÎxiv || mevB evmv‡ZI RvZxq cZvKv D‡Ëvjb Kie| Avgiv we‡K‡j weRq †gjv‡ZI hve| wkw¶Kv || †Zvgiv Avb›` Ki‡e wVKB wKš‘ g‡bi g‡a¨ kª×v ivL‡e gyw³‡hv×v‡`i cÖwZ, exi knx`‡`i cÖwZ| Zuv‡`i Z¨v‡Mi wewbg‡q Avgiv †c‡qwQ Avgv‡` gnvb ¯^vaxbZv|

96 Avgvi evsjv eB


cvV wkwL 1. gy‡L ewj I LvZvq wjwL (K) nvwjgv ¯‹zj †_‡K G‡m Kx Ki‡Z PvBj ? (L) nvwjgv KvMR †K‡U Kx Ki‡e ? (M) Qwe AuvKvq nvwjgv‡K †K †K mvnvh¨ Ki‡jb ? (N) evev Zv‡K Kx Kx Qwe AuvK‡Z ej‡jb ? (O) weR‡qi Qwe AuvKvi Av‡M nvwjgv †Kvb QwewU Gu‡KwQj ? 2. mwVK Dˇi wUK (√) w`B (K) gyw³hy‡×i Qwe Gu‡K nvwjgv Zv jvMvq P‡Ui Kvc‡o / wm‡éi Kvc‡o / Zuv‡Zi Kvc‡o (L) nvwjgv cÖ_g QwewU Gu‡KwQj 25 †k gv‡P©i / 16B wW‡m¤^‡ii / exi‡kªô b~i †gvnv¤§` †k‡Li (M) nvwjgv †kl QwewU Gu‡KwQj wcjLvbvi / weRq w`e‡mi / cvwK¯Zvwb †mbvevwnbxi AvZ¥mgc©‡Yi 3. weRq w`e‡mi Dj−v‡mi Qwe AuvKvi Avv‡M nvwjgv Kx Kx Qwe Gu‡KwQj Zv ewj I wjwL| 4. weRq w`e‡m mKvj 7Uvq nvwjgv‡`i ¯‹z‡j Zviv Kx Kx Ki‡e Zv ewj I wjwL| 5. weRq w`e‡m Avgiv ¯‹z‡j Kx Kx Kwi Zv wjwL| 6. gyw³hy× I weRq w`e‡mi `ywU Qwe AuvwK|

Avgvi evsjv eB 97


Gfv‡i‡÷ weRq gvbyl wPi w`b ARvbv‡K Rvb‡Z †P‡q‡Q| inm¨fiv c„w_ex‡K wPb‡Z †P‡q‡Q| cÖK…wZ‡K †`L‡Z †P‡q‡Q| ZvB D”PZg ce©Z, MfxiZi mvMi, Eli gi“, kxZj †gi“ m¤^‡Ü gvby‡li †KŠZ~nj wQj Amxg| c„w_exi D”PZg k„½ Rq Kivi evmbvI Zvi †mB †KŠZ~n‡jiB Ask| gvbyl Kx K‡i c„w_exi D”PZg k„½ Avwe®‹vi Kij Ges Zv Rq Kij, †m KvwnbxUv ewj| 1852 mv‡j f~wg Rwi‡ci KvR KiwQ‡jb evOvwj Awdmvi ivavbv_ wkK`vi| wZwb wngvj‡qi me‡P‡q DuPz ce©Z k„½wU Avwe®‹vi K‡ib| wZwb Gi D”PZv gvc‡jb 8,839 wgUvi gvSvgvwS| wngvj‡qi me‡P‡q DuPz GB ce©‡Zi Ae¯’vb †bcvj Avi wZeŸ‡Zi gvSvgvwS RvqMvq| wZeŸwZiv GB k„½‡K e‡jb, Ô†Pv‡gvjsgvÕ, †bcvwjiv e‡jb ÔmvMigvZvÕ| ZLb weªwUk Avgj| miKv‡ii Rwic wefv‡Mi cÖavb wQ‡jb m¨vi RR© Gfv‡i÷| Zuvi bvgvbymv‡i GB k„½wUi bvgKiY nq Gfv‡i÷| 98 Avgvi evsjv eB


