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gmoec _r[S`m _yi boIH$

gbmoZr nmQ>rb AZwdmX

{dO`m nmQ>rb


àH$meH$ … {dO`m nmQ>rb

_wº$m npãbqeJ hmD$g àm. {b. 203, Amo_Jo m Q>md° a, amOmam_nwar 9 dr J„r _oZ amoS>, H$moëhmnya 416008 \$moZ … 0231-2522828 www.muktapublishing.com

 AZwdm{XV _amR>r nwñVH$mMo gd© h¸$ "_wº$m npãbqeJ hmD$g, H$moëhmnya 416008'>. ho nwñVH$ Imcrc gd© ~§YZH$maH$ AQ>tgh {dH$co Joco Amho. àH$meH$ d nwñVH$mMm ñdm{_Ëd hŠH$YmaH$ `m§À`m coIr nydn© admZJr{edm` ho nwñVH$ Á`m ñdê$nmV {dH$co Joco Amho, Ë`m IoarO H$moUË`mhr AÝ` ~m§YUrÀ`m ñdê$nmV ho nwñVH$, Ë`mMo _wIn¥ð> d _cn¥ð> àg¥V H$aVm `oUma Zmhr. `m nwñVH$mÀ`m ñdm{_Ëd hŠH$mMm (H$m°nr amB©Q>) ^§J hmoBc© Aem arVrZo H$moUmcmhr nwñVH$mVrc _OHy$a hm _yi, I§[S>V, g§{jßV Aem H$moUË`mhr ñdê$nmV àH$meH$mÀ`m nadmZJr{edm` à{gÕ H$aVm `oUma Zmhr [H¨$dm H$moUË`mhr ñdê$nmV g§J[« hV H$aVm `oUma Zmhr. Á`mV g§J[« hV Ho$cocm _OHy$a nwÝhm OmUyZ KoVm `oVmo, H$mTy>Z KoVm `oVmo Aem H$moUË`mhr nÕVr_Ü`o (`m§{ÌH$, BcoŠQ´>m{° ZH$, N>m`màVr H$mT>Umar d AÝ` àH$mao coIZ H$aUmar gd© `§Ì)o nwñVH$mVrc gd© _OHy$a [H¨$dm I§[S>V _OHy$a gmR>dZy Z§Va Ë`mMo {dVaU d àjonU H$aVm `oUma Zmhr. Ago H$aÊ`mgmR>r `m nwñVH$mMm ñdm{_Ëd hŠH$YmaH$ d da Omhra Ho$cocm àH$meH$ Aem XmoKm§Mr coIr nydn© admZJr cmJoc.

àW_ Amd¥Îmr … gßQ>~| a 2010 ISBN : 978-81-910276-0-0

qH$_V én`o … 80/_wIn¥îR d _m§S>Ur> … amOoe qeXo _wÐU ñWi … bm`Z qàqQ>J àog, nm§Oanmoi B§S>ñQ´>r`b BñQ>Qo >, H$moëhmnya. 2


AZwH«$_{UH$m 1.

gmoec _r[S>`m åhUOo H$m`? ho Vwåhr H$m H$am`Mo nma§n[aH$ _mÜ`_mnojm ho doJio H$go ?

2.

gmoeb _r{S>`mMo àH$ma d do~gmB©Q>g² ãbm°J>O² _m`H«$mo ãbm°qJJ > {Q‰>Q>a gmoeb ZoQ>dH$sªJ \o$g~wH$ qbŠSBZ pìh{S>Amo ñQ´>rq_J `y Q>çy~

3.

EH$mM pŠbH$_Ü`o hmoUmao \$m`Xo gd©gm_mÝ`m§gmR>r H§$nZrgmR>r J«mhH$godm nañnag§~§YmV dmT> àW_ EoH$m, Z§Va {dH$m 3


