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THEARTOFWOODWORKING

HOMEWORI$HOP


GUIDE WORKSHOP o Wearappropriate safetygear:safety g l a s s eosr a f a c es h i e l da, n dh e a r i n g protectors or earplugs.lf thereis no d u s tc o l l e c t i osny s t e mw, e a ra d u s t mask.Forexoticwoodslikeebony,usea maycausean the sawdust respirator; when Wearworkgloves reaction. allergic h a n d l i nrgo u g hl u m b e r .

o T u r nt h em a c h i noef f i f i t p r o d u c e s a n u n f a m i l i av ri b r a t i oonr n o i s eh; a v e resumt h e m a c h i nsee r v i c ebde f o r e ingoperations.

s a w d u satn dw o o ds c r a p cs a nb e a firehazard.

. D on o tu s ea m a c h i n ief a n yp a r to f i t is wornor damaged.

. Wearsafetygoggles, protection, hearing workbootsanda hardhat.Makesure y o u rc l o t h eas r ec l o s e - f i t t i n ag n dl o n g h a i ri s t i e db a c k .

. Rollup longsleeves rings andremove a n do t h e jre w e l rtyh a tc a nc a t c hi n movingparts.

saws Chain

. O p e r a taec h a i ns a wo n l yo u t d o o rosn a dry,clearday.

. Makesurethatworkshop and lighting andthatwork areadequate ventilation arelargeandsturdy. surfaces

. K e e py o u rh a n d w f r o ma s e l la w a Y turningbladeor cutterhead

. Readyourowner's manualbefore o p e r a t i nagn ym a c h i n e .

r F i n da c o m f o r t a bsl e t a n c ea; v o i d ing. over-reach

. Keepchildren, andpetsaway onlookers fromtheworkarea.

. Concentrate on thejob;do notrush. Neverworkwhenyouaretired,stressed or using alcohol or havebeendrinking drowsiness. thatinduce medications

o Tostartup thesaw,carryit to thework ; ake a r e aa n ds e ti n o n t h eg r o u n dm anything. surethechainis notcontacting t h et o o lw i t hy o u rf o o ta n do n e Brace r a n dt o P u l l h a n da, n du s ey o u ro t h e h the startercord.

. K e e py o u rw o r ka r e ac l e a na n dt i d Y ; c l u t t ecr a nl e a dt o a c c i d e n tasn, d

. W h i l eo p e r a t i nt hges a w h , o l di t f i r m l y w i t hb o t hh a n d s .

. Unplug eerforming a m a c h i nbee f o r p perations. s e tu p o r i n s t a l l a t i o n . Keepblades knives sharp. andcutterhead

A TREE FELLING andthebackcut Makingtheundercut To fell a treeto makeyourownlumber (page36), beginwithan undercut onethetrunkontheside thirdthewaythrough in whichthetreeshould facing thedirection up fromthe angling fall.Cutthewedge baseof thetree.Knownasthe Humbolt thismethodsaveslumberfrom undercut, partof a tree-the lower the mostvaluable partof thetrunk-a chunkof which technique willbelostwiththetraditional Thenmakea backcut of undercutting. from of inchesabovetheundercut a couDle sideto fell thetree.The the opposite shouldstopan inchor twofrom backcut to leavea hingethatwill the undercut of thefall andhelp thedirection control prevent bladekickback.

Direction of fall <--

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. M i xf u e la n da d di t t o t h ef u e lt a n ka t least10 feetawayfromyourworkarea.

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THEARTOFWOODWORKING

ENCYCLOPEDIA OFWOOD


THE ART OF WOODWORKING

ENCYCTOPEDIA OFWOOD I

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TIME-LIFE BOOKS ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA ST.REMYPRESS MONTREAL. NEWYORK


THE ART OF WOODWORKING was produced by ST. REMYPRESS PUBLISHER KennethWinchester PR.ESIDENT PierreL6veill€ Editor Series SeriesArt Director SeniorEditors

PierreHome-Douglas FrancineLemieux Marc Cassini(Text) HeatherMills (Research) Art Directors Normand Boudreault,SolangeLaberge Designer Luc Germain,Michel Gigudre Research Editor Jim McRae PictureEditor ChristopherJackson Writers ThmsinM. Douglas,Andrew fones, Rob Lutes Cont r ibut ing lllu strators RonaldDurepos,Jean-Pierre Bourgeois,Michel Blais,Jacques Perrault,Alain Longpr€,Jocelyn Veillette,RobertPaquet Administrator Natalie Watanabe ProductionManager MichelleTurbide SystemCoordinator Jean-LucRoy Photographer RobertChartier Time-Life Booksis a division of Time-Life Inc., a wholly ownedsubsidiaryof THE TIME INC. BOOK COMPANY

TIME-LIFBBOOKS President Publisher ManagingEditor Directorof Editorial Resources Associate Publisher MarketingDirector EditorialDirector ConsuhingEditor ProductionManager

Mary N. Davis RobertH. Smith ThomasH. Flaherty EliseD. Ritter-Clough Tievor Lunn ReginaHall Donia Ann Steele Bob Doyle,JohnSullivan MarleneZack

THECONSUTTANTS JohnArno is a consultant,cabinetmakerand freelancewriter who livesin Troy Michigan. He alsoconductsseminarson wood identification and earlyAmericanfurniture design. Giles Miller-Mead taught advancedcabinetmaking at Montreal technicalschoolsfor more than ten years.A nativeofNew Zealand,he has worked asa restorerof antiquefurniture. Andrew Poynter is Presidentof A&M Wood SpecialtyInc., of Cambridge,Ontario, Canada, merchantsoffine hardwoodsand veneers.He beganhis careerin the wood industry in the early'70smaking customfurniture. He is now a director of the WoodworkersAlliancefor RainforestProtectionand an interim director ofthe ForestStewardshipCouncil. JosephTruini is SeniorEditor of Hoze Mechankmagazine.A former Shopand Tools Editor of PopularMechanics, he hasworked as a cabinetmaker,home improvementcontractor and carpenter.

EnryclopediaofWood p. cm.-(The Art of Woodworking) Includesindex. (trade) ISBN0-8094-9916-9. -7 (Ltb) ISBN 0-8094-9917 l. Woodwork--Enryclopedias. 2. Wood--Encyclopedias. I. Time- Life Books. IL Series TTl80.E6l3 1992 684' .08-dc20 92-37293 CIP For information about any Time-Life book, pleasecall l-800-621-7026,or write: ReaderInformation Time-Life CustomerService P.O.Box C-32068 Richmond,Virginia 23261-2068 @ 1993Time-LifeBooksInc. AII rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproducedin any form or by any electronicor mechanical means,including information storageand retrievaldevicesor systems,without prior written permissionfrom the publisher,except that brief passages may be quoted for reviews. First printing. Printed in U.S.A. Publishedsimultaneouslyin Canada. TIME-LIFE is a trademarkof Time Warner Inc. U.S.A. R 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 r

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CONTENTS

6 INTRODUCTION 12 14 16 18 24 26 30 34 36

UNDERSTANDINGWOOD Anatomvof a tree Softwoobsand hardwoods From log to lumber Lumbercutting methods Propertiesof wood Identifting wood Wood identificationkeys Portablelumber mills

78 DRYINGAND STORINGWOOD 80 Waterand wood 86 Estimatingwood movement 87 Air-drying wood 89 Storingwood 98 WOOD DIRECTORY 138 GLOSSARY L42 INDEX

40 42 45 46 48 50 53

SELECTINGTUMBER Orderinglumber Gradinglumber Hardwoodgrades Softwoodgrades Lumber defects Preparinglumber

56 VENEERSAND MANUFACTURED BOARDS 58 Veneers 60 From log to veneer 63 Veneering 69 Decorativematching 70 Plvwood 72 Pliwood grading 74 Concealingplywoodedges 76 Particleboard 77 Fiberboard

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ACKNO\ArLEDGMENTS


INTRODUCTION

Iohn Sharptalksabout

WOOD IDENTIFICATION at anearlyagewhileworkingat our family to woodidentification f *ur exposed I felta greatdealof duringthesummers. I sawmillin UnionCounty,Tennessee, thelogsofvariousspecies as I couldseebetween curiosityaboutthevastdifferences "opened up" andthelumbermovedfromthesawdeck. theywere logsmadeupthemajorityof logsdelivOak,poplarandothercommonhardwood or sasoddspecies, suchaspersimmon eredto themill,buttherewastheoccasional If apoplarboardwasfoundin thelumberbyspecies. Myjobwasto separate safras. mywoods. a stackof oak,thatwasmyfault,soI quickiylearned Not until At thattimeI onlyknewthecommonnamesof thedifferentspecies. theimportance in forestryschooldidI realize courses woodanatomy I encountered werevariable fromregionto region. for commonnames names, of scientific whenYale hascomealongwaysincetheturnof thecentury, Woodidentification Nowthereare25to 30places wherewood forestrystudies. wasthegnlyschoolteaching WhenI wasin forestryschoolin identificltionisofferedaspartof thecurriculum. justafterWorldWarII, anintegralpartof ourworkinvolved idenNorthCarolina, saysourwood, Whenwecameacross anunfamiliarspecies, tifringwoodsamples. moredifficult.I canstillremember wood,ourtaskbecame whichwasn'tacommercial remarking thatheswore whosurvived Guadalcanal, of mine,awarveteran aclassmate thingin hislife,buttherehewasworrying,asweall he'dneverworryaboutanother between ashandhickory. hecouldn'ttellthedifference did,because feaof a handlensandtextbooks toolsconsisted At thetime,woodidentification the photosof species Withaviewto reducing samples. turingsmallblack-and-white overtheyears with identifringwood,I haveworkedveryclosely anxietyassociated Woodlovers to getbetterphotos. of Tennessee labattheUniversity withaphotography photosof woodtypesin all sortsof cannowreferto goodqualityS-by-lO-inch publications in ournationalparks. to bookstores places-fromwoodworking

lohn Sharpis a retiredUniversityof Tennessee professor offorestryand a memberof theInterHe woiles Society. nationalWoodCollectors from hishomenearKnowille, Tennessee.


INTRODUCTION

Andrew Poyntertalksabout

BITYINGAND SELLINGWOOD r.r rupplierof hardwoods andfineveneers for thelast20years, I havebeenprivI ,{, \ ilegedto getto knowsomeof thefinestwoodworkers in NorthAmerica. I've alsolearneda lot aboutwoodanditsqualities, not onlythegoodqualities, but the bafling onesaswell. myowninterestin woodbeganmanyyears beforeI estab. .lookingbachI suppose lishedmy company. In fact,I canvividlyrecallmyfirsi hands-onexperience with a pieceof Brazilianrosewood-completely captivating! Thatwasin themid-'60s, andin thosedayswoodiurners, luthiersandfurnituremakershadlittle to choosefromin thewayof differentwoods.Althoughtheycould readwonderful{esgriptiygp.assages aboutMacassar ebony, satinwood, kingwood, and soon,tryingto find a reliablesourcefor allthosefinewoodswasnextto impossible. Theneedto inventoryaselection ofwoodforthefurniturethatI picturedmfermakingwasoneof thereasons I started mywooddealership n 19j3. My furnituqemafing gradgally tapuedoff,andby 1975I wasputtingallmyefforu intottretaskof marketing andsellingfinehardwoods andveneers. At thattime,everyonesaidtherain forestswouldgoon forever,andthattherewassomuchwoodin theAmazonthatwewouldneverrun out.However, thepassage of timeandthe demandfor woodhavedonetwothingsto thetimbertrade:First,aproliferationof wooddealers andwoodvarietieshaveenteredthemarketplace-aplusfor thoseof uswholovewood.Second, webecame complacent aboufthetruevalueof various species andthesustainability of theirsupply.Wearenowonlytooawarethattherain forestsmaynot goon forever. A+howhqe proble-rns causing deforestation areverycomple6therearestepsthat "Measure woodworkers shouldtaketo helpimprovethesituation. twiceandcufoncd' mayseemalmosttoobasic,butit canmakeadifference in reducing ourconsumption. Usingveneer whenever possible is anotherstepin therightdireition. I've becomean activememberof thewoodworkeisAlliancefor Rainforest Protection. wr\RPwasfoundedin 1989byaconcerned groupofwoodworkers, wood turners,luthiers, woodmerchants, tooldealers andloversof wood.Centralto manv ofirprograms,Wz\RPencg,urages orwell-managed $e useofwoodfromsusainable sources. It is nowevidentthatmuchhasto change in globalforestrypractices olver th; nextfewyears ifwoodworkers in thefutureareto enjoytheremarliable selection of woodthatis available to all of ustoday. AndrewPoynterholdsa pieceof redwoodburl at his store,A dt M WoodSpecialtyInc., in Cambridge, Ontario.Thecompanysellsmorethan 100typesof woodto woodworkers throughoutNorthAmerica.


INTRODUCTION

Ion Arno talksaboutsome

FA/ORITE WOODS workingwithwoodhas Q in.. I grewup in afamilythatownedalumberbusiness, t. l beena lifelonginterestof mine.Whilemanyfellowwoodworkers tendto conI findthattherealessence centrate ontoolsandmethodsofconstruction, ofthecraft liesin themediumweuse-the wooditself.Theworldprovidesa greatmanyfine timbersandsomeof them,suchaswalnut,mahogany androsewood, lenda certain prestige project.Forme,thejoyofwoodworking fromdiscovto thefinished comes properties of variousspecies andlearninghowto choose themost eringthespecial purpose, for theintended regardless of itsnotorietyor reputation. functionalwood Everywoodhas forwhichit isunsurpassed. Thegoalof goodcraftsanapplication justwhatthatapplicationis. manshipis to discover plentifirldomestic Thereareliterallyhundreds of woods,someof themreasonably species, thatseldomfind theirwayintolumberyards. Neveflheless, theyarestilloutstandingwoodsfor certainapplications. A fewof my favoritesarecatalpa,balsam poplarandblackash.Recently, I haveaddedanotheroneto mylist-sassafras. A memberof theLaurelfamily-alongwith cinnamon,camphorandbay-sassafras iswellknownfor itssweet-scented oil usedin cosmetics andsoaps. Itsbuoyant decay-resistant wood hasalsogainedsomepopularitywith boat builders. however, havelongdismissed sassafras asbeingtoosoftandbrittle. Cabinetmakers, Basically, formehasbeento findanapplitheseassesments areaccurate; thechallenge hascomefromwhatmany cationwherethiswoodexcels. Oddlyenough,theanswer perceive qualities. asoneof its negative isbrittle,but itsresistance resonance Sassafras to flexinggivesit outstanding when in dulcimers. Thebright,bell-liketoneit yieldsisaspleasant usedasthesoundboard asthespicyaromaof thewoodwhenit isbeingcut,shapedandsanded. And what rolecouldbemorefittingfor thisuniquelyAmerican species thanin helpingto provide thevoicefor anAmerican musicalinstrument? I startedmakingdulcimers onlyacoupleof yearsago,whenmydaughte6 amusic lover,chose to buildonefor ahighschoolproject.Weboughtakit, butwhenI opened theboxI realizedthattherewasn'tanythinginsidethatI couldn'tmakein my own My onlyregret,sofar asbeinga luthier,is I don't shop,soI startedto experiment. possess a sense of musicto goalongwith it.

dulcimer,fashioned lon Arno displaysa home-made ftom sassafras and osageorange.He is a woodtechnologist, consultantandfreehncewriter living in Troy,Michigan.


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TINDERSTANDNG WOOD

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s you striveto improveyour woodsuchaspineis moreforgivl, \ masteryof the demanding joinery,while ing of lessprecise craft of woodworking, muchof dense,brittlespecies suchasmayour attentionwill be devotedto hoganydemandjoints that are learningabouttoolsandthetechcut to closetolerances. And every niquesfor usingthem.Butin your quicklylearnsthatsandin! beginner questforperfection, donotneglect woodacross thegrain,ratherthan themostfundamental component parallelto it, results in scratches that of everyproject-thewooditself. areaccentuated whena finishis Rarelyperfectandalwaysvaryappliedto thepiece. ing,eachpieceofwoodexhibitsits Remember, too,thathowaparjust ascertainlyas owncharacter, ticularpieceof woodbehaves in a humanbeing:Somewoodsare yourshopdepends in largemeasure plain,somecolorfi.rl; A pile of logssitat a sawmillin Oregon" somearestaon whathappened to it beforeit ble,someunpredictable; somework readyto bemilledinto lumber. reached thelumberyard. Howthe easily, somewithdifficulty. A knowlwoodgrewin thetree,theweather edgeof theseproperties will allowyouto makethemostof thetreeenduredandhowthewoodwascutanddriedallaffect your abilities,achieving a weddingof form,substance and thefinalproduct.Thewoodof aleaningtree,for example, will technique thatcantransformevenanordinaryprojectinto reactdifferentlyduringmachiningthanthatsawnfromthe aworkof art. trunkof anerecttree.Andwhetheraboardisquartersawn or Youcanobtainmuchfactualinformationabouttheprop- plain-sawn hasanimpacton itsdimensional stability. ertiesofwoodin readilyavailable booksandarticles. Learning Onewayto obtainintimateknowledge of yourmaterialis to applythatknowledge ismorechallenging. Forexample, the to sawit yourselffrom a treeusinga portablelumbermill knowledge (page36).Selecting thatmapleboardsmaycontainwidevariations in andfellinga tree,bucking-or crosscutcolor,textureandfigurewill assume greater meaning asyou ting-it intologs,andmillingtheplanksimparta hands-on learnto usethesecharacteristics to bestadvantage. Likewise, understanding thatisimpossible to acquireanyotherway.The althoughDouglas-fir isanattractive, easilyworkedwood,vari- workisarduous, andit alsotakesconsiderable timeto cutand ationsin itssurface porositycanmakeit difficultto finishwell. drytheboards. Buttherewards-bothin theuniquelumber Butwhenyoulearnhowto sealthewood,youwill findmany produced andthepersonal satisfaction in producingit-are usesfor Douglas-fir. Experience will alsotellyouthataresilient wellworththeeffort.

A standof Douglas-firtreesbaslcs in thesunlight in a WestCoastforest.Many softwoods,like Douglasfrr areidealfor interiortrim or cabinetwork.

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I I arvestedfrom the trunks and branchesof trees,wood is a Crown resilient,dynamicbuildingmaterial. Thebranches howtreesgrowcanshed and leavesof a Understanding considerable lightonwhywoodbehaves tree, wherephoasit doeswhenit isworkedor finished. tooyntheoia All treesconsistof threemajorsys- takee plaae tems:a root networkthat drawswater andmineralsfrom the soil;a crownof leaves, wherewaterandmineralsare combinedwith carbondioxidein the presence ofsunlightto producefoodfor and--ofmost thetree(photosynthesis); interestto woodworkers-asupporting trunkthattransporhthewaterandfood. Viewedin crosssection,a treetrunk to be a fairlyhomogeat first appears nouscolumnof wood,markedby a series of concentric bandscalledgrowth a rings.However, a closeviewreveals seriesof distinctlayerswappedaround eachother,someliving,somenot. At thecenteris theheartwood, thedensest-and dead-part of the trunk. Encirclingtheheartwoodis thepaler whichin turn is surrounded sapwood, bythecambium, thetrunk'sonlyactively growingsegment.The cambium's growthaccounts for thelayersof sapwoodthatareaddedeachyear.Oneither thattranssideofthecambiumarelayers port sapthroughoutthetreeandstore surplusfood. As the inner sapwood recedes from the cambium,its pores graduallyclogwith resinsandgums,and As the outersecbecomeheartwood. tions becomedormant,they form a trunk'soutermostlayer,thebark. Thedifferences between sapwood and heartwood areimportantto everywoodRootE worker.Because it ismoreporousthan Anchor tree and finishes abaorb water heartwood, sapwood absorbs heartwood isusu- and minerals better.Butthedenser allvmoredurableanddecav-resistant.from the aoil presentin sapwood Thecarbohydrates cellsmakethewoodvulnerableto fungi andinsects. Thecolorsofheartwood are also generallyricher and more vibrantthanthoseof sapwood.

Trunk Alao called stem or bole;aupporto tree and channela nutriente to and from roote

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Growth rings In regions wherea tree'sgrowthis intenupted byseasonal change, its woodis characterized bygrowthrings:concentric bands, usually fractions of an inchwide,perpendicular to the axisof thetrunk.Treesthatgrowin temperate areaswitha winterseason display distinctrings.In thetropics, wheregrowth is moreor lesscontinuous, a sharply defined ringmayonlybevisibleasthe resultof a dryseason. Theringsareintersected by a seriesof rays:flattenedbandsof tissuethatradiateoutward fromthe pithto the phloemof thetree.Growthringsconsistof twoseparate layers. Thefirst,calledearlywood, is laiddownat the beginning of thegrowing season; thesecondlayer,or late-

A amall and often pulpy core runninqup the center of the trunk

wood,isformedtowardtheend.Earlywood is moreporous than latewood, whichaccounts for the contrastbetween the two. Takentogether, the earlywood and latewood of a growthring in temperate climates represent oneyearin a tree'slife.The widthof a ringdepends ongrowing conditions andvaries from species to species, butchanges fromyearto yearreveala tree's history. A wideringsuggests a growing season withamplesun andmoisture, whilea narrow ringis evidence of disease, unfavorable weather groMh or insectattacks.Forthewoodworker, ringsarealsocluesto thestrenghof thewood:uncharacteristicallynarrow orwideringscansignalweaktimber.

Heaftwood )apwood that haa beencloqqed with resina, quma and other extractivea: eupportg tree

Grotvth ring A concentric rinq divided into aarlywoodand latewood indicatin7 the amount of wood added to a.tree'a diameter in one growingaeason

Ray Carriea nutrienta laterally throu4h the wood;alao atoreg nutrientq 9apwood Activo parA of the tree'e wood throu7h which water and minerals are conducted from the roote to the leavea: al6o storea nutrienta and helpa to support.the tree

lneulatea tree aqainst temperature extremeo; keepooapwood and phloemfrom dryin1 out

Phloem A thin, spon7y layer of tubea that carry diaaolvedeu4ara and qrowth hormoneafrom the leaveato other parta of a tree

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A thickslicefrom thetrunk of a mature oakformsan oval-shaped tabletop.The growth rings that characterizedthis tree areclearlyvisible:Light-coloredearlywoodalternates with darkerbands of latewood,etchinga distinct line betweeneachyear'sgrowingperiods.

Cambium A thin reproductive layor that forma newt'isaue,addinq to the phloemand aapwoodto increase a tree'a 1irbh


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AND HARDWOODS SOFTWOODS reesareroughlydividedinto softbut the I woodsand hardwoods, termsare inexact:Somehardwoods, suchasbasswoodor aspen,for example,aresofterthanNorth Americansoftwoodslikelongleafpineor Douglas-fir. Thetypeandshapeof a tree'sleaves are more accurateindicatorsof a particularwood'sidentity.Softwoods coniferswith needleincludeevergreen like leaves, whilehardwoodscomprise deciduous,or leaf-shedbroad-leaved ding,trees.But it is at the microscopic between levelthat the true differences canbe seen. andhardwoods softwoods mainlyof traarecomposed Softwoods cheids,dual-purposecellswhich conductthe sapup throughthe trunk and

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whichare providesupport.Hardwoods, believedto haveevolvedlater,havenarfibercellsfor suprowet thicker-walled port and large-diameter thin-walled vessels for sapconduction,Thesecells determinethi textureof a tree'swood. In spring,whenthereis abundant moistureand rapid growthof earlywood, the tracheidcellsin softwoods havethin wallsandlargecavitiesto conduct the sap.The resultis relatively in porouswood.As latewooddevelops the latterpart of the growingseason, beginto form thickerwalls, thetracheids creatingdenserwood. In hardwoodssuchas oak or ash, developin theearlymostof thevessels wood,resultingin unevengrain.These

With difspecies arecalledring-porous. maple, hardwoods such as fuse-porous vessels more evenly the aredistributed latewood. Some in the earlpvoodand walnut, exhibit a more species, suchas gradualtransitionfrom earlpvoodto latewoodand aretermedsemi-rineporousor semi-diffuse-porous. The differencesin cell structure betweensoftwoodsand hardwoods whena stainisapplied. becomeapparent In softwoods, the light,porousearlywood absorbsstainmore readilythan the dark,denserlatewood-in effect reversing thegrainpatternlikea photographicnegative.Hardwoods,however, absorbstainmoreevenly,enhancingthe croin

naffprn

()FSOFTWOODS ANDHARDW()()DS CELLSTRUCTURE Latewood

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r view A microscopic arereadily andhardwood between softwood Thedifferences magnif ication. whenviewed undera microscope's apparent (above, /eff)is muchsimpler of softwoods Thecellstructure Almost allsoftwood cellsarelong, thanthatof hardwoods. of sapthat an unbroken column whichsupport thintracheids, in Iatewood cantowermorethan200 feet.Thetracheids In hardwoods thanthosein earlvwood. become thrcker-walled

(above, through vessels, a series of right),the sapis conducted forthetrunk Support tubelike cellsstacked oneatoptheother. hardwood shown, is provided byf ibercells.In thering-porous in earlywood; f ibersaretheprevessels aremoreprominent In bothhardwoods andsoftdominant celltypein latewood. andstarch makeupthe woods, storage cellsforcarbohydrates woodtissue. remainins non-vascular

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UNDERSTANDING WOOD

A ROSEWO(ID BYA]TYOTHER NAME... Forthepracticing woodworker, callwoodinstead, sincebothbelong to inga pieceof woodbyitscommon therosewood familyandarenative nameseldom creates confusion. lf to Brazil.In fact,thereareseveral youaskfora fewplanks genuine of whiteoak rosewoods, suchasEast yard,forexample, at a lumber there Indianrosewood andcocobolo, that is noreason whyyoushouldnotget costmuchlessthanthe Brazilian whatyourequested. Butwithsome v a r i e t ya n d a r ee a s i e tro f i n d . particularly species, exotics thatmust However, theymightnotfit thebill bepurchased bymail-order, identities fora guitar-maker. Otherspecies, canbe lesscertain. Common names suchasbocote, bubinga andpadauk, aremisleading whentreeswithdiffer- areoftensoldas rosewood substientcharacteristics sharethesame tutes,butdo notlookat all like name,orwhenthesamespecies has Brazilian rosewood. different common names in seoarate Toavoidconfusion, it is helpfulto localities. referto certainwoodsbytheirbotanyouwanted Suppose samples of a icalnames. Brazilian rosewood is veryrareandexpensive species like Dalbergia nigra,anda guitar-maker Brazilian rosewood, a black-streaked,whorequests it bythatnamewill not darkbrownwoodoftenusedin the bedisappointed. makingof superior-qual ityguitars. Thisscientific naming system was A supplier couldin goodconscience developed morethan200 yearsago sendyoupieces of kingwood or tulip- bySwedish botanist CarlLinnaeus.

A botanical breakdown of Brazilianrosewood Phyfum:Spermatophyta Sub-phylum: Angiospermae Class:Dicotyledonae Order;Rosales Famify:Leguminosae GenusrDalbergia Species:Nrgra

THEHIDDEN HARVEST

In additionto lumberand manufactured boards,treesprovidea cornucopiaofraw materialsfor productssuchasrollsof newsprint(left).For centuries, people haveextractedsuchnaturalproductsas cork,rubber,gum, medicine,spices, drugs, oils,charcoal,camphorand resins.The cellulose fiberfound in treesis usedin the productionof plasticsand lacquers aswell aswoodpulp. Coniferoustreessupply turpentineand resins,whichare usedin paints,inl<sandfinishes. Modernchemistry hasunlockedstill moreof wood's hiddentreasures, finding waysto remoye suchdisparate productsasglues,poisons andarfficialvanilla.

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Asshownbelow,in a botanical analysis of Brazilian rosewood, Linnaeus' nowuniversally accepted plantsintothe scheme classifies various groups taxonomic of phyla, classes, genera orders, families, and species. Almostall treesbelong to phylum, thespermatophyta withhardwoodsin theangiospermae sub-phylumandthedicotyledonae class,and softwoods belonging to thegymnospermaesubphylum,

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FROMLOGTOLIIMBER .p

etweenthestandingtreeandthe Ll boardsyoupickofftherackat the lumberyardstandsa complexprocess thatrequires manypeople to applyenormousskill at everystep.Undetected defectsin the standingtree,damage

caused duringfelling,poorjudgmentin buckingor inattentivesawingat the mill cansabotage the valueof a tree andraisethesawmill's-andthewoodbuyingconsumer's-costs. Although powersaws havereplaced muscle-driven

pit sawsin the forestandat the mill, andcutsarenowguidedbylaserbeams andcomputertechnology insteadof chalklines,no replacement hasbeen devisedfor the practicedeyeof an experienced lumberman.

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A logger(left) makeshisundercutin a mightyDouglas-firtreein therain forats of British columbio,canada.Fellingthesebehemoths wasoncetheworkof two menpushingand pulling a hugefelling saw;today,a chainsawreduces fetling to a quick one-manjib.

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A tractor-Iikeskidderhaulsa hitch oflogsfrom theforest.


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t itscontentsontoa truck. Ahydrauliclogloaderdispenses

thetrees Selecting begins A neetjoumeyto thelumberyard in thewoods,whena foresteror timber thetreesfor cutting. cruiserevaluates for Not all cut treeswill beearmarked thesawmill; somewill beusedfor pulp treesare or firewood.Theselower-grade harvested to givetheresidual deliberately access to nutrientsandmore stockbetter thetimroomto grow,thusincreasing value.Theverybesttreeswill berstand's for veneer. bereserved lummostof thehighest-grade Since berwill comefromtheareajustunder thebark,the forestermustbe ableto cluesthatbetraydefects detectataglance

canbe in thisarea.Knots,for example, particularlytroublesome, depending on wheretheyarelocated.In thebottompartof thetree,wheretheyareusuof bya slightdisfiguration allyindicated thebark,knotsmaybesodeeplyovergrownthattheywillnot affectthevalue Butfurtherup,where of theouterwood. by concentheyaretypicallyindicated tric circlesor evenbumpsin thebark, problems in knotsposemoreserious termsof qualiry between difTheabilityto distinguish ferenttypesof fungiis anotherimporAll fungi tant skill in treeevaluation. butcertainspecies cause somedamage,

In beechand hard are rapacious: a singlebodyof maple,for example, falsetinderfunguson theoutsideof a of a 12-to treemaysignalthepresence If l4-foot-long columnof decaywithin. to thecenterof thedecaywere confined thetree,thiswouldbelessof aproblem, but manyfungiinfestthemostvaluable of thebarkis outerwood.Anyscarring sinceeventhetiniest thussuspicious, to openingmakesa treesusceptible fungalinfection. peckholes Birddamage-specifically sapsuckermadebytheyellow-bellied value. alsoaffectsa tree'scommercial cousins, which Unlikeits woodpecker

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eatwood-boringinsectsthat infestdead wood,theyellow-belliedsapsucker feasts on the sap,wood cells,and innerbark oflive trees.Persistent feedingresultsin longstreaksofstain that effectivelyrender the wood worthless. Felling and bucking Tieesarecut with threepasses of a chain saw The first two cutsiemovea wedge aboutone-thirdof the diameterof the tree,facingtheintendeddirectionof fall. The tree is felledby the third cut, or backcut,madeoppositeto and a few inchesabovethewedge.Asthetreefalls, "hinge" its directionis controlledby a

of woodbetween thewedgeandbackcut.Expertfellers consider manyfactors beforemakingthecuts-the condition of thefellingsite,wind direction, the leanofthetree,andthepresence ofdead branches in adjacent trees,aptlycalled "widowmakers."

face;large-diameter rottingbranches pointto decay withinthetreetrunk. Whiletheoptimallengthfor hardwood logsis 16feet(8feetforveneer-quality logs),cuttinglogsto this lengthis not always possible. Sometimes the buckercuts8-footand l2-footloss Oncethelimbshavebeenremoved, to avoiddefects that wouldrender-a thetreeis skidded to a staging area,or largerlogworthless. landing, whereit isbuckedintologs.To ensure thatthewoodiscutto thehighTiansporting the logs estpossible grade, thebucker-likethe In somepartsof NorthAmerica, espeforester or treecruiser beforehand-has ciallythePacificNorthwest wheretrees "read" to thetreefor signsofdefects areexceptionally large,buckingisdone beforesettingto work.Bulges in thebark atthefellingsitebeforethelogsaretransindicate knotsthatarecloseto thesur- portedto a centralyard.Steeply sloping

Althougha varietyof methodshavebeenusedto movelogsto thelumbermill,from river runsto draft horses, truckingremains themostcommonmethodof transportin NorthAmerica.

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Thenarrowkerf of abandsaw producesless wastethan a circularsaw. Here,aworker at aVermont mill removes a j8-foot-long bandsawblade for sharpening.

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t terrainmayrequirethelogsto begatheredin fromtheforestfloorusingaseries isknownas of cables. Onesuchsystem high-leadlogging.Twomaincablesandtheothera onecalleda haulback mainline-areriggedto thetopof atall mast.Several othercables, calledchokTieesare ers,danglefromthemainline. felledsotheylandwith theirbutt secwrap tionspointinguphill;crewmen eachchokeraroundthebutt sectionof log,signaltheheadoperaabucked-up tot andthelogsarereeledupthehill to nextto a thecentralpile,usuallylocated lumberroad.Whenthelogshavebeen detached. thehaulback cableis usedto pull themainlineandits chokers for anotherload.No matterhowtheyare movedfromthefellingsiteor whenthey

logsareloadedontotrucks arebucked, with a hydraulicgrapplehookfor the trip to thesawmill. In the sawmill Therearetwo maintypesof sawmills: thosethatuseabandsawandthosethat usea circularsawA sawmillis often described according to thetypeof wood it cutsandthetypeof sawit employs, suchasasoftwood bandmill or ahardwoodcircularmill. Largebandmillsare logs oftenrequiredfor thelarger-sized industhatarecommonin thesoftwood NorthAmerica. Circular try in western sawmills,more commonin smaller in theEast,have hardwood operations a smallercapacity, butarefarlessexpensivethanbandmills.

process generates Thesawing agreat "waste"-almost one-thirdof the dealof bit bulkof eachlog-but everypossible of woodis chippedup andused.Some millsorwood-fired issoldtopaperpulp utilities.(Thevolumeof wood-burned substantially sincethe fuelhasincreased Today crunchoftheearly1970s. energy woodsupplies about3 percentof the energyconsumption.) UnitedStates' Eventhebark,whichis immediately powers strippedoffthelogs,frequently thesawmill's dryingkilns. Thebarkisstrippedfromthelogwith off largegrindingcutterheads or blasted waterjets.Thelogis by high-pressure posithenmountedon a logcarriage, tionedsothatthefirstcutssliceoffthe widest,clearest, mostvaluable boards.

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In lessthan 2 seconds, this bandsawblade,drivenby a 1S0-horsepower engine, canslicethrougha 16-foot log. Thered line-a laser beam-sh ows the operator wherethebladewill cut.

In themill, thesawyer mayrotatethe log to "read"thelog'shiddendefects. Whilein thepastthis mighthavebeen doneby hand,it is not uncommonto seetoday'ssawyers work in a glassendosed booth,formingjudgments with thehelpofadvanced electronic equipment.In sucha mill, the sawyeruses joysticks-like thoseof a computer gam+-to twirl thelogalmostafull turn in a matterof seconds, firing abeamof laserlight downits lengthto visualize theeffectof a particularcutbeforeit is

made.In themostefficientmills,sophisticatedcomputers areusedto selectthe bestpositionto obtainthemaximum productionfrom eachlog. First,thefour outerslabsof thelog areremoved,givingthesawyera clean planefrom which to makehis next "opening cut-the so-called face"-to givethewidest,clearest boardavailable. Oncethis faceis cut,thelog is rotated, andthreeadditionalboardsarecutonefrom eachremainingface.Large millshandlingbiglogssendtheremain-

ing squaretimber-called a cant-to a resawingareafor cuttinginto various sizes of dimensionlumber. Hereagain,this sawyermust determine the optimum cutting pattern that will yield the mostvaluablelumber.All theboardsareedged,trimmed to lengthandgraded. Smallermills,andthosehandling smallerlogs,mayusea differentsawing strategf.Afterremovingtheouterslabs, theboardsarecutfromtheopeningface until defects interfere.Thenthelog is rotatedto thenextclearest face.Aswith thefirst method,theremainingcantis resawn intolowergradelumber.Finally, theboardsaresorted,stacked andstickered-separated by thin stripsto allow airto circulatebetween them-for their trip to thedryingkiln, wheretheywill remainfor up to 50days.

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A deviceknown asa "slot machine" sorts into the freshlysautnboards right widthsand lengths.

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LUMBERCUTTINGMETHODS alogintolumberrequires f onverting Mostlogsare \-r certain compromises. Thesimsawnin oneof tlueebasicways. plestmethodsquares thelogandslices it intoboardsstraightthroughfromone known sideto theother.Thistechnique, sawing, results asthrough-and-through to theannual in stockcuttangentially growthrings.A second method,plainis similar,except thatthelogis sawing, rotatedasit is cut,andthelow-quality pithissetasidefor itemssuchaspallets. Plain-sawn lumberisalsoknownasflatgrainedlumber. Thegrowthringsin this quartersawn oakboard appearaslinesthat are parallelto theboard'sedges.

The third method.calledcuartersawingor edge-grain sawing,dividesthe log into four quartersand cuts every board more or lessradially.Quartersawnboardshavetheir annualgrowth ringsperpendicularto the face. This orientationof the growthrings accountsfor thedimensionalstabilityof cuartersawn boards.Woodshrinksand expandsroughlytwiceasmuchtangentially to the rings asits doesradially. When ouartersawnboards swell or shrinktheydo so mostlyin thickness, whichis minimal,whereasa plain-sawn board changesacrossits width. A dining tablemadefrom plain-sawnpine boards,for example,canchangeasmuch asI inch in widthl a similartablemade from quartersawn boardswould only swellor shrinkby one-thirdasmuch.

