1. Tomoko Ogura, 30 Fashion director, Barney’s New York Gone are the days when cigar-chomping men ran the stores where women shopped. Since starting her career at Barneys in 2005, Ogura has sped to the top of the department responsible for finding new trends and talent for the company’s 22 stores. How huge is her influence? Time magazine calls her one of six women “who rule the fashion world.
2. Calypso L awrence, 25 PR and marketing coordinator, Prabal Gurung Just three years out of an Oscar de la Renta internship, she’s working for one of the hottest designers, managing social media and pulling looks for Anne Hathaway and Kate Hudson. Her words to live by: “Measure success by s atisfaction, not salary.”
3. Coline Choay, 33 Brand development director, Jay Ahr After career-making stints at Louis Vuitton and Altuzarra in NYC, she’s bringing sales and PR magic to Ahr’s to-die-for evening wear line. Her bad-day advice: “Stay calm. If someone is yelling, keep smiling. Eventually they reflect that back to you.”
6. Elizabeth Giardina, 33 Design director, Derek Lam Giardina got an apprenticeship on Savile Row by knocking on shop doors until someone caved. Now she works hand in hand with Derek Lam. Major. Best advice she ever got: “Being creative is like every other job: You have to show up and be disciplined.”
us history American History The word history comes from the Greek word historía which means “to learn or know by inquiry.” In the pieces that follow, we encourage you to probe, dispute, dig deeper — inquire. History is not static. It’s fluid. It changes and grows and becomes richer and more complex when any individual interacts with it. Knowledge of history is empowering. An event is but the furthest ripple of an ever-expanding wave that may have started eddying outward hundreds of years ago. One who “sees” history is able to harness the power of that wave’s entire journey. Finally, the best history has at its foundation a story. A printer challenges a King and so is laid the foundation of the first amendment; A New Jersey miner finds gold in California and sets off a torrent of movement westward; a
woman going home from work does not relinquish her seat and a Civil Rights movement explodes. These stories all help to ask the question, “What is an American?” You’ll help to answer that question. Since 1492, European explorers and settlers have tended to ignore the vast diversity of the people who had previously lived here. It soon became common to lump all such groups under the term “Indian.” In the modern American world, we still do. There are certain experiences common to the survivors of these tribes. They all have had their lands compromised in some way and suffered the horrors of reservation life. Stereotyping Indians in this way denies the vast cultural differences between tribes. First, there is the issue of language. The Navajo people of the Southwest and the Cherokees of the Southeast have totally unrelated languages. There were over 200 North American tribes speaking over 200
different languages. The United States used the uniqueness of the Navajo language to its advantage in World War II. Rather than encrypting radio messages, it proved simpler to use Navajos to speak to each other in their everyday language to convey high-security messages. It worked. Lifestyles varied greatly. Most tribes were domestic, but the LAKOTA followed the buffalo as nomads. Most engaged in war, but the Apache were particularly feared, while the Hopis were pacifistic. Most societies were ruled by men, but the Iroquois women chose the leaders.
* Different Strokes for Differ ent Folks * Language Lessons * Diversity of Native American Groups * Britain in the New World * Late Expectations
The FOUNDERS of the New England colonies had an entirely different mission from the Jamestown settlers. Although economic prosperity was still a goal of the New England settlers, their true goal was spiritual. Fed up with the ceremonial Church of England, Pilgrims and Puritans sought to recreate society in the manner they believed God truly intended it to be designed. Religious strife reached a peak in England in the 1500s. When Henry VIII broke with the Catholic Church of Rome, spiritual life in England was turned on its ear. The new church under the king’s leadership was approved by the English Parliament, but not all the people in England were willing to accept the Church of England. At first, the battles were waged between English Catholics and the followers of the new Church — the ANGLICANS. The rule of Queen Elizabeth brought an end to bloodshed, but the battle waged on in the hearts of the English people. PILGRIMS and Puritans both believed in the teachings of JOHN CALVIN. According to Calvin, neither the teachings of the Catholic nor the Anglican Churches addressed God’s will. By the end Not all the English Separatists set out for the New World.
The great Separatist experiment in the Netherlands came to a quick end, as they began to look elsewhere for a purer place to build their society. Some headed for English islands in the Caribbean. Those who would be forever known to future Americans as the Pilgrims set their sights on the New World in late 1620. The colony in 1629.The STUART FAMILY, who ascended to the throne after the demise of Elizabeth, made matters worse for the followers of John Calvin. King James and his son CHARLES supported the Church of England, but secretly admired the ceremonies of the Catholic To these kings, Calvin was a heretic, a man whose soul was doomed for his religious views. The Pilgrims, called the SEPARATISTS in England because of their desire to separate from the Anglican Church, were persecuted by agents of the throne. The Puritans, so named for their desire to purify the Church of England, experienced the same degree of harassment. By the second and third decades of the 1600s, each group decided that England was no place to put their controversial beliefs into practice.
The first group to leave England actually headed for the Dutch Netherlands in 1608. They became uneasy in their new land as their children started speaking Dutch and abandoning English traditions. Even worse to the Separatists, the tolerance shown to them by the Dutch was shown to many different faiths. They became disgusted with the attention paid to worldly goods, and the presence of many “unholy” faiths.
Map of New-England (1677) This map, the work of William Hubbard, depicts the expanding New England colonies as they were in 1677. Where else but in the New World could such a golden opportunity be found? The land was unspoiled. Children could be raised without the corruption of old English religious ideas.
The chance to create a per fect society was there for the tak ing. The Stuart kings saw America a means to get rid of troublemakers. Everything was falling into place. By 1620, the seeds for a new society, quite different from the one already established at Jamestown, were planted deeply within the souls of a few brave pioneers. Their quest would form the basis of New England society.
Are We There Yet? Helping Hands Governor Bradford
William Bradford and the First Thanksgiving The major similarity between the first Jamestown settlers and the first Plymouth settlers was great human suffering. November was too late to plant crops. Many settlers died of scurvy and malnutrition during that horrible first winter. Of the 102 original Mayflower passengers, only 44 survived. Again like in Jamestown, the kindness of the local Native Americans saved them from a frosty death. The Pilgrims’ remarkable courage was displayed the following spring. When the Mayflower returned to Europe, not a single Pilgrim deserted Plymouth. By early 1621, the Pilgrims had built crude huts and a common house on the shores of Plymouth Bay. Soon neighboring Indians began to build relations with the Pilgrims. SQUANTO, a local Indian who had been kidnapped and taken to England nearly a decade before, served as an interpreter with the local tribes. Squanto taught the Pilgrims to fertilize the soil with dried fish remains to produce a stellar corn crop. MASSASOIT, the chief of the nearby Wampanoags, signed a treaty of alliance with the Pilgrims in the summer. In exchange for assistance with defense against the feared Narragansett tribe, Massasoit supplemented the food supply of the Pilgrims for the first few years. Successful colonies require successful leadership. The man to step forward in Plymouth colony was WILLIAM BRADFORD. After the first governor elected under the Mayflower Compact perished from the harsh winter, Bradford was elected governor for the next thirty years. In May of 1621, he performed the colony’s first marriage ceremon
Under Bradford’s guidance, Plymouth suffered less hardship than their English compatriots in Virginia. Relations with the local natives remained relatively smooth in Plymouth and the food supply grew with each passing year. By autumn of 1621, the Pilgrims had much for which to be thankful. After the harvest, Massasoit and about ninety other Indians joined the Pilgrims for the great English tradition of HARVEST FESTIVAL. The participants celebrated for several days, dining on venison, goose, duck, turkey, fish, and of course, cornbread, the result of a bountiful corn harvest. This Tadition was repeated at harvest time in the following years.It was President Lincoln who declared Thanksgiving a national celebration in 1863. The Plymouth Pilgrims simply celebrated survival, as well as the hopes of good fortune in the years that lay ahead. he passengers of the Arbella who left England in 1630 with their new charter had a great vision. They were to be an example for the rest of the world in rightful living. Future governor JOHN WINTHROP stated their purpose quite clearly: “We shall be as a city upon a hill, the eyes of all people are upon us.”