4)

hr EH$ H«$m§Vr Amho gmoeb _r{S>`m ~ÔbÀ`m J¡ag_OwVr gmdYmZVoMm Bemam gaVoeodQ>r

4


_ZmoJV "Vy \o$g~wH$da Amhog H$m? _r \«|$S> åhUyZ Vwcm A°S> H$aVo.' "g{MZ V|Sw>cH$a [Q‰>Q>ada Amho.' "Ë`m `y Q>çy~da EH$ IynM J_VrXma pìh[S>Amo _r nm[hcm.' "_r VwÂ`mH$S>o qcH$ nmR>{dcr Amhoo. Vyhr Oê$a nhm.' H$moUË`mhr XmoZ VéU _wcm§À`mVco ho [H¨$dm `m àH$maMo g§^mfU Vw_À`m H$mZmda h_Img nS>Vo. Q>r. ìhr.Mo Ý`yO M°Zc cmdco H$s [Q‰>Q>ada H$moU Amho? ãcm°Jda H$m` {c[hbo`? `m àH$maÀ`m ~mVå`m AmnU Zoh_r nmhVmo. dV©_mZnÌmVhr ãcm°J, [Q‰>Q>a~m~V H$mhr Zm H$mhr {c[hcoco AgVo. CXm. "emhê$I ImZ AmVm ãcm°Jda MmhË`m§er g§nH©$ gmYVmZm.' "A{_Vm^ ~ƒZ `m§Mr ãcm°Jda _w§~B© ~m±~ñ\$moQ>m~Ôc à{V[H«$`m.' "A_a qgJ `m§Zr ãcm°Jda gdmªMo Am^ma _mZco.' "AmVm {ddoH$ Amo~oam°`, amUr _wIOuhr ãcm°Jda MmhË`m§er g§nH©$ gmYVmZm.' "AmVm Am_raImZhr [Q‰>Q>ada.' "{~nmemZo [Q‰>Q>adê$Z YmoZrcm c¾mÀ`m ew^oÀN>m [Xë`m.' nU \o$g~wH$ åhUOo ZŠH$s H$m`? [Q‰>Q>aMm Cn`moJ H$m`? OJm_Ü`o "gmoec _r{S>`m' Am{U "gmoec ZoQ>d[H$ªJ' `m XmoZ eãXm§Zr Ajae: dmXi {Z_m©U Ho$co Amho. `m XmoZ JmoîQ>t~m~VMr A{YH$ _m[hVr gmoß`m _amR>rVyZ XoUo Am{U Ë`m~ÔcMm 5


Amnë`m _ZmV hmoUmam Jm|Yi H$_r H$aÊ`mgmR>rMm hm EH$ à`ËZ Amho. AWm©V `m_mJo H$moUmcmhr H$mhr {eH${dÊ`mMr ^y{_H$m Zmhr [H¨$dm H$mhrVar doJio gm§JVo Amho, Agm Xmdmhr Zmhr. AJXr AZno{jVnUo _amR>r àH$meZ ì`dgm`mV H$mhr H$m_ H$am`cm cmJco. AmOy~mOyÀ`m cmoH$m§H$Sy>Z dma§dma Oo àíZ {dMmaco Joco, Ë`mdê$Z Ago H$mhr _amR>r_Ü`o H$aUo Amdí`H$ Amho, Ago dmQ>co. `m hoVyZo ho H$m_ Ho$co Amho, ho `oWo Z_«nUo gm§Jy BpÀN>Vo. Vwåhmcm Oa Ago dmQ>V Agoc H$s, `oUmè`m H$mimV "gmoec _r[S>`m'cm Iyn _hÎd `oUma Amho, Va Vwåhr MwH$Vm AmhmV. H$maU hr cdH$aM `oUmar JmoîQ> Zmhr, Va Vr Vw_À`m nwT>o `oD$Z C^r am[hcr Amho. EH$Va Vwåhr Ë`mda ñdma ìhm, Ë`mMm gm_Zm H$am ZmhrVa Oo ~amo~a `oVrc Ë`m§Zm KoD$Z gmoec _r[S>`m ^aYmd doJmZo nwT>o {ZKyZ OmB©c Am{U Vwåhr VoWoM amhmc, _mJo nS>mc. _mÂ`m g_d`ñH$ Am{U g_H$mcrZ VéU/VéUtà_mUoM Jocr AZoH$ df} {d{dY gmoec ZoQ>d[H$ªJ gmB©Q>g²Mm CËgwH$VoZo Am{U Hw$VyhcmZo dmna H$aUmar _rhr EH$ Amho. `m gd© gmBQ>g²Mm dmna H$ê$Z {_Ì/_¡[ÌUter Jßnm _maUo, emioVrc {_Ì/_¡[ÌUtÀ`m g§nH$m©V `oUo, ZdrZ {_Ì/ _¡[ÌUr {_idUo, Ë`m§Zr nmR>{dcoë`m _ogoOogZm CÎmao XoUo, Ë`m§À`m~amo~a \$moQ>mo, KQ>Zm, _m[hVr B.Mr XodmU-KodmU H$aUo ho _r AmdS>rZo H$aVo. d¡`[ŠVH$ d H$m¡Qw>§{~H$ nmVirdahr MwcV _m_o, _mdg, AmVo-^mD$, ~[hUr, H$mH$m-_m_m, _mdí`m, AmB©-d[S>cm§Mo {_Ì Am{U Ë`m§Mo Hw$Qw>§~r` `m gdmªÀ`m g§nH$m©V amhÊ`mMm `mgmaIm gmonm, gmYm, gwQ>gwQ>rV Am{U ñdñV _mJ© Zmhr. ì`mdgm{`H$ÑîQ>çm (àmo\o$eZcr) AZoH$ VéU-VéUr qcŠS>BZ (Linkedin)gma»`m gmB©Q>g²Mm dmna H$m_ emoYÊ`mgmR>r Am{U {_i{dÊ`mgmR>rhr nwaonya H$aVmV. A_o[aHo$V AgVmZm _mÂ`m AZoH$ _¡[ÌUr "Vy [Q‰>Q>ada Amhog H$m?' "What's the deal with it?' Ago {dMmam`À`m. ^maVmV Amë`mda ho àíZ A{YH$M {dMmaco OmD$ cmJco. Voìhm _mÂ`m cjmV Amco H$s, _hm{dÚmc`rZ VéU-VéUr, Ka gm§^miUmè`m {ó`m [H¨$dm ZmoH$ar H$aUmao 40 Vo 6


