RAMADAN (2) Fasting is one of the pillars of Islam. Like prayer, whoever does not perform it, without any legal reason is seriously very sinful, disobedient to Allah’s orders. It is a major sin. :ّللاُْ َعلَي ِْهْ َو َسلَ َْم َْ ْصلَى َْ ْل ُْ لْ َرسُو َْ ْقَا:ل َْ عَنْْأَبِيْهُ َري َر ْةَْقَا َ ِّْللا ِْ ْلَمْْيَق،لْ َم َرض ض ْ َ صةْْ َو َ ضانَْْ ِمنْْ َغي ِْرْرُخ َ « َمنْْأَفطَ َْرْيَو ًماْ ِمنْْْ َر َم ُصا َم ْه َ ْْصو ُْمْال َده ِْرْ ُكلِّ ِْهْ َوإِن َ ُْْ(رواهْالترمذي) ْعَن ْه Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. said: Who intentionally leaves fasting in Ramadan without any valid reason, he will not be able to make up the merit of it, even if he fasts for ever. (Reported by al-Tirmidhī) With the approach of Ramadan the Prophet s.a.w. delivered the following speech to his companions: O people, you are being blessed with a blessed month in which a night is better than a thousand months, a month wherein fasting in the day time is obligatory and praying at night as an extra devotion. Whoever makes himself close to Allah by doing a good deed in it, the merit of it like doing an obligatory deed in other months. And however does an obligatory deed in it, the merit of it is like doing seventy obligatory deeds in other months. Ramadan is the months were holy books were revealed. The Prophet said: ْ:ل َْ ّللاُْ َعلَي ِْهْ َو َسلَ َْمْقَا ْ ْصلَى َْ ْل َْ نْ َرسُو َْ َْأ،نْاْلَسقَ ِع ِْ عَنْْ َواثِلَ ْةَْب َ ِّْللا ِْ َْ َوأُن ِزل، َضان ت ِْ ُفْإِب َرا ِهي َْمْ َعلَي ِْهْالس َََل ُْمْفِيْأَ َو ُْ صح ُ ْْ«أُن ِزلَت َ لْلَيلَةْْ ِمنْْ َر َم ْثْعَش َر ْةَْ َخلَت َْ لْلِثَ ََل ُْ اْلن ِجي َ ضينَْْ ِمنْْ َر َم َ ْالتَو َرا ْةُْلِ ِستْْ َم ِ ْ َو، َضان َْْضان ُْ َلْالفُرق َْ ْ َوأُن ِز، َضان َ انْ ِْلَربَعْْ َو ِعش ِرينَْْ َخلَتْْ ِمنْْ َر َم َ ِمنْْ َر َم )(رواهْأحمد ْ Wāthilah ibn al-Asqa‘ narrated that the Messenger of ْ Allah s.a.w. said: the Scrolls of Ibrahim a.s. were revealed
ْ in the first night of Ramadan, the Torah was revealed in ْ the 6th of Ramadan, the Injīl (Gospel) was revealed in ْ 3th of Ramadan, and the Criterion (Qur’ān) was ْ revealed in the 24th of Ramadan. (Reported by Ahmad) Ramadan is the month of good luck for believers, as the rewards and merits of good deeds in it will be multiple more than those in other months. Allah said: َلْيُج َزى ْ َ ََمنْْ َجا َْءْبِال َح َسنَ ِْةْفَلَ ْهُْعَش ُْرْأَمثَالِهَاْ َو َمنْْ َجا َْءْبِال َسيِّئَ ِْةْف ْ)061:اْلنعام061(َْْلْيُظلَ ُمون ْ َ ْْلْ ِمثلَهَاْ َوهُم ْ َ ِ ْإ Whoever rings a good deed shall have en times the like thereof to his credit, and whoever brings an evil deed shall have only recompense of the like thereof, and they will not be wronged. (Q. 6:160). However, there is a good deed which has more than tenfold credit. Allah says: ْْلْ َحبَةْْأَنبَتَت ِْ َّللاْ َك َمث َِْ ْيل ِْ لْالَ ِذينَْْيُنفِقُونَْْأَم َوالَهُمْْفِيْ َس ِب ُْ ََمث ْفْلِ َمنْْيَ َشا ُْء ُْ ضا ِع َْ لْسُنبُلَةْْ ِمائَ ْةُْ َحبَةْْ َو ِّْ لْْفِيْ ُك َْ َسب َْعْ َسنَا ِب َ ُّللاُْي )160:ّللاُْ َوا ِسعْْ َعلِيمْْ(ْْالبقرة َْ َو The like ness of those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah, is as the likeness of a grain (of corn); itْgrows seven ears, and each ear has a hundred grains. Allah gives manifold increase to whom He wills. And Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures’ needs, All Knower. (Q. 2:261). Based on these two verses the reward of a good deed is then between ten to seven hundred fold credits. However, there is a good deed whee the merit or reward of it can be more than seven hundred times. It is fasting in Ramadan depending on our sincerity and piety in doing it. In a ḥadīth qudsī the Prophet s.a.w. said: ْ ْ:ّللاُْ َعلَي ِْهْ َو َسلَ َْم ْ ْصلَى ْ ْل ُْ لْ َرسُو َْ ْقَا:ل َْ ْقَا،ُّللاُْعَنه ْ ْي َْ ض َ ِّْللا ِ عَنْْأَبِيْهُ َري َر ْةَْ َر
ُ ض اع ْ ،ضعف ِْ لْاب ِْ "ْ ُكلْْ َع َم َ ُنْآ َد َْمْي ِ ْْال َح َسنَ ْةُْعَش ُْرْأَمثَالِهَاْإِلَىْ َسبع ِمائَة،َف ْ ُْعْ َشه َوتَ ْه ُْ ْيَ َد،ْفَإِنَ ْهُْلِيْ َوأَنَاْأَج ِزيْبِ ِه،لْالصَو َم ْ َ ِْإ:ل َْ ّللاُْ َع َْزْ َو َج ْ ْل َْ ْقَا َ َو ْ )ط َعا َم ْهُْ ِمنْْأَجلِيْ“ْ(رواهْمسلم Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allah said: “All of the deeds of the son of Adam are rewarded tenfold to seven hundred, Allah the Almighty said: “Except fasting which is for Me, and (therefore) I will reward him [namely, even above sevenْhundred times], he left his passion and food for My sake.”ْ(Reported by Muslim)
ْRamadan is the month of devotion and worship where Muslims all over the world fast as obedience to Allah. Fasting is one of many ways for Muslims to become close to Him. After revealing the enjoinment of fasting in Ramadan, the Prophet s.a.w. said: َْضان َْ ّللاُْ َعلَي ِْهْ َو َسلَ َْمْقَا ْ ْصلَى َْ ْل َْ نْ َرسُو َْ َعَنْْأَبِيْهُ َري َر ْةَْأ َ ْ« َمنْْقَا َْمْ َر َم:ل َ ِّْللا )ْ ُغفِ َْرْلَ ْهُْ َماْتَقَ َد َْمْ ِمنْْ َذنبِهْ(رواهْالبخاري،ْإِي َمانًاْ َواحتِ َسابًا ْAbu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allah s.a.w.said: Whoever fasts in then monthn of Ramadan faithfjullhy out of sincere faith and hoping to attain Allah’s rewards [not for showing off] all his past sins will be forgiven. (Reported by Bukhari) The spiritual aspect of fasting which can only be performed with sincerity (no room for show off) is also indicated in the Qur’ān, as follows: ْ امْلِتَأ ُكلُوا ِْ لْ َوتُدلُواْبِهَاْإِلَىْال ُح َك ِْ لْتَأ ُكلُواْأَم َوالَ ُكمْْبَينَ ُكمْْ ِبالبَا ِط ْ َ َو (011(َْْاْلث ِْمْ َوأَنتُمْْتَعلَ ُمون ِْ َلْالن ِْ ْفَ ِريقًاْ ِمنْْأَم َوا ِ ِاسْب ْ Do not misappropriate one another’s property unjustly, not bribe the judges, in order to misappropriate a part of other people’s property, sinfully and knowingly. (Q. 2:180.