Massachusetts Bay — “The City Upon a Hill”
Mary Dyer was the first woman executed for her religious beliefs in Massachusetts Bay Colony The passengers of the Arbella who left England in 1630 with their new charter had a great vision. They were to be an example for the rest of the world in rightful living. Future governor JOHN WINTHROP stated their purpose quite clearly: “We shall be as a city upon a hill, the eyes of all people are upon us.” The Arbella was one of eleven ships carrying over a thousand Puritans to Massachusetts that year. It was the largest original venture ever attempted in the English New World. The passengers were determined to be a beacon for the rest of Europe, “A Modell of Christian Charity,” in the words of the governor. Governor John Winthrop John Winthrop travelled to the New World aboard the Arbella. He was elected and dismissed as governor of the Massachsetts Bay Colony several times. Puritans believed in PREDESTINATION. This doctrine holds that God is all-powerful and all-knowing; therefore, the fate of each individual soul is known to God at birth. Nothing an individual can do or say could change their ultimate fate. Puritans believed that those chosen by God to be saved — the elect — would experience “CONVERSION.” In this process, God would reveal to the individual His grace, and the person would know he was saved. Only the elect could serve as Church members. If a person were truly saved, he would only be capable of behavior endorsed by God. These “living saints” would serve as an example to the rest of the world. During the early years, ministers such as JOHN COTTON carefully screened individuals claiming to have experienced conversion. The colony needed more than a fervent church to survive. Many DISSENTERS — Christian men and women who were not converted — also lived within the ranks of Massachusetts Bay. Towns such as MARBLEHEAD were founded by non-Puritan settlers. The Puritans allowed this for the sake of
This engraving shows the Harvard campus as it looked during the 18th century. An elected legislature was established, echoing the desire for self-government already seen in other English colonies. Although ministers were prohibited from holding political office, many of the most important decisions were made by the clergy. In 1636, HARVARD COLLEGE was instituted for the purpose of training Puritan ministers. By the end of the 1630s, as part of a “GREAT MIGRATION” of Puritans out of England, nearly 14,000 more Puritan settlers came to Massachusetts, and the colony began to spread. In 1691, Plymouth colony, still without a charter, was absorbed by their burgeoning neighbor to the West. The great experiment seemed to be a smashing success for the first few decades. In the end however, worldly concerns led to a decline in religious fervor as the 1600s grew old. New England life seemed to burst with possibilities. The life expectancy of its citizens became longer than that of Old England, and much longer than the Southern English colonies. Children were born at nearly twice the
Rate in Marylan often said that New Eng parents, for it was here t numbers first grew old e children bear children. LITERACY RAT Massachusetts law requ ed school for every com boast 50 or more famili their children to be able course. MCrimes of Pur Puritan law was extrem women were severly pu crimes. Even a child cou cursing his parents. It was believed that wom nant with a male child h and that women carryin pale. Names of women ports of Massachusetts B Silence, Fear, Prudence, and Be Fruitful. This lis on women quite clearly. tendance was mandator church regularly were su sermon became a mean
nd and Virginia. It is gland invented grandthat people in great enough to see their
Two ideas got him into big trouble in Massachusetts Bay. First, he preached separation of church and state. He believed in complete RELIGIOUS FREEDOM, so no single church should be supported by tax dollars. Massachusetts Puritans believed they had the one true faith; therefore such talk was intolerable. Second, Williams claimed taking land from the Native Americans without proper MON.