50 d`moJQ>m_Yrc ór-nwéf `m§Zm gmoec ZoQ>d[H$ªJ OmUyZ KoÊ`mMr Iyn CËgwH$Vm Amho; nU hm Q´>|S> g_OÊ`mgmR>rMo {cImU, gmYZ(gm[hË`) _amR>r_Ü`o Ë`m§À`mnwT>o CncãY Zmhr. gmoec _r[S>`m Am{U ZoQ>d[H$ªJZo Amnë`mg_moa, WoQ> Amnë`mnwT>o ZdrZ Xmao CKS>cr AmhoV. nañna g§nH©$ d nañna g§dmXmÀ`m ÑîQ>rZo EH$ _yc^yV Am{U AË`§V _hÎdmMm ~Xc KS>dcm Amho. Vwåhr B§Q>aZoQ> [H¨$dm AÝ` gmYZm§Mm dmna ñdV: H$aV Agmc, dmnaUmè`m cmoH$m§Zm AmOy~mOycm [H¨$dm Vw_À`m KamV nhmV Agmc [H¨$dm [H$_mZ Ë`m~Ôc EoHy$Z Va ZŠH$sM Agmc. Oo cmoH$ "gmoec _r[S>`m'À`m n[aUm_H$maH$VoH$S>o, H$m`©j_VoH$S>o [H¨$dm _hÎdmH$S>o Xþc©j H$aVmV, Vo gmYmaUnUo VrZ àH$mamV _moS>VmV. 1. Ago cmoH$, Á`m§Zm "gmoec _r[S>`m'~Ôc \$mago _m[hVr Zmhr. 2. Ago cmoH$, Á`m§Zr "gmoec _r[S>`m'~Ôc EoH$co Amho, nU H$gm dmna H$am`Mm ho _m[hVr Zmhr. 3. Ago cmoH$, Oo "gmoec _r[S>`m' Amnë`m d¡`[ŠVH$ Am{U Amnë`m ì`mdgm{`H$ OrdZmV [H$Vr _hÎdnyU© Am{U [H$_Vr R>aUma Amho, ømda {dídmg R>odm`cm V`ma ZmhrV. _r Aer Amem H$aVo H$s darc VrZ àH$mamVrc cmoH$m§Zm `m nwñVH$mnmgyZ H$moUË`m Zm H$moUË`m ñdê$nmV cm^ {_ioc. ho nwñVH$ V`ma H$aVmZm _cm AZoH$m§Mr _mocmMr _XV Pmcr. _mPr AmB© {dO`m nmQ>rc {hZo ~aoMgo Vm§{ÌH$ eãX Agcoë`m Aem `m B§J«Or _OHw$amMm A{Ve` gmoß`m _amR>r_Ü`o AZwdmX Ho$cm. VgoM _mPo ghH$mar amOoe qeXo `m§Zr nwñVH$mÀ`m AmVrc nmZm§Mr _m§S>Ur, {MÌo, a§Jg§JVr `mgmR>r Iyn _ohZV KoVcr. `m XmoKm§Mrhr _r _ZmnmgyZ F$Ur Amho. - gcmoZr nmQ>rc