()FSAWING IOGS THREE METHODS

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r Choosing thebestmethod intendlogsintolumber at a sawmill isa balance between Cutting andesthetic appearance. Plain-sawed use,structural stability /eft)produces boards of diminishing widthasthe log ing(above, method, is rotated to makesuccessive cuts.Themoreexpensive (above, boardwidthto the calledquartersawing center),limits

24

radius moredimensionally stable of thelog.Butit produces lumber, makingit idealfordrawer sides,tabletops andframe (above, rghf)yieldsthe rails.Through-and-through sawing froma log;theouter maximum number of usable boards whiletheinnerboards arequartersawn. boards areplain-sawn,

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alsooffersan esthetic Quartersawing advantage:It exposesthe medullary raysthat radiatefrom the heartofa log like the spokesof a wheel. In most speciesthe raysareonly one cellthick, but in a fewspecies, suchasoak,theray ceiisare thicker and appearas vivid streaks scatteredalong the grain. poplarandbasswood Sycamore, arealso idealcandidates for quartersawing. As the illustrationat the bottom of page24 shows,quartersawnlumber is not alwayscut perpendicularto the grain,and somethrough-and-through cut boardscloseto the centerofa log will havequartersawn grain.Therefore, no matter how they are actuallycut, boards with growth rings at angles between45oand90oto thewidesurface quartersawn, areclassified whileboards

with ringsat 0oto 45oanglesto thewide surfacearetermedplain-sawn. Boards with growth rings at a 30oto 60oangle arealsocalledrift-sawnor bastard-sawn. In actualpractice,sawyers usea myriad of sawingpatterns,depending on the type of machinerybeing used, the intendeduseof thelumber,logdiameter andthetypeof tree.Forexample, in virtuallyall treesthepith or centralcoreof theheartwoodis lessdesirable thanand not asstrongastherestofthe heartwood. "boxes Plain-sawing out the heart"by cuttingaroundit to eliminateit.

Thegrowthringsin thisplain-sawnoakboard appearon thefaceasan ellipticallandscape figure.Plain-sawnstockis slicedfrom logs with mostof thecutstangentto therings.

ADVANTAGES OFPTAIN.SAWN ANDSUARTERSAWN LUMBER PTAIN-SAWN

OUARTERSAWN

Cheaper andeasier to obtain Shrinks andswellslessrnthickness Usually comesin greater variety of widths

Moredimensionally stable Shrinks andswellslessacross theboard Twists andcuosless

Lesssusceptible to collapse duringdrying; easier to kilndry Figurepatterns resulting fromthedifference between earlywood andlatewood in thegrowthringsare moreconsoicuous Hasmoreinteresting figure

Splitsandcheckslessin seasoning andin use graincaused Raised bytheswelling of theearlywood in growthringsnotaspronounced

Roundor ovalknotsthatmayoccurhavelesseffect on structural integrity Pockets of pitchextendthroughfewerboards Notassusceptible to splitting whennailsor screws driven through face

25

Figure dueto pronounced raysmoreconspicuous Holdsfinishes betterin somesoecies Sapwood in boards appears at theedges andis easilycutoff Wearsmoreevenlv


PROPERTIE,S OFWOOD n experienced woodworkerpays of closeattentionto the selection has wood for a project.Everyspecies uniquequalitiesthat canmakeit ideal for for oneapplication but unsuitable that another. Amongthekeyproperties woodsarecolor,grain,texdistinguish figure, weightand odor. ture, Manyspecies areprizedfor theirdisis a fiery orangecolors. Padauk tinctive red;blackwalnut often exhibitsdeep purplesand chocolate tones.Colorin

suchas woodis theresultof extractives tannins,gumsand resinsin the wood. to air,these Whencut lumberis exposed graduallyoxidize,deepening substances howevthewood'scolor.In somecases, er,thecolormayfade. Grainand texturearetwo distinct properties Grain thatareoftenconfused. thedirectionandregularity of describes thewoodfibersrelativeto theaxisof the treetrunk.Asillustrated on page28,the grain displayed by a pieceof lumber

depends on the growthpatternof the treefrom whichit wascut. A wood'stexturedepends on thesize anddistributionof itscells.Ring-porous havea hardwoodswith largevessels coarsetexture,while diffuse-porous with finevessels havea finhardwoods abrupt er texture.In somesoftwoods, transitions from earlp,vood to latewood producean uneventexture.Wherethere islittleor no transition, asin whitepine, thewoodhasan eventexture.

ftqure Landacape

figure Fiddleback onperobarooa

MoLLle fi4ure on movin4ue

on white birch

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Figure-an important quality in veneers-is the patterndisplayedon the surfaceof a board.Thisis theexpression "61n1261s1"-fte of a board's sumof its grain,contrastbetweenearlywoodand latewood,eccentricityof growth rings, mineralstreal6,disease andthe method usedto sawthe log. Someof the more stunningfiguresin differentspecies are illustratedbelow.Forexample, plain-sawn whitebirch reveals a so-called landscaoe figure.Interlockedgrainproducestherib-

bonfigurecommon in Africanmahogany. Wavygrainin maplesresultsin a fiddlebackfigure,sonamedbecause ofitsusein thebaclaofviolins.Andinegular growths ontheoutersurfaces of trees, suchaselm, yieldanintricateburl figure. Theweightof differentwood species isexpressed asspecific gravity,or itsdensitycompared to an equalvolumeof water.Thespecificgravityof anovendried sampleof Americanelm, for example, is0.50,makingit halfasheavy

asa tropicalhardwoodlike ekki,which hasthesamespecificgravityaswater1.00.Lignumvitae,the heaviest wood, hasa specificgravityof L23.Thehigher a wood's specificgravity,the less porousit is and the more impervious it will be to a finish. A wood'sodor-usually causedbv oils in the heartwood-may alsodetermine its use.An aromaticspecies like cedar,for example,is often usedfor clotheschestsand cigarboxes.

Kibbonfiqure on Africanmahogany

Dird'e-eyefigure on maple

Burlfigure on Carpathian elm

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UNDERSTANDINGWOOD

grnvityis a betterirdicatorof n Specific wood'sweightthartsize.Witha speciJic gravityof 0.90,a pieceof cborryweiglrs thesanrcttsa trtttcltlnrgerblockof white grovityis only0.35. pine,wlrcsespeciJic

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Featured tn lumber wiLh even wood ftbere thaL are parallel Lo the verLtcal axta of the trunk; makea for eLronq wood, but hae ltttle or no fi4ure

Found tn lumber where the ftbera devi' aLe from the verLtcalaxie of the Lrunk; not ao atronq ae etraiqhL-qratned wood, but producee an attracttve fiqure

Froduced by wood ftbere Lhat undulatetn ehort,even wavee:yielde fiddleback ftqure

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treea with twtEted trunka; common in 1coLchpineand aweetcheetnuL

Interlocked grain Foundtn lumberfrom treeE with oppoein7internal LwtaLe; eomeLimeefound in elm and verycommonin tropical epeciee

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W()RKING WITH THEGRAIN Reading thegrain Manywoodworking plantasks, especially ing,require working in thedirection of the grain. Youcanusually tellgrainorrentayourhandalong tionbyrunning a board face:Thesurface willfeelsmoother when yourhandis moving withthegrainand rougher whenrunning against it.Another method plane is to slidea smoothing l i g h t lay l o n g t h ef a c ei n o n ed i r e c t i o n , thenrepeat in theopposite direction. The blade willchatter orcatchonthewood fibers whenit iscutting against thegrain. Asshownontheplain-sawn boardat right, thewoodfibers slope"uphill"in thedirectionof thegrainand"downhill" against it.

Determining thebestdirection to plane To prevent a planebladefromcatching thegrainandtearing orchipping thewood f ibers, always cutin theuphillgraindirection.Thiswillproduce cleanshavings and a smooth surface. Beespecially careful to spotgrainthatchanges direction withina singleboard. Thedragram at leftshows sevgrainpatterns eraltypical witharrows indicating thebestplaning direction. Theuphill drrection maybeconstant fromoneendof a boardto theother(A).Orit maychange, demanding thatyouplane fromeachend toward themiddle(B).lt couldalsochange fromthemiddle to theends(C).lf thegrain doesnotslope at all,youcanplanein a singlepassfromeitherend(D).

29


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IDENTIFYINGWOOD apieceof hetheryouarerestoring furnituremadefromanunfamilof theauthenticity iarwoodor debating boardwith a locallumbera particular yard,a knackfor identifringa pieceof lumberisa usefrrlskill. anentirebranchofknowlOf course, and edgeis devotedto woodscience Bookshavebeenwritten technology. havebeen aboutthe subject,careers offer foundeduponit, anduniversities coursesand degreesdevotedto it. identifrwoodby firstslicing Scientists thenmountoffa thin sliverof asample, it under ingit on a slideandexamining a mlcroscope. woodworker, however, Thepracticing in sawing thanin whoismoreinterested identiff most cansuccessfully science, for a searching woodsby methodically fewsimpleclueswith thehelpof inexMostof thetoolsyou pensive equipment. needareillustrated atright.Yourinvestigationshouldbeginwith the easily (page properties ofthesanrple observable deterandfeelthesurface; 26).Examne minewhetherit isoilyor dry,dullor lusby tryingto trous.Checkits hardness You with a fingernail. dentthesurface

Eachmethodexposmaybeableto tell with thenakedeye allyor tangentially. anatomisring-or diffirse- esa differentviewof a sample's whetherahardwood view Thesimplest is the porous. Asshownin thephotosonpage icalstructure. lookingatthe sinceit involves arerel- transverse twotypesof hardwood 33,these However, to with endgrainof thesample. to tellapartwhenviewed ativelyeasy fibers, avoida blurredviewof crushed thetextureof ahandlens.Notewhether thesurface with a or smooth.Ifthe sam- youmustfirstshave thewoodiscoarse knife. plehasbeenrecentlycut,it mayhave razorbladeor a well-sharpened you viewof asample, odor. If it hasbeen Togetatangential a recognizable will needto makea cleancutalongthe sufficientlydried,you maybe ableto growthringsof the wood (page32). gravity. itsspecific calculate to cut at rightangles canhelp Makinga second Aithoughtheseobservations a radialview. youwill still thefirstexposes narrowdownthechoices, andrecordOnceyouhaveobserved undermaghaveto viewawoodsample properties andmicronificationin orderto hazardaneducat- edthesample's Theillustration scopicdetails,you cancomparethe asto itsspecies. edguess on page31showsthethreewaysthata resultswith a printedkey of wood radi- species to identifithewood. transversely, sample canbestudied:

SLEUTH F(|RTHEWOOD TOOLS Labeled wood samplea A set of domeatic or tropical wooda with labelaindicatin1 the apeciea;can be ueed to help identify and aomparewooda

Hand lens Used to axaminewood samplea;availablein Bx, 1Oxand 12xma1nification

llluminaied magnifter For axaminin7woodaamplea; featu ree built- in illumination for aharper viawinqthan hand leno.Typicallyavailablewith up to 2Ox maanification

Razor blade Used to aut off wood alivers for viewinqunder a microacope; einqle-adqedbladea are the aafeat type

Examiningtheendgrainof a board throughan illuminated1& magnifier enlnrges severalfeaturesof a wood samplethatarehelpfulin species identification.

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Poaketkni e Used to prepare the end qrain of wood aampleafor examination

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EXAMINING A W()OD SAMPTE perspectives Three viewing The10xmagnification provided bya magniferor handlensallows youto examine threeviewsof wood's structure, represented bythehardwood logsection shown at rrght.Thetransverse section liesat right a n g l etso t h eg r a i na n di s v i s i b l ien t h e endgrainof stock.Thetangential and radialsections areat 90'to thetransverse section. Thetangential section follows a straight linethatis tangent to thegrowth rings. Thissection isthesurface yousee onthefaceof plain-sawn lumber. A radial section isexposed bycutting a straight line fromthebarkthrough thepith,exposing grainlinesthatappear asvertrcal strips.

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Examining woodunder a microscope At 100xmagnif ication, a microscope u n c o v em r so r ed e t a i losf t h ec e l l u l a r structure of woodthancanbeseen through a handmagnifier. At leftare twoviewsof whitepine,illustrating key elements in species identification. The transverse section(farlefDshowsthe sizeof thetracheid cellsandthetransitionin theirdensity fromear-lywood to latewood. Alsoevident is a longitudinal resincanal.Thetangential section(near /eff)shows thenumber andthickness of theraysin thewood.


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WOOD UNDERSTANDING

t WITHA LENS F(lRVIEWING SAMPLES W()()D PREPARING section a tlansverse Preparing Sliceoffa sliverof woodfromtheend grainof yoursample usinga sharp knifeorrazorbladeUeft).Ihesurface andeven.lf the shouldbesmooth dense anddtffiwoodis particularly cultto cut,firstsoaktheendgrain fora shorttimein hotwater.

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andradialsections tangential Cufting marka cutting section, Fora tangential to thegrowthringsonthe linetangent theline Cutalong edgeof thesample. sureyourhands witha bandsaw,making arenotin linewiththebladeof thetool (right). makean Fora radialsection, at the thesample cutthrough end-to-end highpointof thegrowthringswiththe piecefacedownonthe bandsawtable. lightly Tocleanupthecutsforviewing, witha handplane. thesurfaces smooth whichwillcrush Avoidusingsandpaper, thefibers.

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WOOD IDENTIFICATION METHODS Although identifying woodrequires andcanberevived by moistening a carefulobservation of theappropri- drywoodsample. atefeaturesof a sample,practice Checking a sample for hardness makesthejob easier. Firstmeasure byrunning a fingernail alongthe thewidthof thegrowthrings,and grainandnotingthedegree of indennotethecolorandlusterof the tationcanhelodifferentiate simiwood.Remember thatwoodexoosed larspecies suchas butternut and to sunlightandairchanges color,so blackwalnut. the hueof a freshlycut samplemay Thestandard toolfor macroscopic bedifferent afterit hasdried,Luster viewing of woodis a 10xhandlens. is nota commonfeatureof many Choose onewithbuilt-inilluminawoods, but it canhelpdistinguish tionforsharpresolution. Examine between species that areotherwise samples in goodlight,holding the alikein color,textureandweight. lenscloseto oneeyeandmoving Although odor,likeluster,is distinc- thesurface to bestudiedintofocus. tivefor onlya fewwoods,it canbea Notethedistribution andshapeof particu- features usefulkeyto identification, suchasvessels, tracheids, larlyamongsoftwoods. Odoris most resincanals, earlywood, latewood, pronounced poresandmedullary in freshlycut lumber, rays.Therela-

(in hardtivediameter of vessels (in softwood) wood)or tracheids is important in determining thetexture of thewood;the larger thesecells, thecoarser thewood.Thedistributionof pores withinthegrowthrings willalsotellyouwhether a hardwoodis ring-,diffuse-, semi-ringor semi-diffuse-porous. Whenviewing endgrain,choose an areaof average growthrate,avoiding defectslike crossgrainandknots. Withsoftwoods, lookfor resin canals; theyareonlypresent in pine,spruce,larchandDouglas-fir. lf youarelooking forrays-animportantfeatureof hardwoods-they are bestseenona transverse or tangential surface,

(lFTWOWOOD COMPARING MAGNIFIED VIEWS SAMPTES

Thetwophotosaboveshowwhat theendgrain,or transyerse sections, of two dffirent hardwoodsamples wouldlooklikeunderthemagnificationof a handlens.A ring-poroushardwood(above,left)featuresrows of relativelylargeporesin theeailywoodand clusters of smallerporesin thelatewood.Theverticalbars interruptingtheporesaremedullaryrays.A semi-ring-porous wood(above,right) showslittle distinction betweentheearbryoodand latewood.Here,theporesareevenlydistributedthroughoutthe tissue.

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KEYS WOODIDENTIFICATION

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A collectionof labeledwood samples canbeinvaluablein helpingyou become familiar with a varietyof woods.It mayalsocontaina species you wish to identify.

I orrectlyidentifyingan unfamiliar of \; woodsampleout of thousands possibilities requires closeobservation, knowledge andathorough ofwoodand matter, itsproperties. Butasa practical to thepossible choices areusuallylimited several familiarspecies, anda commerciallyavailable setof labeled woodsamples,suchastheoneshownatright,may includea piecethatmatches thewood you areattempting to identifr.Most youwill needto record often,however, thefeatures of a sample, thenuseawood keyfroma bookto make identification sense ofyourresults. keyis essentially a An identification master listof woodsandtheirpropertiesthat serves asa cross-reference to link thefeatures of a particularsample name.Somekeysrequire to a species thatyou compare theirentriesagainst features thatarevisibleto thenakedeye or with a 10xmagnifier,whileothers demandthat you note microscopic details. Stillotherkeysarebased onthe userhavingwide-ranging sensory informationaboutthewood,includingits colot odor andtexture,andthebark andleafshapeof thetreefrom which it came. Using a key is like climbing the branches of a tree.Youareaskedto answera seriesof pairedstatements, choosing theonethatbestdescribes the woodin questionandproceeding to the nextpairindicated. At eachstatement, theuserforksontoa differentbranch

until reaching a leafthatidentifiesthe Thefirststatement mayinvolve sample. thetextureof thewood.If thewoodis porous,for example, youaresentto one you if it isnon-porous, setof statements; jumpto adifferentsetof statements. You continuethisway,flippingfrompageto pagein abook,aseachanswer graduallyreduces thechoices. Finally,thesearch isnarrowed to a singlespecies.

Avoidkeysthat try to coverevery woodspecies in theworld;theywill prove onethat describes toogeneral. Choose region,suchasNorth treesin a specific Americansoftwoods or tropicalhardwoods.Several classic keyscanbefound in woodworking boola;checkyourlocal libraryor boolstore. Somepublicagencies(below) alsoofferwoodidentification services.

IDEI{TIFICATIOI{ SOURCES FOR WOOD Books Edlin,Herbert L., WhatWoodls That? A Manualof Woodldentification. NewYork:Viking,1969. Hoadley, Bruce,ldentifyingWood. Nevvton, Connecticut: Taunton Press,1990. Panshin, A.J.andDeZeeuw, Carl,Textbook of WoodTechnologr. NewYork:McGraw Hill, 1980.

Agricultural Extension Service, Forestry andWildlifeExtension, 1990. TimberResearch Development Association, Timbersof the World: Volumes I and2. Lancaster; Construction Press,1979. Agencies thatofferwood identification services

Rendfe,8.J., WorldTimbers:Volumes 1-3.London: ErnestBenn,1970.

CenterForWoodAnatomyResearch U.S.ForestProductsLaboratory 1 GiffordPinchotDrive Madison, Wisconsi n 53705-2398

Sharp,John8., Woodldentification: A Manualfor TheNon-Profexional. Knoxville: University of Tennessee

International WoodCollectors Societv 2913ThirdStreet Trenton, Michigan 48183

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UNDERSTANDINGWOOD

USING A W()OD IDENTIFICATION KEY Wood wiLhout eLacked raya;

Kaye broad and viaible

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Woodrtnq-porouo(eailywoodeharply defined); earlywoodporea larqer LhanlaLewoodporeoand viaible1;othe nakedeye

Kaye narrow and uniform in width Wooddiffuee-poroue (earlywood not eharply defi,ned): earrwooa Pore??malter than latewoodporeoand visibleto the naked eye

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Wood with aLacked

Hereis anexample of howa typical woodidentif ication eLoraqe celle conapicuouo tn raye, forming ripple keyworks. In thiscase,wearestarting conLinuouelineethrouqhoul, witha plain-sawn marksexLendiniq laLewood: WaLer hickory acroea the 4ratn board of an unknown wood. Thefirststepisaimedat when tanqenLial narrowing theinvestigation to either thehardwood orthe gectton of wood ta portion softwood yoursample of thekey.Youexamine viewed:?eretmmon witha handlensandobserve thatit hasvessels andis porous; according to yourkey,it is a hardwood. Next, HearLwoodcheeLnuL- Heartwoodbrown youmustdetermine whether thewoodis ring-or difbrown Lo chocolat.e to yellow-brown fuse-porous: Younotice thatitsearlywood is notsharply or purplioh brown youaretoldthatit is diffuse-porous. defined; Thenext features to examine aretherays.Seenin thetangential viewof yoursample, theraysarerelatively narrow and uniform in width.Thisobservation leads to another concerning thesizeof thepores in thegrowth rings. Since LaLewoodef,oragecelle LaLewoodatoraqe the poresin theearlywood of yoursample arelarger appeartn fine,continucellenot evideni oue ltnea thanthosein thelatewood, thisindicates thatyouhave a semi-diffuse-porous wood.Next,youexamine thedistribution of thepores in thegrowth ring.lf theywere unevenly distributed, yoursample thekeywouldidentify ForeeevenlydiaToreaunevenlydiotrtbastanoak. Instead, thepores in yoursample areevenly t,ributedthrou6huLedthroughout growth distributed. Youmustthenevaluate thestorage cellsin out growth rinq rin7 and found in cluaLere thelatewood. aeparatedby eectiona of Seeing thattheyarepresent in a fine, fibrouaLtssue:Tanoak unbroken line,youaredirected to determine thecolor of theheartwood. lf it werechestnut-brown orchocolate, youwouldhavea pieceof blackwalnut or butternut. Butsincetheheartwood you is brown to yellow-brown, Toree in the earlywoodlarger Toree uniform in size haveeitherwaterhickory or persimmon. Sincetherays than thoee in the latewood; throuqhoutthe rin4 Lranaition qradual (eemi-d tfof yoursample arestacked vertically, creating ripple fuee-poroue) youto theendof your marks, thekeyleads quest: thesample is persimmon.

Wood non -poroue (without veeeelo): Wood tieaue dominated by tracheide in diaLincL rowa; raye not viaible 1,othe naked eye

Woodporoua (with veoaelo):WoodLtosue dominated by veosele(poree) embeddedin fibroue tiaaue: raJ6 may or may not be viaibleto the nakedeye 5TART HERE

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LUMBE,RMILLS PORTABLE -|a h. desireto gaina deeperunderleads I standingof woodeventually shop and out of the somewoodworkers and back woods, lumberyard,into the to the treeitself.By sawingyour own Iumber from logs,you can produce boardsthatexactlymeeta project'sspecificationsand gain valuableinsight into woodasa living material.Eachstep yieldsa thrill of discoveryasyou watch patternsof grain and figureemerge from thelog. A numberof lumbermills on the marketallowyou to cut through-andthroughcut,plain-sawnor quartersawn boards.Thesetoolsincludelargestationaryproductionmills capableof cutting logsmore than 20 feetin length, portablemodelswith toughbandsaw blades,and still smallerunits that use chainsaws.

that followshowyou Theprocedures howto cut logsinto lumberwith a chain sawthat is guidedby a jig that attaches to it. Besides thecuttingjig anda hearyduty saw,this simplemethodrequires nothingmore than a straightboard, a hammeranda fewnails. to crossMost chainsawsaredesigned cut trees-that is, buck the logsinto shorterlengthsafterthe treesarefelled anddelimbed.Cuttinglogsinto lumber is a rippingoperationin whichthesawing is donealongthe lengthof the log, Rippingwith a chainsawrequiresat least threetimesasmuchpowerascrosscutting, andthesawmustrun at full throttlethroughoutmostof thecut.Because muchportablelumbermilling involves hardwoodlogs,it isbestto usea directdrive chainsawratedat a speedof at least3000feetper minute,with a rip-

Tominimizestrain pingchaininstalled. on thesaw,try to selectlogsthat arerelativelyfreeof defectssuchastwist and taper, - with fewknotsandburls. Fellingtreesand cuttinglogswith a work requiring chainsawis dangerous safeworkinghabits.Payattentionto your taskat all timesand keepcutting sharp,cleanandwellmaintained. edges Sinceprolongedwork with chainsaws theears,wearhearingprocandamage tection,suchasearplugsor earmuffs. Prooerdressfor chainsawwork also includesa fuIl-faceshieldandsteel-toed boots;do not wearlooseclothing.You canalsodon specialchainsawgloves to protectyourhandsanda pairofsafety chapsmadefrom a tough,sytthetic fiber,suchasKevlar'", to protectyour slip or legsshouldthe sawaccidentally iump back.

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commercialjigsand Specialized you to cut logs enable machines into lumber.Here,a bandsaw lumbermill cutsa 2-by-10board Thedevice from a squared-offlog. featuresa narrow-kerfbladethat produces lesswastethqna chain saw,makingit feasibleto cut planksasnarrowas % inch wqsle. thickwithoutexcessive

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WOOD UNDERSTANDING

A t(lc INTOBOARDS CUTTING thelog 1 Squaring I Tomarkoutthecant-thesouaredthe off partof the log-andmaximize n u m b eorf b o a r dtsh e l o gw i l ly i e l d , on bothendsof the log. scribsasquare diameStartat theendwiththesmallest ter.Place the insideangleof a carpenjustinsidethe bark,and ter'ssquare marktwooutsideedgesof the square lines witha pencil. Using thescribed thesquare(/eff,). asa guide,complete Measure and thesidesof thesouare transfer themto theotherendof the log, in making surethatthepithis centered thesouare.

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OUARTERSAWING CUTTING PATTERN

THROUGH.Al{0. THROUGH CUTTIl{G PATTERN

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thecuttingpattern Choosing righil,dividethe square lumber(above, want.Forquartersawn between through-andBefore cuttingthe log,choose asfor quartersawing Mark out the middle segment into three segments. mark out the appropriate and and through cut lines in the two cut lumber, then scribe pattern through-and-through log. For through-and-through on the ends of the cutting perpendicular (above, in the are to those outside segments that of lines within the /eff), scribe a series cut lumber to Thegrowthringswill bemoreor lessperpendicular tangent to thegrowth middle. square sothattheboardfacesareroughly you faces of these boards. the lines to the board thickness rings.Space the according

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I UNDERSTANDING WOOD

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thecant Q Cutting r-t Setthelogon spacers, withoneside of the marked s0uare vertical. Cuta 2by-4guidelonger thanthe log,thenpositionit ontopof the logsothatit extends beyond eachend.Aligntheoutside edge of theguidewiththesideof thesquare andnailit in place. Usewoodshimsto leveltheguide.Place thelumber-cutting jig onthe guide(above) andadjustits fencesothatit runssmoothly along the guide.Attach thechainsawto thejig following themanufacturer's instructions. To makethecut,position thejig onthe guideat thesmallest endof thelog.Then, withthesawbladeclearof thelog,start upthesawandtip it forward sothatthe bladebitesintothelog.Carefully step backwards anddrawthejig alongthe guide, cutting through thelogto theotherend.Tocuttheothersides,remove theguideandrotatethe log.Repeat the procedure to aligntheguidewiththe square andmakethecuI(right). Continue untilallthesidesarecut.To cut the resulting cantintoboards, usethechain sawandthejigto cutalong thelinesyou marked in step2. lf youhavea bandsaw, youcancutthe logintoa manageable 6by-6cantwiththechainsaw,thenusethe bandsawto cutthecantintoboards. With its narrower kerf,a bandsawbladeproduceslesswaste thana chainsawblade.

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UNDERSTANDINGWOOD

t(lc CROSSCUTTING JIG the Simplify thetaskof squaring endsof a logbeforecuttingit into jig lumberwiththecrosscutting shownat right.Thejig,whichcan be builtto fit a varietyof logsizes, of a guideandan inverted consists L-shaped framewithtwotriangular supportbrackets. To makethejig, cut twopieces for theframe. of 7a-inchplywood should Thelengths of the pieces exceed thediameter of the largest logyouexpectto handle.Thewidth of thetop pieceshouldequalthe desired widthof cut.Screwthetwo pieces alongwiththetritogether Screwa 2-by-4 angularbrackets. guidethatis at least8 incheslonger thanthediameter of thelogto the toppiece,aligning itsedgewiththat of thetop piece. To usethejig,setthe logonspacersandposition thejig atopthe log. Nailthesidepieceof theframeto theendof the log,makingsurethat to the theguideis levelandsquare log'saxis.Setup thechainsawand jig ontheguide the lumber-cutting asyouwouldto cut a logintoa cant (page38).Thenstartthe sawand tio it forward sothatthe bladebites intothe log hight, below).Drawthe jig alongtheguideuntilyoucut throughthe log.At the endof the jig andthecutcut,thecrosscutting off piecewilltoppletowardyou.Keep the bladefrombindingin thekerf andstandclearof thejig at theend of thecut.

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SELECTNGLI.A4BER omecraftsmen buytheirwoodprojectbyproject. Theydesign andlay out a pieceof furniture,calculate the amountandtlpe of woodrequired, then embarkonaquestfor exactlywhat they need.Otherwoodworkers stockpile beautifulor interesting pieces of wood evenbeforetheyhavea specific project in mind.Picking throughthepilesatthe localwooddealership, surveying felled Iogsat a buildingsiteor scavenging buckedlogsleft overfrom roadside treework,thesecraftsmen accumulate promising woodin thedryingshed-a Principaltoolof thelumbergrader's supplythatserves asaninspirationfor trade,a lumberruler measures the futurework. width of aboard.With aflexible

theNationalHardwoodLumberAssociation.In addition,somecarehasprobably beentakento control the moisture contentof thestockduringits stayin the yard.Youcanalsoasktheretailerto furnish stockthat is surfacedto a uniform thickness-anecessity for woodworkers who do not haveaccess to apowerplaner. Thereareother,lesscostlywaysto obtain wood. If you live near a small sawmill,you mayfindgoodqualitylumber at a very low price.However,the woodwill probablybegreen,roughand ungraded-and it mustbestickered,seasonedandsurfaced beforeit canbeused for furniture.Biggersawmillspreferto Whateveryour approach,thereare shaftanda hookat oneendfor dealwith largevolumesof wood and severalsourcesto coverin your search a maybereluctantto fill smallorders.One Jlippingstock,therulerenables for raw materials.The most obviousis gradertofill an orderfor woodquickly. answeris to pool your materialneeds the locallumberyard.Someyardsstock with thoseof otherwoodworkers. Some specialty items,dependingon demandin theareastheyservice; sawmillswill sellyoutheir "planerouts"-small piecesof varylumberyardsalong the coast,for example,might carry ingwidthsandthicknesses thatcanbeboughtat bargainprices. mahoganyand teakfor boat constructionand repair.But It may alsobe economicalfor you to buy wood that has because mostyardsprimarilysupplytheconstruction trades, beenrecycledaftermanyyearsof usein bams,factories,wharves your solid-woodchoices will probablybelimitedto structur- and otherstructures.Youmayalsofind an opportunityto do al softwoodlumberand perhapsan occasional pieceof oak. your own recycling.Reusingold wood makessenseenvironFor a wider choiceof hardwoods,and for wood carvingand mentally,and it is rapidly becomingthe only legalway of turning blanks,you will haveto rangefartherafield.Look in obtainingsomespecies. In addition,recycledboardsthat were the YellowPagesfor dealerships that specialize in fine hardcut from straight-grained old-growthtimber maybe superiwoods,or scantheadvertisements in woodworkingmagazines or to freshlumbercut from smallertrees.Therearedrawbacks for mail-orderwoodworking-supply companies. to recyclingwood,however.Wear,rot andinsectsmayaddup Youwill paytop dollarfor hardwoodsboughtfrom a retail to a wastefactorof 50percentor more.And you shouldexpect source,but in return you will generallyreceivematerialthat to extractmanynails,boltsand staples-andstill ruin saw hasbeengradedfor qualityusingthestandards established by bladesin encounters with hiddenmetal.

Differentgradesof lumbercanvary widely-even in the samestackof boards.Thereis no morecertainwayof geningwhatyou want thanselecting thestockyourself.

4I


ORDERINGLUMBER Board-foot calculations, henit is time to orderlumber verydifferent. a volumeof for a project,it paysto do your whichactuallydescribe atthebottomof the homework beforeyougoto thelum- wood,areexplained page. general next As a rule,you can Bybecoming an informed and beryard. like dimension bythelinyou order stock of increase well-organized consumer, youroddsof comingawaywith your earfoot-25linearfeetof 1-by-4lumber, Themainlimitationof needsmet andyourwalletintact.You for example. method, however, is that it only this having make extra trips will alsoavoid to with lumber of uniform width works your to supplier. . Species: you mix dimenand thickness. Once wood Askfor a specific notmerelyabroadfamilyname. sions-asyou probablywill end up species, "white oak,"notjust doing when orderinghardwoodForexample, order "oak."Every becomes hasuniqueproper- a boardfoot measurement species your needs. necessary to describe ties;selectonewith thecharacteristics Howyouorderyourwoodcanalso It can thatsuittheneeds ofyourproject. youneedsoftwood of wood dependonwhether behelpfulto learnthebasics (page youcin usuWth identification 30),sinceat some orhardwood softwoods width allyspecifyanyboard or lengh, lumberyards several similartypesof boardsaregenerally woodsmaybelumpedtogetherunder whilehardwood available in randomwidthsandlengths, thesamename. . Quantity:Lumbermaybeordered depending onthegradeyouorder. . SizeWoodissoldin nominalrather eitherby thelinearfoot or theboard soremember to make foot.Besureyoursupplierknowswhich thanrealsizes, forthedifference whenorderyouareusing,because theyare allowances measure

ing surfaced lumber.A 1-by-6pieceof pine,for example,is actually3/qinch widewhendried thickand5%inches Withrough,or unsurfaced andsurfaced. greenlumber, thenominalandrealsizes Formoreinformationon arethesame. hownominalandrealsizescompare, referto thechartson pages 46 (hardwoods)and48(softwoods). Thethickness boardsis of hardwood commonlyexpressed asa non-reduced fractionin quarters of aninch.A l-inchistermed for example, thickoakboard, plankis % % lumbera 1%-inch-thick andsoon. . GradeWhenorderingaparticular gradeofwood,usestandard terminology.Referto the charton page47 for hardwoods andon page49 for softwoods.Themaindifferences between higherandlowerhardwoodgradeslie In in appearance ratherthanstrength. woodfor general, reserve higher-grade thevisiblepartsofyourprojects.

1HO?TI? Carryinglumberby aar Traneportlumberon your car eafelyand oecurelywith juol a f ew pieceoof rope.Tieone ropet o a eolid sf,ructure in t'he t runk -a Lrunkhinqe,for example-and makea loopaf. lhe other end, Securea secondrooeunderlhehoodandform anolherloop,At, the lumberyard, elipNhewoodthrouqhone loopand Nhenhitch bhe other one in poeition,TokeepN'helumberfrom lurchinqbackand torLh,tie a ihird ropearoundlhe lumberand secureit to Nhewindow poel.Ueefoamorlowelslo proteclthe sideofyour car,

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SELECTINGLUMBER

. Seasoning:Lumberis sold either kiln-dried(KD) or air-dried(AD).The practicaldifferencebetweenthe two is thatKD woodhasa lowermoisturecontent-about 8 percent,while air-dried, high-densityhardwoodsgenerallyhave a moisturecontentrangeof 20to 25 percent.Softwoods andlower-density hardwoodsareair-driedto 15to 20 percent moisturecontent.KD lumberii therefore preferablefor makingindoor furniture,becausethe wood is unlikelyto dry out any further;aswell, the kiln's heatallowsthe wood'scellsto reposition, reducingthe likelihoodof warping and checking.This doesnot mean you needto restrictyourselftobuying onlyKD lumber,however;infact,many carversprefermoisterwood,makingAD wood a betterchoicefor them.Youcan bring air-driedwood to the appropriate moisturelevel for cabinetmaking,as shownin the Drying andStoringWood chapter(pageTB).

. Surfacing: Alsoknownasdressing, surfacing refers to howlumberhasbeen prepared at themill beforeit is sentto thelumberyard. Lumberthatissurfaced is usuallysurfaced on bothsides:S2S lumberhasbeenplaned smoothonboth faces, whileS4Swoodhashadbothfaces jointed.Rough, planedandbothedges or unsurfaced, lumber(Rgh)is less expensive thaneitherS2Sor S4Swood, andif youowna planeranda jointer, youcansavemoneybysurfacing rough lumberin yourshop(page53). A sample orderfor woodat a lumberyardmightbeasfollows:100bd.ft. %FASredoak,S2S. Thiswouldamount to 100boardfeetof nominally 2-inchthickFAS(Firsts andSeconds) gradered oakwithbothfaces planed smooth. Onceyoureceive yourlumber,check it carefully to makesureyouaregetting whatyouwant.If theorderdoesnot meetyourspecifications, do not feel obligedto buyit.

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o Maketwocopiesof yourcutting list (page44); giueoneto the lumberyard andkeeponeforyourself. r Whenordering hardwoods, request realistic sizes.Largeplanksof some species arenotavailable; hardwoodsaregenerally available in random widthsandlengths. . Whenever possible, inspect the youwillbebuying. lumber . Examine eachboardto seehow it willfit intoyourproject. Where appropriate, test-fit boards together for a goodvisualmatch;if, for youarebuilding example, a table, lineuptheboards youhaveselectedfor thetabletoo to becertain pattern. theyforman interesting . Onceyouhaveselected the youintendto buy,besure boards to leave thepileneatly stacked. Lumber thatis notstacked conectlv tendsto warpandcanbedamaged.