Made famous by author Nathaniel Hawthorne in his book of the same name, the Scarlet Letter was a real form of punishment in Puritan society.Adulterers might have been forced to wear a scarlet “A” if they were lucky. TES were high as well. At least two known adulterers were executed uired a tax-supportin Massachusetts Bay Colony. Public whipmmunity that could pings were commonplace. The STOCKADE ies. Puritans wanted forced the humiliated guilty person to sit in e to read the Bible, of the public square, while onlookers spat or laughed at them.Puritans felt no remorse ritan Massachusetts about administering punishment. They mely strict; men and believed in Old Testament methods. Surely unished for a variety of God’s correction would be far worse to the uld be put to death for individual than any earthly penalty. Contrary to myth, the Puritans did men who were preghave fun. There were celebrations and festihad a rosy complexion vals. People sang and told stories. Children ng a female child were were allowed to play games with their parents’ found in census repermission. Wine and beer drinking were Bay include Patience, common place. Puritans did not all dress in , Comfort, Hopestill, black as many believe. The fundamental rule st reflects Puritan views was to follow God’s law. Those that did lived y. Church atin peace in the BIBLE COMMONWEALTH. ry. Those that missed There was not too much room for religious ubject to a fine. The disagreement in the Massachusetts Bay Colons of address COMny. Puritans defended their DOG -
Uncommon fury. Their devotion to principle was God’s work; to ignore God’s work was unfathomable. When free-thinkers speak their minds in such a society, conflict inevitably results.Such was the case in Massachusetts Bay when Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams spoke their minds.ANNE HUTCHINSON was a deeply religious woman. In her understanding of Biblical law, the ministers of Massachusetts had lost their way. She thought the enforcement of proper behavior from church members conflicted with the doctrine of predestination. She asked simply: “If God has predetermined for me salvation or damnation, how could any behavior of mine change my fate?”The day Mary Dyer diedMary Dyer was the first woman executed for her religious beliefs in Massachusetts Bay Colony.This sort of thinking was seen as extremely dangerous. If the public ignored church authority, surely there would be anarchy. The power of the ministers would decrease. Soon over eighty community members were gathering in her parlor to hear her comments on the weekly sermon. Her leadership position as a woman made her seem all the more dangerous to the Puritan order. The clergy felt that Anne Hutchinson was a threat to the entire Puritan experiment. They decided to arrest her for HERESY. In her trial she argued intelligently with John Winthrop, but the court found her guilty and banished her from Massachusetts Bay in 1637. ROGER WILLIAMS was a similar threat. Roger WilliamsThe ideas of religious freedom and fair dealings with the Native Americans resulted in Roger Williams’ exile from the Massachusetts colony. This 1936 postage stamp commemorates his founding of Rhode Island.Two ideas got him into big trouble in Massachusetts Bay. First, he preached separation of church and state. He believed in complete RELIGIOUS FREEDOM, so no single church should be supported by tax dollars. Massachusetts Puritans believed they had the one true faith; therefore such talk erable.
Reaching to Connecticut Despite a few internal problems, Massachusetts Bay Colony was thriving by the mid-1630s. It would only be a matter of time before individuals within the colony would consider expansion. There were obstacles to consider. Establishing a new colony was never easy. Pequot Indian settlements west of the Con necticut River were an important consideration. Nevertheless, the Puritan experiment pushed forward, creating new colonies in the likeness of Massachusetts Bay. THOMAS HOOKER was a devout Puritan minister. He had no quarrels with the religious teachings of the church. He did, however, object to linking VOTING RIGHTS with church membership, which had been the practice in Massachusetts Bay.Thomas Hooker MonumentA statue to Thomas Hooker, one of the founders of Connecticut, stands in downtown Hartford.In 1636, his family led a group of followers west and built a town known as HARTFORD. This would become the center of Connecticut colony. In religious practices CONNECTICUT mirrored Massachusetts Bay. Politically, it allowed more access to non-church members.In 1639, the citizens of Connecticut enacted the first written CONSTITUTION in the western hemisphere. The FUNDAMENTAL ORDERS OF CONNECTICUT called for an elected governor and a two-house legislature. It served as a model for other colonial charters and even future state constitutions after independence was achieved. In 1637, under the leadership of JOHN DAVENPORT, a second colony was formed in the Connecticut River Valley, revolved around the port of NEW