7


gmoec _r[S>`m åhUOo H$m`? "gmoec _r[S>`m' `m Q>_©Mo AmnU XmoZ ^mJ H$ê$ `m. "gmoec'Mm g§X^© hm ì`ŠVrMm J«wn~amo~a [H¨$dm H$å`w{ZQ>r~amo~a nañna g§dmX Agm KoVm `oB©c Am{U "_r[S>`m'Mm (_mÜ`_) g§X^© doJdoJù`m M°ZëgH$Sy>Z, Om[hamV [H¨$dm g§dmXmg§X^m©Vrc doJdoJù`m H$ënZm Agm cmdVm `oB©c. gmoß`m eãXmV gm§Jm`Mo, Va gmoec _r[S>`m ho V§ÌkmZ Am{U 8


do~da AmYm[aV Qy>c Amho. gm_m{OH$, nañna g§dmX (Social Interaction) Oo OJmÀ`m H$mZmH$monè`mV Agcoë`m cmoH$m§Mo AZw^d, {dMma, _Vo (Perspectives) EH$_oH$m§n`ªV nmohmoMdVo, AZw^yVr XoVo. gmoec _r[S>`m do~gmB©Q>g²`m cmoH$m§Zr cmoH$m§gmR>r (By the people, for the people) V`ma Ho$coë`m AgVmV. dmna H$aUmè`m§da (User) `m do~gmB©Q> Adc§~yZ AgVmV. `m do~gmB©Q>Mm dmna OgOgo A{YH$m{YH$ cmoH$ H$ê$ cmJVmV, VgVer do~gmB©Q>bm cmoH${à`Vm {_iy cmJVo Am{U Vr dmTy>hr cmJVo. Ë`m§Zm A{YH$m{YH$ à{VgmX {_iy cmJVmo. "gmoec _r[S>`m' åhUOo ZwgVo "gmoec ZoQ>d[H$ªJ' Zìho. Ë`mnojmhr Vo ~aoM H$mhr Amho. cmoH$m§Zm Amncr _Vo ì`ŠV H$aVm `oVrc Am{U _m[hVrMr XodmU-KodmU H$aVm `oB©c, Aem AZoH$ do~gmB©Q>g²Mo EH$ÌrH$aU åhUOo "gmoec _r[S>`m.' Ë`mcm "gmoec gmB©Q>g²' Agohr åhUVmV. H$mhr gmoec _r[S>`mMr `mXr nwT>o XoV Amho.

1. ãcm°JO² (ãcm°Ja, dS>©àog) 2. gmoec ZoQ>d[Hª$J gmB©Q>g² (\o$g~wH$, qcH$) 3. pìh[S>Amo ñQ´>r[_§J (`y Q>çy~) 4. gmoec ~wH$_m[Hª$J gmB©Q>g² ([S>J, ñQ§~c AnAm°Z) 5. \$moQ>mo eoA[a¨J gmB©Q>g² (pâcH$a) 6. `yOa [aìhyO² (A°_°Pm°Z) 7. H«$mCS>gmo{gªJ ({dH$snr[S`m) `m nwñVH$mMr ì`mßVr cjmV KoVm, gd© gmB©Q>g²Mr _m{hVr XoÊ`mEodOr H$mhr _hÎdmÀ`m Am{U cmoH${à` H°$Q>oJarO Am{U do~gmBQ>g²Mm g_mdoe nwT>rc àH$aUmV Ho$cm Amho. 9