†bcv‡ji ivRavbx KvVgyÊy †_‡K Gfv‡i‡÷i `~iZ¡ 160 wK‡jvwgUvi| GB ce©Z k„½wU Pzbv cv_i w`‡q MwVZ| mviv eQi eid w`‡q XvKv _v‡K e‡j ce©Z k„‡½i ¶q nq bv| Gfv‡i÷ k„½ Avwe®‹v‡ii ci †_‡K eû gvbyl Gi P~ovq IVvi †Póv K‡iwQ‡jb| †`k-we‡`‡ki A‡bK †jvK Gfv‡i‡÷ Awfhvb Pvwj‡qwQ‡jb, wKš‘ `yM©g GB k„‡½ †cuŠQv‡Z cv‡ib wb| Gfv‡i÷ k„‡½ IVv wQj LyeB KwVb KvR| eid †_‡K cv wcQ‡j K‡qK nvRvi dzU wb‡P c‡o cÖvY nvwi‡q‡Qb A‡bK AwfhvÎx| wngev‡ni Kvi‡Y wKQz`~i D‡V Avevi wd‡i Avm‡Z n‡q‡Q A‡bK‡K| Zzlvi S‡oi Ke‡j c‡o w`K fyj K‡iI cÖvY nvwi‡q‡Qb eû AwfhvÎx| Zuviv hZ evi wedj n‡q‡Qb, Gfv‡i÷‡K Rq Kivi AvMÖn ZZB Zxeª n‡q‡Q Zuv‡`i| Gfv‡i÷‡K Rq Ki‡Z gvby‡li †j‡M‡Q GKk eQi| 1938 mv‡j weªwUk ce©Z Av‡ivnxiv cuvP evi †Póv K‡i 28,000 dzU ch©š— DV‡Z †c‡iwQ‡jb| wKš‘ cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡Mi Rb¨ Zuv‡`i‡K wd‡i Avm‡Z n‡qwQj| 1951 mv‡j Avevi bZzb K‡i `j MVb K‡i Zuviv K‡Vvi Abykxjb K‡ib| Zuviv cÖwZ ev‡ii e¨_©Zvi AwfÁZv‡K Kv‡R jvwM‡q `~‡h©vM Gov‡bvi bvbv Dcvq Avwe®‹vi K‡ib| eû gvby‡li †Póv, kªg Avi Aa¨emv‡qi ci bZzb Awfhvb ïi“ nq| 1953 mv‡j ïi nq †mB Awfhvb| Awfhv‡b wQ‡jb cuvP Rb weªwUk ce©Zv‡ivnx| Zuv‡`i mv‡_ wQ‡jb wbDwRj¨v‡Ûi weL¨vZ ce©Zv‡ivnx m¨vi GWgÛ cviwmfvj wnjvwi| wQ‡jb †bcvwj ce©Zv‡ivnx †ZbwRs †bvi&‡M, K‡qK Rb Wv³vi, Aw·‡Rb we‡klÁ Ges Kzwj| mgMÖ c„w_ex D`MÖxe n‡q ZvwK‡qwQj GB AwfhvÎx `‡ji w`‡K| 1953 mv‡ji 29†k †g c„w_exi BwZnv‡m gvbyl †hvM Kij bZzb gvÎv| GB w`b †kicv †ZbwRs †bvi&‡M cÖ_g cv iv‡Lb Gfv‡i‡÷i m‡e©v”P P~ovq| Zvi K‡qK †m‡K‡Ûi g‡a¨ GWgÛ wnjvwi G‡m †hvM †`b Zuvi mv‡_| mviv c„w_ex weR‡qi Avb‡›`, Lywk‡Z Avc−yZ n‡q DVwQj †m w`b| †m w`bB BwZnv‡m GB `yÕRb gvby‡li bvg †jLv nj| A‡bK w`‡bi Abykxj‡b Avi †Póvq c„w_exi gvbyl Rq Kij Gfv‡i÷| GwU gvby‡li R‡b¨ GKwU †QvÆ c`‡¶c gvÎ, wKš‘ gvbeRvwZi R‡b¨ wekvj AMÖMwZ|