CALCULATING BOARD FEET IIIUMBER OFBOARD FEET ()F IN4 TII{EAR FEET DIFFEREI{T SIZEBOARDS 1"x 12"x 12"= | eYs11;12rd board foot l-by-7=lboardfoot

1-by-6=2boardfeet

1-by-12=4boardfeet

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TIPS ONBUYING TUMBER

2-by-4 = 2 2/sboard feet

2-by-6=4boardfeet

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Ordering lumber bytheboard foot Because theboardfootis a unitof measurement thatoffersa standard wayof totaling thevolume of stockregardless of dimensions, it is commonly usedwhendealing withlumber. Asshown at left, thestandard board footisequivalent to a piecethat is I inchthick,12 inches wideand12 inches long. Tocalculate thenumber of board feetin a particularpieceof wood,multiply rtsthreedimensions together. Thendividetheresultby 144 if the d i m e n s i oanrsea l l i n i n c h e so,r b y 1 2 i f o n e dimension is expressed in feet.Forthestandard board, theformula is: I " x 1 2 "x 1 2 "+ I 4 4 = | ( o r1 "x 1 2 "x I ' + 1 2= I ) . Soif youhadan8-foot-long youwouldcal1-by-3, culatethe boardfeetasfollows: 1 x 3 x 8 + 12 = 2 (or2 boardfeet).Otherexamples areshownin the illustration. Remember thatboard feetarecalculatedonthebasis of nominal rather thanactualsizes.


SELECTINGLUMBER

Making list andusinga cutting A cuttinglistrecords thefinished sizes proneeded fora oarticular of thelumber j e c t .l t m a yb ei n c l u d ewdi t ht h ep l a n s youwillhaveto youpurchase; otherwise, yourownbased of fashion ona drawing T .a l l yu pt h en u m b eor f b o a r d t h ed e s i g n f e e tf o re a c hp i e c eu s i n gt h ef o r m u l a shownon page43; tackon anextra30 in to account fordefects to 40 oercent shown thewoodandwaste.Forthe project o nt h i sp a g ew, h i c ht o t a l sr o u g h lly6 boardfeet,youshouldorderat least20 or to 25 boardfeetof a/alumberin addition quantity thenecessary of plywood sheeti n g .T i , ec u t t i n lgi s ts h o u l idn c l u dteh e nameof thepart,thequantity, thedimensionsof thepieces andthekindof wood forthe prolect. Forconvenience, suitable piece. letter to each assign a

Adjuotableehelf

CUTTING LIST Piece ATop B Bottom CS i d e D Fixedshelf E Adjustable shelf Drawer front F side G Drawer H Drawer back I Drawer bottom J Back

44

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GRADINGLUMBER T umbergradingisa wayof evaluating l-.i thesurface aualiwof a boardaccording to certainitandards,takinginto accountfactorssuchasthenumber,size and degreeof defectsin thewood.The goalis to ensurethat woodworkersget whattheypayfor; a boardof a certain gradeof wood boughtin Mainewill closelyresemble a similar-grade board purchasedin New Mexico. At first glance,the rulesof grading may seemarbitrary.For starters,the standardsaredifferentfor softwoodsand hardwoods, the resultof the enduseof eachtypeof wood.Softwoodsareprimarilyusedin construction, soa grader may assumethat a softwoodboard will be usedasis, with no furthersurfacing.Hardwoodboards,on the other hand,arealmostalwaysplaned,crosscut andrippedinto smallerpiecesto fit

a particularpieceof furniture.Addedto that is the factthat,while thereis one standardfor hardwoods,softwoodsare furtherdividedinto separate groupsand gradedaccordingto rulesestablished by differentorganizations. Takingthe time to becomefamiliar with hardwoodand softwoodgrading will pay dividends.A sound understandingof the gradingsystemenables you to selectthemostappropriate board for thejob at hand;it canalsosaveyou money.Thereisno need,for example, to orderlongplanksoftop-gradeFAS(or Firstsand Seconds)lumber if mostof the piecesof the cabinetyou intendto build areonly threeor four feetlong. Youwouldprobablybe betteroffbuying No. I Common,whichis considerablycheaper, andwill be adequate once you havecut out the defects.

Lumberproducersandvendorshave long found it advantageous to study wood typesand set rulesfor grading to guarantee a uniform product.Oneof theearliestilstancesof gradingoccurred in 1764,when SvenAversdonofStockhohn dividedSwedishpineinto four categories-best,good,commonandculls. During the lBth Century,appearance wasthe primary criterionfor grading wood,but asknowledge ofwoodpropertiesincreased, standards chaneedto includestrengthandtheamountolclear or usablewoodin eachboard. Thebestwayto becomefamiliarwith gradesisto visita lumberyardandexamine stockfirsthand.Getto know how a hardwoodgradelike FASdiffersfrom No. I Common.And whenyou Select lumber,tryto picturehow eachpart can becutout of a boardwith theleastwaste.

(lFA TYPICAL HARDWOOD LUMBER GRADER'S EVATUATION BOARD N0.I COMMON GRADE

Cutting No. lt

Cutting No,5:

3 t/2" x 4',/z' (15 3/+ unita)

t

41/2" x 41/z' (2O 1,/aunite)

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Cutting No.4: 6" x 5 2/a'(34 uniLe)

B 1/2"x 41/z' (38 1/+unita)

Equipped withlumber rule,penandlogbook, a professional grader lumber canevaluate a hardwood boardin roughly 15 seconds. Although thesystem is scientific, it is notfoolproof . Grading is alldonebyeye-theeyeof a human grader. Still, rigidquality control ensures thatonlya verysmallpercentage of boards arenotgraded correctly. Herearethefourbasicstepslumber graders taketo make theirassessment: L Determine thespecies andmultiply thelength bythewidth (SM)in square of theboard to findthesurface measure feet(1 foot)x 12 feet= 12 SM. in theboard above, 12 inches 2. Choose thepoorest facefromwhichto gradeandvisualize

thenumber of imaginary defect-free cutsthatcanbemade; in thiscase, 4. 3. Determine thenumber of portions of cuttingunits-clear lumber1"wideby 1 long-thatcanbemadefromthe4 cuts; in thiscase,I08y4.(lf theboardwereperfect, it wouldyield 144cutting units.) 4. Consult a chartthatliststhequalities grades of different andfactorin thenumber of cutting unitsandthenumber of allowable cuts:A No.1 Common boardrequires thattwothirds of thetotalcuttingunitsareclear.Given thesizeof thisparticularboard, upto 4 cutswouldbeallowed. Sincethisboard meetsbothcriteria, it justifies thegradeNo.1 Common.

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HARDWOODGRADES ,.{ hundredyearsago,hardwoodgrad:i-l ing variedfrom mill to mill, but u,ith the formation of the National (NHLA) LumberAssociation Hardwood standardized. in 1898,gradingbecame At first,the ruleswerebasedstrictlyon in 1932 thenumberandsizeof defects; theywerebroadened to reflecttheproportionof a boardthiitcanbe cut into These calledcuttings. smallerpieces, piecesmustbe clearon onesideand soundon theother.Theirsizealsodeterminesthe grade.Today'shardwood assume thatboards gradingstandards trreinvariablycr,rtinto smallerpiecesto makeftrrniture;thus,gradeis basedon a board'spoorestface,exceptin thecase rvhichtakesthe board'sbest of Select, faceinto account. hardisoneofsevenstandard Select rvoodgrades. Thetop gradeis FAS(an folabbreviation ofFirstsandSeconds), No.2A No. 1 Cot.nuron, lowedby Select, and28 Common,andNo.3ACommon andNo. 3B Common(clnrt, opposite). No. 2A and No. 28 Corrmonarefrequently lumped togetheras No. 2 manyiumberyards Common;likewise, sellNo.3AandNo.38 Commontogether asNo.3 Common. Thebetterthegrade,thehigherthe of clerrcuttiugs: B3'r perpefcentrge centof Select boardsmustbeclearface cnttir-rgs; only 50 percentof a No. 2

But Commonboardneedbedefect-fi'ee. gradingis a moresubtleart than these indicate.Tr,voboardsthat calculations arethesamesizewith thesamenumber canendup in differentgrades: ofdefects mtryprevent Thepositionof thedefects oneboardfrom havinglargeenough clearcuttingsto makethehighergrade of theotherboard. Althoughpayingmore for betterthatyouwill endup gradestockn-Ieans thismay rvithwoodhavingfewerdefects, to not always be theeconomicalthing modest, do. If your projectis relatively hand-pickthelumberyourselffrom a varietyofgrades, depending on thefturction of eachboardin the piece.Where faceisialledfor,the onlyonedefect-li'ee selectgradeis a goodchoice.Or,for the piecesofyour ftirnitureprojectthatare relativelysmall,for example,you may be ableto getby with No. 1 Common No.2A Commonboards sradeboards. for thepartsofprojectsin ire suitable rvhichappearance is not of paramount imoortance. suchashiddenfurniture lumframes.If youdo buylower-grade planon morewastewher.r ber,however, youarecalculating thenumberof board feetto order. beautyis in theeyeof the Of course, feelthat beholder. Somecabinetmakers to a defects suchasknotsaddcharacter pieceof furniture.And if mostof the

partsrvill end up beingsmall,lowergradewoodisuotonlyrrrore ecortorttical,it mayalsobenore suitablefor the taskat hand-by yieldingmoreattractivelyfiguredrvood.

THICKNESS STANDARD FOR SURFACED HARDWOOD Nominal Actual (rough) (surfaced twosides) 3/au

3/rc"

Vr" Te'

5/to"

3/+u

e/rc"

1/rc"

1'

3/4t or r3/16t1

It/4'

lrAa"

Lr/z'

1 q / n l"/16

z',

IVz"or I3/q"

3"

2Y4"

4u

33/4'

TlresetwLtoak boordsdentortstrstetlrc rottgeof hardtood t , r r ( / ( ' sT. l r c l o pb o , r r ,,l' o t r l , r i r t s a,sNo.2A krnts artd is classi.ficd Corrrrrtort; the bottotrrboartlis FASgrodelrurilter. defbct-fi'ce

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SELECTINGLUMBER

HARDWOOD TUMBER GRADES GRADE

FAS

SELECT

N0.1 C()MMON

8'-16'

6 ' , -1 6 '

4',-L6'

N0.2A& 28 C()MMON 4' - I6',

6" orwider

4" orwider

3" orwider

3" orwider

3" orwider

3" orwider

83Vt%

83Vz%

662/s%

50%

33%%

25%

3 "x 7 ' ; 4"x5'

3 "x 7 ' ; 4"x5'

3 "x 3 ' ; 4 "x 2 '

3" x2',

3"x2'

Notlessthan 172"wide containing 36 square inches

Formula to determine S M + 4 number of cuts A M a x i m unmu m b e r

SM+4

S M + l+ 3

SM+2

5

7

Allowable length of board Allowable width of board Minimum % of clearfacecuttings M i n i m u smi z eo f clearcuttings

^{ ^l^^. ^,.++;-^^ ur Lrtrdt uuLUilB5

+

Reading thechart Thischart,created bytheNational Hardwood Lumber Associatron(NHLA), records theminimum requirements a board must meetto merita particular grade. Generally, a higher-grade board is longer, widerandmoredefect-free thanoneof a lesser grade. Theclearpieces areobtained wrthasfewcutsaspossible. B yc o m p a r i n t hged i m e n s i oonfsa b o a r w d i t ht h ef i g u r e s supplied in thechart,it is possrble to determine thegrade of pieceof lumber. a particular Thefirsttwohorizontal rowsoro-

Unlimited

9elect N o . 1C o m m o n

I I I I

No.2A and 2E Common

videdataon minimum board dimensions foreachgrade. The thirdrowgivesinformation onthepercentage of defect-free surface, orclearfacecuttrngs, a boardmusthaveforeach grade. Theminimum sizeof eachclearfacecuttingis listed jn rowfour.Oncethesurface (SM), area, orsurface measure of a boardis determined, theformula in row5 willgive the totalnumber of cuttings allowed fora particular grade. Row 6 contains thenumber of clearcuttings eachgradepermits. Thelocation grades of lumber ona log Highgrades of lumber, suchasFAS andSelect, aregenerally cutfromthe outerpartof the log,nearthe bark. N o .3 C o m m ognr a d e sf o, u n dc l o s e r t o t h ep i t h ,a r en o ta l w a yssu i t a b l e forcabinetmaking andarefrequenily usedfor packing cratesor pallets. In some species, suchaswalnut, where coloris important, thesapwood does notqualify astopgrade, eventhough it maybeclear.

FA9

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N o . 3 Aa n d 3 E Common

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Unlimited

NO.38 C()MMON 4' - I6',

permitted

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NO.3A C()MM()N 4' - I6',

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SOFTWOODGRADES generally I lthoughcabinetmakers manyfinepieces fI preferhardwoods, of furniturehavebeenbuilt with softfor using wood.Therearegoodreasons lessexpensive cousin:Softhardwood's morereadilyavailable woodisgenerally andis easyto work. thanhardwood, Pineisoneofthemostpopularchoicinclude Itsvarieties esof cabinetmakers. yellowpine whitepine,Southern Eastern fromtheWest,suchassugar andspecies pine,Idahowhitepineandponderosa Western softpine.Douglas-fir, another wood,isalsogainingpopularityasacablarch andWestem inetwood.Sitkaspruce aretwoothergoodchoices. youshouldrestrict Forcabinetmaking, shownin of softwood yourself to grades thechartonthefollowingpage.Rememsold aregenerally berthatsoftwoods S4S-thatis,planedsmoothon both Andthey faces andjointedontheedges. bestface ontheboard's based aregraded aftersurfacing. are softwoods Unlikehardwoods, on the gradeddifferentlydepending redthegradefor a California species; doesnot woodboard,for example, pine.You applyto a pieceofponderosa aboutsoftwood canobtaininformation

from the American gradingstandards Lumber StandardsCommitteein Germantown.Marvland. Softwoodgradingtakesboth strength into account.Three and appearance gradecategories-Select,Finish and Common-are often usedfor woodworking.Selectand Finishgradesmust

Thk Fr ench- Canadian nightstand was built entirely with pine-an attractive alternative to more expensivehardwoods.

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be clearof defects,while boardsin the Commongradesmay containdefects suchastight knots.Selectand Finish to a moisturecontent stockareseasoned of 15percentor less.Commonboards, usedmainlyin constructionandhomebuilding,may haveup to a 19percent moisturelevel.Thequalityof Common gradeboardsis furtherdividedinto categoriesI to 5, with the highestnumber to the lowestgrade. corresponding Someboardsdisplaya gradestamp, like the one shown on page49. The stampdisplaysinformationaboutthe moisturecontentwhensurfaced species, and gradeof the stock.To avoid marhowever,l-inchring their appearance, thick boardsin the better gradesare often not stampedaftersurfacing.The stampmay alsobe missingfrom lesser gradeboardsthat havebeencut into shorterlenghsby retaillumberdealers. Keepin mind that softwoodis sold accordingto nominal size,or green which is differentfrom a dimensions, board'sactualsize.A2-by-4,for example, actuallymeasureslt/zby 3t/zinches.Thechartbelowshowsnominalsizes of somecommonly availableboards alonewith their true sizeswhensufaced.

LUMBER SIZES S()FTWOOD ANDACTUAL NOMINAL 0r{cHEs) dry Surfaced I-by-2 1-by-3 1-by-4 1-by-6 1-by-8 1-by-10 I-by-12 2-by-2

3/q-by-Ir/z .3/a-by-2Vz 3/q-by-3Y2

green Surfaced

dry Surfaced

Surfacedgreen

2s/zz-by_teAo

2-by-4

I1/z-by-3t/z

Le/rc-by-3e/rc

2s/sz_by_2e/rc

2-by-6 2-by-8

Ir/z-by-5Vz

ls/$-by-5Ye

l1/z-by-7rh

Ie/rc-by-7Vz

25/sz_by_3e/rc

3/q-by-51/z

2s/ez-by-5Ye

3/q-by-7t/+

25/sz-by-7Vz

2-by-I0 2-by-I2

25/zz-by-91/z

3h-by-IlVt

2s/gz-by-lI1/z

3-by-4 4-by-4

I|/z-by-IVz

Ie/rc-by-IsAa

4-by-6

3/q-by-9t/q

ACTUAT fl1{CHES)

it0MtNAt 0NcHES)

ACTUAL

til0MlllAt

(rNcHES)

48

lr/z-by-91/t

ls/rc-by-9Vz

IVz-by-Ilth 2Vz-by-3Vz

Ie/rc-by-Mz 2s/rc-by-3s/rc

3r/z-by-3r/z

3e/rc-by-3eAo

31/z-by-5r/z

3eAo-by-55/a

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SELECTINGLUMBER

SOFTWOOD TUMBER GRADES FOR CABINETMAKING GRADES

CHARACTERISTICS

SelectB andBTR(supreme) Clearappearance quality;minordefects andhighest andblemishes. ldealwithclearfinishes, Notalways available; expensive C Select(choice) Highquality; smalldefects andblemishes D Select(quality) Goodquality; defects andblemishes morepronounceo Superior Finish qualityof finishgradelumber; Highest minordefects andblemishes PrimeFinish Highqualitywithfewdefects andblemishes (colonial) No.1 Common Haslimited availability andsizeranges; mayhavesmalltight knots, making thisgradeappropriate if a knottyappearance is desired (sterling) No.2 Common Larger, coarser defectsandblemishes; oftenusedwherea knotty appearance withstrongcharacter is desired

DECIPHERING A GRADE STAMP

t

Reading a grade stamp Mostsoftwood gradestamps, likethe oneshown at left,contain fivebasicelements. A codenumber identifies themill thatproduced theboard, andthegrade of thewoodappears nextto thetrademarkof theagency thatestablished the rulesforgrading thewood(inthiscase, theNortheastern Lumber Manufacturers Association). Thespecies is alsonoted; sometimes morethanonespecies is stamped ontheboard, indicating it may beanyof thoselisted. Finally, theseasoning information reflects themoisture content of thewoodat thetimeit was surfaced: S-DRY means thattheboard wassurfaced afterseasoning andhasno morethan19 percent moisture content; MC15 refers to a board witha maximum moisture content of 15 percent; S-GRN is reserved forunseasoned woodsurfaced witha moisture content above19 oercent.A boardthathasbeensurfaced whilestillgreen tendsto shrink andits dimensions willnotbeasaccurate as thoseof a boardthathasbeensurfaced afterit wasseasoned.

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O R W APYt N E @

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LUMBERDEFECTS affect ostlumberdefectsadversely strength, a board'sappearance, workabilityor ability to takea finish. or however, irregularities Sometimes, make a piece abnormalities canactually when especially of woodmoredesirable, theyproducea popular,distinctivefigor burl. Of course, ure like bird's-eye intendeduseis the final arbiter;what is maybea blemishto onewoodworker for anotherboard'ssellingpoint.Knots, example,would be a significantdefect in boardsintendedfor a tabletop,but featureof some theyarean essential typesofpaneling. Lumberdefectsareeithernatural, man-madeor the resultof poor seasoning.All woodharborsnaturaldefects that arecausedby growingconditions itself.Thesame or qualitiesof thespecies typeof defectmaybe presentin different woods.Someimperfectionsare Looseknots,for found in all species. example, arecausedsimplyby theway of brotreesgrow.Theyaretheremnants encased kenbranches thathavebecome by thegrowthof newwood.Othernatural defectsincludegum in hardwoods, andreactionwood oitchin softwoods Naturalforcessuchas in all soecies. fire,wind, fungi and insectscanalso causedefectsin wood. A common defectoFthissortisbluestain. Several defectsoccurwhenwood is exposedto the air and allowedto dry.

Because wood doesnot shrinkuniwarpingcan formly in all dimensions, resultwhen the moisturecontentof lumber droosbelow a certainlevel. (Referto theDryingandStoringWood for moreinformation on propchapter of wood.)Somecommon er seasoning defects arechecks, bow,cup, seasoning twist,crookandsplit.Keepin mind that thesedefectscanalsooccurin boards cutcloseto thepith of a log.Somecom-

mon defectsareexolainedin the chart belowandopposite. to Althoughit isvirtuallyimpossible defect-free, buywoodthatis completely youcanincrease yourchances ofobtaining thebestlumberfor your needsby your woodcareftilly(page42). selecting Anotherpoint to consideris that you if somelumberwith defects cansalvase tools you havjaccessto the necessary andlearnhow to usethem (page53).

Threepiecesof oak with defects:The top board shows splits, the middlepiecerevealschecksat oneend,and the bottonr boerddisplaysa crook,a looseknot and reactionwood.

INWO()D DEFECTS REMEDIES

CHARACTERISTICS

Looseor dead

weaken withthesurrounding Doesnotseriously Appears asa whorlthatis intergrown canbecutoutor woodtissue.Knotsformasthegirthof thetreeincreas- a board; asappearance dictates. lf thebranches are used, thebranches. es,gradually enveloping theknotintestillaliveat thetimeof theirenvelopment, grates withthewoodin thetreetrunk knotsbefore working Remove bya darkring.Whena Appears asa whorlencircled enveloped withthelumber. stumpiseventually branch diestheremaining integrate with bythetrunk.Butthedeadstumpcannot ordeadknot, it, creating a loose thetissue surrounding

50

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SELECTINGLUMBER

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,V

CHARACTERISTICS

REMEDIES

Anaccumulation onthesurface of theboardor in oocketswithintheboard.Usually develops whena treehas suffered an injury,exposure to fireor insectattack.

Donotusewherea quality finishis required, asgumwill bleedthrough mostfinishes.

Lengthwise ruptures orseparations in thewood,usuallycaused byrapiddrying.Maycompromise strength andappearance of board.

Canbecut off.

Anend-to-end curvealongtheface,usually caused byimproper storage of lumber. Introduces internar stresses in thewoodthatmakeit difficultto cut.

Flattenbowedboardson thejointer(page55),or cut pieces, intoshorter thenuse thejointer.

An edge-to-edge curveacross theface,usuallycaused whenonefaceof a boarddriesmorequicklythanthe other.Common ontangentially cutstock,on boards cutcloseto the pith,or if onefaceof a boardhasless contact withtheairthantheother.

Cupmaycorrect itselfif both facesareallowed to dryto thesamemoisture content. Cupped boards canbesalvagedonthe bandsaw(page 54) or jointer(page55). Boardcanbesalvaged on joinler(page55),or cut into shorterboards.

Uneven or irregular warping whereonecorneris not aligned withtheothers. Results fromuneven dryingor a crossgrainpattern thatis notparallel to theedge.

End-to-end curvealongtheedge,caused by incorrect seasoning or having thepithof a logcloseto theboard edge.Weakens thewood,makingit unsuitable for weight-bearing applications.

Boardcanbesalvaged onjointerortablesaw (page55).

Similar to checks, appearing asseparations along thegrowth rings.Alsoknownasringcheckor ring shank.Results fromimproper dryingof woodor fellingdomage.

Boardcanbe used,butsplit maymartheappearance of thewood,becoming more noticeable whenstainis applied.

Appears asa darkstreakacross thefacesoredgesof lumber. Occurs whenplaner knives aredullorspin on onepartof boardfor toolong.

Remove machine burnwith jointer(page53) or sander.

Appears asa discoloration of thesurface on otherwise normal-looking wood.Results frommoldsthatflourish whenlumberis driedorstoredin warm,moistor poorly ventilated conditions. Species likehollyandEnglish sycamore areproneto bluestain.

Conceal witha darkstain.

51


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SELECTINGLUIV{BER

()FUNEVEN GROWTH THESTRESS

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t wood Recognizing reaction ischaracwood, shown above, Reaction growthrings terizedby itscompressed lt occurs when lifeless color. andsilvery, a t r e et r u n kh a sa p r o n o u n c ceudr v e , whena treegrows on asoftenhappens a sloneThisdefect canalsobeseenin boards cutclose to thepithof a trunk. probwoodposes Working withreaction it has because lemsforthewoodworker; properties thannorshrinkage different in the malwood,the internal stresses a sawblade to bindand board cancause k i c kb a c kW . h e nt h ew o o di s c u t o r s a n d e di t, h a sa f u z z ys u r f a caen d reaction Bending absorbs stainunevenly. anyIoadonit maycause woodorplacing it to break across thegrain.

i l r r i i l i i rl i r i l i l

llil illt il{l ll{tlltl lill llll llll lill llll lltr llll llll ui llj lll ill {il ul irJi$ i$ ut iil ul ul i$ ul ul {Ij ru

1HO?TI? Checkinglumberfor lwist but you can Warpedboardscan somelimeebetouqhI'o recoqnize, windinqslicks. epoltwieled,olockquicklywit.hlheatdof ohop-made Io a lenqlhthatr ie trwicet'hewidLhof lhe CuI Nwonarrowboard,a board Nobe tested.I eI Lheboard f acedownon a workLable,then to eachot'her. 3i4hl elickeaL bolh endo,Varallel placebhewinding acroo;Ihe t opeof Nheet tcks.Yourboardie twieted if NheLopo of the slicks are noNperfectlyaligned.

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PREPARING LUMBER hefirstjobin a cabinetmaking projectinvolves preparing yourstock. If youowna jointer,a planeranda table saqyoucandotheworkyourself. Whetherto construct alargecabinet or a miniaturejewelrybox,lumberis generally prepared in thesameway.The procedures youfollowdependon how the wood was surfacedbeforeyou boughtit. Forroughboards, youstart by smoothing onefaceon thejointer, thenoneedge. Thiswill giveyouadjoiningsurfaces thatareperfectly square to eachother.Next,passthesecond face througha planersothatthefacesare parallel. Nowyoucanrip yourboards to widthandcrosscut themto lengh. ForS2Slumber,whichhasalready youneedonly hadbothfacessurfaced,

passoneedgeacrossthejointer,thenrip and crosscut.S4Swood,with all four surfaces dressed. canbe cut to width and lengthimmediately;only edgesthatwill be gluedtogetherneedto bejointed. Althoughlumberwith defectsshould be avoided,you may find yourselfwith a few warpedboardsyou do not want to discard.Several simpletechniques for salvagingdefectivestockareshownon pages54and55.A cuppedboardcanbe ripped into severalnarrowerpieces,in effectflatteningthe curveinto stripsthat can be jointed. A crookedor bowed boardcanbe salvaged on thejointer by graduallycutting awaythe high spots. And a simplejig canbe usedwith the tablesawto transforma boardwith an unevenedgeinto a squarepiece.

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SURFACING STOCK

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Jointing a board lAaand7einch.Jointa board Seta cuttingdepthbetween faceasshownin the joint photoabove. To an edge,feedthestockslowly across thecutterhead, making surethattheknives arecuttingwiththegrain(page 29).While feeding theworkpiece overtheknives, usea hand-over-hand motion to keepdownward pressure onthepiecejustto the outfeed sideof the cutterhead, maintaining pressure against thefence.Continue thesemovements untilyoufinishthecut.

53

Forsurfacinga boardface,push blockshelpto keepstockflat and your handssafe.Lateralpressure keepstheedgeagainstthefence.


t LUMBER SELECTING

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Planing stock Seta cuttingdepthupto %ainch.Stand to onesideof the olaneranduseboth handsto feedthestockcarefully into themachine, keeping the boardedges parallel to theedgesof the planer table. gripsthe boardand Oncethe machine beginspullingit across thecutterhead, support thetrailingendto keepit flaton the table(right).Asthe cut progresses, moveto the outfeedsideof the olaner andsupport the piecewithbothhands roller.lf you untilit clearstheoutfeed passes aremaking several to reduce the planethesameamount board's thickness, of woodfrombothfaces.Thiswillminimizewarping.

t t I WARPED LUMBER SALVAGING

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Ripping cupped stockintonarrow boards Thistechnique forsalvaging involves cuppedboards theband you saw,but canachieve thesameresultwitha tablesawor a radialarmsaw.lf youareusinga bandsaw,installyourwidest bladeandsetup a ripfenceonthemachine's table.Setthe widthof cut;thenarrower thesetting, theflattertheresulting

54

(high)sideup on boards. Tomakea cut,settheboardconvex thetableand,buttingthe boardagainst thefence,feedit steadily intothe blade(above). Makesurethatneither handis in linewiththecutting edge.Finish thecutwitha pushstick. Remove anyremaining highspotson thejointer(page55).

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()RBOWED JOINTING CROOKED STOCK

7

5 : 5 :

llltflt]llllilltflltllltllltillttlllillll]IlilllflllilI]ultt][ltllll]ll 5HO?TI? 5trai6hteningout an unevenedge EvenouLlhe edgee of a crookedboardon the Lablesaw wiNha jiq. CUN ohop-made a pieceof 3/+-inchplywoodwiLhpertectly paralleledqeo.?laceNheboard oquarelyon to? of Nheplywood, with the unevenparNoverhanging oneedqe.tsult etop blocke againotNhetrailinq endandedqeoftheboardas shown,then screw NheblockeNoNheplywood. AtLachNoggle clampeto Ihe blocksand preeeIhe clampodownNoeecurethe boardto the -oliae jiq. 1et Ihe width of cuI equalNo'Nhe width of rhe Vlywoodpieceand *,e iiq acro*e lhe eawtable,cuttin4 the edqeof Nheboardetraiqht.

55

Jointing concave andconvex surfaces Thediagrams at leftshowhowto "straighten out"crooked boards onthe jointer.Theseverity of thedefectsis greatly exaggerated forclarityin theillustration; extreme crookshould bestraightenedon a tablesawasshownbelow, 0n thejointer, theideaisto passthehigh spotonthe board's edgerepeatedly across thecutterhead untiltheedgeis straight. Fortheconvex, or outward-bowing, edge (left,above), passthehighspotat the middleof the boardacross theknives as (cutsI and2). manytimesasnecessary Avoid"nose-diving," or allowing theleadingedgeto rideupduringthecut.When thesurface is f lat,makea finalpass alongtheentireedge(cut3).Toflatten theconcave, or inward-bowing, edge(/eff, joint below), oneendof theboardas (cuts1 and2), manytimesasnecessary thenturntheboard around to reoeatthe process at the otherend (cuts3 and4). Thisoperation is similar to basicjointi n g ,e x c e pt th a ty o uo n l yc u tt h eh i g h spotat thetrailingendof theboard. Start thecutwiththeleading endof the board an inchor soabove tablelevel.Feed the piecetowardthecutterhead with onlythetrailing endin contact withthe infeedtable.Whenthedeepest partof theconcave edgeis above theknives, lowertheleading endof theboardonto theoutfeed tableandcomplete thepass. Oncethesurface is even,makea final passthelenghof theboard(cut5). Flattening bowed stockis simrlar to face jointing: withtheboard concave facedown, makeasmanypasses asnecessary to remove thehighspotsneartheends.Use pushblocks to keepyourfingers safely awayfromthecutterhead.


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\TENE,ERSATD IIRED BOARDS he time-honoredtechniqueof arrayof appealingconfigurations-herveneering cantransforma simple ringboneand reverse-diamond among cabinetdoor into a flamboyantburstof others.Theycanalsotakefull advantage colorandgrain,an unassuming pieceof of suchbeautifulbut unstablewoodcuts furniture into a seamless work of art. ascrotchandburl, whichareimpossiAnd thoughwood veneershaveshifted bleto work with in solidform. in and out offavor overthe centuries, Theold masters veneered overa solwoodworkershaveusedthem to marid-woodbase,or substrate, usinghot velouseffectsincetheancientEgyptians gluemadefrom animalhides,bloodand embellished objectswith thin sheetsof bones.Theysmoothedthe veneerand preciouswoods.In the lBth and early pressedout air bubbleswith special l9th Centuries,fineveneers becamethe hammers. Whilehammer-veneering is hallmarkof sophisticated, high-style Decorativematching of veneerscan still practiced,today'scraftsmenmay furniture. Largeswathsof distinctive createunusual qnd breathtakingeffects, choosea moremodernveneerpress; wood veneerscoveredtabletops;marsuch as the natural grain figure theycanalsochoosefrom a muchwider quetrypictures-delicatepatternsmade selectionof gluesand substrates. The featured in this Victorian davenport. by aligningpiecesofveneerand insetgluemaybean aliphatic-or plastic-resin ting them in the surroundingwood-decoratedall manner type;the substrate maybe anyoneof a numberof manufacofcabinetry. turedboards,mostpopularlyplyvood,particleboard or mediVeneering declinedwith the adventof productionmachinum-density fiberboard. Theintroductionof thesemanufactured ery in the l9th Century,only to reboundonceagainin the boardsrevolutionized furnituredesign:Because the boards early20thCenturywith advances in manufactured boardtech- aredimensionallystable-they neitherswellnor shrink with nologyand improvedadhesives. As materialscontinueto seasonal changes in humidity-traditional frame-and-panel improve,veneeringmakesmore sensethan ever.Furniture designscanbe replacedby largeunbrokenveneeredsurfaces. that wouldbe prohibitivelyexpensive to craftfrom solidexotOf thevarietyof manufactured boards,cabinetmakers probic woodscanbeveneered with thesamewoodsat a muchmore ablymakethemostuseof plpvood,itselfa productof veneer reasonable cost. construction.Plywoodis availablein manygradesfor many And, of course,veneeringtodayoffersthe sameesthetic uses;always buythebestyou canafford.Cabinet-grade hardadvantages it alwayshas.With veneers, woodworkersarefree wood pllwood, whichis alreadyfacedwith attractiveveneers, to createstunninggrainpatternswith suchtechniques asbookis a cost-effective alternativeto solidwood-ideal for such matchingor slip-matching;they canarrangeveneersin an projectsaswallandfloor cabinets, bookcases anddrawerfronts.

Manufacturedboardsofferthesolidityof hardwoodalongwithgreater dimensional stability.Clockwise from lowerleft is a samplingof the mostp op ular cabinetmaking typ es: softwood plnv ood, medium-densityfiberboard,particleboard, hardboardandBalticbirchplywood.

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I I \ / eneerrevolutionizedfurnitureV makingasfarbackas2000sc,when theEgyptians handsawed thin sheets of wood and then adheredthem to thicker backingswith animalglueand heatVeneeringsoondeveloped edsandbags. into a refinedart andbecamea hallmark of many furniture stvles.The rococo

stylesof theLouisXV periodin themid1700sfostereda demandfor kingwood, tulipwood,purpleheartand rosewood veneers, whilethefuts andCraftsmovementof thelate1800signitedacrazefor marquetrybasedon mahogany, walnut and satinwoodveneers. By the turn of the 20thCentury.modernveneermills

servedboth the furnitureandconstruction industries. Almostasfragileasan eggshell and burstingwith thewarmthandopulence ofexotic hardwoods,veneersareavailablein morethan200varieties, some cutasthin as%ooinch.Someof themost popularvarieties arelistedbelow.

A GATLERY OFCOMM()N DECORATIVE VENEERS VENEER

ANDFIGURE COTOR

AVAILABLE CUTS

SUPPLY

TEXTURE ANDWORKAEILITY

Avodi16

yellow Golden to gold; mottled figure

cut Quarter

Plentif uI

Medium textured; easy towork. Stains unevenly

B l a c kw a l n u t

Lightgray-brown to darkpurplebrown; striped figure

Crotch, butt,flat, quarter cut,burlcut

Plentif uI

graindifficult Medium texture; to work.Takes f inishwell

Brazilian rosewood

Chocolate to violetandblackto brick-red; striped f igure

Flatcutand

Rare

nil2rf cr arrt

Medium texture and oily;difficultto work. Resists finish

elm Carpathian

Brickredorgreenish-brown to light tan;burlfigure

Burl

P l e n tui fl

Medium texture; easyto work.Takes finishwell

lmbuia

Richchocolate to olive-brown and gold;burlandstriped figures

B u r lf,l a tc u ta n d rotarycut

Rare

Medium texture; easyto work.Takes finishwell

Lacewood (Silky-oak)

pinkto reddish-brown, Silvery f leckf igure

cut,flat Quarter

Moderate

Medium texture; easyto work.Takes finishwell

Mahogany

Lightpinkto reddish-brown, striped andfiddleback figures

cut,flatcut, Quarter

P l e n tui fl

Coarse texture, difficult to work.Takes finishwell

Maple

whitesapwood withtan Creamy heartwood; curlyandbird'seyefigures

cut,flatcut, Quarter crotch,rotary,burl

P l e n tui fl

Finetexture; difficultto work.Takes finishwell

Myrtle burl

Goldenbrownto yellowish-green; mottled andburlfigures

Burl

Moderate

Finetexture;moderately difficultto work.Takes f i n i s hw e l l

0live ashburl

Creamy whitewithdarkbrown streaks; burlfigure

B u r ls, t u m p

Rare

Coarse texture; easyto work.Takes finishwell

Peanvood

Rosycream;straight-grained figure, sometimes curly

cut,flat cut Quarter

Rare

Finetexture; easyto work. Takes finishwell

Purpleheart (Amaranth)

Deeppurple withlightgraysapwood;stripedfigure

cui,flatcut Quarter

Plentif ul

Coarse texture; hardto work. Takes f inishwell

Sapele

Reddish brown; mottled anc ribbonstripefigures

cut Quarter

Moderate

Mediumtexture;easyto work. Takes f inishwell

Ceylon satinwood

yellow; Golden mottled figure

Flatcut,quarter cut

Rare

Finetexture; easyto work. Takes f inishwell

Yew

Warmorange withdarkerstreaks; burlfigure

Flatcut

Rare

Finetexture; easyto work. Takes f inishwell

Zebrawood

Creambackground withdarkbrown lines;striped figure

Quarter cut

Rare

Medium texture; moderately difficultto work.Takes f inishwell

erninh

hrrfi

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VENEEITS AN I) N{I\NUI:A(]'I'LI II.EDI]OARDS

I

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WH E RVE E NEERS ORIGINATE ONA TREE Birds'-eye mapleveneer

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Mahogany crotch veneer

\

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Crotch veneer

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1 1 , ' i I l ' I a :a : ' )i l i i ' : '

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Carpathian elmburl veneer

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Eurl veneer i i t ' i . i i . i ; 1 t . , , l i i, ' : i 'i ' 1 1 . ; 1 , , i.,i f i' i i i., f a-.I i. i I ra:,:::t,l,i i, -rr'r| :. a i-.1.i a-,ri a :

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1'1i1r.1i1,,i,i;1r,r'.. t-iii't-i ir,, i: r t:l i i,.,I : :t :: i.. , l/.:'1 /l'ii rir. ;:,.;i i :: f:, 1 ::ri.,ti-ia a'\art iit r . l r ' , . 1 t t a r a , ; i r i' ,. ,- ' , 1i i i i i , , ' : . i . , ,

Europeanbeechveneer

Walnutbutt veneer

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Flat-cut veneer .; ;: I r':, : 1-.ii,. | )a.t| 1... i | |, ri i:'tti,:j.