ho Vwåhr H$m H$am`Mo? cmoH$m§Mm à{VgmX {_i{dÊ`mgmR>r, cmoH$m§À`m g§nH$m©V amhÊ`mgmR>r dV©_mZnÌo, Q>r.ìhr., ao{S>Amo `m§gmaIr _w»` _mÜ`_o gmoec _r[S>`m~amo~a EH$ÌrH$aU H$aÊ`mMm, Ë`mÀ`mer OwidyZ KoÊ`mMm à`ËZ H$arV AmhoV. H$maU gmoec _r[S>`m Vwåhmcm EH$m Iyn _moR>çm nU Vw_À`m X¥îQ>rZo Cn`wŠV Aem (Targeted) g_yhm~amo~a OmoSy>Z KoÊ`mMr (Exposure) g§Yr XoVo. (Ë`mÀ`mg_moa àH$Q> hmoÊ`mMr g§Yr XoVo.) ho nwñVH$ OgOgo Vwåhr nwT>o dmMV Omb VgVgo gmoeb _r[S`mÀ`m `m ~±S> d°JZbm (Q´>oZbm) Vwåhr H$m OmoSy>Z ¿`mdo, `mMr AZoH$ H$maUo Vw_À`m bjmV `oVrb. gmoeb _r[S>`m~amo~a amhUo hr H$mimMr JaO Amho, ho Vwåhmbm g_Oob.

Vwåhr qH$dm Vw_Mr H§$nZr

AZoH$ chmZ añË`m§dê$Z Amcocr dmhZo Á`mà_mUo _hm_mJm©da EH$Ì `oD$Z {_iVmV Ë`mà_mUo {d{dY gmB©Q>g²Mm dmna H$aUmè`m bmoH$m§Zm hr gd© M°Zëg Vw_À`m do~gmB©Q> H$S>o qH$dm d¡`{º$H$ noOH$S>o OmÊ`mMm _mJ© XmIdVrb. 10


nma§n[aH$ _mÜ`_m§nojm ho doJio H$go? AmVmn`ªVMo BcoŠQ´>m°{ZŠg _r[S>`m CXm. dV©_mZnÌ, ao[S>Amo, Q>r.ìhr. BË`mXr§gmaIr _mÜ`_o \$ŠV àgmaU (~«m°S>H$mñQ>) H$aVmV. AmnU EImXr ~mV_r, {gZo_m, JmUo, _wcmIV, Ioi \$ŠV nmhÿ, EoHy$ [H¨$dm dmMy eH$Vmo. Ë`m~m~VMo Amnco _V qH$dm {dMma Ë`m jUr AmnUmcm ì`ŠV H$aVm `oV ZmhrV [H¨$dm Ë`mda à{VgmX XoVm `oV Zmhr. H$maU hm EH$V\$s© g§dmX AgVmo. "gmoec _r[S>`m'_Ü`o _mÌ XþV\$s© g§dmX qH$dm à{VgmX AgVmo. AmnU Or _Vo _m§S>Vmo, Vr gd© OU dmMy eH$VmV, nmhÿ eH$VmV. Ë`mda cJoM ñdV:Mo _V _m§Sy> eH$VmV. AZw^d gm§Jy eH$VmV. Ë`m JmoîQ>r~Ôc, ~mV_r~Ôc Ë`m§Zm H$m` dmQ>Vo? Vo Ë`mH$S>o H$go nmhVmV? `m~Ôc Ë`m§À`m nÕVrZo _wÔo _m§Sy> eH$VmV. dV©_mZnÌmgma»`m nma§n[aH$ _r[S>`m_Ü`o Agm g§dmX hmoUo AdKS> Amho. hr Xar H$_r H$aÊ`mgmR>r dm°c ñQ´>rQ>gmaIr dV©_mZnÌo gmoec _r[S>`mMm nwaonya Cn`moJ H$ê$Z KoVmZm [XgVmV. _mÌ dV©_mZnÌm§gmaIo _r[S>`m AmVm {d{dY gmoec _r[S>`m gmBQ>g²da ñdV:Mo ApñVËd {Z_m©U H$aV AmhoV. CXm. Q>mBåg Am°\$ B§[S>`m, Ý`y `m°H©$ Q>mBåg, dm°c ñQ´>rQ> OZ©c Aem dV©_mZnÌm§Zr \o$g~wH$da Amncr noOog Q>mH$cocr AmhoV. EImÚm ~mV_r~Ôb Ë`m§Zm H$m` dmQ>Vo, Vo Ë`mH$S>o H$go nmhVmV, `m~Ôb bmoH$ noOogda Ë`m§À`m nÕVrZo _wÔo _m§Sy> eH$VmV. \o$g~wH$gma»`m gmB©Q>g²dahr cmoH$ coI dm ~mV_r~ÔcMr Amncr _V§ ì`ŠV H$aVmV, {dMma _m§S>VmV. VmÁ`m ~mVå`m§Mr [Q‰>Q>g²hr dV©_mZnÌmV nmR>dVmV. (nwT>o Vwåhmcm \o$g~wH$ d [Q‰>Q>a~m~V A{YH$ _m[hVr {_iocM.) nma§n[aH$ _r[S>`m_Ü`o \$ŠV àgmaU hmoVo. Vo EH$V\$s© AgVo. gmoec _r[S>`m_Ü`o XmoÝhr ~mOy§Zr à{VgmX d g§dmX AgVmo. 11