Avgvi evsjv eB 99


cvV wkwL 1. k‡ãi A_© †R‡b wbB k„½ – wKLi, ce©ZP~ov gi“ – Rj I Dw™¢`k~b¨ wekvj RvqMv †gi“ – c„w_exi DËi-`w¶Y †K›`ª †iLvi cÖvš— Rwic – Rwgi cwigvc Avwe®‹vi – ARvbv wel‡qi mÜvb jvf Awfhvb – †Kv‡bv wKQz Avwe®‹v‡i `j †eu‡a hvIqv Kej – MÖvm Abykxjb – PP©v, Af¨vm `~M©g – †hLv‡b hvIqv KóKi, `ytmva¨ Aa¨emvq – Aweivg †Póv we‡klÁ – we‡kl wel‡q AwfÁ mgMÖ – mg¯Z, AvMv‡Mvov kZel© – GKk eQi c`‡¶c – cv †djv, K`g inm¨ – ARvbv †Kv‡bv wKQz Eli – Abye©i †KŠZ~nj – Rvbvi AvMÖn m‡e©v”P – me‡P‡q DuPz cwigvc – gvc, cwigvY wbY©q Kiv AwfhvÎx – `ytmvnmx Avwe®‹v‡ii Rb¨ hvÎv K‡ib whwb / huviv Dcvq – †KŠkj, Afxó c_ Aw·‡Rb – †gŠwjK M¨v‡mi bvg D`MÖxe – e¨MÖ, Lye AvMÖnx †kicv – ce©Zv‡ivnx Avc−yZ – wm³, c−vweZ AMÖMwZ – GwM‡q hvIqv, Dbœqb 100 Avgvi evsjv eB


2. wecixZ kã wkwL Eli De©i kxZj Dò Amxg mmxg ¶q A¶q `yM©g myMg AvMÖn AbvMÖn Zxeª g„`y AwfÁZv AbwfÁZv weL¨vZ AL¨vZ 3. hy³eY© wkwL I bZzb kã wjwL Avwe®‹vi – ®‹ = l& + K ﮋ, cwi®‹vi Aa¨emvq – a¨ = a& + h – djv (¨) Aa¨vq mva¨ `~‡h©vM – h© = †id ( ©) + h Kvh©, avh© wbDwRj¨vÊ – j¨ = j + h – djv (¨) Kj¨vY, Bsj¨vÛ Aw·‡Rb – · = K& + m ev·, K·evRvi Avc−yZ – c− = c& + j wec−e, c−veb 4. gy‡L gy‡L DËi ewj I wjwL (K) gvbyl wPiw`b Kx Kx †P‡q‡Q ? (L) ivavbv_ wkK`vi Kx KvR K‡iwQ‡jb ? (M) wngvj‡qi DuPz ce©Z k„½wU †K Avwe®‹vi K‡ib ? (M) Kvi bvgvbymv‡i k„½wUi bvgKiY Kiv nq ? (O) wngvj‡qi me‡P‡q DuPz GB ce©ZwUi Ae¯’vb †Kv_vq ? (P) wZeŸwZiv GB ce©Z‡K Kx e‡jb I †bcvwjiv GB ce©Z‡K Kx e‡jb ? (Q) Gfv‡i÷ k„‡½i D”PZv KZ ? (R) ce©Z k„½wU Kx w`‡q MwVZ Ges †Kb ce©ZwU ¶q nq bv ? (S) Gfv‡i÷‡K Rq Ki‡Z gvby‡li KZ eQi †j‡M‡Q ? (T) Gfv‡i‡mUi m‡e©v”P P~ovq cÖ_g †K cv iv‡Lb ? wZwb †Kvb †`‡ki Awaevmx ? (U) gvby‡li GKwU †QvÆ c`‡¶c gvbeRvwZi R‡b¨ Kx ?

Avgvi evsjv eB 101


5. mwVK Dˇii Ic‡i wUK wPý (√) w`B (K) wngvj‡qi me‡P‡q DuPz ce©Z k„½ Avwe®‹vi K‡ib †b‡cvwjqvb / eª‡Rb `vm / ivavbv_ wkK`vi / m¨vi RR© Gfv‡i÷ (L) Gfv‡i‡÷i D”PZv 8,839 wgUvi / 8,889 wgUvi /8882 wgUvi (M) ce©Z k„½wU MwVZ n‡q‡Q Pzbv cv_i w`‡q / jvj gvwU w`‡q / Kv‡jv cv_i w`‡q (N) ce©Z k„‡½i m‡e©v”P P~ovq cÖ_g cv iv‡Lb Wv³vi / Aw·‡Rb we‡klÁ / †ZbwRs †bvi‡M / GWgÛ wnjvwi (O) gvbyl Gfv‡i÷ Rq K‡i‡Q 19†k †g 1953 / 29†k AvM÷ 1953 / 29†k †g 1953 Zvwi‡L (P) GWgÛ cviwmfvj wnjvwi wQ‡jb wbDwRj¨vÛ / †bcvj / Bsj¨vÛ / evsjv‡`‡ki Awaevmx 6. bvg †evSvq Ggb kã wP‡b wbB gvbyl, c„w_ex, cÖK…wZ, ce©Z, mvMi, gi“, †gi“, k„½, f~wg, evOvwj, wngvjq, wgUvi, †bcvj, wZeŸZ, †bcvwj, wZeŸwZ, weªwUk, Gfv‡i÷, KvVgyÛy, ivRavbx, Pzbv cv_i, eQi, eid, †`k, we‡`k, wngevn, ZzlviSo, AwfhvÎx, cuvP evi, dzU, wbDwRj¨vÊ, Wv³vi, Awµ‡Rb, Kzwj, P~ov, gvbeRvwZ 7. ¸Y †evSvq Ggb kã †R‡b wbB D”PZg, MfxiZi, Eli, kxZj, me‡P‡q DuPz gvSvgvwS, `~M©g, Lye, KwVb, mdj, wedj, bZzb, K‡Vvi, weL¨vZ, Avc−yZ, †QvÆ, wekvj