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Eutt veneer

| : a.,) r,),\,a.a.l..itli1.,rri t .i.:.,.jtl .j a,,\.::11..

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FROMLOGTO VENE,ER a log 1'\ nceitsbarkisstrippedaway, \J .un be cut into veneerin oneoi threervays: sawcutting,rotarycutting or flat slicing.Sawcutting,whichgoes employs backto theearly19thCenti"rry, hugecircularsawsto rip stripsof veneer from logs.Althoughnot asefficientas othertechniques, sawcuttingis still used to producesomecrotchveneers from irregularly grainedor densewoodssuch asebony. Rotarycuttingand flat slicingcan produceveneers asthin as7sto l,/rzoinch andaslongasI B feet.In rotarycutting, a log mountedin a hugelatherotates againsta pressluâ&#x201A;Ź barwhilea razor-sharp knife oeelsoff a continuoussheetof veneeithelengthof thelog.Fir plp,vood, aswellassomedecorative veneers such asbird's-eye maple,arenormallyrotary cut.Half-round,rift andbackcutting arevariations thatproduceveneerfrom half-lossratherthanwholeones. In flatslicing, a half-log isheldontoa framethatswingsr-rpanddownagainst a stationaryhorizontaiknife;a sliceof veneeris removedwith everydowncrown-cut stroke.FIatslicingproduces veneers. A typeof flat slicingknownas quarter-clrt slicingisusedon woodsthat displaya strikingfigurewhenquarterwhiteoakor lacewood. sawn,asin sapeie,

VENEER-CUTTING METH(lDS Rotary autting UsedLo cut con' etruction plywood and eomedecora' tive veneeraguch ao btrd'o-eyemaple

I I I I I I

t Half-round autting A method used for burlaand aome decorattveapectea

Eack cutting A rotary cutting method that. yielde buLLand croLch veneer9

Flat eliaing Uaedto makecrowncut veneer?;pro' duceaveneerawiLh repeatinqfigure thaL facrltLaf,ea book' matchingand oLher decorative effects

Quarber-auialiaing Uaedto cut decoraf,tveveneerg,auch ae ribbon,atripe and flake,that are obtarnedfrom quar' Lereawnloqe

Flat-slicedsheetsof verteermove nlortgtt conveyorfor drying tud storagehr n vetreer .fnctory.

t t

Ri{t cutting Yieldeveneerwtth the raye at rou7hly 45" to the eurface; uoedprimarilyon whiLeoak

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VENEERSAND MANUFACTUREDBOARDS

VENEER TYPES ANDSIZES VENEER TYPE

stzEs

AVAILABLE SPECIES

Rnienr

Length upto 10 feet;widthfrom8 to 36 inches

Bird's-eye maple, bubinga, Douglas-f ir, masur birch Ash,Brazilian rosewood, cherry, maple, oak,teak Avodi16, mahogany, oak,Queensland maple, sapele, satinwood, zebrawood M a p l ew, a l n u t

nr rl

Flat-sliced

Length 3 to 16 feet;widthfrom4 to 24 inches

Quarter-cut

Length 3 to 16 feet;widthfrom3 to 12 inches

Buttandsiump

lrregular dimensions. Sheet sizes varyfrom10 x 36 to 18 x 54 inches; average sheetsize12 x 36 inches Length from18to 54 inches; widthfrom10to 24 inches; average sheetsize72 x 36 inches lrregular dimensions. Sheet varyfrom8 x l0 to sizes 18 x 54 inches; average sheet size16 x 24 inches

Crotch Burl

SH()P.MADE VENEER

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upthecut 1t Settine -

I T o c u t v e n e eor n t h e b a n ds a w ,f i r s tm a k ea p i v o tb l o c kf r o mt w o p i e c e so f w o o dj o i n e di n a T , w i t h t h e o u t e re n d o f t h e s h o r t epr i e c et r i m m e dt o f o r ma r o u n d e dn o s e .I n s t a l al 3 / q - i n c rhe s a wb l a d eo n t h e s a wa n d i n s t a l l t h er i p f e n c e o n t h e t a b l e .S c r e wt h e p i v o tb l o c kt o t h e f e n c es o t h a t t h e r o u n d e dt i p i s a l i g n e d w i t h t h e b l a d e .P o s i t i o tnh e f e n c ef o r t h e w i d t ho f v e n e eyr o uw a n t( a b o v e )I ,y p i c a l l yr / ei n c h .l f t h e s t o c ky o ua r ec u t t i n gi s r e l a t i v e ltyh i n ,c l a m pa f e a t h e r o o a r o t o t h et a b l et o s u p p o ritt d u r i n gt h e c u t .

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6l

Amburana, mahogany, walnut Carpathian elm,English oak,madrone, myrtle, oliveash,redwood, thuya, walnut


VENEERSAND MANUFACTURED BOARDS

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r) Cutting theveneer L f eeatheworkpiece intotheblade withbothhands, keeping thestockflush against thetip of the pivotblock(abovd. To prevent the bladefromdriftingoff line,steerthetrailing endof theworkpiece. Neartheendof thecut,move to thebackof thetablewiththesawstill r u n n i ntgo f i n i s ht h ep a s sH. o l d i nt gh e against thepivotblock, stocksquare oullit oasttheblade.

t

Illlllltllllllllllllllltllltllllllullltllllilltlllllllliltllllllltlltl r 1HO?TI?

t

)alvaqin6 warped veneer Crotchand burlveneerz eomelimesbecome ---1, warpedand brilNle,the reeulLof aqinqor improVer oNorage.Io flatten the eheeNe, dampen them ueinga e?on7e moisNened wiNhwarmwaf,er and elackthemon a pieceof Vlywoodwilh lwo or Nhreesheelo of newopaperbetweeneach slice.Tlacea heavyweiqhl,suchas a concreleblock,on top. Let,theveneero sitfor a day or two.Wrapthe sheetsin Vlaotic and eloreLhemundera weiahluntilvou needthem.

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VENEERING I pplyingveneeris like woodworkA ing in reverse. Insteadofstarting with a board,thencuttingandsanding it down to its finished dimensions. veneeredpiecesarebuilt up alayerata time. Beglnningwith a substrate-or base-of solidwood or a manufactured panel,you gluebandingto theedges and thenwiderpiecesof veneerto bothfaces. With a plywoodbase,orientthegrain ofthe veneersothat it is perpendicular to the grain of the plywood,and both facesof theplyr,voodmustbeveneered to preventcupping. (Neverapplyveneer overfir plywood,because the grainof the fir canbe seenthroughthe veneer.) With a hardwoodbase,veneershould be appliedparallelto the grain. Furniture-qualityparticleboardand medium-densityfiberboardalsomake goodsubstrates for veneering.Sincethese materialshaveno grain (theyaremadeof

woodparticlespressed togetherwith an adhesive), you may arrangethe veneer on thepanelsanywayyouwish.But the lackofa graindirectionis alsoa disadvantage:Neitherof theseproductsis as strongasplywood,andanyjoints cut in

Specificallydesignedfor cutting veneer, a yeneersaw is usually usedin tandem with a guide block or a straightedgeto ensurestraight cuts.

them must be reinforcedwith splines madeof someothermaterial. Brittleveneers mustbeappliedovera thickerunderlayveneersuchaspoplar. Alwayscut the veneerlargerthan the actualsizeneeded,allowingan overhang of aboutlz nchall thewayaround.The overhangis trimmed offlater. If you arepressingdown veneerthe traditionalway-with a veneerhammer-use hideglue,whichis reheatable. Otherwise, whiteglueisyourbestchoice. Whicheveradhesive you employ,it will beeffective onlyifthe veneeris flat,clean and dry. Asshownin thissection,veneercan alsobe presseddown in a veneerpress. Newercommercialvacuumpresses feature a pump that sucksthe air out of a plasticbag that surroundsthe substrateandveneer,allowingatmospheric pressure to hold theveneerin place.

VENEERING TOOTS Veneerpreaa For preeain7 veneerdown on a subatrate paneLfeaturea a base,pipe clampe,pipe ClamPgaddlea and veneer preaa clampa.Componenta are bouqht.aaa kit and aaaembledby uaer to auit dimenaioneof panel

Veneeraaw For trimmin4 and cutting veneer;ite curved blade, offaet handleand thin, eharp-tipped teeth enaureclean

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Veneertape A thin, etronq, perforated tape ueed forjoinin7 pieceo of veneerbefore qluin4 Veneerhammer For preoeing veneer down on a subatrate paneLpuahedalonq the aurface likea equeeqee. Featurea three workin4 aurfacea for veneeraof varyinq widtha

Hand roller A hard rubber roller uaed to apply edqe bandin4to the edgee of eubetraLe panele

63


VENEERSAND MANUFACTURED BOARDS

I T

APPLYING VENEER 'l

Gluing downedgebanding fortheedges I Cutfourstripsof banding ofthesubstrate oanelfromthesameveneer youwilluseforthefaces.Makethestrips overlap thepaneledges byabout% inch, r r a i nw i l lr u na l o n tgh e a n db es u r et h e i g them.Secure edges, ratherthanacross thepanelin a vise,thenapplya thinbead of glueto anedge.Usea smallbrushto evenly, thencenter the spread theadhesive banding overtheedge.Laya stripof wax paperoverthebanding andthen,using theedgeandfaces, woodpadsto protect downwiththree-way clampthebanding c l a m p ss,p a c i ntgh e ma t 6 - t o 8 - i n c h Tighten each intervals, untilthegluedries. a thingluebead clampin turn(right)until banding squeezes out.Trimtheexcess (step2), thenrepeat fortheotheredges.

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llllllljilltllllilIllll llllljlllllllll lllllll r]I1 IIJllll llllilI]rll1 r") Trimming excess banding L Once thegluehasdried,holdthe panelon edgeon a worksurface. Butt far a veneer saw against the thebackof panel with its teeth on the endof the Firmlydrawthesawtoward banding. youto,trimawaytheexcess banding Make sure the back of thesaw hbovd. f lush face of the remains against the panpanel the cut. Turn the throughout repeat on the other side. el around and Excess banding canalsoberemoved laminate witha trimmer(page68).

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gHO?TI? Cutting edge banding *..o.si Tocut severaleNriVeof S\ veneeredgebandinqin one slack Lhemone operaLion, alop Nheobher,edqeoaligned, beNween Lwopieceoof l/+-inchplywood.Tackthetwo plywoodpieceo wilh finishinqnailoplacedalonq Noqebher Ihe edqeo;be sureihe nailNipedo not pertorale trhebandinqor ?aeeLhrouqhthe boIbom pieceof plywood.MarkcuLlinqlineofor lhe bandingon the Loppieceof Vlywood,Ihen cut alonqNhelineeon a Nableeaw or bandeaw.be carefulnol lo cul alonalhe lineof nails.

64

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VENEERS AND MANUFACTURED BOARDS

Edging thefaceveneer T h ee d g e so f a d j o i n i n gs h e e t so j

veneer mustbe perfectly square if the twopieces areto butttogether properly. Tosquare them,youwillneeda shootingboard. Cutthreepieces of 3/rinch plywood slightly longer thantheveneer. 0 n ep i e c es h o u l d b ew i d ee n o u gtho holdtheothertwopieces ontopand thewidthof theplanelyingon itsside. Place thetwopieces of veneer faceto faceandsandwich thembetween the pieces toptwoplywood sothat the edges of theveneer arealigned andprotrude byabout\/einch.Setthesandwich on topof thethird,widerboard andclamp theentireassembly to a worksurface. Runtheplanealong theshooting board fromoneendto theotherto trim off the projecting veneer. Makesureyou keepthesoleof theplane flushagainst theedges pieces of thetop plywood duringthe cut (left).

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Taping veneer sheets together lf youarepressing downyourveneer sheets gluethem witha veneer hammer, (step5). lf youare in placeindividually applyrng morethanonesheetof veneer to a panelfaceandusinga veneer press to holdthemdown,tapethesheets together andgluethemdownasa unit.Alignthe sheetsedge-to-edge on a worksurface, arranging themgood-side upto produce pattern. a visually interesting lf thereare gapsbetween adjoining sheets, trimthe edges ona shooting board, Thecombined l e n g ta h n dw i d t ho f t h ev e n e esrh o u l d exceed thedimensions of thepanelby aboulr/zinch.Onceyouhavea satjsfactoryarrangement, moisten a fewlengths of veneer tapewitha water-dampened sponge. Tapethesheets together across theirjoints at 6- to 8-inchintervals, then applya stripof tapealongeachjoint (right).Press thetapef irmlyin place witha handroller,

65


VENEERSAND MANUFACTURED BOARDS

JIG VENEER-TRIMMING to widthquickCutsheetsof veneer on a routertable ly andaccurately jig shownat right. wiihthetrimming forsuggestReferto the illustration ed dimensions. Cutthebaseof thejig from%incfiplywood andthetop piecefrom Choose a boardwith a hardwood. slightbowforthetoppiece,if possipressure near clamping ble;applying theendsof the boardwillflattenit, producing uniformpressure against the base.Thetop pieceshouldbe sheets slightlylonger thanyourveneer andthe baseat least12 inches longer.Screwwoodblocksto the basesoihe top piecewillfit snugly between them.Thenscrewa toggle clampto eachwoodblock. To usethejig, installa flush-cutguideon a tingbit witha bearing router,andmountthetoolin a router to betrimmed table.Placetheveneer between the baseandtop pieceof thejig asyouwouldwhentrimming witha shooting board(page65).l{ake fromthejig surethesheetsprotrude by 7s inch,thenpressthetoggle clampsdownon thetop pieceto securetheveneer sheetsto thejig. Position the fenceto seta cutting widthof 7einch.(Caution: Guard for clarity.)Turn andfenceremoved ontherouterandslidethejig across trimmingthe thetable(right,below), veneer flushwiththeedgeof thejig. Besureto keepthejig buttedagainst theoperation. thefencethroughout

T I T t T I t T

Toppiece 11/2"x4"x30"

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VENEERSAND MANUFACTURED BOARDS

downtheveneer f, Gluing panelfaceupon r-,1Setthesubstrate a worksurface andspread ona thinlayer of gluewitha smallbrushor handroller (right).Donotapplyadhesive directly t o t h ev e n e e g r ;l u ew i l l m a k ej t c u r l . Remember to usewhiteglueif youare working witha veneerpress(step6); choose hideglueif youareusing a veneer hammer(step7). Handling theveneer gently, center thesheets overthepanel.lf youtapedveneer sheets together, set themtaped-side up.Makesuretheveneer overhangs theedges of thepanelevenly.

Pressing press theveneer in position witha veneer press, lf youareusinga veneer assemble thedevice followingthemanufacturer's instructions. Makesurethespacing between thepipeclampsaddles is slightly longer thanthe length of thepanel. Setthepanelonthebaseof thepress,

veneered facedownwitha stripof waxpaperbetween theveneered faceof thepanelandthebase.Protect theupperfaceof thepanel withwoodpads.Tighten thepressclamps oneat a time(above) untila thingluebeadsqueezes outfromunder thepanel.

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VENEERS AND MANUFACTURED BOARDS

t

theveneer in position I Pressing / witha veneer hammer lf youareusinga veneer hammer, setthegluedpanel veneered faceup on a worksurface. Buttwoodscraps against theends of thepanelasstopblocks, thenscrew themin place. Holding withbothhands, worktheheadof thetoolback thehammer pressing andforthovertheveneer, downf irmlyandfollowing Toeliminate orto smooth thegrain. bubbles outsections that meltthegluebyrunning havenotstuckproperly, a household ironovertheveneer, thenpress downagain withthehammer.

l]liilflllllt]l]I]IlllltfirlllltilIlIr]llfilll1 lll]ilIlu[tll]rll]llll 5HO?TI? Veneeringa aurvedsurfaae Tn

nraaa

\raAaar

downon a conloured surface, suchas the drawer fronLshown nere,uoeSanabaqoor pillowcaeeefilledwiLh sand,ForbesL reeulNe, etarE layin4the baqe on Nhemiddleof Nheeurface,workinqyour wayto Nheende.7ince moderateheal acceleraleslhe qlue-curinq?roceee, keeplhe baqoneara healerao you ?re?arefor Nhejob.

Trimming theexcess Oncethesluehascured-2hours i s t h et y p i c awl a i t i n p ge r i o d - t r i m t h ev e n e et rh a tp r o l e c tbse y o ntdh e f:np

n f tLh' r ou n : n p l

lJuilur.

vRL p v uel rt rr

. ^ +L lhl C^ ^ ^ ^ ^ l Pdlltrl

veneered-face up on a worksurface, p o s i t i o n i ns g t o pb l o c kas sy o uw o u l d (step7). whenusinga veneer hammer F i ta l a m i n a t rei m m ewr i t ha f l u s h c u t t i nh s i t .t h e nr e s t h em a c h i noen thepanel withthebitjustclearof the e x c e svse n e e rH. o l d i ntgh et r i m m e r withonehandandsteadying thepanel w i t ht h eo t h e rt,u r no n t h et o o la n d g u i d ei t f r o mo n ee n do f t h ep a n e l to the other(/eff).Repeat for the other threeedges of thepanel. Lightly moiste n a n yv e n e et ra p ea n dr e m o vteh e stripswitha scraper.

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DECORATIVEMATCHING some Q incecertain[pes ofveneer,like r.J burlsandexoticspecies, areavailable onlyin smallsizes, pioducinga sheetof veneersufficientlylargefor your project will ofteninvolvejoining severalsmaller piecestogether, with somecuttingand tapingbeforeglue-up.Whenever veneers arejoined,you mustpayattentionto grain,figureand textureto avoidclutteredor haphazardpatterns.But as shownbelow veneers carefullymatched with decorative effectsin mind canyield resultsunmatchedby wood in its natural state. Veneersheets thatareintendedto be matchedshouldbe cut from the same log in successive passes. The resultis a series ofsheetsthatareessentially identical. The type of match you achieve dependson both the figureand grain orientationofthe veneerandthesizeof thefinishedpatternyou intendto create.

Artfully matchingveneers cancreateeye-catching effects. Thistabletopfeaturesa centerdiamondmatch.

Straight-grained woods,suchaszebrawood and sapele,for example,yield veneersthat areexcellentfor diamond, reverse-diamond andherringbone patterns.Burl, crotchand stumpveneers can be butt-and-book-matChed into Iarge,elaborate circularandovalpatterns idealfor creatinginteresting tabletops. Recognizing grainpatternssuitable for decorative matchingtakespractice. You haveto know what to look for: A little swirl at the edgeof a sheet,for example,mayyield a beautifuldesign. To geta quickideaof what an end-toendor a diamondmatchwouldlooklike, placea mirror at a right angleto thesurfaceof theveneeriusetwo mirrorssetat 90oto eachotherto previewa butt-andbook-match. Onceyou havesettledon yourpattern,stackthesheets ofveneerso thattheirgrainis aligned,tapetheedges andcut thepieces for thematch.

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End-to-end A mirrorlike ?attern featurinq flat-cut veneerewith prominent landacapefigure

Eutt-and-book-match Commonlyuaed with butt, crotch and etump veneereto create an unfoldina, circular effect

Reverse-diamondmatch FeaLuresfour aheetEof veneerthat appear to converqeat their center

1lip matah Often ueed to produce dramatic effecta: reducea dratorDioncauaedby liqht refraction problemawhen book-matchinqmaple

Eook-match A repeating pattern where adjoininqsheeta of veneer appear to radiate from Lhe joint betweenthem, like the paqea of a book

Herringbone Veneerawhoeefi4uree run diagonallyoff the aheet, creattnq a ztqzag effecL

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PLYWOOD I lthoughit maynotbeasglamorous A or assteeped in woodworkingtradition assolidlumber,plywoodoffers severaladvantages to the cabinetmaker. First,it comesin a wide rangeof standardthicknesses andsizes.Second, it is dimensionallystableand is unlikelyto warp or showsignsof checkingor splir ting.Third, it is available with just about anycommonlvavailableveneeron its faces.And fourth, it is easyto cut. Indeed,plywoodis a good choicefor almostanydesignthat doesnot involve intricatejoinerysuchasdovetails. Although veneerhas a venerable history andplyr,vood is a relatively modern development-first producedcommerciallyin themid-1800s-thetvvoare closelyrelated.Plyuood,afterall, is a layeredwood materialmadefrom thin sheets,or plies,of veneer.Decorative plywoodis often facedwith matched

veneers madefrom high-grade hardwoodssuchascherryor walnut.The veneerusedin construction-grade plywoodis peeledon a rotary lathe from eight-foot-longlogsof poplar, pine or Douglas-fir. As shownopposite, both decorative and construction-grade plywoodare manufactured with an odd numberof plies,givingthe sheeta balancedconstruction.Threepliesareusuallythe minimumnumber.Beneath thefaceand backveneers ofa typicalsheetarelayers knownascrossbands. Thegrainofeach crossband runsat right anglesto that of adjacentpliesto counterwood movement. The resultis a warp-resistant boardthat is equallystrongacrossboth dimensions.Someply,voodsare also availablewith reinforcedcores. As with solid lumber, plywood is availablein both hardwoodand soft-

woodvarieties,althoughthetermsrefer strictly to the faceand backveneers. Hardwoodplyr,vood is a stableandcostefitctivealternative to solidwood,andis usedin woodworkingapplicationswhere appearance matters,suchasfor cabinets, drawerfronts and furniture. Softwood plywoodis generallyusedfor carcase construction, bookcases andshelving. Not all pliwoods arecreatedalike. Morethan70woodspecies areusedin its manufacture.Plywoodsaregrouped accordingto strengthand durability; both softwoodand hardwoodvarieties areavailable in fourgroupsor categories that areusuallystampedon the sheet. Group I (softwood)and CategoryA (hardwood)species arethe strongest andmostdurable;Group 4 andCategory D arethe poorestgrades.Referto the chart(below)forthespecies thatmakeup thevariousgroupings.

COMMON W()()DSUSEDIN PLYWOOD CONSTRUCTION SOFTWOOD Group I Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 r American o PortOrford o Red r Biglooth Beech Aspen Cedar Alder r Yellow r Quaking 'Cypress . Paper Birch Aspen . Balsam Fir Birch . Douglas- . r Alaska . Basswood Lauan fn Cedar r Red . Black o Western . Eastern Cedar Maple Larch Hemlock r Western r Virginia l Rrro:r o Bigleaf Cedar Pine Maple Maple o Cottono r Longleaf Yellow . Jack wood Poplar Pine Pine . Sugar r . Shortleaf Black o Ponderosa Pine Spruce Pine Pine o Balsam . o Southern Sitka o Redwood Poplar Spruce Pine o White . Tanoak Spruce

HARDWOOD Category A o White Ash r Bubinga . Hickory

Category B Category C Category D o r Black o Ash American Bigtooth

Basswood Aspen o Avodir6 . Butternut . Q u a k i n g . Black e American A q n p n Cherry Chestnut o Western r RedOak o RockElm . Hackberry Cedar . White r African . Fuma 0ak Mahoganyo Silver . Black . Pecan o Honduras Maple Willow o o Rosewood Mahogany Eastern White Pine . Teak r Qanalo r Western o Black WhitePine Walnut o Black Tupelo

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VENEERSAND MANUFACTURE,DBOARDS

()FPLYWOOD TYPES T h e b a s i cd e s i g no f a l l p l y w o o diss t h e s a m e a : c o r ec o v e r e d on bothsidesby layersof crossbanding anda faceveneer. The mostcommontype hasa veneercore.All softwoodplywoods a r em a d et h i sw a y ,a n dt h e ya r es t a b l ew , a r p - r e s i s t aanntd i n e x p e n s i vH e ,a r d w o opdl y w o o dcsa na l s ob e m a d ew i t hs o l i d l u m b e ro r p a r t i c l e b o acr d o r e sT. h em i d d l ep l yo f I u m b e r - c o r e

plywood consists narrow of several stripsof solidwood-usupoplaror basswood-edge-glued allymahogany, together. plywood Particleboard-core hasa solidcoreof particleboard or plywood medium-density fiberboard. Lumber-core holdsnails andscrews bestandis preferable whenadditional strength andflatness arerequired.

VENEER CORE

Dack veneer

Croaabande

TUMBER CORE

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PARTICTEBOARD C()RE

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TarDicleboard core

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PLYWOODGRADING tl- h. wide array of plywood types Theirfaceandbackveneers arecut from I available makeschoosingtheappro- a relativelyweather-resistant wood. priate one for a project more involved Interior plywoodis madewith a waterthan simplyselectinga particularthickresistantadhesiveand is usuallyproness.Bothhardwoodandsoftwoodolvducedwith an appearance-grade face wood panelsarerateddependingon veneerand a lesser-grade backveneer. how theyshouldbe usedand on the For mostinterior applications, woodappearanceof their face and back workersgenerallychooseExposureI or veneers.They are alsoavailablein one interior-grade panels. of threegrades,or durabilityratings Thethreehardwoodply,voodgrades dependingon the gluesand veneers areTypesI, II and III. TypeI includes usedin the constructionof the oanels. fully waterproofexteriorpanelswhile Softwoodplywoodcomesin eiterior TypeII is aninterior-grade plywoodable andinterior grades,and a categorycalled to withstandsomemoisture;Type III is ExposureL a moisture-resistant interiorplr.wood. Exterior-grade and ExposureI plyTypesII andIII areyourbestchoicesfor wood areusuallymadewith a water- mostcabinetmaking projects. proof adhesive, creatingweatherproof The appearance ofthe faceandback panelsthat are resistantto moisture. veneersis anotherfactor that distin-

guishesdifferent plpvood types.As shownin thechartopposite,both hardwoodandsoftwoodpanelsareavailable in sixgrades. Ifyou aiebuyingsoftwood plywoodyou candetermineits grade, plusadditionalinformationabouta particularsheet,by readingits gradestamp (below).Hardwoodpliruoodis generally not stamped;if you needa particular grade,you haveto askfor it andtakethe suppliert word that you aregettingwhat you want. Plywoodis manufacturedin a range of sizes.Softwoodplywoodrangesin thicknessftomlE to 7ainch,whilehardwood ply,voodis availablefrom yato I inch thick. The standardpanelsizeis 4 by 8 feet,but specialorderscanbe placedfor largersheets.

DECIPHERING A SOFTW(|(ID PLYWOOD STAMP ANDEDGEMARK Reading a gradestamp andedgemark Mostgradestampson softwood plywood, suchastheoneshownat left,contain s i xb a s i ce l e m e n tIsn. a d d i t i otno t h e (APA) American Plywood Association trademark, thestampidentif iesthemill thatproduced the boardandthe product publicatron standard thatcontains the grading rules.Thehyphenated lettersin thiscaseA-D-designate thegrades of thefaceandbackveneers respectively.Thedurability classif ication maybe eitherexterior, interior or Exposure 1, groupnumber andthespecies indicates thewoods thatmayhavebeenusedin themanufacture of thepanel.(Seethe charton page70.)In orderto avoidmarringa plywood withtwogoodfaces-A-A grade, forexampleanedgemark, suchas theoneshown at lower left,is used.Panel edges sometimes car. APA.0Q0. PS1- 93 ry colorstripes E X P OSURE1 to designate thegrade.

2'':f;::

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VENEERSAND MANUFACTURED BOARDS

PLYWOOD FACE VENEER GRADES HARDWOOD PTYWOOD

SOFTW(IOD PIYWOOD

Premium

Sanded smooth; cantakea clear finish;faceveneer matched forgrain andcolor,freeof opendefects Sanded smooth; cantakea natural finish,butis moreoftenpainted Smooth andsanded; mayhave minorsolits Smooth; mayhavesomebroken grain, sanding defects andknotholes up to % inch C Plugged Sanded; similar to C grade, butknotholes andsolitsaresmaller D Usedmainly forinnerpliesand backveneer; mayhaveknot-holes upto 2% inches

Good

Sound

Utility

Faceveneer withwell-matched seams andsmooth; madeof specific hardwood,suchaswalnutor mahogany. Freeof contrasts in colorandgrain Faceveneer similar to premium, but notaswellmatched. Freeof sharpcontrasts in colorandgrain Faceveneer smooth, butnotmatched forcoloror grain;defects onlyon back veneer. Generally intended forpainting Veneers haveroughgrainandmay haveknotholes upto 3/dinch,aswell assomediscoloration, staining and slightsplits.Notmatched forcolor or grain

Back

Mayhavelarger defects thanutility grade, butnonethatimpairpanel strength. Notmatched forcolor orgrain

Specialty

Madeto orderto meetspecific panels requirements, suchasseparate grainpatterns withmatching

llllllltlllltllllllllll fillllltllllfiltlllllll lll llltlllliltll1ll illt

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A plywoodaarrier eheele of plywood,particleboard or hardboardcan beheavyand awkwardNocarry.Thecarrier ehownherewillmakethe load eaeierNobear.RouLa |-inch-wide rabbeLalon7oneface of a 12inch-lonqboard.Cut a nohchoutr of oneend of a pieceof plywood, Nhenscrewa woodblockacroee the endof Nhenolch to serveae ahandle.ALIachLheotherend of fhe plywoodpieceNothe rabbebedface of Lhe board.Io use lhe carrier,eimplyhookit,under lhe loweredqeof the eheeNand Vullit up underyourarm.

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CONCEALINGPLYWOODEDGES plywoodhas or all its advantages, one major drawbackfor cabinetmaking:The multi-plycompositionof on theiredges thepanelsis clearlyvisible and ends.Fortunatelvtherearea number of simple options for concealing the unsightlyplies.Pressure-sensitive wood-graintape,for example,canbe pressed in placeby hand.Or, asshown edgebandingcan below,self-adhesive be appliedwith an iron. Bothproducts comein severalstandardwidths and wood species. The illustration at right showsseveralmoreinvolvededgetreatmentalternativesideallysuitedto customwork. Wth thesplinedmiterjoint, for example,the miterededgesof two panelsare gluedtogetherand reinforcedwith solid wood splines.The other methods involve cutting strips of hardwood bandingor moldingandbondingthem to the edgesof the panel.Thestepsfor applyingone of thesetypes-tongueand-grooveedgemolding-are shown on the followingpage.

EDGE TREATMENTS FOR PTYWOOD

Tongue-and-4roove edqe moldinq )olid wood edqe banding

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BANDING SELF.ADHESIVE Applying self-adhesive edgebanding Seta household ironon High(without steam) andallowit to heatup.Meanwhile, secure thepanelonedgein a viseor with clamps, asshown, andcuta stripof bandingslightly longer thantheedgeto be covered. Setthebanding adhesive-side d o w no n t h ep a n eel d g eH . o l d i ntgh e b a n d i nign p l a c e w i t ho n eh a n dr,u nt h e ironslowly along thepaneledge,pressing thetrimflat.Theheatof theironwillmelt theglueandbondthebanding to thepanel. Keeptheironmoving; resting it onone spotformorethana fewseconds will leave scorchmarks.Flatten outthe banding b yr u n n i nag s m a lhl a n dr o l l ebr a c ka n d forthalongthe lengthof the paneledge. Shave off anyexcess banding witha laminatetrimmer(page68).

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VENEERSAND MANUFACTUREDBOARDS

T()NGUE-AND-GROOVE EDGE MOLDING

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rllll]Il]llrlrJillrliltllll]llllllilluiltlllllltillJllltullilltll]l 5HO7Tt? thop-made edgebanding Cutthin eNripeof edqebandinqfrom a boardon LheNable eaw.l./take the etriVo:,'i a l i q h Nl o y n q etrh a n Lhepaneland aNleael as wideae trhepanel'e Lhickneee. 1ecurethe panel uVriqht, in a viee,then aVplya Lhingluebeadalonqito edqe. Tlacethe bandinqin Vlaceand tape it firmlyat 2-inchinlervale.When the qlue io dry ehaveoff any exceo;bandingwiI,h a laminatetrrimmer(paqe6B).

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M a k i n ga n da p p l y i ntgh em o l d i n g I n s t a lal c o m b i n a t i obnl a d eo n y o u r t a b l es a wa n d m a k es e v e r apl a s s e tso c u t a g r o o v eo n et h i r da s t h i c k a s t h e p a n e l .N e x t y, o u n e e dt o c u t t h e m a t c h ingtongue;it shouldbe sawnin the edge of a hardwood boardthe samethickness a s t h e p a n e lA. d j u s t h e b l a d eh e i g h t s o t h a t i t e q u a l st h e a m o u n to f s t o c k remaining o n e i t h e rs i d eo f t h e g r o o v e . C u tt h e w a s t ef r o mo n e s i d eo f t h e t o n g u et,h e nt u r n t h e b o a r do v e ra n d r e p e a t h e p r o c e d u r teo c o m p l e t et h e t o n g u e f; i n i s he a c hp a s sw i t ha p u s h sltck (above,left).Cut the pieceof moldi n gf r o mt h e b o a r d F . i n i s ht h e j o b b y s e c u r i n tgh e p a n e lu p r i g h it n a v i s ea n d s p r e a d i n sgo m eg l u e i n t h e g r o o v e and on the tongue.Fit the two piecestogethe r ( i n s e ta) n dc l a m pt h e m i n p l a c ew i t h t h r e e - w acyl a m p s .


PARTICLEBOARD suchasparticleood composites boardandfiberboardarea popular choicefor carcase backs,drawer bottomsand concealed oanels.Made fromblendsof woodparticles andsyntheticadhesive bondedtogetherunder i n t e n shee a ta n dp r e s s u r ceo, m p o s i t e boardsareasstrongand asdurableas most solid woodsand generallyless exoensive. Thevarealsomoredimensronallv staDle. Particleboard wasfirst developed in 1930s way recycling wood the asa of flakes.chiosand sawdustdismissed as sawmillwiste.Today,manymillsfocus production, mainlyon particleboard processing softwoodandmedium-denparticles sityhardwoods into composite rvithmachines calleddrum flakers,chipnersandhammermills. Particleboard is manufactured by two methods:extrusionand mat-formins. In the lesscorlmon extrusionpro..ri, woodparticles andadhesives areforced togetherthrougha small,thin opening to form panels. Thegrainorientationof theparticles isperpendicular to thefaces of the panels.With mat-forming,the particlesand adhesives are squeezed into a mat in a press. With thismethod, the grainof the fibersis parallelto the oanelfaces. Mat-formedparticleboard comesin threeconfigurations( riglt ). Single-layer features woodparticles particleboard of paruniformsizeandshape. Multi-layer ticleboardhascoarsershavinss at the coreof thepanelarrdfinerorreis on the partioutsidesurfaces. Graded-densitv cleboard issimilarto multi-laveroaiticleboard,but with a moregradual'charrge from coarseto fine particles.Standard particleboard sheetsare 4 by B feet, although5-by-10panelsareavailable; thicknesses rangefrom 7+to 2 inches.

TYPESOFMAT-FORMED PARTICLEB()ARD

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t t Made from a mat of aimilarlyetzedand evenly distributed coar6ewoodparticleo

Featurea a core layer of coarae woodparDiclearetnforced by two ouLer layere of fine, high-denettyparticlee

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Gra ded -d enaity pa rti cleboa rd CharacLertzed by a gradualtransttton from coareewood woodparparbicleoat Lhecare to veryftne,htgh-denetLy ticlee on the outer eurfacee

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FIBERBOARD

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f, iberboard,or hardboard,is pressed I' into matsmuchlikeparticleboard, but becausethe wood oarticlesare reducedto individualfibers.the result is a thin, hard and densesheetwith smoothsurfaces. Hardboardcomesin threegrades:standard,temperedand service.Temperedhardboardis harder, heavierand morewater-resistant than the two other types.Thicknesses range from 1Azto s/a inch.Anothervarietv. called medium-densityfiberboard (MDF), featuresa fine surfacetexture with facesandedgesalmostasworkable assolidwood.MDF is available in thicknesses from 1/+to IV+inch and canbe boughtwith veneered surfaces.

HARDBOARD STAI{DARD

Hardboard Made of individualwoodfibera; commonlyuaed in furni|ure and cabinet work becaueeof ite fine. amooth aurface

WORKING CHARACTERISTICS OFMANUFAGTURED BOARDS BOARD TYPE Plywood

WORKABITITY

FASTENING

Easyto work;fine faceveneers need littlesanding

Faceholdsfasteners well,butedgesoften split.Borepilotholes; screwdiameter should notexceed one-quarter of panelthickness

Particleboard Difficultto work; useofcarbide tipped toolsrecommended; weara dustmask whenworking

Holdon fasteners poor;borepilotholes. U s ef i n i s h i nnga i l sa n d drywallscrews

Hardboard

Edgeseasyto rout, Faceof tempered hardshapeor groove; well. boardholdsscrews (othertypesnotaswell) sanding of faces Borepilotholesanduse n o tr e q u i r e dU.s e o f c a r b i d tei p p e d sheetmetalscrews toolsrecommended Medium-densityEdgeseasyto rout, Holdon nailsexcellent; poor fiberboard snape0rgroove; holdon screws sanding of facesnot required. Useof carbidetippedtools recommended

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VENEERING plywood Softwood canbeveneered

Frl{tsHrl{G

Tempered hardboardcanbe veneere0

Accepts mostfinishes

Canbecovered withthinveneer

Canbefinished or painted

Premium andgood grades of hardwood plywood needlittlefinishgrade ing;sound canbe painted; plysoftwood woodgradesN andA can bepainted or finished particleboard Multi-layer and Multi-layer graded-density par- accepts mostfinishes; ticleboard excellent othertypesnotsuitable forveneering forpainting orfinishing.