HAVEN. Unlike the citizens in Hartford, the citizens were very strict about church membership and the political process. They even abolished juries because there was no mention of them in the Bible. Most citizens accused of a crime simply reported to the magistrate for their punishment, without even furnishing a defense. Surely the Devil had come to SALEM in 1692. Young girls screaming and barking like a dog? Strange dances in the woods? This was behavior hardly becoming of virtuous teenage maidens. The town doctor was called onto the scene. After a thorough examination, he concluded quite simply — the girls were bewitched. Now the task was clear. Whomever was responsible for this outrage must be brought to justice. The ordeal originated in the home of Salem’s REVEREND SAMUEL PARRIS. Parris had a slave from the Caribbean named TITUBA. Several of the town’s teenage girls began to gather in the kitchen with Tituba early in 1692. As winter turned to spring the townspeople were aghast at the behaviors exhibited by Tituba’s young followers. They were believed to have danced a black magic dance in the nearby woods. Several of the girls would fall to the floor and
scream hysterically. Soon this beh began to spread across Salem. Min from nearby communities came to to lend their sage advice. The talk to identifying the parties responsi this mess. Over the River to Munchkinland“ no place like Salem. There’s no pla Salem...” Puritans believed that to b bewitched a WITCH must draw a individual under a spell. The girls not have possibly brought this con tion onto themselves. Soon they w questioned and forced to name th tormentors. Three townspeople, in ing Tituba, were named as witche famous Salem witchcraft trials beg the girls began to name more and community members. Evidence admitted in such was of five types. First, the accuse be asked to pass a test, like recitin Lord’s Prayer. This seems simple e But the young girls who attended trial were known to scream and w on the floor in the middle of the t easy to understand why some cou pass.Second, physical evidence wa sidered. Any birthmarks, warts, m other blemishes were seen as
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possible portals through which SATAN could enter a body.Witness testimony was a third consideration. Anyone who could attribute their misfortune to the SORCERY of an accused person might help get a conviction.Fourth was spectral evidence. Puritans believed that Satan could not take the form of any unwilling person. Therefore, if anyone saw a ghost or spirit in the form of the accused, the person in question must be a witch. The Trial of Rebecca NurseLast was the CONFESSION. Confession seems foolhardy to a defendant who is certain of his or her innocence. In many cases, it was the only way out. A confessor would tearfully throw himself or herself on the mercy of the town and court and promise repentance. None of the confessors were executed. Part of repentance might of course include helping to convict others.As 1692 passed into 1693, the hysteria began to lose steam. The governor of the colony, upon hearing that his own wife was accused of witchcraft ordered an end to the trials. However, 20 people and 2 dogs were executed for the crime of witchcraft in Salem. Onwhat happened in Salem. Once witchcraft is ruled out, other important factors come to light. Salem had suffered greatly.
Americans have often prided themselves on their rich diversity. Nowhere was that diversity more evident in pre-Revolutionary America than in the MIDDLE COLONIES of Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware. European ethnic groups as manifold as English, Swedes, Dutch, Germans, Scots-Irish and French lived in closer proximity than in any location on continental Europe. The middle colonies contained Native American tribes of Algonkian and Iroquois language groups as well as a sizable percentage of African slaves during the early years. Unlike solidly Puritan New England, the middle colonies presented an assortment of religions. The presence of Quakers, MENNONITES, LUTHERANS, DUTCH CALVINISTS, and PRESBYTERIANS made the dominance of one faith next to impossible. Advantaged by their central location, the middle colonies served as important distribution centers in the English mercantile system. New York and Philadelphia grew at a fantastic rate. These cities gave rise to brilliant thinkers such as Benjamin Franklin, who earned respect on both sides of the Atlantic. In many ways, the middle colonies served as the crossroads of ideas during the colonial period.
The Middle Colonies Americans have often prided themselves on their rich diversity. Nowhere was that diversity more evident in pre-Revolutionary America than in the MIDDLE COLONIES of Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware. European ethnic groups as manifold as English, Swedes, Dutch, Germans, Scots-I rish and French lived in closer proximity than in any location on continental Europe. The middle colonies contained Native American tribes of Algonkian and Iroquois language groups as well as a sizable percentage of African slaves during the early years. Unlike solidly Puritan New England, the middle colonies presented an assortment of religions. The presence of Quakers, MENNONITES, LUTHERANS, DUTCH CALVINISTS, and PRESBYTERIANS made the dominance of one faith Advantaged by their central location, the middle colonies served as important ditribution centers in the English mercantile system. New Yorkand Philadelphia grew at a fantastic rate. These cities gave rise to brilliant thinkers such as Benjamin Franklin,