102 Avgvi evsjv eB


iƒcK_v Avnmvb nvexe †LjvNi cvZv Av‡Q GB GLv‡b, ¯^‡cœi wSwKwgwK AuvKv †hLv‡b| GLv‡b iv‡Zi Qvqv Ny‡gi bMi, †Pv‡Li cvZvq Nyg S‡i SiSi| GB Lv‡b †LjvNi cvZv Avgv‡`i, AvKv‡ki bxj is QvDwb‡Z Gi| cix‡`i Wvbv w`‡q ˆZwi †`qvj, cÖRvcwZ is gvLv Rvbvjvi Rvj| Zviv wSwKwgwK c_ Ny‡gi †`‡ki, GB Lv‡b †LjvNi cvZv Avgv‡`i| †QvU †evb cvi“‡ji nv‡Z †i‡L nvZ, mvZ fvB P¤cvi †K‡U hvq ivZ| KLbI †Nvovq P‡o nv‡Z wb‡q Zxi, Ny‡i Avwm †mB †`k P¤ceZxi| GB Lv‡b Avgv‡`i gvbv wKQz bvB, wb‡R‡`i Lywk g‡Zv Kvwnbx evbvB| Avgvi evsjv eB 103


cvV wkwL 1. k‡ãi A_© wkwL I bZzb evK¨ ˆZwi Kwi †LjvNi

− wkïiv †Ljvi Rb¨ †h Ni ˆZwi K‡i

wSwKwgwK − wSKwgK Kiv, Av‡jvi PÂj cÖfv

wkïiv evwj w`‡q †LjvNi ˆZwii Avb‡›` †g‡Z D‡V‡Q| iv‡Zi AvKv‡k Zviv¸‡jv wSwKwgwK K‡i R¡j‡Q|

bMi

− eo kni

XvKv gnvbM‡i A‡bK †jvK evm K‡i|

QvDwb

− N‡ii Pvj

Kwjg PvPv Lo w`‡q N‡ii QvDwb w`‡q‡Qb|

Wvbv − cvLv 2| K_v¸‡jv ey‡S wbB

CMj cvwL Wvbv †g‡j AvKv‡k I‡o|

¯^‡cœi wSwKwgwK − †QvU wkïiv A‡bK mgq wb‡R‡`i eo‡`i g‡Zv eo g‡b K‡i| wkïivI eo‡`i msmvi mvRv‡bvi g‡Zv Zv‡`i †Ljvi Rb¨ †LjvNi ˆZwi K‡i| †mB †LjvN‡i AuvKv _v‡K wkï g‡bi A‡bK D¾¡j ¯^cœ| iƒcK_vi †mB †LjvNi ˆZwii mgq wkïi ¯^cœ †mLv‡b SKS‡K Avfv Qovq| hv‡K Kwe e‡j‡Qb, ¯^‡cœi wSwKwgwK| cÖRvcwZi is gvLv – cÖRvcwZi iwOb cvKv Av‡Q| Kwei †Pv‡L iƒcK_vi †LjvNiwUi Rvbvjvi RvjI cÖRvcwZi iwOb cvLvi g‡Zv bvbv i‡O iwOb| mvZ fvB P¤cv – GLv‡b M‡íi mvZ fvB P¤cvi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| GKwU M‡í Av‡Q − `yóz eo ivbxiv GK w`b Kzeyw× K‡i †QvU ivbxi mvZ †Q‡j I GK †g‡q‡K evMv‡b cuy‡Z †i‡LwQj| †mLvb †_‡K evMv‡b dzUj mvZwU Puvcv I GKwU cvi“j dzj| ivRv GKw`b me †R‡b `yóz ivbx‡`i kvw¯Z w`‡q ebev‡m cvVv‡jb| Avi †QvU ivbxmn mvZ †Q‡j I GK †g‡q‡K wd‡i †c‡jb| mevB Lye Lywk nj| ZLb †_‡K Giv nj mvZ fvB P¤cv I GKwU †evb cvi“j| 104 Avgvi evsjv eB


3| cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi ewj I wjwL K. †Kv_vq †LjvNi cvZv Av‡Q ? L. †LjvN‡ii QvDwbi is Kx iKg ? M. Kx w`‡q iƒcK_vi †LjvN‡ii †`qvj ˆZwi ? N. Rvbvjvi Rvj †`L‡Z †Kgb ? O. Ny‡gi †`‡ki c_ †`L‡Z †Kgb ? P. mvZ fvB P¤cv Kxfv‡e ivZ KvUvq ? Q. Kwe Kxfv‡e P¤cveZxi †`k †Nvivi K_v e‡j‡Qb ? R. †Kv_vq wKQz gvbv †bB ? 4| `y w`‡Ki K_v¸‡jv wgwj‡q cwo †Pv‡Li cvZvq Nyg Rvbvjvi Rvj AvKv‡ki bxj is S‡i SiSi cix‡`i Wvbv w`‡q Ny‡gi †`‡ki Zviv wSwKwgwK c_ †K‡U hvq ivZ mvZ fvB P¤cvi ˆZwi †`qvj cÖRvcwZ is gvLv QvDwb‡Z Gi Ny‡gi bMi 5| wb‡Pi k㸇jv cwo| G iKg AviI kã wjwL Ges GKwU K‡i evK¨ ˆZwi Kwi| wSwKwgwK – wSwKwgwK †RvbvwKi Av‡jv R¡‡j| SiSi – eilvq SiSi e„wó S‡i| wgwUwgwU – -----------------------------`i`i – ------------------------------wPKwgK – -----------------------------6| KweZvwU Ave„wË Kwi Ges bv †`‡L wjwL| Avgvi evsjv eB 105


exi‡kªô K¨v‡Þb gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi ewikvj †Rjvq Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi MÖv‡gi bvg iwngMÄ| Zuvi wcZvi bvg Ave`yj †gvZv‡je nvIjv`vi| iwngMÄ MÖv‡g Zuv‡`i cwiev‡ii Lye mybvg wQj| gwnDwÏb Rvnv½x‡ii `v`vi bvg wQj Ave`yj iwng nvIjv`vi| Zuvi bvg Abymv‡i MÖv‡gi bvg nq iwngMÄ| MÖv‡gi gvby‡li mv‡_ Rvnv½x‡ii wbweo †hvMv‡hvM wQj| MÖv‡gi e„×-e„×viv Rvnv½xi‡K Lye †mœn Ki‡Zb| wZb fvB Avi wZb †ev‡bi g‡a¨ wZwb mevi eo wQ‡jb| †Q‡j‡ejv †_‡KB gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi †gavex QvÎ wQ‡jb| wZwb Lye g‡bv‡hvM w`‡q †jLvcov Ki‡Zb| wk¶‡Kiv Zuv‡K LyeB fv‡jvevm‡Zb| cov‡kvbv †hgb Zuvi Lye wcÖq wQj, †Zgwb †LjvayjvI Zuvi Lye wcÖq wQj| wZwb Zuvi evevi g‡Zv msMx‡ZiI AbyivMx wQ‡jb| wZwb Zuvi K‡É gywk©w`, gvidwZ, evDj Mvb ïb‡Zb| G me Mv‡bi evYx I myi Zuvi fv‡jv jvMZ| wZwb †`k‡K, †`‡ki gvbyl‡K, †`‡ki gvwU‡K fv‡jvevm‡Z wk‡LwQ‡jb| gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi 1966 mv‡j AvB.Gm.wm. cvk K‡ib| wZwb 1967 mv‡j cvwK¯Zvb mvgwiK GKv‡Wgx‡Z K¨v‡WU wn‡m‡e †hvM †`b| 1968 mv‡ji Ryb gv‡m wZwb BwÄwbqvm© †Kv‡i Awdmv‡ii c` jvf K‡ib| wZwb 1971 mv‡j cwðg cvwK¯Zv‡bi Kviv‡Kvivg GjvKvq 173 BwÄwbqvi e¨vUvwjqA‡b Kg©iZ wQ‡jb| ZLb wZwb K¨v‡Þb wQ‡jb| 106 Avgvi evsjv eB