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DRY]NGAI.{D

STOruNGWOOD

vYmarenar:"uo'o,l:r'll!!firri' '"1?,1lo'inl",TffiYil'.!f :?T:*::'"*.p-T*-Y ,s.i-.:,,,'l E -

separate layers of lumberin apile,allowingair circulationaroundtheindivid-

ple,yourjoinerymethods shouldallow for woodmovement. If thevdo nor.

p i e c e s o f f u r n i t u r e c a n l i t e r a l l y s e l f - _ ; - . f - - : . . - - . ^ v . 5 v r v v r ! u r r r \ v ! whitepine'air-dryingtoa l0to l2perAao+q,n+ \^/l^il^+L^^'-'.ri^^+j^^'^-.-^^r * destruct' whi]e the.pnlication

ofawood A resistance moisture meterlike centmoisture levelissufficient f"#r, finishmayslowdimensional change theoneshown , above isa cylinfurnitureprojects. Whichever drying nothingcanstopit. dricaldevice with twopinsihoto* methody* .iroor.,y*iun ur. u rp.Freshlycut lumber,or greenwood, pressed intoa board.Themeter cialmeterliketheoneshownin thepiro has,a relatively highmoisturecontent, measures electrical resistance, to aboveto measure moisturecontent. whichforhardwoods canrangefrom,60 whichwitl varydepending onthe Apartfrom controloverthewood, percent to 100percent of thedryweight. amountofwateiin thewood. theprincipalU.n.nt of atyinliun'b., Thischapterfocuses on waysof reducin theshopiseconomic. Thefeweroper1^ < ingthatto a levelsuitable for cabinetmaking, around8 to l0 ationsperformed on 1 nl.ank Uefor"y""U"yii-ru.n u, arypelc:lt' depending on theclimate.and species. ing andsurfacing-thilessit costs.Forlargequantities of unlessyoubuygreen woodwiththeintentionofdryingit luirber-say,t,060boardfeetor more-theiavingscanadd yourself, yourlumberisalready eitherair-driedor kiln-'driid. up to hundreds of dollars. Air-driedwood.may.have up to 25percentmoistureconProperstorage is asimportantasdrying.Driedwood tent.Kiln-driedlumberhasa loweilevel,6 to 8 percent. .*por.dto theeiements carire-absorb someof themoisture Although.kiln-dried woodis generally preferable for furni- thatwasextracted fromit. Thereareseveral waysto ,ioi. r"ooa, turebuilding, somepurists avoidit,contending tlalttrgprocess depending on the.kindgf G. youhaveandthewoodyou subdues thenaturalcolorsof certainwoodsand,in thi short workwithl-froq longpia-nlis-io shortstocktoopi..i*, to U. term,caninduceinternalstresses in thewood,makingit consigned to thekindiingbox.youcandesign y6uio*n tun'difficulttoresaw' berraik,usingth.o*rtlio*ninthischapteias'startingpoints, -L_--_-, r , r ptafl15 , of at a time, or installa coirmercial lurnberruil.Iid;;;;;rlir.rn.n, . Largeindustrialkilnshousehundreds butthereareanumberof.do-it-yourself modelsthatarerela- to storewood,consider installing adehirmidifiJr to rejucethe tivelysimpleto built,includinga small-scale solar-powered highrelative humiditylevel.o.111on in suchanarea.

Kilnsprovideafast and ffictive wayof drying woodto a moisturelevelappropriate for cabinetmaking.Here,stacksof hardwoodplanks areloadedbyforklift into an industrialkiln.

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WATERANDWOOD in woodcancause oisturechanges for a pieceof [urniture, problerns somemerelyannoying,othersquitesericutlogcancontainwater ous.A freshly equalto twiceits dry weight;madeinto a oieceof furniture,it canturn stone diy. This capacityto hold different different amountsof moisturer,rnder wood to swelland conditionscauses contract.If thispropertyis not consida drawerthat eredby thecabinetmaker, oDenssmoothlvin the deadof winter cin swellandjam shutin thehumidity of summer.A perfectlysquarecarcase cabinetcanpull itselfapartashumidity to season. levelschansefrom season The am6untof waterin a pieceof asa percelrtage woodisoftenexpressed weight. of its oven-dryor water-free if a 50-poundblockof For example, wood dropsto 30 poundsafteroven-

How wet is wood?Thisf'e*ly cut log of Eastenthemlockcontains 1.5gallonsof water or sap Conrpletelydry, the log wotld weighone-haf ns rrruchns its green weight.

MoiaLurecontent above30% (no chanqe)

Moiaturecontent aL F9?-26% (no change)

Moisture content at 17% (1/+'ahrtnkaqe)

content of a plain-sawn Asthemoisture lumber drops plankof 2-by-10 softwood point(FSP), below thefibersaturation At 17 across thegrain. thewoodshrinks nercpntthe hoardis l,/atnch narrower t h a ni t w a sa t i t s F S P .l t l o s e sa n o t h e r r / q i n c ho f w i d t hw h e nk i l n - d r i etdo a n 8 p e r c e nlte v e l S s artly . h r i n k a gdee p e n d p n n ua cJ vnv Lo, veJ i o c ' du av , n, Jc, Li Jt ,v . v ,,

oonpr:llv

MoisLurecontent ^+

lzo/

(3/a"ehrinkaqe)

MoieLurecontenL at B% (1/z'ehrinka4e)

doncpr

w o o d ss h r i n ka n ds w e l lm o r et h a n l i g h t e r onesS . a p w o oadl s ot e n d st o c h a n g e d i m e n s i o nms o r eq u i c k l yt h a nh e a r t w o o d .

drying,theweightof theshedwater-20 pounds-divided by the wood'sdry weight-30 pounds-is the rnoisture in thiscase, contentof theoriginalpiece: 66 oercent. Woodholdsrnoisture in twoways: as freewaterin cellcavitiesand asbound waterin cellwalls.As wooddries,free wateris exoelledfirst.When this is all what is discharged, the wood reaches point(FSP). termeditsfibersaturation At thispoint,thecellcavities areempty, buttheboundwaterremairts, Dermeatingthecellwalls.Formostwoods,the FSPoccursbetween23 percentand 30 percentmoisturecontentdepending on with 28percenttheaverage. thespecies, isthatat the Thekevoointto remember fibersaiuration ooint.thereisno dimensionalchangein wood from its freshly cnt size.It simplyweighsless.However,

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DRYINGAND STORINGWOOD

if thewooddriesfurther,fallingbelow theFSBit losesboundwaterfromits cellwalls.Thecellsshrinkandsodoes thewood.Astheillustration onpage80 shows,themoreboundwatera board losesthemoreit shrinks. Theonlywayto preventwoodfrom shrinkingis to treatit with a chemical (PEGisanabbrevisuchasPEG-1400. ationofpolyethylene glycol;1400isthe chemical's molecular weight.) PEG-1400 diffirses intothewoodandreplaces the boundwater,keeping thecell-walls fulIyswollen. Thetreatment issuitable only for greenwood,however, andis most popularfor usewithturningandcarvingblocks. Woodgainsandloses moisture asthe relativehumidityin theair aroundit changes. If therelative humidityroseto 100percent, apieceof woodwouldreach

30

s ==

its fibersaturation pointandbeat the hold a largeamountof moisture.But samesizeaswhenit wasmilled.If rela- whencooledindoors,it canhold much tivehumidityfellto 0 percent thewood's less.The resultcanbe fairly high relamoisturecontentwoulddropto 0 per- tive humidity. Both extremescause cent.Because relativehumidityfalls changes in the moisturelevelof wood between thoseextremes onlya portion and in its size. of theboundwaterislost.Realisticallv, You can takeseveralprecautionsto themoisture content range of moststock counteractthe effectsof changing is5 to 20percent. humidity levels.If you storelumbei Fromseason to season, therelative indoors,tryto keepthe relativehumidhumidityin agivenlocation canvary80 ity fairly constant,usinga dehumidier, percent or more.Thisisbecause relative for example,whenttrelevelsgettoo high. humidityandtemperature areclosely And althoughyou may not be ableto intertwined. Warmair canholdmore controltheenvironmentwhereyour furmoisturethancoldair.Asaresult,when niturewill endup,you shouldbuild the coldwinterairisheated, asit isin homes pieceto compensate for wood moveandworlshops, itsabilityto holdmois- ment.Whencuttinga panelfor a frame, tureincreases dramatically. Ifthereisno for instance,leavea t/s-inchgapin the addedmoistureavailable, therelative grooves thatwillhousethepanel.Theextra humidityplummetsto extremely low spacewill allowthe panelto expandand levels. In contrast, hot summerair can contractashumidity levelsriseandfall.

2

I

2

C' tJ

e 2 0 o .E = l

7 7

b

'=

7

=

E lrt

6

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

(%) Relative Humidity in Atmosphere

r I

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81

90

100

Relating a wood's equilibrium moisture content to relative humidity Whether woodis in theformof a log, a kiln-dried board ora finished oiece of furniture, itsmoisture content varies withtherelative humidity of theair around it. Ashumidity rises, sodoes thewood'smoisture content, expressed in percent in thegraphshownat left. Themoisture levelof a pieceof wood eventually reaches itsequilibrium (EMC) moisture content afterthehumiditystabilizes. TheEMCalsovaries depending onthetemperature. The bandshownin thegraphcovers EMC valuesfor mostwoodsat 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Those values decrease slightly at higher temperatures and Increase marginally withcooling.


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DRYING AND STORINGWOOD

SHRINKAGE W(IOD andradialshrinkage Tangential asshownby uniformly; Lumber doesnotcontract at left,tanthedottedredlinesin theillustration gential rings-is to thegrowth shrinkage-parallel whichoccurs abouttwicetheradialshrinkage, forthe accounts across the rings.Thisdifference and andpanels aswoodexpands warping of boards in moisture content. withfluctuations contracts of a boardis usually alongthelength Shrinkage r/zinchin A 2-by-i0plankthatshrinks negligible. mightloselessthan%oinch width,forexample, alongits8-footlength.

(lFDIFFERENT WOOD SPECIES VATUES SHRINKAGE stable wood dimensionally Finding of shrinkthetypical amount Thechartat rightshows and in boththetangential species ageof various whengreenwoodis driedto zero radialdirections (Values areshownin percent; moisture content. for column, valuein thetangential a 10 percent boardwould thata 10-inch-wide means examole, wide.)Although to 9 inches shrinkbythatamouni in radialcontraction exceeds shrinkage tangential shrinkbythesame everycase,notwospecies tangentially anc is 8 percent Theaverage amount. Thekeycolumn of thechartis 4 percent radially. of theproportion thethird:TheT/Rratioindicates Thelowertheratio, to radialshrinkage. tangential between thetwotypesof the lessthedifferential andthemorestablethewood.Species shrinkage (i.4) and likemahogany lowratios, withrelatively to warping than teak(1.8),arelesssusceptible suchasbeech(2.2). woods withhigherratios,

SPECIES

(%) TANGENTIAL

(%) RADIAL

T/RRATIO

7.8

4.9

1.6

9.3 11.9 6.4 4.9

6.6 5.5

1.4 2.2

3.4 2.5 2.8 2.4

1.9 2.0 2.I

3.7 5.0 4.2

1.9 1.6

Ash,White American Basswood, Beech, American Butternut Cata Ipa yellow Cedar, Alaska Western red Cedar, Cherry, black Douglas-f ir Elm,American Hackberry Hickory, shagbark Holly,American Madrone Honduras Mahogany, Maple, sugar 0ak,red Oak,white Persimmon Pine,Eastern white Pine,ponderosa Sassafras American Sycamore, Teak Walnut, black Willow, black

82

6.0 5.0

7.r 7.8 9.5 8.9 10.5

2.r

2.5

1.9

4.8 7.0 4.8

1.5 2.1

5.6

z-z

9.9 8.6

4.8 4.0

2.r 2.r

10.5 II.2 6.1

5.6 7.9 2.7

1.9 1..4 2.9

6.2

3.9 4.0 5.0

1.6 1.6

9.9 12.4 5.1

8.4 4.0

1.4

t.6

5.5

I.7 1.8 7.4

8.7

3.3

2.6

z.t

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MEASURING THEMOISTURE CONTENT IN WOOD

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ill'lllf"llf lfil'1ll-fl1-lllf-lll'llf' III"lIIfll-fll-fiI" ill llll"ffilll 5HO?Tt? Reading moist ure aontent in thick stock Themelal pinson commercialreeisIance-Iy?e moielure melero are lypicallyabouL1 inchlong.9inceLhepine ehouldideally : :: reachlhe middleof a boardwhen .: takinq a readinq,theyLend Nobe inadequatefor slocklhat ie thickerlhan 2 inches.You can exNend Lhereachof lhe pineby drivin7Iwofiniohingnailo into the woodunLilIhe Lipe reachthe middleand Lhe headsproNrudetrom Ihe eurface.Thentouch Lhe meLer pineLo the nailheadsand t akea readina.

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Usinga resistance-type moisture meter Todetermine themoisture content of yourstock,usea moisture meter.Set thestockon a worksurface andpush themetalpinsontheendof themeter intothefaceof theboardasfarasthey willgo.Twistthedialontopof thebarreluntilthelightturnsonandtakea (above). reading points Repeat at several andaverage theresults. Alternatively, crosscut theboard12 inches fromeither endandtakea reading fromthefreshly cut end grain(photo,page79). MosI meters arecalibrated forwoodat room temperature-about 68' F. Follow the manufacturer's instructions to adjust yourresultsif youareworking in temperatures significantly above or below thislevel.


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KIU{ sotAR

glassparis,suchasusedpatio reusing youmaywish Thekilnshownbelow,witha roofand doorsorstormwindows, glass,provides to basethesizeof the kilnandits frontwallof tempered theday, framing a natural dryingcycle.During onthedimensions of therecythewooddries; warmed bysunlight, Thekilnshownbelow cledmaterial. in thewetter at night,the moisture is 5 feetwide,16 feet andopposite towardboard longandabout8 feethigh. coreof thestockmigrates forthekiln, Choose a sunnylocation moreevendrying. ensuring surfaces, gravandspread thenlevelthesurface to the Buildthekilnaccording blocksat 2- to el overit. Layconcrete amountof woodyouplanto dryandthe then 3-footintervals asa foundation. lf youare spaceyouhaveavailable.

builda baseframeof pressure-treated 4-by-4sontopof the blocks.Therest of the framingandraftersareconwith2-by-4stock;thefloor, structed wallsanddooraremadeof 3/+-inch plywood. exterior-grade 0ncethe baseframeis in place, nailtheflooron topof it, thenconstructa studwallframefor thefront of the kiln.Cutthestudsto length andnaila soleolateto theirbottom

FRONT VIEW

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t

Topplate

Faecia board

Lumberaupport

Glaea atop Concreteblock

Baee frame 1ole plaLe

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I

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endsanda top plateat theirtopends, Recess thefrontedgesof thestuds aboulVt inchfromthe frontedgeof the platesto provide a ledgeforthe glasspanels. Makethegapbetween thecenterof thestudseoualto the widthof the panels, spacing themno morethan4 feetapart.Setthewall frameupright andnailthesoleplate to thefloorandbaseframe.Repeat theorocedure to makeandattachwall framesforthe backandsidesof the kiln,thistimewithoutoffsetting the studsfromthe plates.Cutthestuds forthesidewallssothatthe roofwill h a v ea 4 - i n - 1 2s l o p e( 4 i n c h e so f

risefor every12 horizontal inches). Cutthe roofraftersto allowa few inches of overhang at thefrontand back,thennailtherafters to thetop plates,spacing themto fit theglass panelsto be installed on the roof. Tackfasciaboards to bothendsof therafters, leaving a smalllip above thetopedgesof theraftersto holdthe roofpanels. Cover theopening between thefasciaandthebackwallwitha 1-by-4boardasa soffit.0n thefront of the kiln.thissoaceshouldbe left ooen.Nextnailthewallsto theoutsideedgesof thestudson the back andoneside,installing hinges and

85

hasolockson onesidewallto convert it intoa door. To installtheglasspanels onthe roof,setthemon adjacentrafters, leaving amplespacebetween the panelsfor screws. Thenfastendownl-by3 woodstripsthatoverlap the edges of the panels to holdthemin place. Toaccommodate theglasspanelsin thefrontwallof thekiln,cut notches in the bottomedgesof the rafters, t h e ns l i d et h e p a n e l us p i n t ot h e notch,resting the bottomof the panelsonthesoleplateledge. Screw1by-3woodblocksto thefrontedgeof thesoleplateto support themiddle of eachglasspanel. Tokeeptheairin thekilncirculating,fastena pieceof plywood as a baffleto twoadjacent studson the backwall,leaving anopening between thebaffleandthetopof thestudsfor airto enter.At floorlevel,construct a frameonthefrontof the bafflefor an exhaust fan.Thefanwillpullwarmair downthrough thebaffleandcirculate it through thekiln.Install theswitch forthefanonthe baffle,alongwitha thermostat to startthefanwhenthe airtemoerature reaches 80"Fanda timerto turnthefanoff at night. To keeothe lumberstackoff the pieces floor,naildown2-by-2support spaced about16 inches apart.Pile thelumber asyouwouldforair-drying, leaving adequate spacebetween adjacentboards andseparating the layers of stockwith1-by-2stickers. lf youcannot supply electricity to the kiln,leaveadditional spacebetween the boards to ensure adequate aircirculation. Drying of thewoodmaytake several months; usea moisture meter (page83)tocheckonthe lumber's periodical moisture content ly.


ESTIMATINGWOOD MOVEMENT J J nlesyouplanto buildallyourfur\-/ niturefrommanufactured boards you andplywood, suchasparticleboard shouldexpectthewoodyouworkwith Thisshould to swellandshrinkslightly. not causeanyproblems aslongasyou for thechange compensate of dimensionswhenyoubuildyourpiece. A goodfirststepis to measure the moisturecontentof thelumber(page how muchthis 83).Thendetermine moisturelevelwill change asrelative humidityfluctuates in ttrelocationwhere the finishedpieceof furniturewill beplaced(page81).Finally,try to estimatetheamountof woodmovement thatwill occurasa resultof thewood's A thin lineof unfinishedwoodis a telhalesignof woodmovementin this photographofpart of a frame-and-panel closeup moisturecontent. Asa ruleof door.After thefinish changing lumberwill move wasapplied,the humidity levelin the roomwherethecabinetwas thumb,plain-sawn 0.04inchperfootofwidthforeveryper- storedgraduallydropped,causingthe woodto contract.A similar in a carcase in itsmoisture The amountof movement construction mighthavethreatened centchange content. woodis.025inch. thepiece'sstructuralintegrity.Theframe-and-paneldesign,however, valueforquartersawn (Thedifference allowsfor wood'snaturalswellingandshrinking.ThepanelJloats inside between thetwogivesa goodindicationof whycabinetmakers afixedframewith roomfor % inchof movementhorizontally. choosequartersawn overplain-sawn lumberwhentheywantto limit wood youuse movement.) If, for example, plain-sawn whitepinewith anequilibrium moisturecontentof 12percent in summerwhichdriesto an EMCof 8 percentin winter,youcancounton as inwidth muchas0.16inchofmovement M akin6 a m oiet"ure indiaalo r per foot betweenthe two seasons. Keepthio moiolureqauqein your ehoVae a reminderof the in lengtharenegligible Changes enough relationehipbelweenhumidityand woodmovemenl,To make to bediscounted. the qauqe,'cuN a

1HO?Tt?

len7bhof wood from Nheend of a alued-uooanel.or bonda tew wood blockeNoqelher edqe-to-edqe. Nail a melal oointerto oneendof lhie arm, then altachbhe arm'eotherendto a pieceof plywood.Drivea screwthrough the pivot,holeof rhe pointerinlo lhe plywoodeo lhat the poinlerio parallelio Lhe end of the arm. Leavethe ecrewlooeeenouahto allowthe As Ihe relativehumidityflitctuaVesand lhe pointerto pivof,. arm swellsor shrinks,lhepoinberwillewivelto eilher side. f

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AIR.DRYINGWOOD

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"l- h. illustrations wood,betweendifferentlayersof stock on page88show vent fungi from causingblue stain.It lum- will also help guaranteea minimal exposes I wo simplewaysto stackgreen the top andbottom surfacesof properdrying.Asshown amount of warping of the boards. the boardsto the sameflow of air. berto ensure Lumbercanbe air-driedindoorsor in thechartbelow,dryingtimesvary Placingstickers,or narrow strips of outdoors, but for bestresults, for differentwoods.To avoid youshouldstarttheprocess of differentbatches outconfusing sideor in anunheated wood.markthe endsof each building likea barnor garage. In a heatboardwith thespecies andthe it. It is alsoa ed indoor location,where dateyoustacked goodideato treattheendsofthe humidityis typicallylow and temperatures boardswith animpervious coatarehigh, green woodmaydrytoorapidly,which ing suchashot paraffinwax, promotes varnish, dilutedglueor a comchecking. Outdoors, mercialendsealer. Otherwise, thelumbershouldbecovered with a sheetof plywoodto the endsof boardsmay dry more quicklythan adjoining serveasprotection fromtheelements.Asthewooddries,check checks to form surfaces, causing itsmoisturecontentperiodicalin thewood.Ifyou areworking ly with a meter,keepingnotes withlogs,coating theirendswill for futurereference. increase theamountof usable Wooddestined for outdoor lumberthelogswill yieldby as useneedonlybedriedoutside. muchas20oercent. Forindoorfurniture,thewood Whateveithe sizeor location shouldcompleteits drying of yourdryingstack,air must Logsfor carving can be storedin a pile one atop the inside,preferably circulateevenlyaroundall the at a humidiother,provided their endsare not in contact.The ends ty levelsimilarto that in the surfaces of thestock.Thiswill should be coatedwith a sealer,however,soonafter the locationwherethe furniture ensure thatthesurfaces ofthe logsare bucked to ensureeven drying of the wood. will eventually beused. boardsstaydry enoughto pre-

W(l(lDS APPROXIMATE DRYING TIMESF(lRVARIOUS HARDWOODS DAYS

s0nwo0Ds DAYS

Ash,white Basswood, American

60-200 40-150

Douglas-f ir Hemlock

Beech, American

70-200

Pine, Eastern white Pine,sugar

Butternut

60-200 70-200 50-150 60-200 50-200 70-200 30-150

Cherry, black gray Elm, Hickory Maple, sugar Oak,red

Redwood red Spruce,

20-200 60-200 60-200 15-200 60-365 30-120

Sycamore, American black 70-200 Walnut,

87

Thesechartsindicate thedryingtimefor greenboards a stackof 1-inch-thick outThelowendof therangeforeach doors. is for lumberstacked species in springor summer-prime drying weather. Thehigh endis for lumber stacked in autumnor winter. Thefigures assume thatthelumb e ri s d r i e di n a r e g i o w n i t ha c l i m a t e similar to thatwhere thewoodwascut.


DRYING AND STORINGWOOD

t t t I I I t I t

TW()OPTIONS FORAIR-DRYING LUMBER

t t

Toair-dry a largequantity of lumber, startyourstackwithtwo4rowof stickers withplywood, topped witha pairof concrete blocks by-4supports equalin lenghto theboards pressure to bedried(above). to applyuniform onthestackandprotect it fromrain. Restthesupports onconcrete blocks. Thenplace4-by-4bolsters Stack quantrties smaller of lumber in support frames madefrom (below). yourlum- fourpieces at 3-footintervals across thesupports. Beginstacking of 2-by-4stocknailed together Builda frame berat rightangles to thebolsters, leaving a spacebetween each for eachendof thestackandonefor every3 feetof board pieceequalto theboardthickness, Separate eachlayer witha 1- lengh. Theframes should beslightly widerandhigher thanthe by-2sticker as longasthewidthof thestack; cutthestickers stack.Arrange theboards asyouwouldfora larger stack,sepafromdryheartwood. Thinner stickers willslowthedrying timefor ratingeachlayer withstickers. Space thestickers at 18-inch difficult likewhiteoak.Alignthestickers species withthebol- intervals, aligning onewitheachframeandalsocentering them sters;if youaredrying thinstock,placethebolsters andstickers between theframes. Tokeepthestackpressed downfirmly,insert closer together to prevent thewoodfromwarping. Cover thetop wedges tightlybetween theframes andthetoprowof stickers.

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hetheryou wishto storelumber,manufactured boards, dow"shorts"-all elsor thoseodd-sized pieces youcannotaffordto tossoutyou shouldfind a storage optionto suityourneedson thepages thatfollow.Thedimensions providedin the illustrationsare given strictly as guidelines. Eachdesigncanbeadaptedto anysituation. Theonlydesign youcannot element skimpon is adequate supportfor the rack.A dozenl0-foot-long planks of6l+ whiteoakcanweighasmuchas400 pounds. Racksupports shouldbesecured directlyto wallstudsor to thejoistsabove theceilingatnomorethan40-inchintervals.In mosthomeswith 16-inchoncenterframing,thismeanstyinginto evervotherstudor ioist.If thewallsand

ceilingof yourshoparefinished, usea studfinderto locatetheseframingmembers.Someracla,likethecantilever tlpe shownon page91,mayneedfootings, joistsupports or both. If space isatapremiumin yourworkshop,youneedto consider thedesign andplacement ofyourwoodstorage systemcarefully. Theend-loading typeof

Commerciallumberracksareavailablein varioussizesand canbeadjusted to dffirent heigh*. Thetypeshown canbescrewed to a concrete wall or to wall studs.Four brackets will hold morethanonetonof lumber.

'fil-ffi"ill'llf"'ul"'III".lll""lIl" lll*IIf

t

1HO?TI?

I

Storing wood to preaerveits moieture aonient lf you are in the middleof a project and haveNoleaveitrtor a couVleof weekeyou may find Vrobleme onceyou return,A changein humidity-a suddenperiodof humidwealher,for examplemaycauoetrhewoodto ewellor shrink.You can eolvethe problemby etoringLhewoodin a plaetic qarbaqebaqor in vinyl,oealingany loooeendewith trape. WrappingNheboardwillkeepNhemoislurecontent of lhe woodconelant,prevenlinq any dimenoional chanqee,

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rackusedatmostlumberyards isimpracticalforstoringlongstockin mosthome shops. Youarefarbetteroffwithafrontloadingsystem, whichmakes it easier to loadup newmaterial andto shiftwood aroundto findtheparticular plankyou want.Avoidusingtriangular-shaped brackets to supportlumber;theywaste preclous space.


DRYING AND STORINGWOOD

A TRIO(lFTUMBER RACKS rack Building a pipestorage Thestorage rackillustrated at leftfeatures vertical supports boltedto wall three-piece buttress thesteelpipes, studs.Thesupports whichcarrythelumber. Youwillneedone at eachendof therack,withan support oneevery 32lo 48 inches along additional thewall.Use2-by-6 stockforthemiddle forthe stripsof thesupports and2-by-4s sidepieces; thesteelpipes should beroughly 20 inches longwitha 1 inchinternal diameter. Markcuttinglinesontheedges of themiddlestripsat eachpointwhere youwantto locatea pipebracket. Make in thesamehorizonsureall the brackets Sawthe tal rowwillbeat thesameheight. middlestripsforthebrackets, angling the cutsbyabout3" above thehorizontal so the pipeswilI tilt up slightly(below) to prevent thelumber fromsliding off. Once a l lt h em i d d l set r i p a s r ec u t ,n a i o l nt h e sidepieces, formingbrackets withevenly notches forthepipesupports. Bore spaced pilotholes intothewall at 24-inchintervals holes through the studsanddrillclearance supports for%-inchlagbolts.Secure the vertrcal brackets to thestudswithboltsthat penetrate 2 inches intothewall,thenslip thepipesintotheirnotches.

90

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DRYING AND STORINGWOOD

13/+"x51/2"x

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Making a cantilevered storage rack Therackshownaboveandat rightis anchored to thejoistsin theceiling to keepit fromtoppling forward. Marklines onyourworkshop floordirectly undereach joist.Toprovide a sturdybasefortheposts, nailshortlengths of 2-by-6to theflooras footings, centered on themarked lines. Use4-by-4s fortheposts, thencuta joist anchor foreachpostandasmanyarms asyouneedfrom2-by-6stock.Anglethe topedgeof thearmsslightly to tilt the lumber in toward thewall.Cuta mortise atthetopof eachpostforthejoistanchors, pointalongthepost's andat every front edgewhereyouwantto locatean arm. M a k es u r ea l lt h em o r t i s ei n s t h es a m e horizontal rowareat thesameheight. Cut tenons at theendsof thejoistanchors andarms,thenboreholesthrough the sideof the postsfor 3/q-inch dowels: two joist holesforeacharmandoneforevery a n c h o rI .n s e rtth et e n o n a s n dt a ot h e dowels in place.Toe-nail thepoststo the footings. Boreclearance holesthrough theanchors andpilotholesintothejoists forcarriage bolts,thensecure theanchors (above). in position

Arma 13/+"x 51/2"x 20"

9I


DRYING AND STORINGWOOD

rackto anunfinished wall Fastening a lumber-and-plywood of 2-by-4stock,is attached to exposed Therackshownbelow,madeentirely joists.Lumber canbepiledonthearms, whileplywood wallstudsandceiling Youwillneedat least8% feet isstacked onedgeagainst thesupport brackets. panels. Begin at oneendof therackto beableto slidein plywood offreespace themto thestuds(nghf). brackets andscrewing bycuttingthetriangular-shaped andnailthemto theshopfloor. Cutthefootings, slipthemunder thebrackets theirendsto thefootings andthe Next,sawtheuprights to length andtoe-nail joists.Cutasmanyarmsasyouneed,aligning thefirstrowwiththetapered thearmsto thestuds endof thesupport brackets. Usecarriage boltsto fasten Therackinthe making surethearmsin thesamerowarelevel. anduprights, features armssoaced at 18-inch intervals. illustration

9upport bracket 11/2"x31/2"x41./z'

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Footinq 11/2"x31/z"xB"

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PLYWOOD RACKS

Leq 11/2"x31/2"x36"

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11/2"x31/2"x36"

rllllmillllllliltlfillullillttlllI]t]llltllltfiIlllllI]l1 ilullllillt 5HO?TI? Holdingplywoodpanelo a4ainet a wall Treventplywoodpanele etackedon edqeaqainel a wallfrom fallinqover wiNhsomeropeand a Vairof windoweash weiqh|o.)eNtwo20inch-lonq 2-by-4eon the floor in fronLof Ihe wall. Thenecrewlwo eye hookeinto wallebudeabouN 41/zfeet,abovethe floor.Cut,two 7-foot lenqlhoof rope,and Nieoneend o f e a c h N oa h o o ka n d t h e o N h eer n d l o a weiqhtwrapVed in pipeinsulation. eland NheVanels on lhe 2-by-4oand leanthem aqainoN the wall. OraVethe weiqhlooverNheplywoodto keepIhem in Vlace.

N

plywood Making a freestanding rack Therackshownabove canholdplywoodpanels onedgewithout anywall support. Cutthebases andlegsfrom 2-by-4stockandnailthepieces together.Toreinforce therack,nailtriangularbraces plywood of t/z-inch to the outside legsandthebases; usesolid lumber braces to support thelegsin themiddle row.Toconnect thethree setsof legs,cut railsfrom1-by-4s and nailthemin place: onehalfway upthe legsandanother at thetopof thelegs. youcanslipthe Setuptherackwhere panels in andoutend-f irst.


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DRYING AND STORINGWOOD

Furrtnqetdp 3/+"x21/2"x5'

plywood rack Building a vertical plywood storage, stacking Forlong-term from thepanels onendnotonlykeeps precious shopf loor warping; it alsosaves space. Therackshownat rightis built rodsand fromfurringstrips,threaded twofurring wingnuts.Startbyscrewing stripsto thestudsof onewall,2 and5 feetfromthefloor.Thenscrewtworods 4t/zfeelapartintothetopstrip.Cuta stripandborea holethrough thirdfurrrng it 2 inches fromoneendandsawa notch oI 4VzfeeI.Bothopenings at an interval beslightly larger thanthediameshould terof therods.Placetwowoodpadson therodsandstackthe thefloorbetween plywood upright onthem.Place sheets theface thethirdfurringstripacross slipptng onerodthrough ofthelastpanel, theholeandtheotherintotheslot.Slide washers andwingnutsontotherodsand thefurring strip tighten them,pulling (inseD. fo tightlyagainst the plywood remove a sheetfromthestack,loosen strip thewingnutsandswing thefurring downandoutof thewav.

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Woodpad 3/+"x31/2"x12"

illrlllllll lllllll lIllll llllilllilllfillllllllllllltlltllflllltill] 1HO?TI? Atemporary plywoodpallet, ForehorN-Nerm etoraqe . few eheeLe of ply' of a wood,makea palleLfrom four ueedcar Lires,Tlacea Lire at eachcornerof a 4-by-B-foot area;sNacklheplywoodsheels on top.lhe LireswillkeepNheeheete leveland elevaledaboveanv moieLure on Ihe floor.Do noNeLackanyLhinqon top of the eheeLe:Lhe addiLional weigh|maycau6eNhemNobend.

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DRYING AND STORINGWOOD

STORING DOWELS Wrapping dowels withrope Dowels tendto rollaroundwhentheyarestoredflat.Stacking themupright is a better alternative, butthentheproblem is to keepthemfromsliding downorfalling over. 0neanswer isto loop themtogetherwith a lenghof rope, asshownat left.Drilla hole t h r o u gah p a i n ct a nj u s tb e l o w t h er i ma n dt i e o n ee n do f t h e ropeto it; forma loopat theotherend.Drive a column of nails, spaced a fewinches apart,intoa wallstuda fewfeetabove the c a n .S t a n dt h ed o w e l isn t h ec a na n dl o o pt h e r o p ea r o u n d t h e mt w i c e .P u l lt h ec o r dt i g h ta n dh o o kt h e l o o p e ed n do n o n eo f t h e n a i l st h a ta l l o w tsh er o p et o h a n gt a u t .M o v e the loopup ordownasthesizeof thedowelbundlechanges.

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Storing dowels intheceiling joistsin a shopceilingareoften Thegapsbetween exposed considered wasted space, butyoucanmakegooduseof them to holddowels. Screwa coupleof 1-by-3furringstripsacross thebottomof thejoistsandthenrestthestockontopof strips. Thismethod is particularly useful forlongdowels, whichcan cluttera workshoo.

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a rackwitha mobile base Constructing jumbled pile in a a wood Sorting through piece for a of short corner of theshop stockof therightsizecanbefrustrating. shortpieces Therackshownat rightstores is The bottom section according to size. pieces ideal for storing a boxwithdividers, of plywood; theboxis madewith%-inch plywood, whilethe dividers aret/q-inch plywood. Thetopsection, builtfrom%plywood, consists of a backpanel, inch sidesandr/q"plywood triangular-shaped according to thediameter shelves spaced youplacebetween them. of thecontainers S-gallon cans Therackshownfeatures belowthe bottomshelfandplastictubes Keep of varying sizes ontheothershelves. Cut shortstockin thecansandtubing. cutouts nearthetopof thesides triangular flat.Tomaketherackmobile, to holddowels fastenit to a shop-built dollywithcasters (below). to the Cuta pieceof plywood asthebase oftherack, samedimensions to oneside.Attach thenscrewcornerblocks a heavy-duty casterto eachcornerblock.

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DRYINGAND STORINGWOOD

M a k i n ga c o m b i n a t i o wno r k b e n c h andshort-cut bin I n a w o r k s h ow p i t h l i m i t e ds p a c e , b u i l da w o r kt a b l ew i t h s h o r t - c u t s t o r a g sep a c eu n d e r n e a t hs ,u c ha s t h e o n e s h o w na t r i g h t .C u t 2 - b y - 4 s t o l e n g t hf o r t h e l e g s ;s u p p o rtth e m w i t h 2 - b y - 4b r a c e s - o n es e t n a i l e d a f e w i n c h e sa b o v et h e f l o o ra n d a s e c o n ds e t a t t a c h e d f l u s hw i t h t h e t o p o f t h e l e g s .C u t t h e t o p a n d t w o " l y w o o dt,h e n n a i l s h e l v e sf r o m3 / q p t h e mt o t h e b r a c e sS . a wn o t c h e s o u t o f t h e c o r n e r so f t h e s h e l v e tso f i t a r o u n dt h e l e g s .M a k ed i v i d e r s f r o m r / qi n c h p l y w o o da n d a t t a c h thembetween t h e s h e l v e su s i n g q u a r t e r - r o um n do l d i n g s t r i p sn a i l e d i n t ot h e s h e l v e s .

Front brace 11/z"x5t/2"x36"

Stacking stockbetween wallstuds Storeshortstockbetween thestuds o f a nu n if n i s h esdh o pw a l l T . ok e e p thewoodfromfallingover,screw springclipsto thestudsandinsert d o w e lisn t ot h ec l i p st o s p a nt h e gapsbetween adjacent studs(/eftl. To standshorter lengths of stock h i g h eur p o nt h ew a l l c, u ts h e l v e s andsupport cleatsfromscrapwood. Screw thecleatsto thestudsand resttheshelves ontopof them.