Fasting will not be accepted by A|llah if it is still accompanied with evil actions. Narrated by Abu Hurayrah, the Prophet s.a.w. said: ْع َْ لِلْ َحا َجةْْفِيْأَنْْيَ َد َِْ ِ ْس َْ ْفَلَي،لْبِ ِه َْ ورْ َوال َع َم ِْ لْالز َْ ْ َمنْْلَمْْيَدَعْْقَو ْ )طَ َعا َم ْهُْ َو َش َرابَهْ(رواهْالبخاري Whoever does not give up lying speech—false statement and evil actions—then Allah is not in need of his leaving his food or drink [i.e., Allah will not accept his fasting].(Reported by Bukhari) Like prayer, fasting also will prevent the faster from doing evil. Mu‘ādh ibn Jabal narrated that the Prophet s.a.w. said: “Would you like me to show you the doors of goodness?” When Mu‘ādh said “yes”, he said: “… fasting is junnah (a shield, a protection) from punishment in hellfire and from evil characters.” It is recommended to fast 6 days after Ramadan, as it is like fasting the whole year. The Prophet s.a.w. said ْ صيَا ُْمْ ِستَ ِْة َ صا َْمْ َر َم َ ْْْ َمن ِ ْ َو،ضانَْْفَ َشهرْْبِ َع َش َر ِْةْأَشهُر )امْال َسنَ ِْة ْ(رواهْأحمد ِْ َصي َْ ِأَيَامْْبَع َْدْالفِط ِْرْفَ َذل ِ ْكْتَ َما ُْم Whoever fasts in Ramadan, one month is the reward of ten months, and fasting six days after breaking the fast (makes 60 days reward, i.e., two months, added with ten months) makes one year (reward). (Reported by Ahmad) In another ḥadīth the Prophet said: )صا َْمْال َده َْرْ(رواهْأحمد َ ْْْفَقَد،ضانَْْ َو ِستًاْ ِمنْْ َش َوال َ صا َْمْ َر َم َ َْْمن Whoever fasts in Ramadan and six day of Shawwal, he fasts the whole year. (Reported by Ahmad)
Tarāwīḥ prayers. Tarāwīḥ prayers in recommended at the nights of Ramadan. The Prophet himself led tarāwīḥ prayers but for two nights only. ّللاُْ َعلَي ِْه ْ ْصلَى َْ ُْول َْ نْ َرس َْ َْأ:ّللاُْعَنهَا َْ ْي َْ ض َ ِّْللا ِ عَنْْعَائِ َش ْةَْأ ُ ِّْمْال ُمؤ ِمنِينَْْ َر ،صلَىْ ِمنَْْالقَابِلَ ِة َْ صلَىْ َذ َ ْْثُ َْم،صَلَتِ ِْهْنَاس َ ِصلَىْب َ َْف،اتْلَيلَةْْفِيْال َمس ِج ِد َ ْْ َو َسلَ َْم ُْ ْفَلَمْْيَخرُجْْإِلَي ِهمْْ َرسُو،ْثُ َْمْاجتَ َمعُواْ ِمنَْْاللَيلَ ِْةْالثَالِثَ ِْةْأَ ِْوْالرَابِ َع ِة، ُْفَ َكثُ َْرْالنَاس ل ْصنَعتُم ُْ ْ«قَدْْ َرأَي:ل َْ حْقَا َْ َْفَلَ َماْأَصب،ّللاُْ َعلَيْ ِْهْ َو َسلَ َم ْ ْصلَى َْ َ ْتْالَ ِذي َ ِّْللا َْ يتْأَنْْتُف َر ض ُْ لْأَنِّيْ َخ ِش ْ َ ُِوجْإِلَي ُكمْْإ ِْ ْ َولَمْْيَمنَعنِيْ ِمنَْْال ُخر )ضانَْْ(رواهْالبخاري َْ ِْ َعلَي ُكمْْ َو َذل َ كْفِيْ َر َم ‘Ᾱishah r.a. narrated, “one night the Messenger of Allah offered the prayer in the Mosque and the people followed him. The next night he also offered the prayer and too many people gathered. On the third and the fourth nights, more people gathered, but the Messenger of Allah did not come out to them. In the morning he said: ‘I what you were doing, and nothing that stopped me from coming to you but the fear that it (i.e., the prayer) might be enjoined top you in the month of Ramadan. (Reported by Bukhari) It is reported by al-Hasan that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab gathered the people in the tarāwīḥ prayer behind Ubayy ibn Ka‘b (who led them). He used to lead them for twenty days (during Ramadan) and would not recite the supplication except in the second half of it (Ramadan). When the last ten days remained, he kept away from them, and p rayed in his house. The used to say: 'Ubayy ran away’ (Reported by Abu Dawud). Tarāwīḥ prayer can be performed individually or in congregation. However, the majority of schools prefer in in congregation, except Imam Malik of the Maliki School. The Prophet stopped praying tarāwīḥ in congregation for fear that they will be made obligatory. It was ‘Umar who convoke the Muslims to pray behind the imam. When ‘Umar saw people prayed in the mosque individually, he suggested praying behind an imam. So, he gathered
them together to pray behind Ubayy. The next night he came to the mosque and saw people praying behind one imam. He said, “What a good innovation this is!”. Ramadan is the month of generosity. The Mu slims are encouraged to give more charity in this month. The prophet s.a.w. who was generous became more generous in this month. Ibn ‘Abbās narrated that the Prophet was the most generous people, and he used to reach the peak of generosity in the month of Ramadan when. Gabriel met him. (Bukhari). Ramadan is supposed to be the month of patience, mercy, and happiness, not of impatience and misery. In this month of Ramadan the devils are chained, as the Prophet told us. Yet, many people are still unable to control their emotion because of being hungry.ْ (CIVIC, 12.06.13)