c~e© cvwK¯Zvb Avi cwðg cvwK¯Zvb wg‡j wQj cvwK¯Zvb ivóª| cvwK¯Zv‡bi mvgwiK kvmbKZ©viv cwðg cvwK¯Zvb‡K †ewk ¸i“Z¡ w`‡Zb| c~e© cvwK¯Zvb‡K Zuviv mgvb gh©v`v w`‡Zb bv| mgvb AwaKviI w`‡Zb bv| me mgq c~e© cvwK¯Zvb‡K †nq †Pv‡L †`L‡Zb| Zuv‡`i cvc¨ gh©v`v w`‡Zb bv| †m Rb¨ c~e© cvwK¯Zv‡bi evOvwj RbM‡Yi g‡b A‡bK `ytL wQj| A‡bK †¶vf wQj| 1971 mv‡j 25†k gvP© ga¨iv‡Z cwðg cvwK¯Zv‡bi †mbvevwnbx c~e© cvwK¯Zv‡bi wbixn gvbyl‡K AvµgY K‡iwQj| H iv‡Z Zviv AmsL¨ wbixn evOvwj‡K nZ¨v K‡i| Zviv c~e© cvwK¯Zv‡bi wk¶K, QvÎ, †jLK, cywjk, Wv³vi, mvsevw`K cÖ‡KŠkjx‡KI nZ¨v K‡iwQj| c~e© cvwK¯Zv‡bi mvaviY gvbyl GB NUbvq nZevK n‡q c‡ob| Zuviv cwðg cvwK¯Zv‡bi mvgwiK evwnbx‡K evav †`Iqvi †Póv K‡iwQ‡jb| Zv‡`i ee©i AvµgY †_‡K AvZ¥i¶v Kivi †Póv K‡iwQ‡jb| ZLb Zuv‡`i cv‡k G‡m `uvwo‡qwQ‡jb evOvwj cywjk, B.wc.Avi, †e½j †iwR‡g‡›Ui m`m¨ I Awdmv‡iiv| e½eÜzi †bZ…‡Z¡ ïi“ n‡qwQj c~e© cvwK¯Zvb‡K ¯^vaxb Kievi Rb¨ gyw³hy×| ZLb cwðg cvwK¯Zv‡b Kg©iZ wQ‡jb K¨v‡Þb gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi| wZwb msKí K‡iwQ‡jb, wb‡Ri Rb¥f~wg gy³ Kivi Rb¨ hy× Ki‡eb| wZwb 3iv RyjvB wkqvj‡Kv‡Ui Kv‡Qi mxgvš— w`‡q cwðg cvwK¯Zvb †_‡K fvi‡Z Av‡mb|

Avgvi evsjv eB 107


†mLv‡b G‡m †hvM w`‡qwQ‡jb gyw³hy‡×i 7 bs †m±‡i| wZwb 7 bs †m±‡i mve †m±i KgvÛvi wQ‡jb| gyw³hy‡× wZwb A‡bK¸‡jv mdj Awfhvb cwiPvjbv K‡iwQ‡jb| Zuvi †kl Awfhvb wQj PuvcvBbeveMÄ `Lj Kiv| wZwb GB Awfhv‡bi †bZv wQ‡jb| gvÎ 50 Rb gyw³‡hv×v wb‡q wZwb G‡mwQ‡jb PuvcvBbeveMÄ kn‡ii A`~‡i evi Nwiqvq| 14B wW‡m¤^i mKvj AvUUvi mgq 20 Rb gyw³‡hv×v‡K mv‡_ wb‡q wZwb jovB ïi“ K‡iwQ‡jb| Zuviv †bŠKvq K‡i gnvb›`v b`x AwZµg K‡iwQ‡jb| cvwK¯Zvwb mvgwiK evwnibxi mv‡_ Zuv‡`i gy‡LvgywL hy× n‡qwQj| wZwb Zx¶èeyw× I †KŠkj cÖ‡qvM K‡i cvwK¯Zvwb mvgwiK evwnbx‡K †KvYVvmv K‡iwQ‡jb| Zuvi evwnbxi mv‡_ Av‡iv 30 Rb †hv×v G‡m †hvM w`‡qwQ‡jb| PuvcvBbeveMÄ kni gy³ nIqvi w`bwU gyw³hy‡×i BwZnv‡m GKwU ¯§iYxq w`b| GB hy‡× cvwK¯Zvwb †mbvivwnbx civwRZ n‡qwQj| hy‡×i †kl ch©v‡q G‡m kΓ c‡¶i GKwU ¸wj gwnDwÏb Rvnv½x‡ii Kcvj †f` K‡i P‡j wM‡qwQj| mv‡_ mv‡_B Zuvi g„Zz¨ nq| gyw³hy‡×i GB Amxg mvnmx exi †mB hy‡× knx` n‡qwQ‡jb| †QvU †mvbv gmwR` cÖv½‡Y Zuv‡K Kei †`Iqv nq| gyw³hy‡× Zuvi Ae`v‡bi Rb¨ evsjv‡`k miKvi K¨v‡Þb gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi‡K exi‡kªô Dcvwa‡Z f~wlZ K‡i| Avgiv Zuvi AvZ¥Z¨vM wPiw`b g‡b ivLe| Zuvi gZB AvgivI Avgv‡`i †`‡k‡K cÖvY w`‡q fv‡jvevme|