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WOOD DIRE,CTORY for more landscape . reeshaveformeda partof theEarth's i',, than 300nillion vears- sincebeforedinosaursfirst a rernarkroamedtheulanet.in thattimetheyhavedeveloped nurrberingtnolethan i,000varieties ablediversityof species, in theUnitedStates alone.Tieescomein manysizesandshapes, fiorn thestuntedspruces of northernCanadato thesublime, Wood'sdiversiti' giantsequoias. torveringstandsof California's is alsoapparentin thewidearrayof colorsandgrainpatterns from thebold vermiiionhueof to theu'oodworker, available padaukancltheinlyblaci<ness of ebonyto theintricate,swirling designs of rvalnutburl. of woodshownin thisdirectorywerechoThe 78 species foremost of thecabinetmaker senn ith theneedsandinterests woodsarehere-species in rnind.The basiccabinetmaking suchasoak,pine,cherryandash.Buttherearealsoa number to ziricote. of lessfamiliarexoticwoodstoo,from afrormosia Someyou mayhaveonly readabout;othersyou maybe seeing for thefirst time.In eithercase,thephotosandinformain your upcoming tion may inspireyou to nervadventures woodworkingprojects. accordingto a The directoryis arrangedalphabetically a woodmay wood'smostcommonlyusedname.Sometimes beknown by severalllames;to avoidconfusionyou mayneed to usethe botanicalnamewhenbuyinga particularspecies ("spp."indicatesthat the wood comesfrom severalspecies belongingto that genus).Thewoodsin thischapterwerephotographedwith a clearlacquerfinishto highlighttheir colorand figure.For this reason-and becauseof the inevitablevariationswithin species-theunfinishedwood that you buy may look somewhatdifferent. Hardwoodsareindicatedwith an (H); softwoodswith an (S). However,do not takethe termstoo literally.Somesoftwoods areactuailyharderthansomehardwoods.For moreinformation on the differences betweenthe two groups,seepage24. Theworkabilitycategorygivesinformationaboutthe ease or difficulty of workingrvith a particularwood.Somespecies maybetoughto planeunlessyou reducetheangleof theblade, while othersmayrequireyou to pre-borefor nailing.

costperboarclfbot-rvhiclr Ratherthanprovidingtrspecific canfluctuate-foreachrvood,priceislistedon a relatit'escale, thc priciertvoodsare to expensive. Usuallv, from inexpensive chosenfor a specialpartof a pieceof funtiturc.\btr nrisht pull, for exalnple, to makea tlt'atvt'r a pieceof cocobolo, select touchto a chailleg. or an inlayofebonyto adda decorative in North All thewoodsshownarecommercial\'available you cirnnotfind iocally,checkrvooc'lAmerica;for species Howeter,soure ivorkingmagazines fbr nrail-order sources. rare,anda tbrvtropicalharclincreasingly species arebecoming is lvoodsarein dangerof extinction.Iradein matty'sPecics oftetr restricted,and for this reason,woodrvorliers severely mustseekalternatives to usingtraditionalu,oods.Fortunatcll', therearemany,andtheirnumberis growing.Somehavelong pauferro,for exampie, rvhichisstrikingll'sirnbeenavailable: Braziiianroservood. Othersilar to the costly,endangered "good with a vietvto woods,"grorvnandharr,ested so-called growth-are recentarrivalsin conservation and sustainable importedprispecies, North America.Theselesser-known originatc marilyfrom CentraiandSouthAmericaat present, from sourcesthat aremonitoredin orderto be certifiecias in thisdirecwell-managed. Fourof thesewoodsarefbatLrred chactacote, chontaquiro amarilloandtornillo.(You tory:bayo, canlearnmore aboutthesewoodsand rvhereto buy them Alliancefor RainforestProtectioir throughtheWoodrvorkers Alliancein NervYork;or in CoosBay,Oregon;theRainforest in Oaldand,California.) Scientific Certification Systems Youmaywantto avoidtheproblernsof scarcitybybuilding then your projectswith more plentifulwoodsor pl1nvood, Anotheralternative is coveringthemrvitha beautifulveneer. wood,scavenged from old buildings,shippingcrates rec,vcled or pallets.With effort and imaginationyou can transform manyworkadayitemsinto handsomepieces. This symbolindicatesa species that in at leastoneof is rare or endangered thecountrieswhereit is harvested.

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',vaenoe:ecLtr'q +"h;,:t t,mber. Other Names: I o:a 17;;irtit i ::t:.tit ;.,r::'. :1,.i,.,,i..: i -rr,i | /',,nqca): lliaeriar,r;:l;:r Lll.i... l; nili2 I.i-..;,;..4; t; "ri....,r.:ir.,i rnantbc r: ( I'tiler:: ). ?ource: Troptca \t"ieel,ltir ca. t;,','.,1i 1;; i.f i:1'1:1 Characterietice: 5tr ai4itt ia a ) r"r. a',ntl qratn:moderat.ei,1 finei.a'tt,t.)ra: ...:i trr:r:.j\', ti.-r,,,N.,r1'1.1'l a V t n ll.: t L . Uaes: i-:Lrniltre.,lL)raiaq,? :lrooa, l;it:i: I; : l.:lil'rrl. rr :rl.rlf rlr. pare tnr4and occaairlna '! ror \t',ttrt-.r:t'::. W o r k a b i l i t yO : e n e r a l l , lr , e r yd o o ) : : : ti q ' r ' , | L r r t r r . , lril lo'n Denitna pro2erlter,: aJftl t',!{,'arar..J ittr! al.1l',er5', aarae aeN bladeaL.obntr.t. Finiehing:l\c,:;eg-'"z fintel.,ee we.i,l trltet i tt:t1. Weight: 32 1v.lc'1. f-v. ?rice: l,/oderaf,e.

qrain: moder' lo tl.t:rloc',F.t:d ovtn,c)arKart-"oa rich qci)aen boa*' btl C nq. caDi-

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\A/OOI)DIITECTORY

ALDER,RED

AMBURANA

(H)

(H) 6ot anical Namer Lm b ura na c. a r. n.ii. KelaLt'telyalranqfcr tLe v,teqf,. amo,Lrarta:s a qr::::t) c h o t c ef o r l o i n e r y .l L e i r r e q u l a ra r a n E . r a y e 2 r c l t o e -rrat)aa a L L r a c l i v ev e n e e ( a .T o a n Am a i r ' y : r - , " h e , cr',\ reqione of SouLh An:enca.the NreeeciLer',.otver':.t: 1 a a f e e t . I h e v t o o dc a n p t a t e L i e e e n e e ew t l l : a n c a , : r o f v a n i Ja . Other Namea Cerejeira,.uffiare. cumart. rajada ( 3 r a z i ) : r o b l ed e l p a t e .V a l ol r e b o ( , A r 4 e n t i n a l ' . i e h p i n E(o7 e r u ) . 9ources: Cenlra and SauLh /tmer'tca. Characterislice: lnteriockecand irreqt)ar qrain: rqettt r, -vexture:ye)iow*vo ta coaroe pale brownw)Ll a eJb::,e: ex2ceure. oranqe r.inr.,darkeninqeiiqhLlyv'ti",h Uses: FurniLure.joinery,boal butdinq ani var,aero. Workability:GooA;aulla culti.q edqeo nod,erately. r e d u c ec u L L i n qa n q l eo f b l a d ew h e np l a n i n 4i r r e 4 t l a r qrain; ?re-borefor nailinq:moderaLebendinqprogert'iee. Finiohing:t',ccepteftnieheewellwhenii )ed.. Weight 37 \b.lcu.ft. ?ricet Moderale.

bolanical Name: ,r',iiti'srtibra ?..eaa der ie eao'1-,a cfv o.a iL LakeEfinieheevery we)|, e e 2 e c i ay i f a , t , a e hc o e L o l r . a t n n . de A e a c i e a p V i e d b e i o r ea i a i n i n q .T h i ev t c o dc a n b e o f e i q n i f i c a n vL a l a ei n \,taca\Narki.q. ite re atrivelynodeel repuT,ation. despir-,e z-vertaelective alder eAcaldnoL be geqqedlor lirewood. ) e f e c L z .a l c i a e b u d e a n d e l a i n s , c a n p r o d t c e b e a t f i ' ft ,ig.n"rru. Other Names:\"leer"erna1der,areqon a der. 9ource; Tacfic CoaeLof Nor"thAnter'tca. Cha r a cle rieti c e : G ene r aily eLraiqht' qr ai n; fi ne, eve n lexltiret paieye:iovtLo readieh-brown. r niLur e. c arvinq, plywood and veneere. Ue es: I ur nin,2,f ',-t Workability:Generaly qood: reduce bladeanqle when p)anrrqLo prevenl LearouL:only oliqht bluntinqof cuL' r er-.. 'ot b.r d r q ?-o?e-! e4. Finishing: l,c c epLefi niehee vtell, WeighhSS b,lca.tr.. ?rice: lnexgeneive.

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ASH,BLACK

ASH,WHITE,

(H) bolanical Name: Fraxtnuentqra OiLen k.nownaa ewall? ar waLera",h,blackaeh qrov'te mainiy tn lhe wellande of eaeNernl')orth America.Ae +,.1esolLeat y',mericanaeh, it, te more ik.e1y Lo be lound i n i n t e r i o r1 on e r ga n d c a b t n e L w o r k t h a n i n e p o r L ee q u i p m e n L ,w h e r ev , r h t t a, eo h i o c o m m o n ) yu s e d . l t a l e o h a e a eiqniltcan"v hieLoryae a weavinqwood for many Lygeeol b a e l . e L e . 3 1 a caks h ' a r a L a r yc J t a n d e l i c e dv e n e e r za r e hiqhrydecoraLiveand much oouqhtrafler. Other Namee; 3r own aeh, hoog aoh, owamp aeh, waLer ' - ' . ' o - ?e ' n b r o n na o \ . 1ources: l,).3.4,. and Canada. Characteristics: 1LraiqhL qrain: coaree,eventext ure: dark, qrayieh brown. Uees: )oinery, cabiner.work, glywoodand,veneere. Workability:Generallyqood; blun|e cultero moderaNely: .,cel er beadi"q 2-o2ertiee. FinishingA : c c e p t e f i n i a h e sw e 1 l . tNeight:35 lb./cu.fL. ?rice: lnexpeneive.

(H) 9otanical Name: Fraxinue amencana V ' l h i t ea e h c a n b e c o n o i d e r e dL h e a l -f , m e r i c a nJ e i e t r c wood.SLronq and very ehock-reaielanf,it. le ueed Lo make oare, pool cuee and baaebaI bala. lt ie a eo Lhe wood of choicefor qarden-I.oolhandles,aeed exten"tivey in boaLbuildinq a n d ,c u t i n L o d e c o r a t i v e v e n e e r 6t . o f L e n hae a hiqhlyvarieqated hearfwood,k.nowna., olivea""h o r c a ) c oa o n . Other Nameei A\rnericanwhiLeaah, Canadianael . A m e r i c a na e h , Souraes: Canada and U.3.A. Characterielicat 3lr aiqhL qr ain; coa rae LexLure: liqh-vbrown hearLwoodwilh almoeL white eapwood. Usea Saeeballbats, pool cuee,oare, f,oolhand ee, boat. q , f u r n i X uer a nd ve nee re . bu i d l ,in Wo rkability : 3 aLiof a cLo ry : mod,er aLe b)u nti nq of c ut Lero:excellenlbendinqproperLieo;pre-borefor nailinT. Weight: 42lb./cu. ft. Trice: Inexpeneive.

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AVODIRE, N (H)

BALSA

9otanical Name:TurreanLhue afr tcanua Considered t's beoneof Lheworld'sbeoLqualitybloni wooda,avodirdrarelyie available in lar7equant"iLiee. II; normallycamegto North Americaae veneer, whichpoeoeoeeean aLi.racLive molLledoall,ern.LhaIie ueedin finecabinef,makinq and,Vanelinlq. Olher Names:African satinwood.Africanwhite mahogany, apeya(Ghana):apaya(Niqeria): enqan (Cameroon); lueamba(Zaire):aqbe(lvoryCoael):eeu (Conqo): AfricanfurniLurewood,olon, )ourcea WeeI and EquatorialAfrica. Characterialica:LighL,elronq wood;mainlyebraighL grainbuLcan bewavyor inLerlocked: mediumlo fineNext"ure;qoldenyellow. Uges:Cabinetwork, veneere,marquetryand plywood,. WorkabilitytFair:increaaebladeanglewhenVlaninqae qrainlende to causeLearout;Voorbending intrerlocked properrieo'.pre-boreI or nailinq. F i n i o h i n gO:e n ear l l yq ood . W e i g h t : 3 6 l b . l c uf r. . TricetExoeneive.

(H) 9otaniaal Name:Ochroma pyramtda le Saleahaethe ltghLeoL weiqhtof any commercially ueed hardwood,.Thie properLyhas madeiL a keyinqredient. of life rafLs and a widevariely of eafeLyand buoyancy ll.ln facL,thewordbalsameane devicea ainceWorld,War rafLinSpanish. A,lthouqh iria difficulltodry,onceiLaoeo it ie a relalively elableand sLronqwoodfor iLeweighL. Oiher Names:Guano(TuerloKico,I'ondurae): lanero ( C ua b ): po la k ( 3e l i z eN , ci a raq ua ) ' N , opa ( ?er u ): I a m i (Solivia). ?ources:Weer" lndiee,CentralAmerica,Lroeical7ouLh America(Ecuadoi. Charaal,erieticaz 7traiqht,qrain:fine,velvety t exture: whiteLo oaf,mealbrown wiLha pinkieh tint. Ueea:\/todelmakinq,toye, watere?orteequipment and proos, Nheaf,rical qood,Vrovidedbladeeare kept WorkabilitytExXremely veryeharV:willnot bendwithoutbucklinq: little blunlinq of culNers. Finiehing:Acceptefinieheawell:absorbsa qreaLquanNityof finiohingmalerial. Weightt 6-16 lb.lcr'.fL. TricetModerahe.

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BASSWOOD

BAYO

(H) 9olanical NametTtliaamencana hae beenconLiqhrweiqht and eaoyto work,basewood foremoeN for eideredoneof the world,'e carvinqwood,e c e n N u r i e e .cl a L nb e e h a p e dt o r e m a r k a bfl iyn ed e l a i l .l I ie odor-freeand hae beenused,exLeneively for d,omesLtc qood,e euchae kiLchen ulensiloandfoodconf,ainere. ie coneiAered for ouLd,oor Saeewool, uneutLable d,uLy becau"e i16e21116o poorly. linden,linn,limef,ree:American Olher Namea.A,merican l i r r e( U . K . ) . 5ourcea EaeternCanadaand U.9.4. Characberistics: Straiqhxqrain:finelerturei creamy whitedarkeninq lo creamybrown. toyo,pianokeya, Ueea:Turninq, carvinq,?attern making, match eplinto,boxeoand,cratee. WorkabilitytVery qood: blunf,scutLeroeliqhtly; poor bendinqproVerDiee, qoodwiLhall finishee. Finiohing: Generally W e i g h t t2 6 \ b . / c u . f L . ?rice:lnexpeneive (eliqhl;lyhtqherf or thick 12/+ kilnand 16/+ driedcarvinqefock).

(H) 9olanical Name:Aepidoepermac ruenLum A wondertd,eaey-workinq Limber,bayote a "lesoerhardwood in larqe knownepeciee" Lhaf,iEofLenavailable sizesand,someLimee cul inlo veneere. Noi orly aL|ractive, bayoio alooverydecay-reliotant. frelize,I onduras. 5ouraes:3 oubheaot Mexico, qrain', Charaaterislicot Slraight lo eliqhllyinterlockinq mediumLo fineLexLure: heartwood'. brownieh pink;eapwaod:creamwiNha Vinkioh bluehthroughouL. Lurninq, framinq,furniLureand,decoUsea Cabinebwork, raLiveveneere. Workability:Generallyqood:doeenoLLakenailEwell: good,bendingproperLiee. Finiohing:AccepLofinioheewell. Weighu37-46lb./cu.ft. ?ricetModerate.

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BEECH,AMERICAN

BIRCH,PAPER

(H) OotanicalNamerFaquaqrandifolta leavy, hardand eLronq,Americanbeechie uaedfor everythinq from floorinqLo woodenware. AlthouqhconeideredleosallracLivethan European beech,American b e e c hh a e2 r o m i n e nrtar y ea n dv i o i b ltei n y p o r e e , l ti a hiqhlyfiquredwhenquarlereawn. Other Name:1eech. 5ourceq EaeternU.3.A.and Canada. Characteristicot Straiqht qrain:fine,evenLexture; reddiehbrownLo liqhl brownhearLwood witrhalmoel whiLeeapwood. Ueee:7enlwoodfurniNure, turninq,handleeand cabineLmakin4. WorkabilifytSatiefactory: qoodwif,hmoettoole bu| may burnwhencroescutor drilled:may bindon aawe: excellenLturninqwood;excellenlbend,in q properLiee., hiqhohrinkaqe makesiL unelablein use, Finiohing: AccepLefiniaheewell. Weight:46lb.lcu.fL. ?ricetModerate.

(H) Dolanical NametDeLulapapyrifera 7aperbirchio a Louqh,heavywood,a)Lhouqh iI.ie eolLer Lhanolher birches.lIe barkwaeuaedby lr)ative Americane to faahionwigwame and canoeeeo thaL manypeop)e "canoe eLillreferLo it ae birch."Thewoodpoeeeeeea an atLracLive figure,and,ie aometimee elicedinto decoraT,tve veneere. Other Namea WhiLeblrch.eweeLbtrch.Americanbirch. 5ouraeszCanada,U.A.A. Charaaterietica: SLraiqhtgrain;finet exture:wide, pale-brown creamywhileeapwood: hearLwood. UeeetI urninq f or d,omeeIic ulensila, dowele, Loothpicke, eVoolo,bobbine,hooVoand,toye, plywoodand decoraf,ive veneerg. Workability:Generallyqood;moderatedullinqof cutfere:unueualcurlyqrairtmaypick.up in planinq; oatiefacNorybendinq properLiee. FiniehinqAcceptefinieheswell. WeighV39 lb./cu.fr. Trice:lnexpenoive.

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BOCOTE, (H) 9otanical Name:Cordtaaop. A beautifuleubstiLuLefor roeewood. bocoteie oneof LhemanyLypeeof cordia-a qroupof hardwoode found Lhrouqhout lhe West lndieo,LroVical America,Africa and Aaia.frocotre'e LexLure ie similarNoteak-although it, ie eomewhaLharder-and iXewildfiqurepal\erno produceeNunninq cabineLwork.fhe woodie availableonly i n s m a l ls i z e s . Other NametCordia. Souraes:Mexico,Selize,I'onduras. Characterielica; 1traiqht, grain:moderatelycoaree qreenLo qoldenyellowwiLhblackfiqurepaLterne. LexLure; Usea Furnif,ure, cabineLe,interior joinery,turninq and decorativeveneerg. WorkabiliNy: Generallyqood;bluntocu|tinq edqes qood bendingproperLieo. oliqhLly; Finiohing:Accep|ofinieheswell. Weighh4b lb./cu.fL. TriaetExpeneive.

BUBINGA N (H) 1otanical name:Guibourtiaeoo. A rosewood eubetibut e, bubinqa'o loqeoflen weigh morethan 10 tons:they can becut into exlremelywide Kevazinqo, a veneerpeeledfrom irreqularly Vlanke. qrainedloqe,Voeeeooee a wild,,flame-like fiqurethat io eopular f or cabinet work. Olher Namee:African roeewood, eseinqanq,kevazinqo \r otary cut veneeronly). Souraee,Equatorial Alrica (Cameroon, Gabonand 7_aire). Charaat,eriatiasz Verydenee;finegrain:purpliehpink lo ealmonred,wiLhdark Vurpleveining. QuarLereawn boardeofLenehowveryatlracf,iveblackmotlle fiqure, UeeetTurninq, f urniture, cabinetwork a nd veneere. Workabilityz Generallyqood:irregulargrainNende to tear whenhand-planed: pre-borefor nailinq. Finiahin1 Excellent. Weight:55 lb./cu.fr,, ?ricezExpeneive.


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CATALPA

(H) bolanical Name: Jt.rqlanectnerea i , m:rrtberof "vle 'ua rtaLf amily.br.ftfernfi haa aeeumed a r.).tc.: of l tono; ae lhe vtr:odolLen ciosen lor cAurcA eli.ar.r'.fhielree tr' lrea"'tred for more LAan i-"ewood: '.'1. a rich. deiic aro nJ-,ane ?roducea ?a....a.6 -vltat e used,t o mal.ea eweeLeyruV simi ar a aag 1..,me? . t'!rn?. Other Namee: V.lhfievtalnuL,oi nt,ti. 1 o u r c e e : a + o d ' . 0 . 1 . t -. Characlerietica: Straiqlt qratn;eofl but coaree lexI . ' .- e , m a ' l b ' o * r . Ueea: 7lrnir.lre. inl,etor Lr'tmon boate, int eriorjo nery. aaf"/n4. venaafa. WorkabilitytGenerallyqood: becaueewood ie eofL, it ie imgorLantto keepct)ttera eharg: willfuzz uV when a a n d e d ;g o c r b e n d i n 7p r o g e r L i e e . FinishingzAccepl,efinieheevery well. Weight 2b lb.lc',t.fl. Price: ModeraLe.

(H) 6ot anical Name: CaLa Ipa apt:c rt:t a /,, co7r, at.lracltve vtor:d.oaLal2a t:' a l,n,':aatit',e-;",'rt:r:,:i orj ia i a eLi't.::J\' aa ey ta rvork with a vtavy I qt;re. I Ite't't,:: inerpertei,,,e. btL olLen di+Jictt to lini ctcaly. Le c:ptn qrain and exceear'ieaaflnea'afial.e tl L)1a.t-iara lor fr.trnilureLhal wtllraae:e aeaq '.pe. F.r:ai'"lanlr.r, decay, iL ie tdea for r:tldor:r oar\'flQi. O t h e r N a m e e :C a t a w b a .a q e - ; r c e . n d i a n - l t . a n t. r : r L r t ' ern caLel?a. 5ourcet 1-).3./:. Cha r a cleri sti c s : G e ner a|ly L)aeve., wa,""1 qr ai n: m edi t m caarae,evenLetLrr.i Iigl:f tan wii,ha 2ro':ninentdarl.er' qrowilt nnq fiqure. U e e e :C a b i n e l m a k t n qL.t r n i n q ,p i r : L t r ei r e m e e a n d q e n ' e r a lo r n a m e n l a u a e a . Workability Generally very qcod: may fray til'tencrr:ee' c t t : d u l l ec u L t e r s o n l ye l i q h t l y . Finiohingzt',cce2Lofiniaheevtel. Weight: 2b-32 lb.I cu. tL. ?ricezInexpenaive to moderale.

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b otanical Name;Cha maecypa rie nooLkaLe nete A'taeka yellowced,arie etableand remarLably reeisLanl to aecay,Likemoet,membersof the cedarf amily,iI hae a dJeLincLive odorthat,f adeeae Ihe wooda4eo.Thie woodia not,abundantlyavailable. TheIreee qrowtro60 lo ba feel;in heiqhtin Lheforest,eof Lhe?acificnorLhweef,,an) if,can take up tu ZaO yearefor them to reach marketable eize. Olher Names:Yellow cedar,?acificCoasLyellow cedar, nooLkafalee cypreoe,yellowcy?re6e. Source:TacificCoasLof Norfh America. Characterisliae;SLraiqht,qratn;fineLerture;paleyellow. joinery.boat build,inq Uses:Furnilure, and veneers. WorkabilitytVeryqood:lowdullingof cutLere. Finiehinq: Acceptefinisheewell. Weight:31lb./cu.ft. TricetModerale.

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OotanicalName:J uniperuevirqiniana LikemosLol,herLreeeknownae "cedar,"aromaLiccedar "cedar" ie nol boLanically a at,all.ln f acr.,the Lreefrom whichthie softwoodcomeeie a iuniper. 7uLIhe timber conNaine cedaroilandqiveeoffihefamiliar"cedai'ecenl that, is eaidto reVelmoLhe.fheae two characleriettca are f,hereaeonwhyLhewoodis frequentlyusedIo line cloeef,sand chesLe. Other Namee:Kedcedar,eaeLernred cedar,fenneeeee red cedar,juniper, SourceaCanadaand eaEternU.9.A. Characterielicsz7Lraiqht,qrain;finetexLureireddiehbrowni boa rd e ofLen have knoLe and ba rk incluaione, Uaeo:Cawing,lininqo of cloeeLeand cheete,veneero and pencile. WorkabilitytGenerallygood,but briXtle:may breakor chipwhendrilled,; mayeplit in nailinq. Finishin7:Acceplefinieheswell,except,for LurpenlinebaoedVroducf,e, WeighttSO lb./cu.fL. ?rice:lnexpensive.

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WOOD DIRECTORY

CEDAR,WESTERNRE,D

CEDAR,WHITE

botanical Name:Thujaplicata Lree,weetern red,ced,arcan qrowLo ffiore A qrand-eized x h a n1 5 Of e e t i n h e i q h Ll L. i a o n eo l t h e l t q h t e eal n d makinqit idealfor ouLdoor mosLdurableeofLwoode, uoe.lte dielinct qrowLhnngli4ureand,alLraclivecolor valuefor panelinq and,veneer. aleoqiveiI eiqnificant, "knotty cedar."Thie Eepecially knolty pieceoare eoldae leveleof currenNheavy epecieeie elowlo reqeneraLe;if coneumpf,ion do noLabate, weelernredcedarcould becomea rarewoodin Lhe21el Century, (U.3,A.);red,ced,ar Other Namea Gianl arborviLae (Canada): 9 ribieh Columbi a red,ced,ar (U.K.) ; canoe-ceda r. 1ourceetCanada,l.e.A. Characterietice: Straiqhf,qrainicoareelexLure. exLerior millwork. furniture,boat buildinq, UeeszOutd,oor WorkabilityzGenerallyqood:keepculLeroaharp. FiniehinqAccepLefinieheewell. Weiqht:23 lb.lcu.ft. ?rice: ModeraLe.

B olanical Name: Thuja occ td enta lie Whtte cedar ie oooular in NorDhAmerica for if,e reeia' Lance lo decay. lt is ofl.en ueed far canoea,ehinqlee a n d o t h e r e x L e r i o ar p p l i c a t i o n e . W h i lneo l e e p e c i a l l y etronq, the wood ie eaey Lo work and is wellauited objecle. Smal er Lreeeare ueed Lo out door d,ecoraLive f o r p o l e ea n d p o e t e . T h e w o o d i ee e l d o m f i q u r e da n d , almo1T,neverubea a9 veneer. Other Names: Arbowilae, eaglern whiLecedar, ewamp cedar. Sourcea Canad,aand,U.3.4. CharaaNerielicezStratqh| 7rain: even terLure; liqht brown hearlwood; eapwood ie white; many knol,e commonly ?reoent,. fencinq. Ueea; 7oai, buildinq,poele and d,ecoraLtve Workability..Good. Finiohinq Accepte finieheewell. Weight;23 lb.lcu,ft. Tricet lnexpenoive.

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CHACTACOTE (H) 9otanical Name: 9ickinqia ealvadoreneie ChacLacote,a hardwoodlrom wellmanaqed eourcee, q r o w o i n l h e Y u c a t a n a n d C h i a p a i or e q i o n oo f e o u t h eaef,ernMextcoand Selize.Seau|iful and eaoy f,a work, iL ie a wood,of inlenee color and olLen poeeeeeeea qorq e o u ef l a m e f i 7 u r e . l Li e r e c o m m e n d , eLdo u e e a f i n i e h wiLh ulLravioleLray proLecLanN, since iLe incrediblehue fadee wiNhex?o6urelo f,he eun. Other Namea Chacahuante;Kedwood(Selize\ 9 ources: 9 out\ eaar, M ex'co, 3 elize. Charaateristiae: Fairly irreqularqrain;fine LexNure: hearLwood,: brilllanl crimson red; eapwood:crearn, Ueeq FurniLure,cabinelworkand Lurninq. WorkabilityzVerygood, FiniehinryAccepf,efinieheswell. Weight: 40 -45 lb./cu. tt. ?riaet Mod,eraLe.

CHERRY, BLACK

(H) OotanicalnametFrunueeeroLtna Extremely eLablewhenil cameeLo checkinq and warpinq,and excepLionally beautifu|blackcherryia oneof NorLhAmerica'e fineet,cabinef, woode,However,Nhere to a ?ronaunced, variancein colorbeLween ite eapwood and hearlwood, whichcan somef,imee be problemaNic. lf Lhetwo are ueedoide-by-eide, finiehedworkmaydieplaya discrepancy in color,whichwillinNeneily ae the woodagee.A goodportionof blackcherrywoodcont ainequrndeVoeiLe Lhrou7hout. AlLhouqh thie doeenot. eignificanr.ly affecI the lumber,it showeon veneero;1oqe wiLhexceaeive qumare avoidedfor veneers. Other nameatAmericancherry,rum cherry,whiekey cherry,wilAcherry,fruitwood. 5ourcee;Canada,U.9.A. CharacterislicetFineqrain;omooLhlexture; reddieh brownto deepred hearLwood. Us ea FurniLure,f,ur ninq, ca winq, joinery,mueical insf,rumenLo, boat interiorsand decoraliveveneer.. Wo rkabil*y: Very good,: blunte cutli nq edqee moderat ely:qoodbendinqproperLiee. Finiehing;Acceptefinieheswet| Weight:36lb./cu.ft, TriaetModeraNe.


WOOI) DII{EC'I'ORY

AMARILLO CHONTAQUIRO

AME,RICAN CHESTNUT,

(H) g o t a n i c a l N a m e z) . 1 | t , c ' | | amariio ie iot:nd:.t t h a r a , f ' e a v yL i m b e r ,c h o n L a q u i r o a b u n a a n c ei n l l e t r o g i c a if o r e s l " o i 7 e r t .a, t A l : r a z i . wood,wiil a atrikinq fiqlre or boLr: t ie a beatft,ift-t . .aA aca \l aa a p l a t n ' e a w na n d q a a r L e r e a w nI u m b e r U e, Lhie 1es s er - kno\Nri 5p. ci. a |) mah o4 a ny e obst tLr-tt beqinninqto be exporr,edinto l loft'h l'.mericafcr tae i n f t n el u r n i i u r e a n d c a b i n e L m a k i r : q . O l h e r N a m e s : 3 t c u 2 i r o c. a l - t l c . S o u r c e : 3 o u L hA m e r i c a . Characteristico: )LraiqhL to intedocLea4ratn',rncaer' at ely coaroe Lo coar6e lexLLrei iqht t o dark.brout'n y ellowiehcr earn eapwood. hearLwood: U s e s : F u r n i t u r e c, a b i n e t ' m a L t naqn d a r a a q . a l c o n eLrucLionusee. Workability:Generally,qoo,):doee naL t)r. or ehape tve)i. F i n i o h i n qA : c c e p t e l t n t e h e ev re l l . Weiqht: 5B lb.lcu.tL. ?rice: \,4oderate.

(H) Ootanical Name: Castanea cenlta[a by a fun4t-tedieeaeeknownae i'irt.ra ;r er.r"erninaLed -vle ma)onL'1of chesLnul .ow corie. clteelntfi b tE6*', i r o m r e , c y c l e Ld t m b e r ef r o n b a r n ea n ) ' o t h e r b u i l d i n q c ll,a-v Stre-dalethe b qlL. )l hae a eo beenavailable irorr eLandtnqdead treee t'hai have beenaLLacled by :.naecle,Ihe ree,-tLtrq "wormy cheeLnut" is noneLheeaE s cor,eideredan atLreclive wood Lhat' retaine cAeaI'nut, for or,tldooruee .eL.Nradurabt|Nyand makeeit' excellenL Or.her Namee: !\torrry cheeLnut',oweet cheaLnuL. ?ourcee: Canada ana Eaelern U.3.4,. Characterislics: Toroue qrowth rinqe reeulNin promirtenLfiqure;coeree t,ey.rilreipale brown. l J s e e zI t c ; 1 e, eo L a k e e ,g i c t u r e l r a m e s , f u r n i L u r ea n d deacraLlveveaeera. WorkabiliNy Generally ea6y Lo work: ferroue mer.ale rnay otatn lhe wood blue:eplir'oeaeily;medium bendinq properLiee. Finishing':/^,cceptefinieheevery well. Weighr,: 3a b.lct-t.fL. ?rice: "loberaLe ta P\ ?c4a"\.e.

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COCOBOLO N

C.YPRESS, BALD N)

v(H) 6olanical Name:Dalber4iaretuea A durable,hardwood,cocobolo someinler?ae6egee6 eelinqworkinqproperLiee.lN conLaina a nal,uraloilyeubof,ancef,haI noLonlywalerproofeIhe wood,but makee iNveryeaeyto workand finieh.However, ile fine eawdueL may caueeitchinqand eneezing and,ofLentemporarily d , y e ot h e e k i no r a n q e .l t , i s r e c o m m e n d eNd oc o v e r expooed ekinwhenworkingwith cocobolo. Other Nameo Granadillo(Mexico):Nicaraguanroeewood,qrendill. Source:WeeN coaeLof CenbralAmerica. Characterietico:Heaug,deneewood:otraiqhtlo irreqular grain;mediumLexlure:purple,oranqe,ruel and yellowcolorwifh blackmarkinqe, d,arkening with exVosure Lo a deepred,d,ish oranae. Ueeo:Turning,knifehaidles, bruehbacke,t oolhanaws, inlayeand veneerg. Workabilitytgalief acilory:eiqniticanL dullinqof cuttersi blad,ee ehouldbe exiremelyeharp:reducebladeanqle for planing:verydifficult f,o qlue. FiniohinqAcceptsfinishesverywell. Wei1httOB lb./cu,ft. ?riae:Expenoive.

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Ootanical Name: Taxodrum d taLichum N o r m a l lfyo u n di n w e Lr e q i o n e a n d e w a m p eb, a l d cy?reeslumberio truly al homein waLer.ln f acL,iL ie ofLenusedin bridqeeand docke,Old-qrowLh timber ie eignificantlymoredecay-resieLant. Lhansecondgrow\hwood,thouqhbobhare coneidered idealfor o u L d o ou r e e .V a l u r e s l a n d s o f t h i e e p e c i e sa r e gcarce,and ae gwarypeare drained,iL te becoming sufferingfrom a lose of habitat, whichwillmakeiI increaeingly rareao Limepaeeee,Daldcypreeeoccae^ionally yield,a intereelinqveneere and,panelinq. Olher Names Soulherncypre6e,ewam?cy?re6e, li dewaLercy?re6e,yellowcypr eoe, while cypr eee, red cypreee,blackcypreeo Source:3 ouLheaeLernU,9.A. Charaaterietice:Straiqht,Train:oilytexture; yellowb r o w n t od a r k b r o w n . UaeetJoinery,chemical vaLeand tanke,boaLbuildina. poleo,poeteand manyconetruclionapplicatione. WorkabilitytGenerallyqood:keepcutters sharp. Finiohing:AccepLatinisheswell. w eight 2B-35 lb./ cu.tL. Trice:lnexpenoive.

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DOUGLAS-FIR

E,BONY:w

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7otanical Name: Dtoepyroo .pp. A I e b o n yi e r a r e a n d e x p e n o i v ee,e p e c t a l yL h e f a r n e d , aI' one Iime. wae obta ned inLeneeblack ebonyv'thich, grimarilyfrorn )ndiaand )ri Lanka.Today,il e loun) in limited quantir.ieain areae ol Equatorial V'lesLAfri':a. l - ) n l i kM e a c a e e a re b o n y ,A f r i c a n e b o n yi e q e n e r a l ye o l i d b l a c k ,w t t h o u t e t r i p e e o r m o l L | n q . 3 h 1 p 2 e tdo N o r t h America in ehorL hearLwooAbillet'e,iL ie uaed in the finestwood oblecLe,Sawdustlrom ebonycan cauae reepiratory probleme. Olher Names: SaLulinau,lndianebony,Ceylonebony, Africanebony,MaAaqaocarebony,Gabon ebonyetc., a c c o r d i " qt o c a ) n t r y o " o r q t . 9ourceq lndia,Sri lanka, Africa. Charaateristics: )enee wood with a coaroe I'exture; qrain: very d,arkbrownI'o b1ack. eLraiqht to inLerlocked, Ueee: Turninqa,brueh backs,mueical inetrumenf'e,han' d l e o , i n l a y , b u l t ao f b i l l i a r dc u e e ,o c c a o i a n a l lvye n e e r b and other ht4hlydecoraNiveapplicaLione. W orkability : Diffic ulf,:dulle c ut ler s a ever ely: Vr e- bo r e for nailinq. Finiehinq AcceVte finieheewell. Weight 65lb.lcu, fL. ?rice:Very exVeneive,

7otanical Name: FEeudotouqa menzteeii ane of r,he moet wtdelyuee),woode in North America, , ouqlaa-fir a n d t A e c o n l i n e . I ' o m o e t p l e n t i l u le p e c i e eD ie htqhlyvaluedas a conetrucLionwood becauseol if'e etrenqth, eLiffneoe,moderaLewelqhl'and availabilityof wilhout't'he Iarqe eizetimbera, 1Lie f requenLlyepelled, "Oouqlae iyphen ae fir," althouqh lL ie, in f acL, not' a fir aL all baL part of Lhe qenuo Teeudot'euqa,or"falee hemock," Current ehorLaqeoof t'his umber are due more Lo loq1inqbans Nhanany real ecarc'tt'y.Withif'6 prominenL qrowLh rinq fiqure, Douqlae-firaleo yieldear"traclive "/eneeraana ?tywaoa. Other Names: Srir"iehColumbiaVine,Oreqonpine,yellow ftr, red fir. Souraee; Canada, WeaLern U.3.4.,Europe. Characterieticat 3f,raiqhf'qrain; mediumlexLure: red' d,iehbrown:may be reeinoue. Useet ?lywood,,joinery, veneere ani a wide ranqe of c o naLrucLio n a 2 p||c a'i o na, Workability: Oenerally qood',beLLerwit'h machine toole: blunLecuLLeremoAeraLely. Finiehinq AccepNafiniehesfairly well,

Weighu,33lb.lcu.tt. ?rice:lnexVeneive.