nma§n[aH$ _r[S`mnojm gmoec _r[S>`m IynM ñdñV Amho. d¡`[ŠVH$arË`m Va _mo\$V Amho, Agohr Vwåhr åhUy eH$Vm. CXm. Vwåhmcm {cImUmMr AmdS> Amho, nU nwñVH$ àH$m{eV H$aÊ`mgmR>r A{V[aŠV n¡go d doihr IM© H$aUo Vwåhmcm eŠ` Zmhr; Va Vwåhr ãcm°qJJ gwê$ H$ê$Z, _OHy$a {chÿZ dmMH$m§n`ªV nmohmoMdy eH$Vm Am{U Vw_À`m MmhË`m§Mr g§»`m dmT>dy eH$Vm. Vwåhr qcŠS>BZ (Linkedin) gma»`m gmoec gmB©Q>g²À`m doJdoJù`m \$moa_er OmoSy>Z KoD$ (Join) eH$Vm. Vwåhmcm ZdrZ ì`dgm` gwê$ H$am`Mm Amho Am{U _mJ©Xe©Z [H¨$dm gëcm nm[hOo? Vwåhr AcrH$S>oM ZdrZ CnH«$_ gwê$ Ho$cm` Am{U Vwåhmcm Ë`m~Ôc OmJê$H$Vm {Z_m©U H$am`Mr Amho? [Q‰>Q>a [H¨$dm \o$g~wH$À`m noOogda Ë`mMr _m[hVr Úm. _r da åhQ>co Amho H$s gmoec _r[S>`m d¡`[ŠVH$ nmVirda _mo\$V {_iy eH$Vo, nU g§ñWmnH$ nmVirda Ago AgUma Zmhr. H$maU EImÚm g§ñWoMo H$m_ H$aVmZm, _mH}$[Q>¨J ñQ´>°Q>oOr R>adÊ`mgmR>r Am{U Vr am~dÊ`mgmR>r Vwåhr Iyn doi XoVm. (Invest) Ë`mgmR>r ZdrZ cmoH$ KoVm [H¨$dm gÜ`mÀ`m H$_©Mmè`m§H$S>o A{YH$ O~m~Xmè`m XoVm. àmoOoŠQ> am~{dÊ`mgmR>r g§ñWoMr BVa gmYZohr dmnaVm. `mgmR>r Vwåhmcm A{V[aŠV n¡go IM© H$amdo cmJVmV. EImXr ~mV_r Vw_À`mn`ªV `oÊ`mgmR>r, KQ>Zm§Mr _m{cH$m H$m` AgVo, ho dV©_mZnÌ dm [Q‰>Q>aÀ`m ~m~VrV nhm. Ë`mVrb \$aH$ Vw_À`m bjmV `oB©b. AWm©V nwT>rb KQ>Zm nañna{damoYr dmQ>ë`m Var dfm©Zwdf©o nma§n[aH$ _mÜ`_m§Zr {_i{dcoco à^wËd, AZw^d Am{U gj_Vm _mÝ` H$am`cm hdr. Oa gmoec _r[S>`mZo nma§n[aH$ _r[S`m~amo~a EH${ÌV [H¨$dm EH$_oH$m§Zm AZwê$n H$m_ Ho$co, Va àM§S> Hw$dVrMo Am{U VmH$XrMo H$m_ {Z_m©U hmoVo. nma§n[aH$ _r[S>`m dmna Oar Mmcy am{hcm Var gmoec _r[S>`mMm Y_mH$m (ñ\$moQ>) OJ^a {Xdg|{Xdg dmT>VM amhrc. gmoec _r[S>`mZo nañna g§dmXmMm ZdrZ _mJ© CncãY H$ê$Z {Xcm Amho. gmoec _r[S>`m_wio nañna g§dm§Xm_Ü`o _yc^yV Agm \$aH$ Pmcocm Amho. 12


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