cvV wkwL 1. gy‡L DËi ewj I wjwL K. gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi ---------------------- †Rjvq Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| L. Zuvi MÖv‡gi bvg -------------------------------------| M. gwnDwÏb Rvnv½x‡ii wcZvi bvg ---------------------| N. wk¶‡Kiv gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi‡K LyeB -----------------| O. gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi Zuvi evevi K‡É gywk©w`, gvidwZ, -------Mvb ïb‡Zb| P. wZwb 1967 mv‡j ----------------------K¨v‡WU wn‡m‡e †hvM`vb K‡ib|

108 Avgvi evsjv eB


2. mwVK Dˇii Ic‡i wUKwPý (√) w`B K. c~e© cvwK¯Zvb Avi cwðg cvwK¯Zvb wg‡j wQj fviZ / cvwK¯Zvb / †bcvj / fyUvb L. cvwK¯Zv‡bi mvgwiK kvmbKZ©viv c~e© cvwK¯Zvb‡K Kg /†ewk / mgvb ¸i“Z¡ w`‡Zb| M. cwðg cvwK¯Zv‡bi †mbvevwnbx c~e© cvwK¯Zv‡bi wbixn gvby‡l‡K AvµgY K‡iwQj| 1971 mv‡ji 25†k gvP© / 21†k †deª“qvwi / 16B wW‡m¤^i N. gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi 1971 mv‡ji gvP© gv‡m wQ‡jb c~e© cvwK¯Zvb / cwðg cvwK¯Zvb/ fvi‡Z| O. gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi gyw³hy‡× AskMÖnY K‡ib †gvU 20 Rb/ 30 Rb/ 50 Rb †hv×v wb‡q| 3. gy‡L DËi ewj I LvZvq wjwL K. gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi †Kvb gv‡mi KZ Zvwi‡L fvi‡Z Av‡mb ? L. wZwb gyw³hy‡×i KZ b¤^i †m±‡i wQ‡jb ? M. 7bs †m±‡i wZwb Kx wQ‡jb ? N. Zuvi Awfhvb †Kv_vq wQj ? 4. PuvcvBbeveMÄ kni `Lj Kivi NUbvwU wb‡Ri fvlvq ewj I wjwL| 5. gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi Kxfv‡e knx` nb ? 6. gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi‡K †Kv_vq Kei †`Iqv nq ? 7. evsjv‡`k miKvi gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi‡K †Kvb Dcvwa‡Z f~wlZ K‡i ? 8. gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi Qvov Av‡iv `yÕRb exi‡kª‡ôi bvg ewj I wjwL|

Avgvi evsjv eB 109


fi `ycy‡i Avj gvngy` †gNbv b`xi kvšZ †g‡q wZZv‡m †g‡Ni g‡Zv cvj Dwo‡q Kx fv‡m| gv‡Qi g‡Zv †`L‡Z G †Kvb cvUzbx fi `ycy‡i LvU‡Q m‡Li LvUzwb| Igv G- †h KvRj we‡ji †evqv‡j cv‡ji `wo AvU‡K †i‡L †Pvqv‡j Avm‡Q †a‡q j¤^v `vwo bvwo‡q, †XD‡qi evwo bvI‡qi mvwi Qvwo‡q| †Kv_vq hv‡e †Kvb DRv‡b I –gvwS Avgvi †Kv‡j †LvKb bv‡gi †h-cvwR nvm‡Q, Zv‡i bvI bv †Zvgvi bv‡q‡Z MvO, ïï‡Ki ¯^cœfiv Muv‡q‡Z; †m_vq bvwK kvjyK cvZvi Pv`‡i Rjwcwciv Nygvq gnv Av`‡i, kvcjv dz‡ji kxZj meyR cvwj‡k _vK‡e †LvKb Nywg‡q dz‡ji evwj‡k|