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E,BONY, MACASSARl'ffil

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(H) Botanical Name:Droepyroe opp. Macaeearebony,unlikeblackebonywith iLeintenee d e e ph u e ,i e m u l L i c o l o r eude,u, a l l m y o r el i q h tl h a n d a r k . 7oLhMacaeearebonyand,blackebonyare ueed,in I,he fineel inlayand,cabineLwork.Macaeaarebonycomee from a numberof d,ifferent epeciee Nhatare all parLof Lheebonyf amily:Nheremay be eomevariaLion in deneiLy.Lext)reand,a??earance from onegiecet o anor"her. wood,coromarlel(U.K.); Olher Namea Calamander qold en e0ony,marblew ood. 1ource3 : ot L h e a e tA a i a . Extrremely Characteriatica: denoewith verybrittle heafLwood,: moetlyetraiqhLgrain,buf,may be irreqular dark brownto black,with or wawt fine,evenf.eKLurei liqht-brown ef,reaks. Lurninqo, bruehbacke,walkinq eLicke, Usea Cabinetwork, mueicalinelrumenLe, inlaywork,billiardcueeand deco' ral,iveveneers:saowoodusedfor lool handlea. Workability:Veryd,ifftcull';: exlremebluntingof cuLLere; p r e - b o rfeo r n a i l i n qu;n e u i t a b lf e or gluing. Finiahing: Acceptefinieheeverywell. Weightz60 -bO lb,I cu.ft . Trice:Veryexpeneive.

(H) 9otanical Name:Ulmueamericana Whiteelmie Lhelarqeet. and arquablythe moet.eLately elmof a1l.Moreso than olher elme,Lhiemajeeliclree waedevaetaf,edby Dutchelmdiaeaoeana iaaay tt i5 relarively difficultLo lind whiteelmlumber.Ihewool,ie exI;remely eaeyto bendand ie moet,olLenueedLo make furniNure, Whenelicedon the quarLer,whiteelmproducee lovelyribbon-ef,rip ed veneere. Other NamestAmericanelm,waterelm,ewampe\m qrayelm(Canada), (U.9.A.); orhamwooA, Souraesz Canadaand,U.3.4. Charaaierietico: UouallysLraightqrain,Lhouqhoften inberlocked: coa r ee f,eKLure: lighf,,y ellowieh- brown color. boat.buildinq, o?arf,6equipment. Usee:FurniLure, and decoraf,ive veneerS. WorkabilitytGenerallyqood:dullecuLtinqedqeemoderalely;goodbendinqproperLiee, buxproneIo warpinq. Finiehing; AccepLo finioheawell. Weight:35lb.lcu.fL. Tricezlnexpeneive, but.increaoingd,ueto ecarciLy.

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HACKBERRY

(H) Ootanical name: AaLrontum 7raveolene SeauLifal,durable and etronq, qoncaloalvee eomef,imee bears a reeemblancef,o bolh roeewoodand Macaeaar ebony.II ie ueed,lor fine applicalionelikeknife handlee, billiardcue butt a, bruah back.e,and dampero in grand pianoo.SecauEeLhe tree has becomean endanqered epecieo,qoncaloalvee ie difficult.Lofind in NorLh America. lL ie availableprimarilyin veneere. Olher Name:Iiqerwood 5ourcer Srazil. Characteristice: Dense,very heavy wood; irceqular, int e rlocked,qr ai n: m edium LexLur e: r ed dieh-br own marbled with black elreako: large variatione in color and qrain. Uses: FinefurniLure,cabineLmakinq, Lurninqand veneer6. Workability: Difficult: blunLecu|I;inq edqee moderately to eeverely;Vre-borefor nailing. Finiahing AcceVX.o finieheewell. Weight:59 lb.lcu.fL. Trice: Expeneive.

(H) Ootanical Name: CelLtaocctdenta|te lackberry ie elaeLic,ehack-resi""tanLand eaey to bend, characf,erieLiceiX eharee with elm and,aeh',iL ie ofLen uaed ae an aeh eubstitut e in Lhe farniLureindu""fry, HackberryLreee qrow to more fhan 1aO fueI Lall. All,houghmoeL hackberryie ueed for conetraction, the wood'sdistinct,figure makeo if, an att racLivechoicefor veneerg, cabineLworkand,lurniLure. Olher Names: euqarberry, hack-f,ree,baeLard e m, net XleIree, beaverwood. Sourceet Eaelern U.3.A.and eouLhernCanada. Characteristics: lrregularqrain; moderalely coaree t exture: liqht brownwith yellowbande. Usest Furnif,ure,I?orlo equtpmenL,cabineAwork, plywooa and veneer?. Workability: Generally qood: dulle cuttero moderately: interlocked, qrain requireereduced planinqanqle;qood bendinqproVerLies, Finiahinq Accep|e ftniehea well:ea?eciallyaLLracLivein naLuralcolor. tNeight':40 lb.lcu.fL Tricet lnexpeneive.

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WOOD DIRECTORY

HICKORY

HOLLY

(H) 9otanical Name:Caryaepp. For ol;renqLh, hardneoaand flexibiliLy, hickoryia the besL commercially available woodin NorLhAmerica.lL ie ueed for Loolhandlee, euchae axeeand,maule,and,foreporL' inTequiVmenL. EveniIe woodchiVeare ueeful:Ihey are oflen uaed,in emokinqmeal. Other NameetShaqbarkhickory,piqnuthickory,mockernuLhickory,red hickory, whitehickory. 9 ource:Eaef,ernU.5.A. Charaoleristice: NormallyetraighLqrain,buLcan be irreqularor wawi coaroet"exlure:brownto reddieh-brown hearlw ood; whitreeapwood. furnilure,chaire, Ueee;SporLtnq equipmenL, benLwood eLrikinqhandlee, and veneere. plywood Workability:DifficulL:blunLecutLingedqeemoderaLely: whenplaningirregularqrain,reduceblade'ecutf,ingangle; veryqood,bendinqproVertieo. Finiohing: Acceptefinieheewel| Weight:51lb./cu.ft. ?rice:lnexpeneive.

(H) 6otanical NametIlexeoo. A clooe-qrained, almoetrwhitewood,with vtrLually no viaible fiqure,hollyio valuedfor inlaywork.Hollyveneer, for ebony.Very dyedblack,eubatiLulee little of thie timberie cut,eachyear,makinqil a difficullwoodLo obtain.Spri7eof holly,however, with Lheirehinyleavee and red berries, are commonChrietmaedecoralione. Olher Names:Whiteholly. Sources:Europe,U.9.4.and weelernAeia. Characterielice:lrreqularqrain;fine,evenlexLure: whiLeIo grayioh-white; ?ranelo blueeLain. Uees:)rnaLe Lurninqe,musicalinof,rumenle, inlay, rnarquetryand veneere. Workabilit"y: Difficult:keeVcuNNing edqeovery oharV and reducecuLbinq anqleof planeblade. Finiehing;AcceplefinieheEverywell. rNeightz35 -5O lb./cu.ft . ?riae:Expeneive.

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(H) 9otaniaal Namet Hymena ea courbaril A etronq, hard wood,iatoba has shock-reEist'ance qualitieosimilarto ash and hickory,and i6 olLenueed Althouqha diffiin tool handleoand eporte equipment. cult woodIo work,lat obalakee on a e?ecialglowwhen it io planed,lte bark is similarto that' of paperbirch of iL are usedin canoe-makinq. and eheeNe Olher Namee Amerelo,cuapinol,courbaril,West lndian |ocuet,(U.9.A., U.K.);|oouet,etinkinqtoe (Weot,|ndieo): guapinol(CentralAmerica):jut'aby,iatai vermelho (Arazil):alqarrobo. SourcesrCentraland )outh AmericaandtheWestlndies. qrain;mediumto CharacteriEtiaaMootly int'erlocked ^almonre+Lo oranqebrownhearLwood coa?6eteKVu?ei with dark brownstreake,darkeninqto reddishbrown: whiie t o oinkishoagwood. UeeetF urniiur",c)binetmakinq,turnin4,tool handles, and veneero. o?ortin7equipment,froorin4,Vanelinq Worl'abilityt Faia lough to sawi interlockedqrain hard bendinq?ro?erbiee. to plane;poorfor nailinq;moAeraNe Finiehin1Accefio stains well,butdoesnot poliahto a hi7h-qlooofinioh. tNaighrz4B'56 lb./cu. tN. ?riaezModerate.

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KINGWOOD SN) v-

(H)

1ot aniaal Name; Dalberqtacearenaia Likemost rceewoodo,kinqwoodie heavyand very aLiraclive.Oeeewinqof ite reqalname,NhieNimberwas ueedin lhe finesLfurnilure built for LouieXIVand ie an endanqered LouisXVof France.Today,kingwood epecieolhal is becominqe*remely ecarce.Thesmall amounf,olhat are availablefind ueein reetoralionwork, finelurninqoand veneere. violetta (U.9.A.); Alher NameezVioletwood, violete(brazil). 5ouraetOrazil. Characterislioez )traiqht qrain; line texlure: violel' brown,dark violetand blacketripeeaqainet'yellowlo violeL-br ownbackqround. UseezTurninqand veneerofor inlayand marquetry. WorkabilltyrOenerallyqood;blunto lool and blade cuthinq edgeemoderalely. Finiahingl Aaaepto finishes well;well euit'edto a naturalwaxfinieh. Weiglrf,r7O-75 lb./ cu. fN. ?rlcelVery expen6iv6.


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LIGNUMVITAEN (H) Aotanical Namer Guaia cum officinale "wood of life"receivedile namelor the Lignumvitae or oupVooedly curaf,ivequalilieeof its resin.ThieeVecieo, whichis extremelyolow'qrowinq, produceeoneol t'he world'sheavieslcommercialtimbere,and io virLually self-lubricatingdueIo ito hiqhraeinconhent.This makeait idealfor ito prinaiValuse,ao bearinqoand buohin7blocksfor ehiVpropellorshafas,lor whichthere oubot'ilute. ie preoentlyno elfective oynNhebic Olher Nameerlronwood(U,5.A.);7uayaaanneqro,palo oanio (Cuba);boisde gaiac (Franae). 5ouraea Trooical America and Weet lndieo, Charact'erlEblaetHeavy,denoe woodi intarlocked, irrequ' to blaak. lar qrain:qraenioh-brov,n lJEes:Manne bearin4a,mallebheads,pulleyoand u)minqz. Worlability, Difficuli'; dulls autters moderawlg not ouitablefor qluinqunleaotreated frroL, Flniehing AcceVto finishes w ell. .' Weighb-77lb.lcu.ft, ?riaet,Veryil?eneive. ,j,;i;l

MADRONE (H) 9 otanical NamezArbutu a menzieeii Madronevarieogreatly in size,sometreeo reaching 125teeLin heiqhtwilh enormouobnnchee somelirnee oLrelchinqaut overan area of IO,OOOequarefeet.lt offerea beaulifult imber,which,thouqh diffiaultto srnoothfinish.Smaller dry,canbeqivena remarkably madronetimberoften has burlqrowthoatit's baee; these are frequently developedinf,ootunningveneers, It ie also knownas one of r,he beat,sourceeof charcoal for makin16unpowden OhherNameal 7aoftic ma*rone,arbutuo, madrona. 9ourceat Canadaand western U.5.4. Chalz,otnriallcet5t raigWbto irreqularq?aini fine,even iet&urei palereddioh'yellowto deeVerred or brown. UeeszFinefurniture, htrninq ani decoraiiveveneero. Wo*abiltq6 9 atisf act'oryt blunto cutting edqeo r aiher eevar elyi mediumbandin6 ?r o?efti es. FlnlehingzAcce?t o finishes well Waigltu48lb.lcu.ft. ?dcrltModerata.


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MYRTLE

HARD MAPLE,,

(H) caltforntca botanical Name:Umbellularta wellknownfor iLeclueLerand burlfiqareA Eopecta)ly lor myrLleio a favorif,e amonqftnecrafLErnen veneerg, c a b i n e t n a k i naqn d m a r q u e L r y . W ht tl lhea ea e t r o n q Lendency lo checkand warpin dryinq,oncezeaeoned myrtleio a touqhwood,ableLo withet'andmuchwear turntnqwood,myrf'leie and,abuse.Aleoa preferred amanq frequenLly madeinlo bowlaand,canaboticko, o t h e r f i n eq o o d e . laurel,mounlainlaurel, Alher Names:Californta bayrtree, epiceLree. I).3.4. 1ources;Oreqonand California, Characl eristicotGenerallyoI raiqhLqrain,bul occa 5ionqol)enLanXoyellowieh-qreen, fineLexXure: allyirreqular; joinery,cabineImakinq, panelUees;f urninq,furniLure, inq,and veneera. Fair:dullscuLtinqedqeeeeverelyand quick' Workabilisyt l y :r e d u c ec u t L i n ga n q l e f o rp l a n t naqn d e h a V i n q . Acceptsfinieheeverywell. Finishing: Weight:3b lb.lcu.ft. ?rice:ModeraLe', burlio exVereive.

(H) Oolanical Name: Acer eaccharum f' denee wood, harA maple'eueea afLenLake advantaqe of ite reeiet,a.ceto wear and,abraaion.)i ie ueed in a w i d er a n q eo f c o n o L r t c t i o n ,i n c l u d i n qb o w l i n qa l l e y oa n d dance floora. Olten poeeeeeinqan atlraclive liddleback o r c u r l yf i q u r e ,L h i e i e a l e o l h e m a p l ew h i c hp r o d u c e el h e veneere. f arroue bird,'a-eye Other Names: Rock maple,euqar maple,whiLemaple ( e a p w o o d )b, i r d ' e - e y em a p l e( 1 tt h e d i o t i n q u i e h i nqqr a i n ie preaent). S o u r c e s :C a n a d a ,U . 3 . 4 . Char a ct'erist'icot 3t rai7ht qrai n, o c c a eio nally c urly, wavy or bird'e-eye;f\ne texLure:hearLwoadia reddiehbrown: eapwoodio whiLe, mueical Ueee: Turning,furnilure, 6?arLo equiVment', inetrumenf,s,butcher'a block.e,floorinQ,plywood and veneerg, Workabilit'y: Dttficult: blunle cutLing ed4ee mod,erately: pre-borefor nai inq:qood bendinqproVerLiea. Finiehing:Acceple finieheowe1l. Weighi 42lb.lcu.ft. ?rice: lnexpeneive lo moderaf,e, on fiqure. depend,ing

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OAK,RED

OAK,WHITE

(H) botanicalname;Quercueepp. Kedoak,l:hemoEt.caffirnan oakvarieLyin North America,qrowaveryquickiy-younq treeo olLena2rout a foot.a year.fhe wooAia an al,lracliveand valuapte hardv,tood and,hae beenoneol Lhemoef,popularNor1h Americanoako'ueedin EuropeeinceLheearlylBLh Century.Il ie coneidered uneuiLable for exLerior work. Olher Names:NorLhern red oak,Americanred oak, Canadianred oak,qrayoak. Sources:Canadaand eaeternU.3.A. Characterietice; 7tr aiqht.qrain; coa ree texLure: pinkieh-redcolor. Uses:Furniture,inLerior joinery,floorinq,Vlywood and veneerg. Workability:Generallyqooii moderaLeblunlinqof cuLlere; moderate bendinq?ro?erLiee, FiniahinqSatiefactory:becauoe of openporee,iL ehouldbefilled,beforeanyfinishingor painLinq. Weight:40 lb./cu.fL ?ricet N4oderale.

(H) Ootanical Name: Quercue epp. Thie oak-a wood of uniqaeveroatility-prodacee Lhe fineeLoak veneerzand lumber,and ie very reej",tanL t o wear.Tieae qualiLieemaV.eit eiqnilicantlymore vallable Nhan red oak.7ut perhapeita moeL-valuedproperty ie lhe preeencein iLe cells of tylosee, a honeyconblike",ubetance thaL makeeI;he wood waLerLiqhLand idealfor whiekeybarrela.Kecently,lheee barcelshave bequnLo be reuaed,red,ucinqthe larqe drain on whtLeoak.for that purpoee, Other Namee: American while oak, burr oak, swamV while oak, cheotnJf,oak, overcuVoak, ewamp cheetnuL oak. Sourcee: Canada and l,).3.A, Characteriatice,t1f,raiqht qr ain: moderately coaroe lexLure: liqhl Lan wif,h a yellowiehLint. joinery,cabinef,making, Ueea: FurniLure, boat buildinq, barrele,Vlywoodand veneers. Workability: Good; pre-bore for nailinq:qood bendinqproperLiee. Finiahing;Accepte finioheawell. rNeight:47 lb.lcu.ft. ?rice: ModeraL.e.

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OLIVE,WOOD

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(H) Aotanical Name:)lea europaea caaot,European oliveGrownalonqthe lr4ed,itrerranean wood woodie a comelytree,andyieldea fine,att'racLtve Thietree Lhat,ernitaa oweelscent.wheniL is worked,. in very ie aleof amouafor iLefruil and,oil.Available ia olivewood amallamounte,and proneLo d,efecte, or cawedqoode ofLenuaedto produceemallLurned anAiT'ie aomefimee for salein EuroVe'e trourislmarket', cul inLoveneer. OtcherNametlNalianolivewood. Califarnia. 1ourcee;ltaly and,eouthernEurope, 9Ir aiqhl'to irreqularqraiwfiner'exCharacteristicat f,ure;liqhLLo dark brownbackqroundwit'hd,arkereNreake. carvingand lnlaywork. UeeetTurninq, WorkabilityrGenerally good, t'houqhrelatively difficult' to oaw. FiniohinqAcceVtofinieheewell. W e i g h t : 5 &l b . l c u . f t . TricetExpeneive

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PADAUK, AFRICANN

(H) Ootanical Name: ?t;erocarpueooyauxii 6f,ronq, durableand slable. Africanpadaukie exf,remely than f,herareAndamanpadauk, Thouqhleeawellknown ana i6 Lrulya iL compareewell,is muchmoreavailable handaome woodin iNeownriqhL.ln eomeVarteof lhe ueedfor floorinq, worldAfricanpadaukie commonly whereif,iEconeidered, of excepLional qualiNy: pad,auk veneera are no leasvaluedfor their beauty. barwood,camwood. Olher Namest7ad,ouk, 1ourcetWeetAfrica. grain;moder' )traiqht' xo intrerlocked, Characleristiaet wif'h alely coaroelexfroreideepred to purple-brown red et"reake. Ueest Furnilure, cabinetmaking,joinery,lur ning, ha ndlesand veneerg. WorkabiliNyz Good:dullscuttere eliqhlly. FiniohinyAcceplefinisheeverywell. Weight:45lb./cu.tL. ?riaetModerate.


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PINE,PONDEROSA

PINE,SOUTHERNYELLOW

(e)

(e)

OotanicalName:Finueponderoea Oneof the mo6Laf,f,racf,ive pinee,t"heponderoeaqrowe acroeawegternNorf,hAmericaand eometimeemakeo iLehomeatrelevaf,ions of morethan 1O,OOO feeLin the K o c k i e eD. e c a u e eo f i L s r e s e m b l a n cien c o l o ra n d texLurelo whiLepine,ponderoea has increaeingly been usedas a eL)boLiLute for that wood,Tonderoea pineie eornetiffie.elicedinLoknoLIypineveneer,buLi|e primary ueeis in conelruclionand ae inLerior frim. Other Namee: 3iq Vine, bird'e-eye pine, knotty pine, polepine,pricklypine,weoLern yellowpine. Sources:Canadaand wesLernU,3.A. Characteristics:Wideliqhi-yellowsapwood;darker yellowto reddieh-brown hearLwood: qenerallyeilraight, qrain:eventexture. Usea Furnit,ure,turninq joinery ani cawinq(eapwood): and qeneral conelrucLion (hearLwood ): occa eionauy panelinq and veneers. Workability:Good;blunLscuLLinqed4eealiqhr,ly: ooor bendinqproperl,iee. FiniohinqAcceVLofinieheewell,butdoes not etain ae wellae whibepine. tNeighfr32\b./cu.tL. Tricezlnexpeneive.

DotanicalName:Finueaoo. 7ouf,hernyellowpineie Lhe heavieetcommercialeofLwoodand cerLainlyof foremoetrim?o-ancefor the conef,rucf,ion and pulpinduef,nee. 7ut, becaueeof the d e c r e a e i nogu p V l yo f w h i t r e p i n e , i l h a er e c e n t l yb e q u n to be usedexleneively in veneere,which are darkerand, markedby dieLinclgrowLhrinqe.TheeeLreeoaleo s u p V l yl u r V e n L i n ep,i n eo i l a n d r e e i nu e e di n l h e c o e meNiceinduetry. Other Namea ?il,chpine,shorLleafpine,longleaf pine,loblolly pineand severalof,hertree namee. 5 ourcetI outheaetern \J.3.A, Characteristics:SLraighLqrain:coareeNexf,ure; yellow-brown to reddieh-brown hearLwood. Uses: FurniNure, conetrucf,ion, plywoodand veneers. Workabilityr Fair;highreeincontentwillcauaeqummy build-upon Loolo:LendeLo Learwhencrooecut.. Finiohing:AccepLofinisheefairly well;becaueeof hi7hreeinconhenL, finisheeeomelimeebubbleup,eeVec i a l l ya r o u n d k n o l e . Weight:3O-3B lb./cu.lt . ?riae:lnexoeneive,

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POPLAR,YELLOW

PINE,WHITE

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(H) 9otanical NameszLrriodendron tulipifera Muchof the remaininq eupplyof thie wood,reqardedao oneof lhe moeLvaluable timberein Ihe eaelernU.3.4. lieein the Appalachian Mounlaine.l-)eed, in ex\eneively |,hewoodie ueed, Europetnf,heearlyl9OOs,Loday mainlyin the l-).3.for a ranqeof woodworking applicaNioneandfor Vulp.Theeapwoodie eometimescalled whilewood. Olher Names; Ca noe wood, xuliVpopla r, tuliplree. SouraetU.3.4. Characterieliaa:Straiqht qrain;fine,evenLeKLorei whif,eoapwoodLo pale-brown hearLwood wiLhgreen or darkbrownef,reake. UaeozJ oinery,f urnilure, cabinelwo rk,mueical ineLru' rYtent7, cawingand veneerg. WorkabilitytGood:dullecu+vLere onlyeltqhtly. Finiehingz Accepbefinieheewell. Weight:,30-35 lb.Icu.ft. Trice:lnexpeneive.

9otanical Name:FtnueeLrobue WhiLeVine'e verealility,workabilily and non-reeinoue naturemadeif,a preferredwoodfor both conolruclion lor cenf,uriee. EarlyAmericanseLllero and woodworking olLenhonored, Nhewhibepine,puNtinqit,on the coloniee' f l a 4 d u r i n qI h e A m e n c a nK e v o l u t i o an n d o n o t r h e r flaqe and coinethrouqh Lheyeare.l-)nforf"unalely, becauaeof iLewideeVread uee,whitepinehae become ecarcera , l t h o u q hb e c o n aq e n e r a t i o ng t r a n i ga r e preeentlymaLlrinq. Olher Namee:EaeLernwhiLepine,norLhernwhiLepine, norLhernpine,QuebecVine,sofl pine,baleam pine, whif,epine. Canadian 1ources:Canadaand,U.3.4. Characterielicet)Lraiqht grain;event exLure:liqhty ellowlo reddiah-b rown hearLwood. joinery,boat buildinq, Uses':FurniLure, conef,ruclion, plywoodand veneere. Workability:Good;blunte cuLf,ereeliqhf,ly; poorbendinq propertieg;too sofLfor somefurnilure uses. Finiehing:Acceptefinieheswell. Weight:28 lb.lcu.ft. Triaetlnexpenetve.

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PRIMAVERA N

(H) DotanioalName* Cybiotaxdonnell-emit hii, eyn. Tabebu ia donnell-amithti SomelimeewronqlyreferredLo ae"whilemahoqany," ie oneof the fineetr"blond"cabineL woodein Vrimavera the world.Secaueeof the depleLion of oupply,however, today iNio relativelyhard to geL Thewoodie wellknown for ile beautifulliqht-coloredveneere.OfIenLheyare elriped or havea handeomemoLLledfiqure. Olher Nameo:Duranqa(Mexlco);)anJuan (Hondurae): Valo bla nco (Guatemala); cortez, corLezblanco (El Salvador). Source:CenLralAmerica. Charaateristiae;SLraiqhtto irregularqrain;mediumLo coar ee tefrure: y ellowieh-white to y ellowieh-brown, Ueeq Cabinetwork,fine furnitureand veneero. Wo rkabilityt Very good: moderale bending properLiee. Finishingl. AccepLefinieheeverywell. Wei6ht: 3O-bB lb./cu.fL ?riaezExpeneive.

PURPLEHEART (H) gotaniaal Name: Feltogyneepp. A uniquely altraclive and durablehardwood and a challengeLo workwiLh. Cuttinqcan be hampered by qum depoeiLe, whichwilleeepouLof Lhewoodif iI io heahei wiLhbluntcuttinq ed,geo. Sladee,Lherelore, mueNbe keVN exlremelyeharp,and woodehouldbe run elowly throuqhmachines. WhileLhewoodie purple,lheee qum deposiLs can ranqefrom coalblacktowhile,and olten etreakthewood. Ot,her Na mee:Amaranth, violelw ood ( U.3.A.); eakavalli, oaka,koroboreli (Guyana);?auroxo,nazareno(Venezuela): (Orazil):Lananeo(Colombia). ?auroxo,amaranNe 5ouraeetCenLral and 9ouLhAmerica. CharaateristiaetStraiqhLqrain;moderateto coarae Lerture:deeppurVle,maburinqLo a rich brownafLer lonqexpoeure. Uses:Veneers, turninq,indoorand outdoor,furniture, tool ehafls and handlee, and butls of billiardcues. Workabilibyt)ifficult: moderaLet o eeverebluntin4;preborefor nailinq; propertiee. moderaLe bending Finiohing;Acceptefinieheswell:lacoruer ?reoeNeopurplecolor:alcoholbasedfiniEheeremovelhe color. Weightz54lb./cu.fL. Trice:Moderate.

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REDWOOD,CALIFORNIA (e)

gotanical Name: I equoia eempervirene ThetascinalinqCaliforniaredwoodqrowoto an incredibleeize.NaIiveto coaslal Californiaand )reqon, it io capableof reachinqwellover3OOfeex in heiqhN and oneLreemayyieldlhoueandeof boardfeet of lumber, Allhouqheupplieeof this woodhavebeeneeriouely depleted,redwoodcan eomelimesstill be acquiredin ertremelywideplanko.Thewoodie noted for ito stabiliIy, durabiliLyand resisLanceto decay:ito larqeburle are cul inlo veneers. Olher Namet Redwood, SouraetWestcoast of U.9,A. Charaoteriatioez?traight qraini fine, eventexf,uretaeep reddish-brown. Ueea Joinery,furniture,Vooto,panelin4,?lwood and veneere,and muchliqht ouldoor con;lruction. Workabiliiy: Good:dulls cuttera only sli4htly:moAerate bendin7properliee. Finiehin6zAccegta fi nishee well. Wei6ht;26lb./cu.ft, ?ricet lnexpengive to moAerale,

ROSEWOOD, HONDURASN) (H) 6otanical Name; Da Iberqia eteveneonii Thiehard,heavy,durablerosewood ie primarilyvalued in lhe makinqof marimbabareand qrowsonlyln Selize, lhe formerDritishHondurae. Ao euppliee are verylimited,iLs other mainuseeare confinedto fine cabinelwork, marquelryandlurned iteme.1omeepecimene are very oilyand willnottake a hiqhnaturalpolieh. Other Namet Naqaed. 5ourcet 1elize. Characteristicst3t r aiqhLIo somewhal,streaked t o purple 6rain:moderatelyfinetexLurctpinkieh-brown with dark,irre4ular 6rainlinee, Uaes:MueicalineNruments, veneerofor fine aabinetworkand Lurning, Workability.Fair,toughlo machinebecaueeof hardnesaiseverelydullocuLtingedqee:poorbendinq?ro?ertiea. Finiahin1zAccepto finishes well,Vrovidedthe wood io nottroo oily. Weight:60 lb./cu.fL. ?rlcet Exoensive.


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SATINWOOD, CEYLON .,

SASSAFRAS (H) 7otanioal Name: 7aeeafrae albidum S a s e a f r a a .a m e m b e ro l L h e e a m el a m i l y a e c i n n a m o n , ie beel knownfor it e fraqranl oil, ueed lor flavorinq and ocentinq,and Lhe Nea made from iLe roof, barK. \ N h i l ee t m i l a ri n c o l o r ,q r a t na n d L e x L u r et o b l a c ka o h , aaeealrae Limber ie briLtle an), aoft and ie ee dorn availab)ein larqe aizee.ILe decay reeietanceand reaonance rnakeiL an alLractive choicefor eorneepeciAt z e da p p l i c a t i o n e . Olher Names: Cinnamonwood,red aasaafrae,qumbofile. Source: EaeLernU.e.A. Charact erieiice: 7Xraiqht. qrain; coar ee f,exture: ljqhL io darkbrown. Uees: Aoar"buildinq,kayak Vad,dleo, conlainere,furnitJre and,mueical ineLrarYentg. Workability: Fair: wood is briLLleand eofL, oo keep tool edges very eharV:pre-borefor nailinqLoavoid eplittinq: qood bendinqproperLiee, Finishing:AccepLefinieheewell. Weight:2b lb,lcu,ft. Tricet lnexpeneive f,o moderate.

(H) Ootanical Nam e: ChIo roxyIo n ewieLen ta Ihouqh Lhe name eaLinvtoodhae beenqivent"o many world Limbero,CeyloneaLinwoodle one ol very few that h a v ef o u n d o i q n i f i c a n L u a e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a .) l h a e b e e na e e d i n f i n e w o o d w o r k i naqn d c a b i n e L m a k i nf qo r c e n l u r i e e ,b u LL o d a y t a v a l u e dm a i n l yf o r i t e e t l n n i n q veneere-ea?eciallyIhe f amoue bee'o-winqrnot;Lle.)n aoliAforrn it qenerallyie ueed lor fine Lurned qoode euch ae brush backa,reaordereand inlay v',ark. Olher Names: Eaet lndian eattnwood.'yeltow eanAere; billum , a a h w a l( l n d i a ) :C e y l o no a L i n w o o d( . 3 r iL a n k a ) . S o u r c e s :l n d i aa n d 3 r i L a n k a . Char a cterieli cs : Inle d ocked qr ai n; f ine, eve n *'exLLlr ei l i q h t y e l l o w L oq o l d . U e e a tC a b i n e L m a k i nfqu,r n i t u r e ,L u r n i n qj,o i n e r ya n d decoralive veneere. Workability:)ifficult: qrain lende ta tear in planing quarLerbawn maLerial:qood bendinggrapertiea. Finiehinq AccepLofinieheewellwhenfilled, Weightt 6l lb.lcu. ft. Tricet Expeneive.

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J ,N SNAKEWOOD \:X

(H) gotanical Names:Fiet inera7uianenoio. eyn.Droeimum 4uianenbio lLomarktnqo, whichreeemble thoeeon enakeektn, qive r.hteemall,relaLively raretimberile name.Foundin limiNedquantitieein Guyanaand Surirtarn, it.ie predominanlly ueedin Lurneditemsand carriesa cerLaincachel . A enakewood canear umbrella,lorinsf,ance, miqhLbe considered a oreciouepoeseeeion. Secauseof iLshardnese,enakewood, ie verydifficultto work. Olher Namee:Lelterwood,leopardwood, epeckledwooa. SouraetSouLh America. CharacteristiaotStraiqh| qraln;fine,evenLextrure; deepredLo reddieh-brown wiLhirreqular, horizonLal blackmarkinqe. violinbowe,knifehandlee, UseszFineturnedqood,e, marquetryand veneers. WorkabilityzDifficult:d,ullocutt inq ed,qee. FiniehinqAccepr"o finiaheswell. W e i g h tB ; 1lb./cu.fL. TricetVervexzenoive.

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SPANISH CEDAR

(H) Ootanical Name:Cedrelaeoo. A.lLhouqh manyopecieo are markeledunAerf,hename Spaniehcedar,the moel imporLanL inLheNorLhAmerican woodLrade,Cedrelamexicana, qrowein CenlralAmericaand Mexico.ExlremelyVrizedin iLenativeregionlor ito eLabiliby, weatrhering qualitieeand relatrive eLrenqth,iNie expor1ed on "cedare," a verylimiLed, scale.Likeolher this hardwoodwill arouoeLhesenseswitha pleaeanl, aroma. Olher Names;Srazilian cedar,Honduraecedar,cedro, ced,rorouqe. SourceszMexico, Centraland SouthAmerica. Charaateristiae;)tr aiqht,occaeionallyinf,erl ocked, qrain: fineLo coarse,uneven Lexf,urei pinkieh-toreddtsh-brown hearLwood, darkenewif,hexpoaurelo a deeeerred,occaeionallywilh a purpleNint:eaVwood ia whit,e f,o Vink. joinery,boal building, Usea:Furniture, cabinef,work, muaical inetrruntente,lead pencile, ciqarboxee,plywood, and decoraveneere. T,Me good:difficulttroboreand veneeremay Workability:Generally goodbendinqproperLiee. tend to bewoollyin cuLLing; FiniehinryFaicwood conlaineoilsandqumwhich maybetroubleeome,bu|if filled,rt canbebroughttoa emoothfrniah, Weightt 3O lb.lcu.fL. TricezVoderaLe.

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Ootanical Name: Ttcea eitchenato C,iVa

- - ' - a- nrr r e l h e l a r n e a l a n e e i e a a f a a . t e e r-a-n ' ,, r o w marethan ZaO feeLhighwiLhd,iametera exceed,inq eix feet,.Albhouqh it.ie probablymooLvaluedlor newepaper prod,ucLion becauee of iLewhiLeneee,ite etrenqthand workabiliLy rnakeiLa favorilein wood,workinq an) conoLrucLion.lL io alooa veryrezonantwoodand ie widely ueedtnall typeoof otrinqand keyboard inef,rumenls. SiLkaeoruceie olLenauarLereawn. Other Namesz1ilvere?ruce,eeq,-toia eilverep'uce,tide)ande2ruce,Menzieso?ruce,coael,g?ruce,we6f,ern g?ruceandwesl coaoLo?ruce. 5ources:Canada.U.K.and U.9.4. CharacteriaticotSLraiqhLqrain;med,ium, evenlexfure: whibeLo yellowieh-brown wiNha eliqhLVinkioh tinge.Very hiqh etr enqth-t o-weiqht,rabio. UaeatlnNerior muaicalineNrumenr,a, boat build1oinery, inq,oare,rowingeculla,qlidero,plywood, conotrucLion and veneers. Workability:Good:ver! qood,bendinqpropertiee. FiniehinqAcceptefinieheewell. W e i g h t ; 2 bl b . l c u . f t . ?riaetMod,eraf,e.

AMERICAN SYCAMORE, (H) Ootanical Name:FIaLanuo occtd enLaIte Arowingto heighlelhat tropZaO fuet,thie opeciea and f,ulip2oplarare r.helargeolhard,woode in eaelernNor|h America.With iIE liqh|qreenleh-gray bark,American lycarAoreie a prominentr in anyforeoi,and ie ?reeence eomeLimes calledthe qhoallree.WhenquarLereawn, Lhietimber?abaeaoee fleckfiqure.Ueed, a d,iolinctive to a qrear eKterLin furnilure,Arnericargycaorcreocca6oaallyia roLaryculfor veneer6. plane Other NameetAmericanplaneNree, buLLonwood, f,ree,water beech. 9ouraeetEasf,ern and centralU,3.4. CharacterieliaaUeuallyetraiqhl qrain:fine,evenf,exture: pale reddieh-brown. Ueea Furnibure, buXcher's blacke, and,veneere, 1oinery, Workabililoyt Generallyqood:may bindon eaws',mainlain v e r yo h a r pc u t t i n qe d g e e : h i 7ohh r i n k a q e w i a l ht e n d e n cy to war?. Finiohin1AccepNofinieheewell. tNeightt35lb./cu.fL. TricetlnexVeneive.


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N)

TULIPWOOD

WALNUT,BLACK

(H) Ootanical Name: Dalberqiafruteacena Thieie an extremelyvaluablelimber,liqhterin colorlhan normallyavailableinsmallcultinqo any olher rosewood, only.Likeall rosewoods,it qrow6very olowlyand needs for the heaibwoodio develoVr,op-qualitycolor. cenNurieo 1ecaueeof ita pooravailability,tulipwood i6 not,uoually ueedin eolidform, bul ae veneerfor inlayon frnepieaeo. Whenit, is worked,this woodt ends tn oplinf,erantd,like manyof the rosewood^,qiveooff afraqirant'aroma. Ath er Namea b razilian pinkwood, pinkw ood ( U.9.A,); pau de fuoo,jacaranda rosa (Orazil), 9ourae:5outh America. t*xhure: Charao't'enetlcatlrre4ular4raint meAium-frne rich qolden-pinkiohhue with salmonto red otripeo. j;auelryboxeo, Uaeal Turnin6,brush backs,woodware, cabinztwork,inlay work,inlaid bandin1o,marimbakoyo, decorativeveneersfor inlay workand marquetry and antioLuereVaire. Workablffty: Difficult; extreme dullinqof cuttnr6: ?re borefor nailinq. Finfahing: As6ePo frniahesvery wallicah be brouqbb w ahigh naturalpolloh. WeQltu65lb./cu.fr,

(H) 6otanical namet Juglane niqra Owin4to itreqreatbeauty and 4oodworkinqcharaclerisLice,blackwalnutris oneol Lhemool valuablenaLive woodein NorbhAmerica,1incecolonial times,it e wide ranqeof figureahas qracedLhefinee| Americancabinetwork.Alxhouqhknownfor iLeworkability,walnutdoee aontainjuqlone,a chernicalbelieved to caueedermatitie in gomewoodworkerg. OI,herNameetAmericanblackwalnut,Americanwalnul, Virqinia walnut(U.K.); walnui,Canadian walnuf. 5ources; EaeNernU,9.4.and Ontario,Canada. CharacterielicslTouqhwoodof rnediumdeneity;4enerallyoiraiqht qrain:mediumcoareeNexlure;dark brown tn purVliahblack. UaeotFinefurnil,ure,qunof,ocke,interior joinery,cabinobmakinq, t urninq,boai buildinq,muoicalinslrumenls, clockcaeee,carving,?Wood, panelinqand veneere. qood Workabifiiy: Good; blunts cuttere moderaNely; bendinqproperlieo, FlniehingzAccefio nal,uralwoodfrnishesee?eciallywell. WeQhtl40 lb.lcu.ft. ?naezModerata


WOOD DIRECTORY

WE,NGE,"..

WILLOW

(H) 9otanical Name: MilleLl,taelp, t', eLronq.lteavy",laravtrtod,vtenqeoffere a f amiliar combinati:n lo Lle vtoodvtorV.er. )L ie difficllL Lo work, bul A e t i q h l f ul o o o ? a. L . a r i q i n a t t n q f r o ma L r e e o f m o d e r a"te.ize, Lh e dee2 crovn and blackwood can offer distincLiveveneer. vtit"hcharacleriotic ItqhLetreake of -"reelieeae involvedin food eLoraqeand, 2arenchyrna,a con6um?Lio..For beoLreautLe,wenqeehoula be worked V'/ia.t), very 'f)ar? Cl,Ller7, Other Namee: Dikela,mibotu, African palieander. 9 o u r c ee: 7 oruaio r tal Al ric a (Ca rner oo n, G abo n, Zair e). Characteristico: Heavy,denee wood:etratqht 7rain; coarae LextJre: dark brown wiLh blackiehveinoand, e o m e l i f f i e ee L r e a k e dw i L hf i n e . l i q h Lb r o w n1 i n e a . Uaee: Twninq, inLeriorand exLeriorjoinery,cabinef,rnak'.1q. ear'eirq atd deco'ar.lveve('eerq. WorkabilitytGenerallyqoad; blunte cuLtinq edqeo rapid, 1y:pre-borelor nailinq;poor bendingproVerLiee. Finiohing:SatielacLoryt mu.JLbe filledlor qood reeulto. W e i g h L : 5 5 l b . l c u t, L . ?rice: lloderaLe.

(H) gotanical Name:)alix ni7ra W h i l ei I e E u r o 2 e a n c o u a i ni e u e e dm o e f ,n o L a b l yt n c r i c k e Lb a L e ,b l a c kw i l l o wi s m o e Lf r e q u e n t l yu e e di n NorLhAmericaby echoolwoodworkinq ehope:iL ie LAe moel commercially valuab)e of lhe moreLhan1Oatypee o f n a l i v eN o r L hA m e r i c a nw i l l o w eW . i l l o w 'e L r e n q L h a n d ,r e l a t i v el i q h t n e e em a k ei t ,L h ec l e a rc h o i c ef o r a r t i f i c i al i m b e . Other Name:3lackWillow. Sources Canad,a, Eaef,ern U.9.A,and Mexico. Characteristiaer Liqht,Louqhwood;otraiqht,grain;fine t eKLure; qrayieh- br own with r eddieh- brown eNreaks. Ueea ArLificial limba, t oye, wickerwo rk,ba skete,boxee, craf,eo,decoraLive veneero. Workability:SaLiefactory: mainLainehar?cLttteraf.o ?revent,f rayinq: poor bendinq properf,iee: ofLenconLaine reacLionwaod. FiniahinqAcceptefinisheewel| Weight:26lb,/cu f t.. ?ricetlnexpeneive.

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WOODDIRECTORY

ZEBRAWOOD N) (H) 9 otaniaal Name: Microberlinia brazzavi||enaie OiehincLive in appearance, zebrawoodcomeefrom Lwo opecieeof larqeNreeefoundmainlyin Cameroon and Gabon,Wes| Af rica.While il ie ueually eeena6 a veneer ir NorthAmerica,whenquarLersawn lhis Nimber can givebeaulifulresulte in eolidform.kbrawood ie difficult Nowork,however, and veneerstend Nobefragile. Other Names:Zinqana(France,Gabon):Allenele, amouk(Camercon): zebrano. Source;West Africa. Charao.t erietiaozWavyto interlockedgrain;mediumt o paleyellowbrownwilh lhin coa?oeteKVureihearLwood, darkerstreaks;eapwoodwhite. UoeozTurninq,tool handles,ekio,inlay,furniLure, cabineLwork and decorative venee(6. Workabili?y: Fair:dulls cuttinq edqeomoderately: interlocked{ain willtend to leari suffersfrom hiqh ohrinkaqeand may be unslablein use.Flal-aut boarde hardlo dry. FiniahingzFaic may be difficult,to finieh becauseof inLerlocked 6rain. Weightz45-50 lb,/cu. fL, ?ficetExoensiva.

ZIRICOTE (H) Ootanical Name;Cordiadodecandra A ehunninq, darkwood,ziricoleio eaeytroworkanI can be broughttoa veryemooLhfinieh,fhough difficulLNo dry, onceNhisie achievedit ia relabively etableand hiqhly durable.Likebocote,ziricoteie a CenbralAmerican memberof the cordias.Thetwo woodoare,in f act, quite eimilar,differingmainlyin color, Olher Name:Cordia, 5 ourceszBelize,Mexico. Characteristiaa:Sbraightqrain,mediumNomoderately finetexlure; black,gray or dark brownwith blackebreake. Us e s t Fu rn i t ur e , ca b i ne I wo r k , in t e r io r j o i ner y and veneers. WorkabilityrVery qood:liLllebluntingof cutLers. FiniohinglAccepte tinieh well. Weightz45-50 lb./cu. fN. TricetExpenaive.


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GLOSSARY A-B Absolute humiditv: A measureof the weightof watervairorper unit volume ofair, usuallyexpressed asgrainsper cubicfoot; seerelativehumidity. Air-dried lumber: Dried lumberthat hasreachedits equilibrium moisture contentby exposureto the air. Angiosperm:Belongingto the botanical sub-phylumor group ofwoody plantsthat haveencapsulated seeds suchasa walnut or acorn:includesall hardwoodtreespecies. Annual growth ring: Thevisiblelayer of growththat a treeputson in a single year,includingthe earlywoodandthe latewood;seenin the endgrain ofwood. Bark The outermostlayerof a tree's trunk that protectsthe innerwood and cambiumfrom the elements; composedof the outer,deadcork and the inner,living phloem. Bird's-eyefigure Figureon plainsawn and rotary-cutsurfacesofa few speciesof wood-most commonly maple-exhibiting numeroussmall, roundedareasresemblingbirds' eyes; causedby localfiber distortions.

Bucking: Crosscutting a tree into logs ofa desired length. Burl veneer: Highly decorative veneer taken from bulges or irregular growths that form on the trunks of some speciesand on the roots ofothers. Butt veneer: Veneercut from the area in a tree'strunk just abovethe roots; also known as stump veneer. C Cambium: A layer of actively growing tissue, one cell thick, between the phloem and the sapwood, which repeatedlydivides itselfto form new cells of both. Cant A log that has been debarked and sawn square in preparation for further cutting. Case hardening: A lumber defect resulting from drying a board too rapidly; the outer layersofa board are in compressionwhile the inner layersare in tension.

Chedc A lumber defect in which splits develop lengthwise acrossthe growth rings during seasoning becauseof uneven shrinkage of wood.

Boardfoot A unit of wood volume measurement equivalentto a pieceof wood I inch thick, 12incheswide and 12incheslong.

Clear: Describesa board facethat is free of defects.

Boundwater:Moisturepresentin wood found within the cellwalls; seefreewater. Bow:A lumberdefectin which a board is not flat alongits length.

Cross grain: Generally, lumber in which the wood fibers deviate from the longitudinal axis of the board; seespiral grain. Cross section: A viewing plane in wood identification seenin the end grain of lumber, cut perpendicular to the axis of the tree trunk: also known as a transyersesection. Crotchveneer: Veneercut from the fork ofa tree trunk. Crown-cut veneer: Decorative veneer that is cut from flitches using the flatslicing method. Cup: A lumber defect in which the face of a board warps and assumes a cupJike shape. Curlygrain: Seewavy grain.

Celft The smallestunit of wood structure, eachwith its own specialized function; cells include vessels,fibers, rays, and tracheids.

Blister figure: Figureon plainsawn or rotary-cutsurfacesthat lookslike various-sized elevatedand depressed areasof roundedcontour.

Bookmatch:In veneering,a decorative patternin which successive veneers in a flitch arearrangedside-by-side in a mirror formation,like pagesof an openedbook.

Crossband: In plywood with more than three plies, the veneersimmediately beneath the surface plies are oriented with a grain direction perpendicular to that of the surfaceplies.

Common grade lumber: In softwood, lumber with conspicuous defectssuch as red or black knots and pith. Compression wood: Reactionwood formed on the undersidesofbranches and leaning or crooked stemsof softwood trees. Conifer: Any of several families of softwood trdesthat bear cones;see softwood. Crook A lumber defect where there is an edgewisedeviation from end-to-end straightnessin a board.

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Cuttinglish A list of the sizesof lumber neededfor a specificproject. D-E Deciduous: Any of severalfamilies of trees that shed their foliage annually; seehardwood. Defech Any abnormality or irregularity that lowers the commercial value of wood.by decreasingits strength or attectrng rts appearance;seewarp. Dendrochronology: The scienceof dating past events and changesin environmental conditions by comparative study of annual growth rings. Diamond match: In veneering, a decorative pattern formed when successive veneersfrom the same flitch, usually with a diagonal stripe figure, are arranged in a diamond shape. Diffuse-porous wood: Hardwoods in which the pores tend to be uniform in size and distribution throughout each annual growth ring.

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Earlywood: The portion of the annual growth ring formed in the early part of the growing season;seelatetuood.

Free water: Moisture present in wood found inside the cell cavities;see bound water.

Hygroscopicity: The ability of a substanceto readily absorb, retain, and desorb moisture.

Equilibrium moisture content The moisture content that wood eventually reacheswhen it is exposedto a given level of relative humidity and temperature.

Grade stamp: A stamp applied to most softwood and some hardwood lumber indicating the grade, strength properties, speciesof wood and the mill that manufactured it.

Interlocked grain: Wood that features repeatedalternation ofleft- and righthand deviations of fibers from the axis ofthe tree trunk, usually over several growth rings; results in ribbon figure on quarter-sawn surfaces.

Extractive: Resinsand other substancesdeposited in the heartwood during a tree's growth that impart both color and resistanceto decay.

Grain: Generally,the direction, size, arrangement, appearance,or quality of the elementsin wood or lumber; specifically, the alignment of wood fibers with respectto the axis of the tree trunk.

F-G Faceveneer: Veneer used for the exposed surfacesin hardwood and softwood plywood. Fiber: A specific hardwood cell type, elongated with narrow ends and thick walls; contributes to the strength of the wood. Fiber saturation point (FSP):A condition in which wood cell cavities are free of all water, yet the cell walls remain fully saturated. Fiddlebadc An attractive figure resulting when wood with curly or wavy grain is quartersawn; commonly used in the manufacture of stringed instruments. Figure In the broadest sense,the distinctive pattern produced in a wood surfacebv the combination of annual growth rings, deviations from regular grain, rays,knots, and coloration. Finish gradelumber: Softwood lumber graded for appearance,not strength, seasonedto a moisture content of 15 percent or less;includes superior and prime categories. Firsts and seconds:The top or premium grade ofhardwood. Flat-slicedveneer: Veneer that is sliced offa log or a flitch with a veneerslicer. Flitch: A section ofa log cut to extract the best figure and yield ofveneers from a log; also known as a cant.

Green lumber: Freshly sawn, unseasoned lumber having a moisture content abovethe fiber saturation point. Gymnosperm: A botanical sub-phylum or group of woody plants that have exposedseedslike a pine seed; includes all softwood tree species.

H-r-J-K-r Hardboard: A type of manufactured board with smoother surfaces than particleboard, made by breaking waste wood down into its individual fibers, mixing them with adhesives,and matforming them into a strong, homogenous panel. Hardwood: Generally, wood from angiosperm tree species. Headsaw: The large bandsaw or circular saw at a mill that cuts logs into large slabs of timber for resawing; also known as headrig. Heartwood: The dead, inner core of a tree extending from the pith to the sapwood, usually distinguishable from sapwood by its darker color. Herringbone match: In veneers,a decorative match createdwhen successiveveneersfrom one flitch, usually with a diagonal stripe, are arranged to form a herringbone pattern. Humbolt undercut: A method of felling treeswhere a wedge is cut in the stump of a tree rather than in the upper log before it is felled.

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Key: A master list of wood species used in identification, ordered by criteria such as gross anatomical features, macroscopic features,or microscopic teatures. IGln: A heated chamber used in drying lumber, veneer,or wood products where temperature, humiditS and air circulation are controlled. IGln-dried lumber: Lumber that has been dried to a specific moisture content. Knot: The baseof a branch or limb that has been overgrown by the expanding girth of the trunk or other portion ofthe tree. Latewood: The portion of the annual growth ring formed in the latter part of the growing season;seeearlywood. ksser-known species(LKS) : Woods recently introduced to the market, such as chactacote,tornillo and chontaquiro amarillo, many of which come from sourcesthat practice sustainable torest management. Linear foot A measurement referring only to the length of a piece of wood; seeboardfoot. Lumber: Logs that have been roughly sawn into timbers, resawn,planed and sawn to length. Lumber-core plywood: Plywood in which softwood and hardwood veneers are glued to a core of narrow, sawed lumber. Lumber ruler: A tool used to measure the board-foot volume of a piece of lumber with a flexible wooden shaft and a hook for turning boards.


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Luthier: A builder of stringed musical instruments such asviolins and guitars. M-N-O Macroscopic features: Referring to anatomical featuresof wood identification visible with low-power magnification, typically a 10x hand lens. Marquetry: Decorative inlay work done with veneers,metals or other materials. Medium density fiberboard (MDF) : A tFpe of tempered hardboard with a fine texture used in cabinetmaking. Moisture content: The amount of water contained in wood, expressedas a percentageofthe weight ofthe ovendried wood. Mottled figure: A type of broken stripe figure with occasionalinterruptions of curly figure. Nominal sizs The rough-sawn commercial sizebywhich lumber is known and sold. Non-porouswood: Wood devoid of vessels,or pores; softwood. Oven-dried weighfi The constant weight of wood that has been dried in an oven at temperatures between 2l4o and22l" F. to a point where it no longer contains moisture. P-Q Parenchvma: Thin-walled cells in wood; reiponsible for the storage of carbohydr ates. Seeray. Particleboard: A tyoe of manufactured board made by breaking waste wood down into small particles, mixing them with adhesives,and extruding or mat-forming them into panels ofvarying thickness. Particleboard-core p\nuood: Plywood in which hardwood and softwood veneersare glued to a particleboard core for added strength.

Phloem: The inner bark. which distributes nutrients derived from photosynthesisin the leaves. Photosynthesis: A processby which plants synthesizecarbohydratesand other nutrients from water and minerals in the presenceofcholorphyll and sunlight. Phylum: A botanical group or class ofplants. Pitch pockeh A pocket found within the grain of some conifers, containing an accumulation of liquid or solid restn. Pith: The small, soft core occurring in the structural center ofa tree trunk. Plain-sawn lumber: Lumber that has been sawn so that the wide surfaces are tangential to the growth rings; also known as flat-sawn lumber when referring tb softwood; seequartersawn lumber. Plywood: A manufactured board consisting of an odd number of layers or Dliesof softwood or hardwood veneer;may also be made with a solid core, seelumber-coreplywood. Pors A cross-sectionof a vesselas it appearson a transversesection of wood; see?esseL Porouswood: Wood that has vessels. or pores, large enough to be seenwith a hand lens; hardwood. Quarter-cut veneer: A veneer created by slicing a flitch to exposethe quartersawn surfaceof the wood. Quarter match: A decorative veneer pattern createdby arranging successive veneersfrom the same flitch, usually with a burl or crotch figure in a circular or oval formation; also known as fourway centerand butt.

Quartersawn lumber: Lumber that has been sawn so that the wide surfacesintersect the growth rings, at anglesbetween 45oand 90o;also known as vertical-grained lumber when referring to softwood; seealso plain-sawnlumber. Quilted figure: A distinctive, blisterlike figure found in bigleaf maple. R Radial section: A viewing plane in wood identification cut acrossthe grain perpendicular to the growth rings and parallel to the wood rays; the plane that extendsalong the axis of the tree trunk from pith to bark. Radial shrinkage Shrinkage that occurs acrossthe growth rings as wood dries. Ray: A ribbon-shaped strand of cells extending acrossthe grain from pith to bark that appearas streal$ on quartersawn surfaces:sometimesreferredto as medullary ray. Reaction wood: A lumber defect causedby stressesin leaning tree trunks and limbs; known as compression wood in softwood, and tension wood in hardwood; characterizedby compressedgrowth rings and silvery, lifelesscolor. Relative humidity: The ratio of the water vapor present in the air to the amount that the air would hold at its saturation point, usually expressedas a percentagefigure; seeabsolutehumidity. Resin canat Vertical passagesbetween wood cells in conifers that conduct natural resins and pitch. Ribbon figure: Distinctive vertical bands ofvarying luster found on quartersawn boards of wood with interlocked grain. Riftsawn lumber: Lumber whose growth rings are at anglesbetween 30o and 60" to the board face;also known as bastard-sawnlumber.

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Ring-porous wood: Hardwoods in which the pores are comparatively large at the beginning ofeach annual growth ring, and decreasein size toward the outer section of the ring, forming distinct zonesof earlywood and latewood. Roe figure: Figure formed by short stripes lessthan I foot in length, found on quartersawn surfacesof woods with interlocked grain. Rotary-cut veneer:A continuous sheet peeled from a log or flitch by rotating it on a lathe against a stationary knife. S-T-U Sap: The water in a tree, including any dissolved nutrients and extractives. Sapwood: The outer portion of a tree's trunk extending from the heartwood to the cambium; distinguishablefrom the heartwood by its lighter color. Sawyer: The person at a sawmill "read" whosejob it is to a log before it is cut and selectthe appropriate cutting patterns. Seasoning:The.processor technique . of removing moisture from greenwood to improve its workability. Selects:In softwood, defect-freelumber graded for clear appearancerather than strength, separatedinto firsts and second,C selectand D selectgrades. In hardwood, selectsis one grade below firsts and seconds. Semi-diffuse porous wood: Wood with pores exhibiting the clear distinction between earlywood and latewood that is lacking in diffrrse-porous wood, yet not so pronounced a difference as that shown by ring-porous wood; also known as semi-ring porous wood. Slipmatch: In veneering, a repeated decorativepattern createdby laying successivesheetsofveneer from a flitch side-by-side.

Softwood:Generally,speciesfrom the familiesof treesthat havea orimitive cellstructure,bearconesand for the mostpart haveneedle-likeleaves; wood producedby softwoodtrees.

Tensionwood: Reactionwood formed occasionalyon the upper side of branchesdnd leanin!br crooked stems of hardwood trees.

Solarkiln: A kiln that drieslumber with solarenergy.

Texture: Refersto the size ofthe cells in wood, indicatedby adjectives from fine to coarse;often'confused with grain.

Sound:Describesa boardfacefreeof defectsthat would weakenthe wood. Specificgravity: The ratio of the weightof a wood sampleto that of an equalvolumeof water.

Twist A defect causedby the turning or winding of the edgesof the board, so that one corner twists out of plane.

Spermatophyte:Any of a phylum or groupofhigherplantsthat reproduce V-W-X-Y-Z by seed;includesalmostall treespecies. Veneer: A thin layer or sheetof wood Spiral grain: A form of crossgrain causedby the spiralalienmentof wood fibersin a staniing trei. Stain:A discolorationin wood caused by fungi, metals,or chemicals. Sticker:A pieceof wood, usually3/+to l-inch thick,usedto separate boards of lumber in a drying stackto permit arr crrculatron. SubstrateA pieceof plywood,softwood or hardwoodusedin veneering asa core. Surfacing:The waylumber hasbeen preparedat a mill beforeit goesto a lumberyard.Alsoknown asdressing. Sustainable forest management The processof managing forest land to ensure future productivity and maximize the flow of forest products without placing undue strain on the physical and social environment. Thngential section: A viewing plane in wood identification cut along the grain tangentialto the growth rings;plainsawn lumber is sawn tangentially. Tangential shrinkage: Wood shrinkage that occurs tangentially to the growth rrngs.

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Tiacheid: Long, fibrous cells that conduct sap and help support the tree.

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sawn,slicedor rotary cut from a log or flitch. Veneer-coreplywood: Plywood that consistsof three or more plies ofveneers, eachlaid at right angles to each other with respectto graln direction. Veneerpress:A commercialor shopbuilt pressused to apply veneersto substrates. VessehWood cells of comparatively large diameter found in hirdwoodi, set one atop the other to form a continuous tube for conducting water and sap up the trunk; when viewed in cross-section,vesselsappearaspores. Warp: A lumber defect or distortion of a piece of wood; seebow, croolgcup, and, twtst. Wavy grain: Grain resulting from repeated,undulating right and left deviationsin the alignment of wood fibers from the axis 6f a tree's trunk; also known as cuily grain.


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INDEX Pagereferencesin lralicsindicate an illustration of subiectmatter. Pagereferencesin bold indicate a Build It Yourselfproject.

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Air-dried (AD) lumber, 43,79, 87-88 American Lumber Standards Committee,48 Arno, Jon,l0-ll Aversdon,Sven,45 Bark, 15 Bird's-eyefigxe,27, 59 Blue stain (wood defect),50, 5l Board-foot measurement,42,43, 44 Botanicalnames,17,98 Build It Yourself: Log crosscuttingjigs, 39 Solarkilns, 84-85 Veneer-trimmingjigs, 66 Burlfigure,27 Burl veneers,59 Butt veneers,59 Cambium,14,i5 Cant,37-38 Centerfor Wood Anatomy Research,34 Common gradelumber, 45, 46,47, 48,49 Crotch veneers,59 Cutting lists,44

DEFG Defectivelumber, 20-21, 50-52 SeealsoWarpedstock Density.SeeSpecificgravity Diffirse-porouswoods, 16 Dowels,95 43,50, 78-79 Drfttg processes, Air drying, 43,79,87-88 Solarkilns, 84-85 Earlywood,15, L6,37 Edgebanding: Plvwood,74 shop-madeedgebanding (ShopTip),75 Veneers,64 trimming edgebanding (ShopTip), 64 Edge-grainsawnlumber. See Quartersawnlumber Edgemarks,T2 Endangeredspecies,98 FASgradelumber,46,47 Fiberboard,56,77 Fibersaturationpoint (FSP),80 Fiddlebackfigure, 26, 27 Figure,2G27 Veneers,59 Finishgradelumber,48,49 Flat-cutveneers,59 Flat-grainedlumber. SeePlainsawnlumber

Gradestamps,48,49 PIywood, T2 Grading.SeeLumber: Grades;Plywood: Grades Grain,26,28-29 Growth rings,.15,24,25,33 Gum (wood defect),5O 51

HIIK Hardboard,56,77 Hardwood,16,98 Grades,46-47 Identification,33 Plywood,70,71,72,73 Heartwood,14, 15,25 Identificationkeys,34 35 InternationalWood Collectors Sociery34 figs: Log crosscuttingjigs, 39 Veneer-trimmingjigs, 66 Jointing,53 Concave/convex surfaces,55 Kiln-dried (KD) lumber, 43,78-79 Solarkilns, 84-85 Knots (wood defect),20, 50

tM NO Landscapefr9ure,26,27 Latewood, 15,16,31 Leaves,16 Linear-footmeasurement,42 Linnaeus,Carl,17 Logs,13 Sawinginto lumber, 22-25,36-39 Squaring,37-38 log crosscuttingjigs, 39 Storage,87 Veneer-cutting,59,60-61 Lumber: Abbreviations,back endpaper Carryinglumber by car (ShopTip), 42 Defects,20-2I,50-52 Grades,40,41,42,45 hardwood,46-47 softwood,48-49 Measurement,42, 43 cutting lists,44 Moisturecontent,43,49,79,80-83 making a moistureindicator (ShopTip), 86 readingmoisturecontentin thick stock(ShopTip)83 storingwood to preserveits moisture content(ShopTip), 89 Purchasing,42-43 Recycled,4l Sawingfrom logs,24-25,3G39 Seasoning, 43,50,7&79 air drying,43,79,87-88 solarkilns, 84-85 Selection,4l 24, 80-82,86 Shrinkage/swelling,

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Sizes,42,48 Storage,79 racks,89-92,95-97 storingwood to preserveits moisture content(ShopTip), 89 Surfacing/dressing, 43, 53-55 Seeabo Manufacturedboards;Plywood Lumberyards,4l Machineburn (wood defect),5l Manufacturedboards,56,57,76-77 SeealsoPlywood Microscopicexamination,3I-33 Mottle figure,26 National Hardwood Lumber Association (NHLA),46,47 Newsprint, 17

PQRS Particleboard,56,76 Phloem,15 Pith, 15,25 Plain-sawnlumbet 24-25 Shrinkage,24, 86 Planing,54 Grain,29 Plywood,56,57,70-71 Edgeconcealment, 74-75 shop-madeedgebanding (Shop Tip),75 Grades,72-73 Plywoodcarrier (ShopTip),73 Storage holding plywood panelsagainst a wall (ShopTip), 93 racks,92-94 Temporaryplywood pallet (Shop Tip),94 Types,71 Poynter,Andrew, 8-9 Quartersawnlumber, 24-25,37 Shrinkage,24, 86 Rays,15,25,31 Reactionwood,50, 52 Resincanals,3.1,33 Ribbon frgtre,27 Ring-porouswoods, 16,33 Safetyprecautions,front endpaper: Chain saws,front endpaper,36 Sapwood,14,-15 Sawmills,22-23,4l Selectgradelumber,46,47,48,49 Sharp,]ohn, 6-7 ShopTips: Lumber carryinglumber by cat,42 checkinglumber for twist, 52 making a moisture indicator, 86 readingmoisture content in thick stock 83 storingwood to preserveits moisture content,89 straighteningout an uneven edge,55

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Plywood holding plywood panelsagainst a wall, 93 plywood carriet, T3 shop-madeedgebanding, 75 temporaryplywood pallet,94 Veneers salvagingwarpedveneer,62 trimming edgebanding, 64 veneeringa curvedsurface(Shop Tip),68 Softwood,16,33,98 Grades,4&49 Plywood,70,71,72,73 Specificgraity,27,28 Splits(wood defect),51 Stripedveneers,59

TU Through-and-throughsawnlumber, 24,37 Tools: Chain saws,36 Lumber mills, 36 Moisturemeters,79,83 readingmoisture content in thick stock (ShopTip) 83 Veneering,63 Wood identification, 30 Seealsoligs Tracheids,16,3l Trees: Anatomy, 14-15 Botanicalnames,17,98 Conservation, 7,98 Felling,front endpaper,I8-22 Industrialuses,l7 Twisting. SeeWarpedstock

VWXYZ Veneers,57-58 Application, 63-68 trimming edgebanding (Shop Tip),64 veneeringa curvedsurface(Shop Tip),68 veneer-trimmingjigs, 65 Cutting bandsaws,6l-62 from logs, 59,60-6I Decorativepatterns,69 Salvagingwarpedveneer(Shop Tip),62 Warped stock,50, 5l Checkinglumber for twist (Shop Tip),52 Salvaging, 53,54-55 salvagingwarpedveneer(Shop Tip),62 straighteningout an unevenedge (ShopTip), 55 Woods,13 Color,26,33 Figure,27

Grain,26,28-29 Identification,7, 30-35 Luster,33 Odot27,33 Species African mahogany,27, 120 African padauk,123 afrormosia,99 agba,99 Alaskayellow cedar,82, 107 alder, 100 amburana,100 Americanchestnut,/I0 Americansycamore,82,87, 133 aromatic cedar,107 ash,82,87, 101 avodir6,58, 102 bald cypress,111 balsa,102 basswood, 82,87, 103 bayo,103 beech,59,82,87,104 birch, 104 blackash,I0I black cherry, 82,87, 109 blackwalnut,58,82,87, 135 blackwillow, 82, 136 bocote,I05 Brazlian rosewood,I 7, 58, 98 bubinga,105 butternut,82,87, 106 California r edwood.,129 Carpathianelm,27,58, 59 catalpa,82, 106 cedar,82,107-108,132 Ceylonsatinwood,58, l3I chactacote,109 cherry 82,87, 109 chestnut,I l0 chontaquiroamarillo, I.l0 cocobolo,IIl qpress,Ill Douglas-fir,12, 18,82,87,112 EastIndian rosewood,59 ebony,112-1lj e l m , 5 8 ,5 9 , 8 2 , 8 7 , 1 1 3 Europeanbeech,59 goncaloalves,.l14 grayelm, 87 hackberry 82, 114 hard maple,I2I hickory 82,87,115 holly,82,I15 Hondurasrosewood,129 imbuia, 58, 116 Indonesianrosewood,130 iroko,.l16 jatoba,1l7 kingwood,-117 koa,l18 lacewood,58, 118 lignumvitae,i19 macassarebony, l.l3 madrone,82, 119

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mahogann58,59,82,120 maple,27, 58, 59,82, 87, 121 movingue,26 myrtle, 58, 121 oak,82, 87,122 olivewood,58, 123 padavk,123 paperbirch, 104 pauferro, 124 pear,58,124 pecan,125 perobarosa,26 persimmon,35,82, 125 pine,31,82,87,126-127 ponderosapine, 126 poplar, 127 primavera,128 purpleheart,58, 128 red alder, 100 redcedar, l08 red oak, 82, 87, 122 red spruce,87 redwood,87,129 rosewood,17, 58, 59,129-130 sapele,58, 130 sassafras, 10,82,131 satinwood,58, 131 sitkaspruce,133 snakewood,132 SouthAmericanmahogann 82, i20 southernyellow pine, /26 Spanishcedar,132 spruce,87, 133 sugarmaple,82, 87 sugarpine, 87 sycamore, 82,87,133 teak,82, 134 tornillo, 134 tulipwood, 135 walnut, 58, 59,82,87, 135 wenge,136 westernred cedar,82, 108 white ash,82,87, 101 white birch,26 white cedar,108 white elm, .l13 white oak, 82, 122 white pine, 31,82,87,127 willow,82, 136 yelTowcedag107 yellow poplar, 127 yew,58 zebrawood,58, 137 ziricote,137 Texture,26 Weight,27,28 SeealsoHardwood;Logs;Lumber; Manufacturedboardi; Plywood; Softwood;Trees;Veneers Wood samples,30,34 WoodworkersAlliancefor Rainforest Protection(WARP),8


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r ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Theeditorswishto thank thefoUowing UNDERSTANDINGWOOD DeltaInternationalMachinery,Guelph,Ont.; SheilaFoley,Councilof ForestIndustriesof B.C.,Vancouver,B.C.; fim Gundy, AppalachianHardwood ManufacturersAssn.,High Point, NC; Haddon Tool, Chicago,IL; Richardfagels,Dept. of ForestBiology,Universityof Maine, Orono, ME; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; Doug MacCleery ForestInventory and Planning,U.S.Dept. of Agriculture,Washington,DC; Duncan McTaggert,MacMillan Bloedel,Vancouver,BC; David Mitchell, CentennialAcademy,Montreal, Que.; JackPitcher,National Hardwood Lumber Assn.,Memphis,TN; Woodcraft Supply,Parkersburg,WV SELECTINGLUMBER LesBoisM & M lt6e.,St-Mathieu,Que.;fim Carse,A & M Wood SpecialtyInc., Cambridge,Ont.; Communication Masters,Norcross,GA; Delta InternationalMachinery,Guelph,Ont.; DaveDoucette, Highland Hardwoods,Brenfivood,NH; Hitachi PowerTools U.S.A.Ltd., Norcross,GA; RogerLandreville,Montreal, Que.;JackPitcher,National Hardwood Lumber Assn.,Memphis,TN; American Bob Sabastina, National Hardwood Lumber Assn.,Memphis,TN; Tom Searles, Lumber StandardsCommittee,Germantown,MD.; Shopsmith,Inc., Montreal, Que. VENEBRSAND MANUFACTI.]RED BOARDS AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Delta InternationalMachinery/PorterCable,Guelph,Ont.; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont. DRYINGAND STORINGWOOD LeeValleyTools,Ottawa,Ont.; Bill Simpson,U.S.ForestProductsLab,Madison,WI; WOODDIRECTORY A & M Wood SpecialtyInc., Cambridge,Ont.; PeteAtkinson,World ConservationMonitoring Centre, Cambridge,England;R.S.BaconVeneerCo., Hillside, IL Tom Barrett,GeneralWoods and Veneers, Montreal, Que.;Jim Carse,A & M Wood SpecialtyInc., Cambridge,Ont.; Iohn Curtis, The Luthier's Mercantile, Healdsburg,CA; Michael Fortune,Toronto, Ont.; R€jeanGarandenr., St-R6mi,Que.;DebbieHammel, Scientific CertificationSystems,Inc., Oakland,CA; BruceMacBryde,U.S.Fish and Wildlife Service,U.S.Dept. of the Interior, Washington,DC; Gary Meixner, Pittsford Lumber,Pittsford,N.Y; Mark Platin,Wildwoods Co., Arcata,CA; JohnShipstad,WoodworkersAlliancefor RainforestProtection,CoosBay,OR Thefollowingpersonsalsoassisted in thepreparationof this book: Adrienne Bertrand,ElizabethCameron,Donna Curtis, LorraineDor€, Graphor Consultation, Marie-Jos6eHarcc,CarolynJackson,LeonardLee,Ednaand William Mills, Brian Parsons,Maryo Proulx

PICTURECREDITS Cover RobertChartier 5,7 Mark Tucker 8,9 Bob Anderson 10,11 BobAnderson 12 CourtesyWesternWood ProductsAssociation 13 Gloria H. Chomica/Masterfile 17 Bob Anderson/Masterfile 18 Ed Gifford/Masterfile 19 Erik Borg 20 Al Harvey/Masterfile 21 CourtesyWesternWood ProductsAssociation 22 Erik Borg 23 Erik Borg (2) 33 CourtesyU.S.ForestProductsLaboratory(2) 36 CourtesyBetterBuilt Corporation a0 Philip C. Jackson 60 CourtesyDavid R. Webb Co., Inc. 78 Erik Borg

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WORKSHO GPU I D E USEFUL LUMBER ABBREVIATI()NS AD BD BDFT CLR COM CUFT DIM E FAS

Airdried Board

LINFT MC

Linear, or lrneal, foot

STD

Moisture content

STK

Boardfoot Clear -

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0n center Ogee Planed

Common

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Cubicfeet Dimension

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Edge

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Firstsandseconds FT Foot (infeet) RIP FTSM Surface measure GR Green RL HDWD Hardwood RND HRTWD Heartwood SAP lN

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Jointed K i l nd r i e d

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Partially airdried Piece Random Regu lar Rough Ripped Random lengths Rou nd Sapwood Seasoned

Lumber

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Square edge Select Surface foot(1 square foot)

Length L i n e aorr l i n e a l

SM S0

Surface measure Square

SEL

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Stock ' Footorfeet SYMBOLS " Inchor inches x by(asin2x4)

a / q6 h . 8 h( a n ds o o n ) ' R o u g ht hi c k n e s isn f r a c t i o nos f a n i n c h

S&E

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sls s2s s4s

S u r f a c e od n es i d e

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Surfacedtwo sides S u r f a c efdo u rs i d e s

s 1 s l E S u r f a c eodn es i d e ,o n ee d g e

s 1 s z E S u r f a c eodn es i d e ,t w oe d g e s T&G VJ

Tnnsrrpand srnnvp

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Wider

WT

Weight width

WTH

Vl o r n t

REC()MMENDED MOISTURE C()NTENT FORCABINETMAKING LUMBER Ave"ane

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Average moteture conl;enL 6%

Average moteLure contenL 11%

Asthismapprovided bytheU.S. Forest Products Labshows, theideal moisture content forwoodusedto b u i l di n d o of ru r n i t u rdee p e n dosn t h er e g i o fno rw h i c ht h ef i n i s h e d a r t i c lies i n t e n d e dI n. t h er e l a t i v e l y drySouthwestern states, forexample, lumber should bedriedto a moisture content of 4 to 9 nercent. A levelof 8 to 13 percent wouldbe betterfor theSoutheastern region of thecountry w h e r eh u m i d i tiys g e n e r ahl liyg h e r . Thenational average fallsbetween 5 and10 percent moisture content.



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