110 Avgvi evsjv eB


cvV wkwL 1. k‡ãi A_© †R‡b wbB Ges bZzb evK¨ ˆZwi Kwi †gNbv − evsjv‡`‡ki GKwU cÖavb b`x †gNbv evsjv‡`‡ki cÖavb b`x| wZZvm − GKwU b`xi bvg wZZvm †gNbvi GKwU kvLvb`x| cvj − †bŠKvi gv¯‘‡ji cvj Dwo‡q †bŠKv Pj‡Q| m‡½ jvMv‡bv Kvco cvUzbx − †Lqv †bŠKvi gvwS †m cvUzbxi KvR K‡i| fi `ycyi − wVK `ycyi †ejv Zviv fi `ycy‡i Avgv‡`i evwo‡Z G‡m‡Q| LvUzwb − cwikªg LvUzwb‡Z Zvi kixi †f‡O †M‡Q| mL − cQ‡›`i KvR gvQ aiv Avgvi mL| wej − eo Rjvkq Avgiv we‡j gvQ ai‡Z hve| †evqvj − †evqvj gvQ †R‡jiv GKwU eo †evqvj gvQ a‡i‡Q| †Pvqvj − gy‡Li †fZi ev‡Ni †Pvqvj Lye gReyZ| †h A‡½ `uvZ _v‡K evwo − AvNvZ jvwVi evwo †L‡q KzKziwU cvwj‡q †Mj| bvI − †bŠKv †Zvgiv bvI fvwm‡q `vI| mvwi − †kªYx e‡Ki mvwi D‡o hv‡”Q| DRvb − †mªv‡Zi wecixZ w`K DRv‡b †bŠKv Pvjv‡bv KóKi| cvwR − `yóz †LvKbUv eo cvwR n‡q‡Q| MvO − b`xi ïïK, b`xi cvwb‡Z MvO-ïïK gv_v †Zv‡j, ïïK gv‡Qi g‡Zv Avevi Wy‡e hvq| GK cÖKvi RjR cÖvYx ¯^cœfiv − ¯^cœ w`‡h c~Y©, ¯^‡cœi Avgv‡`i †`k ¯^cœfiv| kvjyK − cÙ I kvcjv dz‡ji g~j †Q‡j‡g‡qiv kvjyK Zzj‡Q| Rjwcwc − eK RvZxq Rjwcwciv `j †eu‡a †PvUvPzwU Ki‡Q| RjPi †QvU cvwL cvwjk − gm„Y Ae¯’v cvwjk Kiv Lv‡U Avgiv Nygvw”Q| kxZj − VvÊv †LvKb kxZj cvwU‡Z ï‡q Av‡Q Avgvi evsjv eB 111


2. hy³eY© wP‡b wbB kvšZ – šZ = b& + Z `š—, R¨vš— j¤^v – ¤^ = g& + e A¤^j, wW¤^ ¯^cœ – ¯^ = m+e ¯^”Q, ¯^i cœ = c& + b ¯^cœxj, ¯^cœfiv 3. wecixZ kã †R‡b wbB kvš— – Akvš— Av`i – Abv`i j¤^v – Lv‡Uv kxZj – Dò DRvb – fvwU 4. o-hy³ kã †R‡b ivwL Dwo‡q, `wo, `vwo, bvwo‡q, evwo, Qvwo‡q 5. k~b¨ RvqMv c~iY Kwi K. Igv G- †h KvRj we‡ji †evqv‡j ------------------------------------------------L. †m_vq bvwK kvjyK cvZvi Pv`‡i ------------------------------------------------6. DËi ewj I wjwL K. †Kvb b`xwU kvš— ? L. cvUzbx †K ? M. †m Kx Ki‡Q ? N. †LvKb‡K †bŠKvq wb‡Z †K ej‡Q ? O. †Kv_vq wb‡Z ej‡Q ? P. †m RvqMvwU †Kgb ? Q. †LvKb †Kv_vq Nygv‡e ? 7. KweZvwU Ave„wË Kwi|

112 Avgvi evsjv eB



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